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Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

This chapter presents the assessment of related studies regarding the design and making of

an oyster shell grinding machine. Acknowledgement of different books, journals and research

papers were conducted in order to complete the following reviews.

The design and concept of the proposed oyster shell grinding machine is based from size

reduction equipment that are being utilized for industrial processes today. In order to create a

relative body of supporting materials, this research cited different size reduction equipment its

function, applications, and other mechanism.


A machine used to reduce materials such as ore, coal, stone, and slag to particle sizes that

are convenient for their intended uses. Crushers operate by slowly applying a large force to the

material to be reduced. Generally, this is accomplished by catching it between jaws or rollers that

move or turn together with great force. Reduction in size is generally accomplished in several

stages, as there are practical limitations on the ratio of size reduction through a single stage.

"crusher." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed... (July 29, 2017).

The available crushers today are slow speed machines employed for coarse reduction of

large masses of solids. They operate by compression and can break lumps of hard materials. These

types of machines are usually found in rockery and mining industries.

Gavhane, K.A. Unit Operations I: Fluid Flow and Mechanical Operations.

Abhyudaya Pregati, Shivaji Nagar: Nirali Prakashan, 2009.
In mining, there are different machines used as primary and secondary crushers for quarried

aggregates or rocks. These are categorized as four types of crushers used to produce aggregates

namely: Gyratory, Cone, Impact, and Jaw, respectively.

Prowell, Brian D., Zhang Jingna & Brown, E. R. Aggregate Properties and the Performance of Superpave-Designed
Hot Mix Asphalt. Washington D.C: Transportation Research Board, 2005

Gyratory Crusher

Gyratory crushers were invented by Charles Brown in 1877 and develop by Gates around

1881 and was referred to as a Gates Crusher. These type of crusher is primarily used as a Primary

Crushers, where they are designed to receive run-on-mine (ROM) rocks from the mines. They can

reduce these ROMs to about a maximum of one-tenth of its original size. Usually metallurgical

ores require a much smaller particle therefore a secondary or cone crushers are used in which they

can receive a maximum of one-eighth of reduction. In some cases, a tertiary crusher is required for

a much finer particle, and they produce about one-tenth of its original size.

Sketch of a Gyratory Crusher Section of a Gyratory Crusher

Gupta, A. & Yan, D.S. Mineral Processing Design and Operation: An Introduction. Amsterdam, Netherlands:
Elsevier, 2006.
Cone Crusher

Cone crushers are the smaller form of a Gyratory crushers, they are the secondary crushers

used where further or greater size reduction occurs. And therefore are often described as Symons

Cone Crusher. These crushers are designed similar to that of Gyratory crusher wherein the

difference is that of the head-to-depth ratio is larger and there are flatter cone angles to help retain

the particles longer between the crushing surfaces and therefore produce finer particles.

Sketch of a secondary cone crusher

Gupta, A. & Yan, D.S. Mineral Processing Design and Operation: An Introduction. Amsterdam, Netherlands:
Elsevier, 2006.

Jaw Crusher

Jaw crushers are designed to impart an impact on a rock particle placed between a fixed

and a moving plate (jaw). The faces of these plates are made of hardened steel to protect the jaws

from dents and chips and they can either be a plain or a ridged faces. The moving plates does the

work to apply a force of impact for the rock particles held against the stationary plate. To classify

which type of jaw crusher are used, they are determined where the pivot point of the moving plate
(jaw) is placed. If the moving plate is pivoted at the top it is called a Blake Crusher and if it is

located at the bottom end it is called a Dodge-Type Crusher.

The Blake Crushers operates as the bottom part to the moving plates do a reciprocating

action. This action is repeated until the particle sizes are small enough to enter the smallest opening

between the crusher plates at the bottom of the crusher. The Dodge-Type Crushers are mostly

used in laboratories as they have a lower capacity than the latter. The moving plates oscillates from

the bottom and the process is repeated until the particles are fine.

Blake Crusher Dodge-Type Crusher

Gupta, A. & Yan, D.S. Mineral Processing Design and Operation: An Introduction. Amsterdam, Netherlands:
Elsevier, 2006.