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Chapter 1 : Coulombs Law :

Statement
Coulombs law states that between two point charges there is a force of attraction or
repulsion depending
upon the nature of charges.
If the charges are like charges there is a force of repulsion and in the case of unlike
charges there is a force of ` attraction.
The force is a vector quantity which has both magnitude and direction. The magnitude of
force between two electrical charges is given by Coulomb Law. Experiments conducted by
Coulomb showed that the following hold for two charged bodies that are very small in size
compared to their separation so that they can be considered as point charge:
The magnitude of the force is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of
the charges.
The magnitude of the force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between
the charges.
The magnitude of the force depends on the medium.
Thus, if we consider two point charges Q1 (C) and Q2 (C) separated by a distance R (m) in
free space, the force is given mathematically as,

For free space the constant of proportionality (K) is given by

Where, 0 is known as the permittivity of free space. Its value is


o = 8.854 10-12 10-9 / 36 (F/m)
Thus,
F=
Vector form of Coulombs Law:

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Force is a vector quantity and acts along the line joining the two charges therefore the
above expression is to be multiplied by a unit vector along the line. Thus, vector form is

Force on Q2 is
(1.1.1)

and on Q1 is (1.1.2)

Since , We can write

(1.1.3)

The unit of force is Newton (N). The force given by equations (1.1.1) and (1.1.2) is applicable only for point charges.
Usually in the problems on Coulombs law, position of the point charges is given, charges are given and may be asked to
find force on a particular charge.

1.2 Standard Procedure to Solve Problems on Coulombs Law:


Step 1 : Draw a neat sketch.
Step 2 : Find vector joining these charges and pointing towards the charge on which force is to be
determined. For example, while finding force on Q1 i.e. F1 arrow of the vector points towards Q1,
while finding force on Q2 i.e. F2, the arrow of the vector points towards Q2.
Step 3 : Find unit vector in the direction of vector and length of the vector (i.e. distance between charges).
Step 4 : Use Coulombs law to find force between point charges.

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1.3 Solved Examples on Point Charge:


Important Formulae:

= =-

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Example 1: A point charge Q1 = 2 mC is located in free space at P1 (-3, 7, -4) while Q2 = 5
mC is at P2 (2, 4, -1).
Find .
Solution: Force acting on Q2 due to Q1 is . It is directed from Q1 to Q2. The vector
joining charges 1 and 2 and
pointing towards P2 is
=5 -3 +3 and =
Force on Q2 is,
=

= Fig. 2. Illustrating Ex. 1

= 319.183 ( )
= 1.596 - 0.958 + 0.958 (kN)
The force on Q1 is obtained from as = -
So = - (1.595 - 0.958 + 0.958 ) = - 1.595 + 0.958 - 0.958
(kN).
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1.4 Principle of Superposition:

In the problem if it is asked to find force on a particular charge due to other charges then
the principle of superposition can be used In which, find the force on that charge due to other
charges separately and the total force is the addition of all forces. Obviously this addition is a
vector addition.
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Example 2: Four 10 nC positive charges are located in the z = 0 plane at the corners of a square
8 cm on a side. A fifth 10 nC positive charge is located at a point 8 cm distant from the order
charges. Calculate the magnitude of the total force on this fifth charge for .
(Dec 2002)
Solution: Let us place the square of side 8 cm (= 0.08 m)
in the Cartesian coordinate system such that
one corner of the square is at origin as shown
in fig. In the fig.,
= = 0.113 m
= 0.0565 m.
Now,
=
= 0.0566
Fig. 3. Illustrating Ex. 2

Coordinates of point M are (0.04, 0.04, 0). Hence, position of Q 5 is (0.04, 0.04, 0.0566).
To find force on Q5 due to Q1:
In the fig.,

= =
Now, the force on Q5 due to Q1 is,
= =
= 1.758 x ( )
Similarly, we can calculate other forces , , and . In the figure above it is clear that
horizontal components of and are getting cancelled, while horizontal components of
is cancelled by . When we add all four forces the resultant should have only z component.
Again Q5 is at equal distances from Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 and all charges . This makes vertical
components of each force to be equal. Thus total force in vertical direction is,
= 1.758 x x (mN)
Ans
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Example 3: Four like charges of 30 each are located at four corners of a square, the
diagonal of which measures 8 mts.
Find the force on a 150 charge located 3 mts above the centre of the square.

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Solution: Given square can be placed in coordinate system as shown in figure. We have
selected this orientation, as this position resemble with the orientation in previous problem.
Refer figure.
Required vectors and unit vectors are:
; ;
; ;
; ;
and ; .

Fig. 4. Illustrating Ex. 3

Force on Q5 can be calculated on the similar lines as in the previous problem. The answer is,
= 0.324 x 4 x = (N).
Ans
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Example 4: It is required to hold four equal point charges + Q coulomb each in equilibrium at
the corners of a
square. Calculate the point charge, which will do this, if placed at the centre of the
square.

Solution: Let us fit the square in the coordinate system such that one corner is at the origin as
shown in figure. Let side of the square be a meters and a charge of Q is placed at the centre.
For equilibrium resultant of forces acting on any one charge, say A, due to all other charges
must be zero. Force acting on charge at A due to remaining charges is obtained as:
=
=
=

=
For equilibrium, the resultant of these forces at A must be zero,
i.e. = + + =0

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i.e. =0
Fig. 5. Illustrating Ex. 4

i.e. =0
i.e. Q+
i.e.
Ans
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Example 5: It is required to hold three equal point charges of +Q each in equilibrium at the
corners of an equilateral
triangle. Calculate the point charge, which will do this, if placed at the centre of a
triangle.

Solution: Let us place the equilateral triangle as shown in figure. Assume side of the triangle
be a, and the charge required for equilibrium be .
We know that AP = BP = CP = a/
y coordinate of P is = a / cos 600 = a /2
Thus, coordinates of different points are:
A(0, 0); B(a, 0); C
For equilibrium total force acting on any charge
must be zero. Force on Q at A due to charge at B is,

Force on Q at A due to charge at C is,

Fig. 6. Illustrating Ex. 5

and force on Q at A due to charge at P is,

Total force on Q at A must be zero for equilibrium. That is,

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i.e.
i.e. and = 0
Solving any one we get, (C).
Ans
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Example 6: Two point charges Q1 and Q2 are located at (1, 2, 0) and (2, 0, 0) respectively. Find
the relation between
Q1 and Q2 such that the total force on a test charge at the point P (-1, 1, 0) will
have (i) no x-component
(ii) no y-component.

Solution: Let QT is the test charge.


Required vectors and unit vectors are
= -2 -
= -3 +
Force acting on QT due to Q1 is:
= = = (-2Fig. 7. Illustrating
- ) Ex. 6
Force acting on QT due to Q2 is:
= = = (-3 + )
Total force on QT is:
= (-2 - )+ (-3 + )

=
(i) For no x-component:

Ans
(ii) For no y-component:

-2
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Ans

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2. Gausss Law :

Stmt: The electric flux passing through any closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed
by that surface.

2.1 Mathematical Expression for Gausss Law :

Let a positive charge Q is enclosed by a closed surface of any shape. At point P consider
an differential element of surface ds and let makes an angle with as shown in Fig. 3.
Here, = ds . The flux crossing is then the product of the normal component of D and
ds.
Therefore, d = flux crossing ds = Dnormal ds = D cos ds
= . .. using definition of dot product
The total flux crossing through the closed surface is,
= = . = .
Here, means integral over a closed surface.
Mathematically Gausss Law can now be expressed as,

. = Qenclosed Fig. 1. Gausss Law

Proof: Consider now a positive charge Q situated at the centre of an imaginary sphere of radius
r as shown in fig. 4.

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The total flux passing through the sphere is = .


Since a point charge is situated at the centre, the flux density is,
=
The differential area on the spherical surface is,
= r2 sin d d
Hence = . (r2 sin d d )
= sin d d (as . = 1)
= = 2 2 = Q (C) Fig. 2. due to Point charge
This means that Q Coulombs of electric flux is crossing the surface if Q is the total or net
charge enclosed. Thus Gauss law is proved.
We could have obtained the result for this special case more simply by multiplying Q /
4r by the area of the sphere (4r2). But if the charge is not at the centre of the sphere, or if
2

there is a distribution of charge enclosed by a surface or arbitrary shape, we should use


integration. In general the charge can be expressed in terms of v as,
Q=
Then the Gauss law mathematically is, . =
(2.1.1)

Where v is the volume enclosed by the closed surface s. In equation (2.1.1),


the LHS of this equation gives the total flux crossing the closed surface, while
the RHS gives the total charge enclosed by this closed surface.
Equation (1.2.1) is called, the integral form of Maxwells equation derived from the Gausss
law.
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Example 1: Three point charges, Q1 =10 nC, Q2 = 20 nC, and Q3 = - 5 nC are enclosed by
surface s. How much flux crosses s?
Solution: According to Gausss law, the total flux crossing s is equal to total charge enclosed
by the surface s. The total charge enclosed is,
QT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 10 + 20 5 = 25 (nC)
crossing s = 25(nC)
Ans
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Example 2: Three point charges are located in air : + 0.008 C at (0, 0) m, + 0.005 C at (3,0)
m and at (0,4) m there is a charge of - 0.009 C. Compute the total flux over a sphere of 5 m
radius with centre at (0, 0).

Solution: The sphere of 5 m radius will enclose all three charges in the system. Thus the total
charge enclosed is,
Qenclosed = (+ 0.008 + 0.005 - 0.009) 10-6 = 4 10-9 (C)
According to Gauss Law,
Flux = charge enclosed = 4 10-9 (C) Ans
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2.3 Special Gaussian surfaces:

We know the Gausss law,


The left hand side of it is electric flux and can be determined by having the knowledge
of and d . Its not like Gauss law is used to find only flux. The same law can also be used to
determine D of some known charge distributions. By using some conditions the problem of
finding D is simplified. Before stating these conditions let us have a look in the expression of
Gausss law. The integral in the expression has dot product term. There are two extreme cases
of dot product:
When and d are normal ( )
When and d are parallel ( )
For the first case the integral goes to zero. For the second case if D , and is constant
then,

= =D = Ds
Which is product of required D and the surface area over with D is existing. This product is
equal to charge enclosed. Thus, when charge enclosed is known and area of surface (s) is
known, D due to this charge configuration can be determined. Now, its time to specify the
conditions which simplifies the problem of determining D.

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2.4 Condition for Special Gaussian Surfaces:

D is everywhere either normal or tangential to the closed surface, so that becomes either D ds
or zero, respectively.
D is essentially constant over that part of the surface where D is normal.
The surface is closed, this is obvious because see the circle on integral sign.
The type of surface or surface elements which satisfies which satisfies these conditions are called as
Special Gaussian Surfaces.

While solving problems of finding due to given charge configuration, you should have
knowledge of the symmetry, with the help of which a proper closed surface can be selected.
Remember,
While dealing with the problems of positive point charge, electric field of it is directed
radially outward from the point charge i.e. in spherical system and
While dealing with the problems of line charge electric field is directed radially outward
from the line charge i.e. in cylindrical system.
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3. Laplaces and Poissons Equations :

Laplaces equation gives us method of finding potential function V when conducting


materials in the form of planes, curved surfaces or lines are given and voltage on one is known
with respect to some reference. Often the other conductor. Laplaces equation is the special case
of Poissons equation. To obtain Poissons equation from Gausss law is very simple: From the
point form of Gausss law

but =
Putting the value of in Gausss Law,

For homogenous medium for which is a constant, we write


=
Also, = -- V
Then equation previous to above equation becomes,

or
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(3.1.1)
which is a Poissons equation.
If v = 0, indicating zero volume charge density, but allowing point charges, line charge
and surface charge density to exist on the boundaries as sources of field then,

(3.1.2)
which is a Laplaces equation.
Laplace Equations in Three Coordinate Systems:
Equations for Laplace are derived as follows:
In cartesian coordinates: and

knowing
Hence, Laplaces equation is,
(3.1.3)

In cylindrical coordinates:
and
so that Laplaces equation is,
(3.1.4)

In spherical coordinates:

and
Then Laplaces equation is,

(3.1.5)

General Procedure for Solving Poisson s or Laplaces Equation:

Following steps are performed while solving problems of Poissons or Laplaces


equation.

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Step 1: Solve Laplaces (if v = 0) or Poissons (if v 0) equation using either


Direct integration when V is a function of one variable or ,
Separation of variables if V is a function of more than one variable .
The solution at this point is not unique but expressed in terms of unknown integration constants to be determined.
Step 2: Applying boundary conditions, determine the constants involved in the integration. Now the solution is unique.
Step 3: From V, determine and using,
= and
Step 4: The charge density on the capacitor plates is obtained by,
s = Dn where Dn is the component of normal to the conductor.
Step 5: The charge on the capacitor plates can be found by
Q = ds
Step 6: If desired, the capacitance between the plates is obtained using the relation,
C =
When V is a function of only one variable then the Poissons or Laplace equations become one dimensional.

Solved Examples on Poissons and Laplace Equation:

Important Formulae

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Example 1: Let V = 2xy2 z3 and = 0. Given point P (1, 3, -1). Find V at point P. Also
find if V satisfies Laplace equation.

Solution:
Given: V = 2xy2 z3

VP(1, 3, -1) = 2 1 32 (-1)3 = -18 volts


Laplace equation in Cartesian system is,

Differentiating given V,
= 2y2 z3 ; = 0
= 4 xy z3 ; = 4 x z3
= 6 xy2z2 ; = 12 x y2 z
Adding double differentiated terms,
+ 4 x z3 + 12 x y2 z
Thus given V does not satisfy Laplace equation.
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Example 2: It is known that V = XY is a solution of Laplace equation where X is a function of
x alone and Y is a function of y alone. Determine whether following functions are solutions of
Laplaces equation:
Va = 100 XY; (b) Vb = 100 XY + 2x;
(c) Vc = X + 3Y (d) Vd = 2 XY + y2 x2 (May 2003)

Solution: The Laplace equation is:

In Cartesian coordinates,

As V = XY is a solution of Laplaces equation we have,

i.e. ( a function of z)
(A)
(a) Va = 100 XY:

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= 100 = 100 (0) = 0 (Using


Equation (A))
Since Va satisfies Laplaces equation, it is a solution of Laplaces equation.

(b) Vb = 100 XY + 2x:


= 100 Y + 2; = 100 Y
= 100 X ; = 100 X
= + = 100 = 100 (0) = 0
Hence Vb is a solution of Laplaces equation.

(c) Vc = X + 3Y:
= ; =
= 3 ; = 3
= + = 0
Hence Vc is not a solution of Laplaces equation.

(d) Vd = 2 XY + y2 x2:
= 2Y - 2x; = 2Y -2
= 2X + 2y; = 2X +2

= + = 2Y - 2 + 2X +2 = 2 = 2 (0)
= 0

Hence Vd is a solution of Laplaces equation.


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Example 3: The one dimensional Laplaces eqn. is given as
= 0
The boundary conditions are V = 9 at x = 1 and V = 0 at x = 10. Find the potential and also
show the variation of V with respect to x.

Solution: Since V is a function of only x we change partial differentiation into normal thus
we have,
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= 0
In order to find V, integrate the given eqn. twice, we get
and V = Ax + B (i)
Putting boundary conditions in eqn. (i)
i.e. V = 9 at x = 1, gives 9 = A 1 + B
i.e. A + B = 9 (ii)
Putting second boundary condition in eqn. (i) we have
i.e. V = 0 at x = 10, gives 0 = 10 A + B (iii)
Solving Eqns. (ii) and (iii), we get
Fig. 1 Illustrating Ex. 3
A = - 1 and B = + 10.
Putting these values in Eqn. (i), we get the potential as
V = - x + 10 Ans
The variation of V w.r.t. x is a straight line as shown in fig.
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Example 4: Consider a parallel plate capacitor occupying planes x = 0 and x = d and is kept at a
potential V = 0 and
V = respectively. The medium consists of two dielectrics for t < x < d. If d = 4 cm, t = 2
cm, = 2, = 4 and = 100 volts.Using Laplaces equation find the potential and
electric field intensities in the two regions.

Solution :
Two different dielectrics with and forms two different capacitors in
series. Consider top and bottom area of each capacitor is A ( ). Two
capacitances can be obtained as :
= =
= = 100 A (F) Fig. 2
Illustrating Ex. 4
and = = = 200 A (F)
Fig. 2 Illustrating Ex. 4
Using voltage divider we obtain voltage across as:
= = 100 = 66.66 Volts. Fig. 2 Illustrating
Ex. 4
Thus at x = t, voltage V = 66.66 volts.
Now to find potential variation we solve Laplaces equation separately for region 1 and region
2.
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For region 1:
Voltages are, at x = 0, V = 0 volts
at x = t = 2cm, V = 66.66 volts
The Laplaces equation is
Since V is changing only w.r.t. x, reduces to:

or
Integrating we get,
Integrating once again, V = Ax + B (i)
To find A and B apply known voltages to eqn. (i)
V = 0 at x = 0 gives, 0 = A(0) + B
i.e. B = 0 and
V = 66.66 at x = 2 cm gives, 66.66 = A (2 10-2)
i.e. A = 33.33 10-2
Putting in eqn. (i), V = 33.33 102 x Ans
This is variation of voltage in region 1. To find E we have,

33.33 102 (V/m) Ans


For region 2:
Voltages are, at x = 2 cm, V = 66.66 volts
at x = 4 cm, V = 100 volts
Since V is changing only w.r.t. x, the expression for V after solving Laplace eqn. will be
similar to eqn. (i). But the values of A and B will be different. To find A and B apply known
voltages in region 2 to eqn. (i).
V = 66.66 at x = 2 cm gives,
66.66 = A (2 10-2) + B (ii)
and V = 100 at x = 4 cm gives,
100 = A (4 10-2) + B (iii)
2
Solving eqns. (ii) and (iii) we get, A = 16.665 10 and B = 33.33
thus variation of voltage in region 2 is,
V = (16.665 102) x + 33.33 (volts) Ans
To find electric field,
16.665 102 (V/m) Ans
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Uniqueness Theorem:

In the previous sections we have seen that a relatively simple problems can be
solved by direct integration. But in complicated problems some other methods of solution
must be used. One of the method known as method of images is explained in next
section. Let us see now what is uniqueness theorem.
Statement of uniqueness theorem: A solution of Poissons equation (of which
Laplaces equation is a special case) that satisfies the given boundary conditions is a
unique
solution.
Proof: Consider a volume bounded outside
by a surface s0, which may be a surface at infinity,
where V is ordinarily taken to be zero. Inside the closed
surface s0 there are number of charged conducting bodies
(Q1, Q2, Q3 ,. Qn ) with surfaces s1, s2, s3, . sn and
potential V is specified on all their surfaces as shown in
Fig. 6.2.1.
Fig. 5: Surface s0 encloses volume
Suppose there are two solutions to Poissons equation in : with conducting bodies at s1, s2, ...., sn
= (i)

and = (ii)
Also assume that both V1 and V2 satisfy the same boundary conditions on s 1, s2,
. sn and s0. Let us define a new difference potential:
Vd = V 1 V2
From equations (i) and (ii) we can write,
2
(V1 V2) = 0 by Equation
(i) minus Equation (ii)
2
i.e. Vd = 0
(iii)
Since the potentials on the conducting boundaries are specified for any surface, V d = 0.
We know the vector identity
(f ) =
Let f = Vd and ; we have
= +
From equation (iii), then we have
=
Taking the volume integral over the volume gives,

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(iv)
The divergence theorem allows us to replace the volume integral on the left side of
above equation by the closed surface integral over the surface surrounding the volume.
The divergence theorem is:
=
The right hand side of Equation (iv) can now be written in terms of surface integral as,

(v)
Here, d denotes a differential vector area on the surface s 0.
Consider a large surface s0, which encloses the whole system. The surface
integral on the L.H.S. of
Equation (v) can be evaluated by considering s0 as the surface of a very large sphere
with radius R. When R is very large both V 1 and V2 can be thought of as potentials due to point
charges (here conducting surfaces are treated as point charges since size of it will be very small
as compared to R of a very large sphere). These potentials fall off as 1/R (V = Q /4 R).
2 2
Consequently falls off as 1/ R , making the integrand ( ) fall of as 1/ R . Hence, the
surface integral on the left side of equation (v) decreases as 1/ R and approaches zero at infinity.
So the right side of equation (v) is also zero. Thus, we have

Since is always positive (square term is always positive), everywhere above equation is
satisfied only if = 0. If the gradient of Vs i.e. V1 V2 is everywhere zero, then V1 V2
cannot change with any coordinates i.e. it has same value at all points in as it has on the
boundary surfaces s1, s2, ., sn, where Vd = 0. It follows that Vd throughout the volume is zero.
Therefore, V1 = V2 gives two identical solutions. The uniqueness theorem is also valid for
Laplaces equation as Laplaces equation is a special case of Poissons. To prove uniqueness for
Laplaces equation start with and and the proof is identical from this
point.
The implication of the uniqueness theorem is that a solution of an electrostatic problem
satisfying its boundary conditions is the only possible solution, irrespective of the method by
which the solution is obtained.

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4. The Steady Magnetic Field:


4.1 Biot-Sarvart Law:
This law is also called as Amperes law for the current element. It gives differential
magnetic field intensity, d due to differential current element I d . Consider a filament
through which current of I amp is passing. We are interested in finding field intensity H at point
P.
4.1.1 Statement of Biot Savart Law:
Magnitude of dH at point P is proportional to product of current,
differential length dl, the angle between the filament and line connecting
differential length to the point of interest P. It is inversely proportional
to the square of the distance from the filament to point P. The constant of
proportionality is 1 / 4 .

4.1.2 Mathematical Expression for Biot Savart Law:


Mathematically,

dH =
(4.1.1)
The direction of dH is normal to the plane containing the differential element and the line
drawn from the filament to the point P.
Of the two possible normals that normal is chosen which is in the direction of progress of
a right handed screw turned from d through the smaller angle to the line from the
filament to P.
In vector notations,

d = (A/m)
(4.1.2)

where, = this sign is a cross product.


= unit vector from differential current element to point
P.
Id = differential current element.
R = distance of differential current element from point P.

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Differential current elements have no separate existence. All elements making up the
complete correct filament contribute to and must be included. The summation leads to
the integral form of Biot-savart law as,
=
(4.1.3)

The above integral is a closed line integral , which is must to ensure that all current
elements are included (the contour may close at )
Alternate forms of the Biot-savart law in terms of distributed sources like and are
obtained using Eqn.,
Id ds = dv
as,
d =

(4.1.4)

and d =

(4.1.5)

Integrating Equations (4.1.4) and (4.1.5) we get total .


i.e.

(4.1.6)

Note that, d inside the integral is from Eqns.


(4.1.2), (4.1.4) or (4.1.5) then the integral is single integral, triple integral or double
integral, which is very clear from d , dv and ds in the expressions for dH.

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4.1.3 Solved Examples on Biot Savart Law:


Important Formulae
d = (A/m) d =
d =

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Example 1: Given points A (1, 2, 4), B (-2, -1, 3) and C (3, 1, -2) let a differential current
element with l = 6A and = 10- 4 m be located at A. The direction of dL is from A to B.
Find dH at C. Dec 1998

Solution: The direction of dL is from A to B, then


I d = (6) (10-4) ( AB)
Here = (-2 1 ) + (-1 2 ) + (3 4 ) = -3 -3 -
Then the unit vector
= = =

Id = (6)(10-4)
= - 0.413 - 0.413 - (mA.m).
The Biot-savart law is
d =
Now = (3 1 ) + (1 2 ) + (-2 4 ) = 2 - -6

= = =
Putting in Biot-Savart law

d = 10-3

= 10-3

= - 0.303 10-6 { }

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= + 0.71 (A/m).
Ans__________________________________________________________________
_______________________________
4.2 Amperes Circuital Law or Amperes Work Law:
Statement:
The line integral of around a single closed path is equal to the current enclosed by that
path.
Mathematically,
(4.2.1)

Verifying
amperes circuital law

Proof: To verify the law, consider a source whose magnetic field


H is known to us. The best well known source is infinite current
filament placed along z-axis. The magnetic field due to it is
=
Let a path surrounding it is circular, for this path in cylindrical
system,
d = dr
If the path has radius r and it is horizontal then
dr = dz = 0
and the reduced expression for d is
d = rd

Now d =
The Amperes circuital law is

L.H.S =

hence Amperes circuital law is verified. Showing different


closed path

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Consider the conductor shown in Fig.(b) , carries a current I. different paths are shown in
the Fig.(c). Path A and B enclose the conductor, therefore the line integral of around the
closed path A and B is equal to current I but the line integral around path C is less than I, since
the entire current is not enclosed by the path.
Fig.(c) shows that the line integral around closed path equals current in the wire when
path enclose the wire (Fig.(i) and (ii)), but is zero when the paths do not enclose the wire (Fig.
(iii) and (iv)).

4.3 Magnetic Boundary Conditions:


When the field vector is present in a single continuous media then at every
point in amedia, the magnitude and direction of field will be same. When light travels from one
media to another , the direction of light changes. Similar to this when the field goes from one
media to second media, the direction as well as magnitude of field changes.

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To determine boundary conditions

Suppose the field in one media is given and we require to calculate field in
second media. These types of problems are solved by knowing the relation between the
tangential and normal components of the fields in two media. As in electrostatics, the relation
between tangential and normal components is derived separately.
Figure shows a boundary between two isotropic homogenous linear medias
with permeabilities The Gaussian surface and the closed path is constructed at the
boundary between medium 1 and medium 2 as shown.

4.3.1 Boundary Condition for Normal Components of :


Consider a small rectangular volume positioned across the interface such that
it is half in each media. Instead of rectangular volume any closed surface can be considered.
The normal components of and are and present at the top and bottom of the
volume. Since magnetic flux lines are continuous we have,

The closed surface consists of six surfaces. Thus L.H.S. of above equation is obtained by
L.H.S =

To find the relation between normal components at the interface, and must be very close to
the interface which requires,
The effect of it is the contribution of all sides except top and bottom is zero and now LHS
consists of only two integrals.

At the top: ;

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At the bottom: ;
Now the integrals can be solved as follows:

=( ) = RHS = 0

i.e. normal component of is continuous across an interface.

4.3.2 Boundary Conditions for Tangential Components of :


Let and are tangential components of and in medium 1 and medium 2
respectively. To obtain these boundary relations consider a rectangular path half in each media
with width and height as shown in figure . We have Amperes work law

In the figure, the circle with dots indicates that the current is coming out of the page. This
current is the surface current (K) flowing along the interface. Since width of the rectangle is ,
the current enclosed within the path is K .
RHS = K
The rectangular path consists of four sides, thus LHS of eq. (A) can be split as
LHS =
If we want and to be present very close to the interface, let

The effect of it is integrals B to C and D to A gives zero contributions to LHS. Thus LHS
reduces to,
LHS =
For side A to B, and are in same direction, thus

For side C to D, and are in opposite direction, thus

LHS of eq. (A) now becomes


LHS = ( )
i.e.
In vector form,

Where, is the unit vector normal to interface from medium 1 to medium 2.


If no current along interface, then

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or

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________
Example 1: Two homogenous, linear and isotropic media have an interface at x = 0. x < 0
describes medium 1 and x > 0 describes medium 2. . The magnetic field in medium 1 is
150 A/m.
Determine:
(i) Magnetic field in medium 2.
(ii) Magnetic flux density in medium 1.
(iii) Magnetic flux density in medium 2.

Solution:
(i) To obtain
since x-axis is normal to the interface, the normal and tangential components of H1 are,
(A/m)
(A/m)
From the boundary condition we have,

To obtain normal component, we have

=2
= 300 (Wb/m2)
From the boundary condition we have,
(Wb/m2)
we have, .
Thus, the magnetic field in medium 2 is,

.
(ii) To find : we have,
2
= ( Wb/m2)
(iii) To find : we have,
5
= ( Wb/m2)

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_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________

5. Time Varying Fields and Maxwells Equations :

Divergence theorem is used to convert closed surface integral into volume integral and using stokes
theorem, closed line integral is converted into surface integral.

Divergence Theorem d dv

Stokes Theorem d d

These relations are frequently required in this chapter. Some of the relations we studied
in previous chapters are called as Maxwells equations for static field. These are
summarized below.

5.1 Maxwells Equations for Static Fields :

In order to get clear understanding between time varying and static fields, before we start
discussing time varying fields, the equations governing static fields are as follows :
5.1.1 Faradays Law :

Statement :
The emf is included in a loop when the magnetic flux is changing in the vicinity of it.

Since for static field, flux is not changing with respect to time then the emf induced in a
loop is zero. The emf induced in a loop is expressed is expressed in terms of electric field as,
emf d
Thus for static field, Faradays law is expressed mathematically as
d = 0
(5.1.1)
This relation is called as integral form of the Maxwells equation derived from Faradays law
for the static field. This relation stands because the work done in a closed path is equal to zero.
Using Stokes Theorem,
d = d

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d = 0
but d therefore = 0 (5.1.2)
This relation is called as point form of the Maxwells equation derived from Faradays law for
the static field.

5.1.2 Amperes Law :


Statement :

The line integral of H around a closed path is equal to the current enclosed by that path.

The line integral of H around a single closed path is given as,


d
The current I can be expressed in terms of J as,
I = d
Then, mathematically Amperes law is given as
d = I = d (5.1.3)
This is called as integral form of Maxwells equation derived from Amperes law for static
field.
To relate with convert line integral into surface integral using Stokes theorem as

d =
d
or
(5.1.4)
This is called as point form of Maxwells equation derived from Amperes law for static field.

5.1.3 Gausss Law (For Electric):


Statement:
The total electric flux crossing the closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by that
surface.
The electric flux through the closed surface is,
= .d
The charge can be expressed in terms of v as,
Qencl. = dv
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Then the Gauss law for electric is expressed mathematically as,


. d = Qencl = dv
(5.1.5)

This relation is called as integral form of the Maxwells equation derived from Gausss law for
the static field.
to relate with v convert surface integral into volume integral using
Divergence theorem as,
d =
) dv = dv

or = v
(5.1.6)
v

This is called as point form of Maxwells equation derived from Gausss law for the static field.

5.1.4 Gausss Law (For Magnetic) :


Statement :
The total magnetic flux crossing the closed surface is equal to zero.

The reason for this is, magnetic flux lines are always closed in nature. Due to which
a closed surface in the presence of these lines will have same number of incoming and outgoing
flux lines. The incoming flux, if considered positive then the outgoing flux is negative, resulting
in total flux crossing closed surface equal to zero.

In case of electric field, the positive and negative charge separately exist and electric flux
originates from positive charge and terminates o negative charge. Thus electric flux line have
start and end points. This is not the case for magnetic lines. The magnetic field lines are always
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closed in nature. There is no starting and end point, this is called as non-existence of monopole
in magnetic field.
Mathematically it is given as,
d = 0 (5.1.7)
This is called as integral form of Maxwells equation derived from Gausss law for magnetic
field for static field.
Using Divergence theorem d =
= 0
i.e. = 0 (5.1.8)
This is called as point form of Maxwells equation derived from Gausss law for Magnetic field
for static field.

5.1.5 The Continuity Equation for Current :


Statement :
The total current crossing the closed surface is equal to zero.

From KCL at node we have


Incoming current = outgoing current
i.e. current is continuous across the node, its value remain same. Instead of node, consider a
closed surface in the presence of current, then KCL is also valid for this case. The current
through closed surface is expressed in terms of J as
= d
But incoming current if considered positive then outgoing current is negative, resulting in total
current crossing the closed surface equal to zero.

Mathematically, d = 0 (5.1.9)

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This is called as integral form of Maxwells equation derived from continuity equation for
static field.

Using Divergence theorem, d =


= 0
i.e. = 0
(5.1.10)
This is called as point form of Maxwells equation derived from continuity equation for static
field.
Maxwells equations for static field are summarized in Table 5.1.1

Table 5.1.1 : Maxwells equations for static fields

Law Integral form Point form

Amperes d = d

Faradays d = 0

Gauss law (electric) .d = dv = v

Gauss law (magnetic) d = 0 = 0

Continuity equation d = 0 = 0

Yaad rakhna Baiil


In this article we have studied Maxwells equations for static field. In practice field always vary with time.
Maxwells equations for this field has to be written separately, these are not same for static fields. Only Gauss
law, for electric and magnetic is so powerful that it does not require any modification. All other laws require
modification .

5.3 Modification of Continuity Equation of Current :

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The fundamental property of electrical charge is that it can neither be created nor
destroyed. If a charge disappears from one point it must reappear at another point. This
postulate is called as Conservation of charge.
Consider a volume v located inside a conducting media. The current density is a
vector having the direction of current flow. The current coming out from any volume can be
thought of as a rate of decrease of charge in that volume. Mathematically, current is expressed
as
i = (i)
Also charge is expressed in terms of v
q = v dv
i = = v dv

Current through closed


surface
But current i through closed surface can also be obtained as,
i = d (ii)
If the region of integration is stationary i.e. volume is not changing with time (because we
assume only v is changing with time). Then d/dt in above equation can be written partial
differentiation . Thus, comparing Equations (i) and (ii),

d = v dv = dv
= dv

d = dv
(5.1.5((i))

The dot ( ) over v indicates that it is partial differentiation with respect to t.


To relate with v we have to convert surface integral into volume integral using
Divergence theorem as
d = ( dv
( dv = dv
Since both sides are volume integrals, we can compare to write,

=
(5.1.2(ii))

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5.4 Displacement current (Inconsistency of Amperes Law):


During our study of magnetostatics we formulated the point form of Amperes law as,
(i)
Taking the divergence of both sides of this eqn. we get,

but according to vector identity, divergence of a curl is zero, therefore

i.e. = 0
This result is not consistent with the continuity eqn. ( ) i.e. statement of Amperes
Law is inconsistent for time varying fields and some modification is required in it. Suppose
we add an unknown term to (i), then
(ii)
Taking divergence of both sides we have

i.e.
or
but from the continuity eqn.
= ,
we get, = = = + (iii)
We know the point form of Gausss law as, =
Taking differentiation of both sides =
Putting this value in eqn. (iii), we get
=
or = (iv)
Using eqns. (ii) and (iv) we get,
(A)

In the above eqn. and are added means units of both are same, this can be checked as
follows:
As we have expressed current as surface integral of current density (J), it implies that the
current density is having unit of A/m2. Consider now the unit of . As D is nothing but the flux
density its unit is C/m2 and the unit of will be C/s/m2. As the basic unit of ampere (A) is C/s,
therefore is having unit of A/m2. Thus is also a current density and is called as
displacement current density, while J is called as conduction current density. The
displacement current density is denoted by Jd or Jdisp , while conduction current density is
denoted by Jc or Jcond.

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Thus, the definition of total current density can be formed as:


= +

5.4 Physical Significance of Displacement Current:

(a) Physical elements (b) Representation by a box (c) Combined


elements
Physical significance of Jd

Consider a resistor and capacitor in parallel as shown in fig. 7(a). The voltage V is
applied across the parallel combination. The nature of the current flow through the resistor is
different from that through the capacitor. The constant voltage across a resistor produces a
continuous flow of current of constant value given by,
i1 = V/R (i)
This current is called as conduction current.
The current flows through the capacitor only when voltage across it is changing i.e.
i2 = (ii)
This current is the displacement current. Physically the displacement current is not a current
in the sense that there is no flow of a physical quantity like charges.
Now consider the resistor and capacitor elements, each occupies a volume as shown in
fig. 7(b). Fringing of the field is neglected. Inside each element the electric field E equals, given
by
E = V/d
Then the current density J1 , inside the resistor element is product of the electric field E
and the conductivity of the medium inside the resistor element. It is also equal to i 1 divided by
the cross-sectional area A, or
J1 = = E (iii)
The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is C = A/d, where A is the area of the
plates and d is the spacing between them. Substituting this value for C, and V = Ed, into eqn.
(ii) yields,

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i2 = = A (iv)
Dividing eqn. (iv) by the area A gives a current density inside a capacitor. Thus,
J2 = =
We know D = E J2 = (v)
In the expressions (iii) and (v), the term J 1 is called as conduction current density and J 2 is
the displacement current density. Eqns. (iii) and (v) in vector form are
(vi)
(vii)
Now, instead of having two separate elements in parallel, one of which acts like a pure
resistance and the other like a pure capacitance, there is only one element which has both
capacitance and resistance as shown in fig. 7(c), where there is a capacitor filled with a
conducting dielectric so that both conduction and displacement currents are present.
Then the total current density is
Then the total current I is
I =

5.5 Maxwells Equations in Integral and Point form


(Maxwells Equations for Time Varying Fields):

Statement of Faradays law:


In a closed path (loop) the electric potential (emf) is developed due to time varying magnetic field in the vicinity
of that closed path. Mathematically,
emf = (i)

(5.6.2)

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This is a point form or differential form of Maxwells eqn. derived from Faradays law.
In converting to the differential form from integral form, the line integral of around the
closed path C is replaced by the curl of , the surface integral of over the surface s
bounded by C is replaced by itself as shown:

5.7 Amperes Law in Integral and Point Form:

Statement of Amperes Law:

The line integral of around a closed path is equal to the current enclosed by the path.
Mathematically, (i)
Where, both conduction and displacement currents are present, the current enclosed is the total current.
I = (ii)

(5.8.1)
This is the integral form of Maxwells equation derived from Amperes law.
Differential form:
Using Stokes Theorem we get

Or
Both sides of above equation are surface integrals, comparing we get,

(5.8.1)
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This is the point form or differential form of Maxwells equation derived from Amperes law.
In converting to the differential form from integral form, the line integral of around
the closed path C is replaced
By curl of . And the surface integral of over the surface s bounded by C is replaced by
itself as shown:

5.9 Gausss Law in integral and point form:

5.9.1 Gausss Law for the Electric Field:


Statement:
The total flux crossing the closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by the closed surface

Mathematically,
(i)
The charge Q can be written in terms of as:

(ii)
From equations (i) and (ii) we have,
(5.9.1)
This is called as integral form of Maxwells equation derived from Gausss Law.
Applying divergence theorem to convert surface integral on the left hand side to volume
integral

Then from equation (5.9.1),


Both sides of the above equation are volume integrals, comparing

(5.9.2)
This is called as point form of Maxwells equation derived from Gausss law.

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5.9.2 Gausss Law for the Magnetic Field:


Statement:
In case of magnetic field the total outgoing flux (magnetic) is equal to zero

Mathematically,

(5.9.3)
This is called as integral form of Maxwells equation from Gausss law for magnetic field.
This equation results from the fact that the magnetic flux lines are continuous. Using
divergence theorem to convert surface integral to volume integral equation (5.9.3) becomes

But dv cannot be zero.

(5.9.4)
Equation (5.9.4) is called as point form or differential form of Maxwells equation
derived from Gausss law for magnetic field.

5.10 General Set of Maxwells Equations:

Table (a): Maxwells equations, general set for time varying


fields

Law Integral Form Point


Form

Amperes = = +
law .d

Faradays =
= .
law
d

Gausss law = . . = Pr
dv

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Law Integral Point Form


Form
The above set of
Gausss Law : .d =0 . =0 equations is called as
Magnetic field general set of Maxwells
equation. Sometimes
Continuity Equation = . = Pv media in the problem may
dv be free space or good
dielectric or good conductor.

5.11 Maxwells Equations for Different types of Media:


In the previous section we studied general set of Maxwells equations. Depending upon
the media involved in the problem we should change these equations. The media may be
Free space (ii) Good dielectric (iii) Good conductor
Let us discuss properties of these media so that using these we can modify Maxwells
equations.
Free space:
Free space is a space without charges, so it will not have any charge density.

Due to absence of charges there is no conduction through space giving zero conduction
density.

So for free space, and


Good dielectric:
Dielectric also is a medium without charges and thus there is no charge density

For a good dielectric, the displacement current is greater than conduction current and thus
conduction current ( ) can be neglected

So for good dielectric and


Good conductor:
In normal state good conductor will not have any charge (temperature effect is neglected)
giving

In good conductor the conduction current (J) is greater than displacement current ( )
and can be neglected.

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So, for good conductor


Free space: and
Good dielectric: and
Good conductor: and

Depending upon media the Maxwells equation change. It is given below:


For a free space: and
Then, the set of Maxwells Equation for free space is as shown in table (b)
Table ((b): Maxwells equations for free space in time varying field

Point Integral Form


Form

For good dielectrics: and


Applying these conditions the Maxwells equations for good dielectrics are given in table (c):

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For good conductors: J>> and


Applying these conditions, Maxwells equations for good conductors are as given in table (d):
Table (d): Maxwells equations for good conductors

Point form Integrated form

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