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INQUIRY and RESEARCH Characteristics of Research

1. It is systematic
*Notes: Research is important to every student. it proceeds through a series of steps
It teaches one to solve a problem using a logical
method that can lead to valid results. Research *Notes:
is a brand of intellectual achievement, for o Rules define the objectives
research is not an easy process nor an ordinary o Identify the population
activity to be undertaken. o Limit and select the variables
o Formulate the design of the research
Inquiry
a term that is synonymous with the word 2. It is accurate
investigation the method of research emphasizes
Research the importance of correspondence
is a scientific, experimental, or inductive between what you have observed
manner of thinking. and what have actually occurred
is a systematic inquiry that uses *Notes:
disciplined methods to answer o Accurate true, correct
questions or solve problems. The
ultimate goal of research is to develop, 3. It is precise
refine and expand a base of knowledge. it aims at estimating the exact count
is a process of gathering data or of event that has occurred or may yet
information by a scientific or logical occur
procedure in order to solve a particular *Notes:
problem. o Precise exact, specific

*Notes: 4. Observations are recorded


o When you inquire or investigate you tend it is necessary to document
to ask questions to probe or examine observations with the aid of
something. You use your higher-order instruments.
thinking strategies (HOTS) of inferential, *Notes:
analytical, critical, creative and o Questionnaires, tape recorders for
appreciative thinking to discover more interviews, computer-base, record books,
understandable or meaningful things etc.
beyond such object of your inquiry.
o According to (Small 2012), thinking in this 5. Observations follow the rule of objectivity
manner makes you ask open-ended ones observations must not be
questions to elicit views, opinions and influenced by personal preferences,
beliefs of others in relation to your prejudices, attitudes, and feelings. It
research. is undertaken through an
o Why systematic? because we follow a assessment of what is rather than
process when we do research, we may what ought to be.
make use of lower-order to higher-order *Notes:
thinking strategies and is reflected by o Prejudices biases, prejudgments
research activities: identifying the topic or o Research reduces our personal view
problem, gathering data, making
theories, formulating hypotheses, 6. Observations are undertaken under
analyzing data and drawing conclusions. controlled condition
o It is not only a search of an important as researchers, we aspire to
problem, but also the formation of the eliminate other factors or variables
proof of a theory or basis of a theory that that might intrude into the
is worthwhile to society. observation of the major factors or
variables that we wish to investigate.
Descriptive words to Characterize Research Methods of Research
Empirical Quantitative Research
*Notes: This is the research that leads to precise
o Observed, realistic, first-hand measurement and quantification. It often
o Signifies that the evidence collected to involves a rigorous and controlled design
generate new knowledge must be rooted *Notes:
in objective reality o The researcher moves from the
o Evidence is on hand, there is confidence beginning point of a study (posing a
in the results question) to its end point (getting an
answer)
Logical o It involves a fairly linear progression of
*Notes: tasks it is well planned
o Collected data should be reasonable,
rational and consistent. These ensure Qualitative Research
research to be scientific, credible and This involves the investigation of
acceptable. phenomena, typically in an in-depth and
holistic fashion, through the collection of
Cyclical rich narrative materials using a flexible
*Notes: design.
o Research is repeated and recurring *Notes:
o The researcher is continually examining
Analytical and interpreting data, and making
*Notes: decisions on how to proceed based on
o Logical, investigative what has already been discovered.

Critical Mixed Method


*Notes: is a methodology for conducting research
o Serious that involves collecting, analyzing, and
o Using or involving careful judgement integrating quantitative (experiments,
about the good and bad parts of survey) and qualitative (focus groups,
something interviews) research.

Methodical Inquiry vis--vis Research


*Notes: Inquiry starts from what you are ignorant
o Systematic, precise, and orderly about, research makes you learn
something by means of problem-solving
Replicable technique.
*Notes: Both inquiry and research encourage you
o Something that can be copied or to formulate questions to direct you to the
recreated exact information you want to discover
o A theory cannot be conclusive of what it about the object of your curiosity.
is if only one research is made. *Notes:
o Example: There was once a consensus o Research is an intellectual activity that
that mental ability was entirely and greatly involves inquiry.
absolutely dependent on heredity. o The core word for inquiry and research is
Recent researches have changed this investigation or questioning, but they are
view and have come up with other not exactly the same in all aspects.
predictors of intelligence like: o According to Goodwin 2014; Lapan 2012,
socioeconomic status, opportunities to Research includes more complex acts of
facilities and environment. investigation than inquiry because
research follows a scientific procedure of
discovering truths or meanings about
things in the world.
RESEARCH and SCIENCE o The process of conducting research
scientifically involves a systematic
*Notes: collection and investigation of data
o Informal research through scientific method. Knowledge
does not strictly follow procedures and that come from research employs
it relies more on casual observation and scientific method is characterized by the
opinions. following elements:
the results of this research process
become more prone to skepticism even if Scientific Method in Research
the research created answers to Empirical approach
questions. knowledge is gained through direct
Example: When you become curious observation and experimentation.
and doubtful about existing phenomena, *Notes:
you tackle toward the discovery of better o Only those data derived from scientific
knowledge. you read books, search the procedures are considered factual.
internet, or ask questions.
o For research to be more accurate and Observation
beneficial, science is implanted in its your awareness of your environment
process. constitutes your ideas.
*Notes:
Research o Constitutes or establishes that if you rely
is a systematic investigation designed to on your awareness alone, it may give a
extend the knowledge of what is already bias information, decreasing the validity
known of the physical, biological or social of your findings.
world. (Univ. of San Diego) o To increase the veracity of the
it is a truth-seeking activity which information from the observation you got,
contributes to knowledge aimed at you have to measure it carefully using an
describing or explaining the world, appropriate instrument.
conducted and governed by those with a o You want to find out how far XH bldg. is
high level of proficiency or expertise. from Kostka bldg., you do not rely from
(Coryn 2007 p.124) estimating the distance merely from your
*Notes: vision. Instead, you should use
o It follows a step-by-step process. measuring instrument, like a meter stick,
o In conducting research, scientific to measure the distance between the two
procedures must be applied to obtain bldg. to get precise data.
reliable and accurate information.
Question
Science knowledge comes from inquiries that
is conceptualized as procedural and are answerable.
systematic approach in gaining new *Notes:
knowledge by making thorough o question must be answerable through
observations and using controlled and scientific investigation and must generate
precise methods. tangible proof.
more accurate
reliable Hypotheses
valid an educated guess, or hypothesis,
*Notes: is an attempt to explain a
o Knowledge gained from science is not phenomenon.
based on subjective or personal views, it *Notes:
comes from objective pieces of evidence o It should help you formulate a prediction
which come from a methodically design (guess, forecast).
research study. o It must be testable for analysis and
o A research done scientifically is more interpretation.
accurate, reliable and valid.
Experiments your knowledge acquisition and
the given hypothesis should enlighten your confusion
assure testability in a crafted
condition for the accuracy and ascertainment of the
reliability of results. generalizability of results
*Notes: this means that the results of the
o The process of experimentation is a proof study can be applied to other groups of
of scientific procedures. participants and therefore do not limit
o The findings are considered truthful. only to the original samples.

Analyses Goals of Research


for findings to be reliable, the data * When you follow the scientific method in
gathered are subjected for conducting research, you give an explanation or
analysis through statistical clarification to the phenomena in question with
methods. greater reliability and validity.
*Notes:
o You have to use statistics because it Description
presents numerical evidence of the this refers to the way in which the
degree in which the results are phenomena being studied is
considered valid and reliable. It defined.
minimizes the chance of having a faulty o the goal of describing is to provide
conclusion. essential information.

Conclusion Prediction
the process of making inferences it entails stating the possible
involves concrete data to rule out consequences of present events
opinions. based on existing knowledge of
*Notes: something else.
o Inferences interpretations o the purpose of prediction is to
o Usually, a conclusion must be objective control ones action and behavior
and supported by careful analysis of through careful planning derived
data. from a given set of information.
o You should avoid adding more to what is
literally available. Understanding/Explanation
this is the process of analyzing
Replication information to find out the causes
means doing the same study once behind phenomena.
again to a different set of o to understand and explain data, a
participants to test the soundness relationship between events must
of the obtained result. already be established.

* Conducting the study for the several times will Constructs and Variables in Research
pave the way for additional and essential Constructs
purposes are mental abstractions derived
establishment of reliability of from the combination of concepts,
findings or your mental representation of
the previous data that were the world around you.
proven will have a stronger belief
factor concepts
are more general
discovery of new knowledge free from descriptions
generates additional information
or brand new data that will improve
Ex: Peace-loving Learning
constructs Environment Reduces Test
are more particular Anxiety Level of Grade School
has one or more descriptions Students
more comprehensible and peace-loving learning
meaningful because they help you environment
to clearly express the events, It is the condition that cause
experiences, things, phenomena changes in the subject.
and people you are interested on. Dependent variable
*Notes: those that are affected by
o Research is based on investigations of independent variables.
constructs that stem from an interest or they are the responses or effects
problem. that result from the treatment or
o In research, concept and constructs are conditions employed.
used interchangeably, because they are Ex: Peace-loving Learning
basically ideas based on your Environment Reduces Test
observation and experience. Anxiety Level of Grade School
o Both are just ideas that subjected to vary. Students.
o In the process of research, concepts or Test anxiety
constructs are called variables. It is the effect of the
independent variable, which is
Variables peace-loving learning
are constructs that can be understood environment.
differently because of their differences in Confounding or extraneous variables
values. those variables usually indicated
variables can be observed directly or in an experimental research.
indirectly. they are not included in the study
direct observations but in one way or another causes
those that can be easily gauged effect on the dependent variable.
by the senses. extraneous variables exist as
examples of these include size, nuisance variables
brightness, odor and taste. Ex: Peace-loving Learning
indirect observations Environment Reduces Test
can be determined only by using Anxiety Level of Grade School
tools or instruments. Students.
more often, they are abstract Family background of the
constructs. grade school student
Think about attitude as an It is not included in the
example. To be able to concretize variables under study, but
it, an attitude survey instrument each grade school student
must be used. who will take part in the study
variables as objects of study must be has a family background that
measured to be able to generate data for may likely affect the impact of
analysis and to be used as additional the peace-loving learning
knowledge. environment variable.
Categorical variables
Kinds of variables are those characterize and
Independent variables describe the quality of data.
are manipulated variables that they are often classified into:
cause a change in another
variable.
usually, these are treatments or
conditions that produce a varied
response or effect.
exclusive categories Other types of variables
comprises those that take on (Russell 2013; Babbie 2013)
specific values Constant
It does not follow a sequence do not undergo any changes
It just wants to describe the data during an experiment
into the given options Attribute
Ex: Civil status this can be characteristics of people:
classified only as single, married, intelligence, creativity, anxiety,
widowed or annulled learning styles, etc.
Covariate
extensive categories included in the research study to
characterizes data using a definite create interactions with the
range. independent and dependent
It considers logical order or rank variables
- the description of data follows a Continuous
sequence quantitative in nature and is used
- Ex: Size is classified into small, in interval or ratio scale of
medium, or large because when measurement
you give description of size you Dichotomous
have to say it in order. has only two possible results; one
Continuous variables or zero
those variables in which values Latent
are based on a given interval or cannot be directly observed like
continuum. personality traits
these variables rely on numbers Manifest
for descriptions. can be directly observed to give
Ex: Normal temperature ranges proofs to latent variables
from 36C to 37C. So, description Exogenous
of normal temperature is only found outside an identified model
within the given interval. Endogenous
Quantitative variables found inside; as a part of identified
are those variables that give model
details regarding the number or
level of something. Ethics in Research
these variables count the refers to the standards on what is morally
frequency of responses or effect. right or wrong.
Ex: A singing contest or popularity Basic Human Rights
contest 1. Right to self-determination (autonomy)
The contestant who will get the means that the prospective
highest number of votes as the subjects have the right to
most well-liked will be declared voluntarily decide whether or not
the winner. to participate in a study, without
Qualitative variables the risk of imposing any penalties
those variables that represent or prejudicial treatment.
kinds or types of objects. o Individuals have a right to limit
they are often categorized into access to information about
names, labels, or groups. themselves.
Ex: Responses such as yes or no;
few, many and too much; agree or
disagree.
2. Right to privacy and dignity o the researcher should protect
privacy means that researchers need subjects from physical injuries that
to ensure that their research is not may result from participating in the
more intrusive than it needs to be and research study.
that the subjects privacy is maintained 6. Right to full disclosure
throughout the study. means that the researcher has fully
o there is a boundary to the right of described the nature of the study, the
use of information of individuals subjects right to refuse participation,
o information given by participants the researchers responsibilities, and
may be highly sensitive, thus, the the likely risks and benefits that would
researcher must handle be incurred.
information discretely so as to o the nature of the research should
keep the privacy of the subject be presented truthfully to the
intact. individual/s or the research
3. Right to anonymity and confidentiality subject
anonymity refers to keeping individuals 7. Informed Consent
nameless and limiting access to requires that the subject of the
information collected about a subject. research give consent or
confidentiality refers to protecting permission for treatment and more
data by not divulging without temporarily, he/she is given the
permission any information proper knowledge of the activity.
obtained while caring for an Silverman (2001) identified certain
individual. considerations about informed
o closely related to the notion of consent:
privacy, the right to control the use i. giving information about
of information about themselves the research which is
o Ex: when information obtained relevant to the subjects
may carry humiliation ( diagnosis decision whether to
of tuberculosis, of mental illness, participate or not
evidence of domestic violence or ii. making sure that subjects
prison record). understand that information
4. Right to fair treatment (principle of iii. ensuring that participation
justice) is voluntary
means that the subjects receive iv. where subjects are not
equitable treatment before, during, and competent to agree, obtain
after their participation in the study. consent by proxy
o subjects should receive rightful, o the idea of informed consent is
unbiased treatment from the often recommended as an
researchers operational principle for the
o the participants need to be conduct of research
informed about the purpose of the
study, the procedure in the study
5. Right to freedom from injury (principles of
beneficence and nonmaleficence)
beneficence is the duty not to do harm
o beneficence or the avoidance of
harm researchers ought to seek
to do good rather than harm
Nonmaleficence is the act that
does not cause needless harm or
injury to others.
o Nonmaleficence implies that the
subject should not be exposed to
unnecessary risks
Basic for Ethical Standards
1. The Nuremberg Code 1. Quote Accurately
this ethical code of conduct contains quote directly from a source when the
rules that were developed to guide original language is distinctive enough
investigators in conducting research to enhance your agreement and
ethically which are: rewording would lessen its impact.
i. voluntary consent o Quotations excerpts, citations,
ii. withdrawal of subjects from passages, references
studies 2. Acknowledge Quotations Carefully
iii. protection of subjects from failing to signal the presence of a
physical and mental quotation skillfully can lead to
suffering, injury, disability, confusion.
death
iv. balance of benefits and risk Qualities of a Good Researcher
2. Declaration of Helsinki 1. Honesty
differentiated therapeutic and non- o reports all the information gathered on
therapeutic research the topic being investigated. No
o Therapeutic gives the patient modifying of data, please!
the opportunity to receive an 2. Skepticism
experimental treatment that might o always adopt a questioning mind with
have beneficial results. regard to the truthfulness of the
o Nontherapeutic is conducted to method, results and interpretation of
generate knowledge for a the data gathered
discipline or correction 3. Openness to criticism
3. CIOMS(Council for International o open to the suggestions of others to
Organizations of Medical Research) improve methodology, findings and
is a set of ethical principles regarding analysis
human experimentation. 4. Creative imagination
o addreses issues including o should be able to package the most
informed consent, standards for appropriate combination of
external review, recruitment of approaches and methodologies for
participants and more. gathering data
4. The Belmott Report 5. Resourcefulness
research (involving humans in any o is one who explores many sources of
manipulation, observation, or other information
study of human being)are done with 6. Logical mind
the intent of developing new knowledge o is to apply sound reasoning to
or innovation and which differs in a way arguments raised in the conduct of
from customary medical (for their research, able to provide adequate
professional practice) justification for the research questions,
methods and techniques of
Ethical Use of Source Materials investigation
1. Avoiding Plagiarism 7. Patience
plagiarism includes quoting directly o it takes patience to go through these
without acknowledging the sources, processes
paraphrasing without acknowledging the o answers to research questions are not
source and constructing a paraphrase obtained immediately since you go
that closely resembles the original in through several processes to arrive at
language and syntax. conclusion

Other than informed consent, Silverman (2001)


identified ethical use of source material which
are:
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH vs. o carryout the research by observing
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH how people solve problems in a
social setting
Classification of Research according to Ethnographic
purpose: it is associated with anthropology and
Basic research focuses on the culture of a group of
primarily concerned with establishing people, with an effort to understand the
new knowledge, and refinement of world view of those understudy.
theories o Ethnography focuses on the culture of
this is really knowledge for knowledges a group of people and relies on
sake extensive fieldwork.
o knowledge for knowledges sake Historical
o Ex: we would like to get facts or a narrative description or an analysis of
information regarding the attitude of events that occurred in the remote or
nurses to ages with this type of disease. recent past.
Applied research o Historical a systematic attempt to
concerned with establishing new establish facts and relationships about
knowledge as well as knowledge that past events.
can be applied in practical settings Philosophical inquiry
without undue delay involves using intellectual analysis to
this is referred to as practical clarify meanings, makes values
application of the theoretical manifest, identify ethics, and study the
o we apply what we have learned based nature of knowledge.
on theory. Case study
involves a thorough, in-depth analysis of
Qualitative Approach an individual, a group, or an institution
aims to provide description of or other social units.
characteristics, kind, and quality of a o Intensive study of a single person or a
subject, while interpreting and small number of people, groups,
attempting to understand an event. organizations, families or communities.
is mostly done in social sciences
studies. Advantages of Qualitative Research
Ex: it provides descriptions about the real
The lived experiences of male experience of the people in the situation
convicts being studied.
The emotions of people who method being used is less formal.
suffered from the loss of a loved researcher can expound more on the
one responses of the participants.
The perspective of a politician the participants can also elaborate their
regarding morality answers.
researchers can have a rich explanation
Types of Quantitative Research about abstract factors such as customs and
Phenomenological traditions, family roles, and socioeconomic
describes an experience as they are status for greater understanding.
lived by people
o based on the intuitive analysis of Disadvantages of Qualitative Research
another persons experience does not use statistical procedures to
Grounded theory measure kinds and qualities
discovers what problems exist in a few and chosen samples are used to
social scene and the process persons participate in the study.
use to handle them describing a situation leads to a certain level
o means basing a theory on the data of bias, lacking objectivity in description.
collected generalizability of the findings is lacking.
results are limited to selected people.
Quantitative Research Limitations of the Quantitative Approach
it centers on objective measurements Quantitative data, while they can test
and numerical analysis of data collected hypothesis, may be limited in explaining
through questionnaires or surveys and their context.
generalizing the results across groups o This is because the explanation often
of people. focuses on numerical results as basis.
o It aims to classify features, count them, The research is often conducted in an
and construct statistical models to artificial setting, where a certain level of
explain the observable phenomenon. control is exercised. Because of this, the
results may not necessarily reflect the
Main Characteristics of Quantitative real-life situation presented in the problem.
Approach o Additionally, the use of research tools may
The data are usually gathered using more only reflect the researchers point of view
structured research instruments. instead of the subjects.
The results are based on larger sample
sizes that are representative of the Types of Quantitative Research
population. Descriptive research
The research study can usually be provides an accurate portrayal or
replicated or repeated, given its high account of characteristics of a
reliability. particular individual, situation or group.
The researcher has a clearly defined o aims to systematically describe a
research question to which objective problem, situation, phenomenon, or
answers are sought. illustrate attitudes towards a problem
All aspects of the study are carefully or an issue
designed before data are collected. correlational research
Data are in the form of numbers and involves the systematic
statistics. investigation of
The project can be used to generalize relationships/association between
concepts more widely, predict future two or more variables
results, or investigate causal relationships. o focused on establishing the
The researcher uses questionnaires or relationship or determining whether
other forms of research tools to collect a relationship exists between two or
numerical data. more aspects of a phenomenon
survey
Strengths of the Quantitative Approach designed to obtain information
Quantitative approach involves a greater about the prevalence, distribution,
number of subjects and enables a broader and interrelations of variables within
study, as well as enhancing the a population
generalization of the results. when surveys use samples of
Study results are more objective and individuals, they may be referred to
accurate. as sample surveys, a census
Quantitative research, when the right covers the entire population.
procedure is used can be replicated, as Causal-comparative research
well as analyzed in comparison with other used to describe the differences
similar works. in variables in two or more groups
You can summarize vast sources of in a natural setting.
information and make comparisons across Experimental research
this is a classification of research
categories over time.
where the researchers actively
Personal bias can be avoided by keeping
introduce an intervention or
a distance from participating subjects
treatment.
and employing facilitators unknown to
them.
true experimental
are the most powerful method
available for testing hypotheses of
cause and effect relationships
between variables
o subjects are randomly assigned to
groups; the experimenter
manipulates the experimental
variable (x); there are at least two
groups: experimental (x) and control
(c).
quasi-experimental
experimental manipulation of the
independent variable; no random
assignment to groups/no control
groups
o Manipulation
- involves doing something to study
participants
- experimenter manipulates the
independent variable by
administering a treatment
(intervention)
o RANDOMIZATION
- (also called random assignment or
random allocation)
- involves placing subjects into
treatment conditions at random
(means that every subject has an
equal chance of being assigned to
any group.