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Atty. Jandel V. Ondangan



Part 1 Common Carriers

1. Definition of Contract of Transportation

The movement of persons or things from one place to another, by a carrier.
(Blacks Law Dictionary)

A contract of transportation is whereby a certain person or association of persons

obligate themselves to transport persons, things, news from one place to another for
a fixed price. It is the removal of goods or persons from one place to another.

Does not presume that the carrier is a common carrier.

2. Parties


2.1 Carriage of Passengers / Contract to Carry Passenger

1. Passenger - one who travels in a public conveyance by virtue of contract, express
or implied, with the carrier as to the payment of fare or that which is accepted as
an equivalent thereof.
(Nueca v. Manila Railroad Co., G.R. No. 31731-R, 30 January 1968)

2. Common Carrier - one that holds itself out as ready to engage in the transportation of
goods for hire as a public employment and not as a casual occupation.
(De Guzman v. CA, G.R. No. L-47822, 22 December 1988)

2.2 Carriage of Goods/ Contract to carry Goods

Shipper is the person who delivers the goods to the carrier for transportation. He is the
person who pays the consideration or on whose behalf payment is made.
Consignee is the person to whom the goods are to be delivered.
May be the shipper himself where the goods will be delivered to one of the branch offices
of the shipper, or
May be a third person who is not actually a party to the contract.

Laws and Jurisprudence:

a. Baliwag Transit Corporation v Court of Appeals G.R. No. 80447 Jan. 1
b. Everett Steamship Corp. v. CA October 8, 1998
c. British Airways v. CA February 9, 1993, 218 SCRA 699

3. Perfection
3.1 aircraft
3.2 Buses, Jeepneys, and Street cars
3.3 Trains
Laws and Jurisprudence:
a. British Airways v. CA February 9, 1993, 218 SCRA 699
b. Mauro Ganzon v. CA No. L-48757, May 30, 1988
c. Korean Airlines Co. ltd v. CA August 3, 1994 234 SCRA 717
d. Dangwa Transportation Co., Inc. v CA October 7, 1991, 202 SCRA 574
4. Common carrier
4.1 Public service
Laws and Jurisprudence:
a. Article 1732 of the New Civil Code
b. Commonwealth Act No. 146 section 13 par. b as amended
c. De guzman v. CA No. L-47822 December 22, 1988 166 SCRA 612
5. Test:

5.1 First Philippine Industrial Corporation v. CA 300 SCRA 66

5.2 Estrellita M. Bascos v. CA G.R No. 101089 April 7, 1993
5.3 FGU Insurance Corporation v. G. P. Sarmiento Trucking Corporations
G.R No. 141910 August 6, 2002
5.4 Sps. Teodoro and Nanette Perena v. Sps Teresita Phil. Nicolas, et al.
G.R. No. 157917 August 29, 2012
5.5 National Steel Corporation v. CA December 12, 1997, 283 SCRA 45
5.6 Sps Cruz v. Holiday G.R. No. 186312, June 29, 2010

6. Characteristics
6.1 Broader concept
6.2 Ancillary business
6.3 Limited clientele
6.4 Means of transportation
Laws and Jurisprudence:
a. Article 1732 of the New Civil Code
b. National Steel Corporation v. CA
c. Asia Lighterage and Shipping, Inc. v. CA, G.R. No. 147246, August 19.
d. Fabre, Jr. v. CA, No. 111127, july 26, 1996, 259 SCRA 426
e. Phil. American general insurance Company v. PKS Shipping Co. April 9,
f. Virgines Calvo v. UCPB General Insurance Co., G.R. No. 148496, March
19, 2002
g. Caltex(phil) v. Sulpicio Lines, 315 SCRA 709, 1999 case
h. Loadstar Shipping Co. v. Pioneer Asia Insurance G.R No. 157481 January
i. Home Assurance Corp., G.R. No. 150403, Jan. 25 2007.
j. Planters v. CA G.R. No. 101503, September 15, 1993 226 SCRA 476
k. A.F Sanchez Brokerage Inc. v. CA, G.R. No. 147079, December 21, 2004

7. Effect of Charter Party

8. Common carrier v. Private Carrier

Laws and Jurisprudence:

a. Cebu Salvage Corporation v. Philippine Home Assurance Corp. G.R. No.

150403 January 25, 2007
b. Valenzuela Hardwood and Industrial Supply, Inc. v. CA G.R No. 102316
June 30, 1997
c. Loadmasters Customs Services, Inc. Glodel Brokerage Corporation,
G.R. No. 179446 January 10, 2011

9. Common carrier v. Other contracts

9.1 Distinguish from:
a. Towage
b. Arrastre
c. Stevedoring
d. Travel Agency
Laws and Jurisprudence:
a. Cargolift Shipping Inc. V. L. Actuario Marketing Co. and Skyland
Brokerage June 27, 2006
b. Mindanao Terminal and Brokerage services v. Phoenix Assurance
Co. May 8, 2009
c. Cebu Arrastre Services v. Collector of Internal Revenue May 30 1956
d. Crisostomo v. CA August 25, 2003 G.R No. 138334

10. Governing Laws:

10.1 Article 1766 of the New Civil Code(NCC)
10.2 Article 1753 NCC
10.3 Article 1732-1766 NCC
10.4 National Dev. Company v. CA 164 SCRA 593
10.5 Mapa v. CA 275 SCRA 1997 case
10.6 Alitalia v. Intermediate Appellate Court 192 SCRA 9, 1997 case
10.7 Philippine Charter Insurance Corpo v. Neptune Orient Lines June 12,
10.8 Warsaw convetion
10.9 COGSA
10.10 RA 4136
10.11 RA 9497

11. Nature of business

12. Registered owner rule and Kabit System
12.1 Registration laws
Compulsory registration of motor vehicles RA 4136
12.2 Registered owner rule
12.3 Kabit system
12.4 Pari Delicto Rule
12.5 Aircrafts and vessels
Laws and Jurisprudence:
a. PCI leasing and finance, Inc. v. UCPB General Insurance Co., Inc. July 4,
b. Equitable Leasing Corporation v. Lucita Suyon, et al., G.R No. 143360
September 5, 2002
c. Aguilar v. Commercial Savings Bank 412 Phil 834
d. Perez v. Gutierrez 63 SCRA 149
e. Aberlardo Lim, et al. v. CA January 16, 2002
f. Teja Marketing v. Intermediate Appellate Court, GR No. L-65510 March
9, 1987
g. Lita Enterprises, Inc. v. IAC G.R. No. L-64693 April 27, 1984
h. Mariano C Mendoza and Lim v. SPS Gomez and Gomez June 18, 2014
i. Estela Crisostomo v. CA and Caravan Travel and Tours August 25, 2003

13. Boundary System

Laws and Jurisprudence:

a. Gregorio George Amante and Vicente Amante vs. Bibiano Serwelas

September 30, 2005
b. Oscar Villarama Jr v. CA G.R. No. 165881 April 19, 2006
c. Martin Lantaco et al. v. City Judge Francisco R. Llamas October 28, 1981
d. Isabelo Doce v. WCC and Dadao Jadao G.R. No. L-9417 December 22,
e. Rodolfo J. Serrano v. Severino Santos Transit and/or Severino Santos,
August 9, 2010

Part 2 Obligation of Parties

1. Obligation of the Carrier
Philam Insurance Co. v. Chartis Phil Insurance July 23, 2014
Gregorio Anuran, Maria Maligaya v. Buno et al May 20 1966
1.1 Duty to accept
FC Fisher v. Yangco Steamship Co. G.R. No. 8095 November 5 1914
31 Phil 1
1.2 Valid grounds for non- acceptance
Artilce 356-357-358 of the Code of Commerce(COC)
Article 1742 of the NCC
1.3 Duty to deliver goods
1.4 Consequences of delay
Article 1740 NCC
Article 1747 NCC
A. 370 COC
A. 371 COC
A. 372 COC
A. 373 COC
A. 374 COC
1.5 Rights of passengers in case of delay
Article 698 COC
Trans-asia Shipping Lines, Inc. v. CA, et al., G.R. No. 118126, March
4, 1996
Marina regulation Mem. Circular no. 112
1.6 Place of delivery
A. 360 COC
A. 368 COC
A. 369 COC
1.7 To whom delivered
1.8 Delay to transport Passengers
Marina Memorandum Circular no. 112 December 15, 1995

2. Duty to Exercise Extra-ordinary Diligence

2.1 Code of commerce provisions
2.2 Presumption of negligence
2.3 Duration of Duty in Carriage of Goods
2.4 Commencement of Duty in Carriage of Passengers

Laws and jurisprudence:

a. Article 1733 of the NCC
b. Artilc 1755 of the NCC
c. Article 1736 of the NCC
d. Article of 1737 of the NCC
e. Article of 1738 of the NCC
f. Mariano v. Calleja July 31, 2009
g. Belgian Overseas Chartering and Shipping v. Phil. First Ins. Co., June 5,
h. Ganzon v. CA G.R. No. L-48757 May 30, 1998
i. Saludo v. CA
j. Republic of the Philippines v. Lorenzo Shipping February 7, 2005
k. Regional Container Lines v. Netherlands Insurance Co. September 4,

3. Defenses of Common Carriers

3.1 Proximate Causation
3.2 New Civil Code Provisions
3.3 Defense in Carriage of Passengers
3.4 Fortuitous event
3.5 Public enemy
3.6 Improper Packing
3.7 Order of Public Authority
3.8 Defenses of Carriage of Passengers
3.9 Acts of Employees
(Sabena Belgian World Airlines vs. Honorable Court of Appeals G.R.
No. 82068. March 31, 1989)
(Leopoldo Poblete vs. Donato Fabros, G.R. No. L-29803, 14
September 1979)
(Collin A. Morris vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 127957. February 21,
(Antonia Maranan vs. Pascual Perez, et al, G.R. No. L-22272, June 26,
3.10 Act of Other Passengers and 3rd persons
(Jose Pilapil vs. Hon. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 52159, 22 December

4. Passengers baggages
4.1 Define baggage
4.2 Checked-in-Baggage
4.3 Hand Carried baggage
(Philippine Airlines Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119706, March
14, 1996)
(British Airways vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 121824, January 29,
(Philippine Airlines Inc. vs. Hon. Adriano Savillo, et. al., G.R. No.
149547, July 4, 2008)
(Philippine Airlines Inc. vs. Hon. Adriano Savillo, et. al., G.R. No.
149547, July 4, 2008)

5. Obligations of Shipper, Consignee and Passenger

5.1 Negligence of Shipper or Passenger
5.2 Payment of Freight
5.3 Who will pay the freight
5.4 Time to pay the freight
5.5 Carriers lien
5.6 Payment of Demurrage
Part 3 Extraordinary Diligence of Common carriers
Laws and Jurisprudence:
a. Loadmasters Customs Services v. Glodel Brokerage Corporation and R&B
Insurance January 10, 2011, G.R No. 179446
b. Cesar Isaac v. A.L. Ammen Transportation Co., Inc. August 23, 1957 G.R No.
c. Jose Pilapil v. Hon. CA and Alatco Transportation Co. December 22, 1989
d. Herminio Nocum v. Laguna Tayabas Bus Company G.R. No. L-23733 October 31,
e. Batangas Transportation Co. v. Gregorio Caguimbal et al. G.R. No. L-22985
January 24, 1968
f. Loadmasters Customs Services v. Glodel Brokerage Corporation and R&B
Insurance G.R. No. 179446 January 10, 2011
g. Pedro Guzman v CA December 22, 1988
h. Estela Crisostomo v. CA and Caravan Travel & Tours, G.R. No. 138334, August
25, 2003
i. American Home Assurance Co. v. The Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 94149, May 5,
j. Amparo C. Servando, Claro Uy Bico v. Philippine Steam Navigation October 23,
k. Vda. De Abeto v. Philippine Airlines, Inc. 115 SCRA 489
l. R. Transport Corporation v. Pante September 15, 2009
m. Asian Terminals, Inc. v. Simon Enterprise, Inc. G.R. No. 177116 February 27, 2013
> Victorino Cusi and Pilar Pobre v. Philippine National Railways, G.R. No. L-29889 May
31, 1979
> Loadstar Shipping Co., Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 131621, September 28,
Light Rail Transit Authority & Rodolfo Roman vs. Marjorie Navidad, G.R. No.
145804, 6 February 2003
Lita Enterprises, Inc. vs. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. L-64693, 27
April 1984)
(Victor Juaniza vs. Eugenio Jose, G.R. No.L-50127-28, 30 March 1979)
(Ma. Luisa Benedicto vs. Hon. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 70876,
19 July 1990)
(Angel Jereos vs. Hon. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-48747, 30 September 1982)
(Equitable Leasing Corporation vs. Lucita Suyom et al., G.R. No. 143360, 5
September 2002)
(William Tiu, doing business under the name and style of D Rough Riders,
vs. Pedro A. Arriesgado, G.R. No. 138060, 1 September 2004)
(Spouses Cesar & Suthira Zalamea vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 104235
November 18, 1993)
(Singapore Airlines Limited vs. Fernandez, G.R. No. 142305, December 10,
(Philippine Airlines, Inc., vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119641, May 17, 1996)
(Philippine Airlines, Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 120262, July 17, 1997)
(Carlos Singson vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119995, November 18, 1997)
(Cathay Pacific Airways, Ltd., vs. Spouses Daniel Vazquez And Maria Luisa
Madrigal Vazquez, G.R. No. 150843, March 14, 2003)
(Philippine Airlines Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 123238, September 22,
The Heirs of the late Ruben Reinoso, Sr. vs. Court of Appeals, GR No. 116121,
July 18, 2011
Heirs of Josemaria Ochoa vs. G&S Transport Corporation, March 19, as
affirmed in the July 16, 2012 decision
1. Exempting Causes
1.1 Requirement of Absence of Negligence
(Saturnino Bayasen vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No.L-25785, 26 February 1981)
(Alberta Yobido vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 113003, 17 October 1997)
(Bachelor Express, Incorporated vs. The Honorable Court of Appeals (Sixth
Division), G.R. No. 85691, 31 July 1990)
(Sweet Lines, Inc. vs. The Honorable Court of Appeals, Micaela b. Quintos, et
al., G.R. No. L-43640, 28 April 1983
(Vicente Vergara vs. The Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 77679, 30 September 1987)
(Mauro Ganzon vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. no. L-48757, 30 May 1988)
(Fortune Express, Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119756, 18 March 1999)
(Pedro Vasquez, et al., vs. The Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-42926, 13
September 1985)
(Loadstar Shipping Co., Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 131621, 28
September 1999)
(Smith Bell Dodwell Shipping Agency Corporation vs. Catalino Borja, G.R. No.
143008. June 10, 2002)


(Aboitiz Shipping Corporation vs. General Accident Fire and Life Assurance
Corporation Ltd., 217 SCRA 359, 1993)
(Luzon Stevedoring Corporation vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-58897, 3
December 1987)
(Chua Yek Hong vs. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 74811, 30
September 1988)
Dela Torre vs. Court of Appeals, GR No. 160088, July 13, 2011
Also read
3.4 Extra ordinary diligence in Carriage by Sea
Meaning of seaworthiness
Negligence of Captain and Crew
Rules on passengers safety
Part 4 Bill of Lading and Other Formalities

4.1 Concepts
4.2 Definition
4.3 Kind of Bill of lading
4.4 Nature of Bill of lading
4.5 When effective
4.6 Bill of lading as Contract
Contract of adhesion
Parol evidence rule
Bill of lading as evidence
Bill of lading as actionable document
Shipment terms



5.2 Concurrent causes of actions
Concurrence with 3rd persons
Solidary liability
Alternative compensation scheme
5.3 Notice of claim and prescriptive period
Claim in overland Transportation and coastwise shipping
Prescription in Overland Transportation and coastwise shipping
Claim in International carriage of goods by sea
Prescription in International Carriage of goods
5.4 Recoverable Damages
Extent of recovery
Kinds of damages
1. Actual or Compensatory Damages
2. Attorneys fees
3. Interest
4. Moral damages
5. Nominal damages
6. Temperate or moderate damages
7. Liquidated damages
8. Exemplary or corrective damages


Maritime law defined

Real and Hypothecary Nature
Admiralty jurisdiction
Maritime pollution
Marine insurance



8.1 Definition
8.2 Different kinds of charter parties
Bareboat charter
Contract of affreightment
8.3 Effect of charter on character of carrier
8.4 Persons who may make charter
Part owners
Ship agents
Captain or master
8.5 Requisites of a valid charter party
8.6 Freight
8.7 Port of unloading
8.8 Demurrage