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SCIENCE REVIEWER Suspends blood celss &

Demi Santy 9430 transports blood cells

Carries metabolic wastes
& nutrients
o It is a transport system carries substances Circulates hormones
from one part of the body to another Maintains water content &
o Main Function: body temperature
o Carries oxygen and nutrients to Maintains acid-base
every cell balance of blood
o Eliminates waste carbon dioxide o Components:
(Process of Diffusion movement of Red Blood Cells
materials from blood to cells and vice versa) Erythrocytes
Does not possess a
Heart nucleus
o 4 chambers Produced by the bone
Ventricles pump blood out of marrow
the heart Hemoglobin pigment
Atria receive blood coming that makes the blood red,
from the heart enables RBC to transport
o Septum wall of tissue; divides the oxygen from the lungs to
heart in half; prevents blood from all cells in the body, and
mixing (oxygen-rich blood & oxygen- helps carry carbon dioxide
poor blood) from the capillaries back
o Function: pumps blood throughout to the lungs, where its
your body exhaled.
White blood cells
Colorless & doesnt
contain hemoglobin
Contains nucleus; can
move, change shape, &
squeeze through walls
Function: To protect the
body from diseases
o Flow: Thrombocytes
Superior vena cava/ Inferior vena Function: clot the blood &
cava -> right atrium -> tricuspid prevent excess bleeding
valve -> right ventricles ->pulmonary Fibrin ling, sticky stands
valve -> pulmonary artery ->lungs -> Formed in the bone
go back again through pulmonary marrow
veins -> left atrium -> bicuspid valve o Functions:
-> left ventricle -> aortic valve -> 1. Transport dissolved gases,
aorta -> parts of the body nutrients, hormones, and
metabolic wastes
Blood 2. Protect against toxins, pathogens,
o river of life and blood loss injuries
o Blood Plasma pale yellowish liquid 3. Stabilize body temperature

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4. Regulate ph (buffering system & Cure: Medication, surgery
electrolyte composition) (angioplasty & bypass graft)
Blood Vessels Prevent: avoid too much fat in
o Carries blood throughout the body; the diet, quit smoking, control
pipelines ones weight, and exercise.
o Types:
Move blood away from the o Stroke
heart Disorder that results from the
Has 3 layers of tissue to blockage brought by the
accommodate the hardening of the arteries in the
pumping of blood brain or in neck vessels leading
Blood enters with great to the brain
pressure Thrombus blood clot within
Veins the blood vessel
Move blood with wastes Embolus wandering clot
towards the heart Cerebral hemorrhage occurs
Blood enters with slower & when a patient has both
smoother flow atherosclerosis & high blood
o Valve flap of tissue pressure
that prevents the Cure: Intensive rehabilitation
backflow of blood & Diseases of the Heart
keeps its flow in one o Coronary Heart Disease
direction Inability of the blood to reach the
Capillaries coronary arteries of the heart
Allows oxygen & nutrients Angina Pectoris reduced blood
to diffuse flow causes a painful sensation
Exchange of gases, in chest, shoulders, & arms
nutrients, and hormones Myocardial Infraction technical
term for heart attack
Ateriole & venule
Prevent: moderate exercise,
connects the artery &
rest, good diet, smoking
veins to the capillaries
cessation, and lowering stressful
Pulmonary Circulation
Cure: Small doses of aspirin
o Transports oxygen-depleted blood
o Hypertensive Heart Disease
from the heart to the lungs
Elevated blood pressure
o Function: oxygenate the blood
Failure of the heart or kidneys
Systemic Circulation
o Rheumatic Heart Disease
o Carries oxygen-rich blood from the
heart to the organs and tissues
Untreated bacteria
o Moves blood from the heart to all of
Streptococcus pyogenas
the bodys organs & tissues except for
Bacterial toxin causes the body
the heart & lungs, and back to the
to trigger an immune reaction
heart again
Disorders of the Blood
o Hemophilia
Blood does not clot properly
Disorders of the Blood Vessels
o Anemia
o Atherosclerosis
RBC count stays persistently
Diseases of the arteries
Plaque cholesterol build up
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Nutritional deficiencies, disease b) Internal Respiration
or injuries, or excessive loss of Exchange of oxygen and
blood carbon dioxide between the
o Leukemia blood and the body cells
Abnormal increase in the Process: When the
number of WBC oxygen-rich blood reaches
the cells, it releases the
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM oxygen. At the same time,
o Overall exchange of gases among the the blood picks up the
atmosphere, the blood, and the cells carbon dioxide produced
o Brings oxygen into the body and gets rid of by the cells during
carbon dioxide respiration and returns it to
o Aerobic need oxygen the alveoli, where it
o Anaerobic doesnt need oxygen released from your body
3 Main Events: when you exhale
1. Breathing act of taking in air 3. Transport of Gases/ Cellular
(inspiration) and out of the lungs Respiration process of using oxygen
(expiration) to break down sugar in food, producing
o Integumentary exchange energy in cells and releasing carbon
earthworms dioxide. Energy-releasing process,
o Gills underwater fueled by oxygen.
o Tracheal System insects
o Lungs land animals
a) Inhale
Rib muscles & diaphragm
Chest cavity becomes
High Pressure outside,
Low Pressure, inside
b) Exhale
Rib muscles & diaphragm
Upper Respiratory Tract
Chest cavity becomes
Nasal & Oral Cavities
o Cilia coarse hair; traps large
HP inside, LP outside
dust and dirt particles
2. Diffusion
o Nostrils filters air
o Movement from an area of greater
o Nasal Septum separates pair of
concentration to an area of lesser
passages inside the nose;
a) External Respiration
o Oral Cavity supplemental
Exchange of oxygen and
airway when breathing is labored
carbon dioxide between the
(cavity space)
air and the blood within the
Lymph Nodes WBC
matures here & filters
Process: air enters the
lymph - fluid
alveoli, oxygen in the air
seeps through the thin
o Throat
walls of the tiny sacs into
o Passageway that allows entry of
the surrounding capillaries.
air into the respiratory tract &
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food and liquid into the digestive Pneumonia bacteria, virus, fungi, fever, chest pain, taking all the
or protozoa in rare fluid in the lungs,
system prescribed
conditions and difficulty in
o Epiglottis flap of tissue that breathing medications and
participating in
closes the entrance to the rest of
follow-up care.
the respiratory system when you Tuberculosis Mycobacterium bad cough, antibiotics
swallow tuberculosis discolored or
bloody sputum,
Larynx weight loss,
o Adams Apple a ridge that weakness or
fatigue, slight
connects two of the pieces night sweats, loss
o Voice box; sound is produced of appetite, and
o Vocal chords pain when
breathing and
o Glottis space between the coughing
vocal chords
Lower Respiratory Tract
Respiratory Disorders
o Trachea (Made by Andrea Lomibao)
Passageway to the lungs Disease Cause Symptom Treatment
Asthma unknown but breathing cannot be cured but its
Rings of cartilage several factors or difficulties, symptoms can be
prevents from collapsing allergens help wheezing while controlled
during inhalation trigger asthmatic exhaling and
attacks. inhaling, shortness
o Lungs of breath, and
Main organ of the coughing
Bronchitis viral lung difficulty in sufficient rest and
respiratory system infections but can breathing and drinking enough fluids
Sponge-like organs also be triggered cough with pleghm
by industrial
located in the chest cavity pollutants and
Diaphragm powerful tobacco smoke
muscle in the bottom of Emphysema prolonged may experience Medications such as
exposure to difficulty and pain use of bronchodilators,
the rib cage respiratory during breathing antibiotics, , steroid
Pleura lessen friction irritants like and shortness of aerosol spray, oxygen
tobacco chemicals breath even while supply, and surgical
o Bronchi and air pollutants resting procedure
Two branches of the wind such as factory
fumes or coal
pipe Chronic smoking difficulty in can be slowed down
o Bronchioles Obstructive breathing using antibiotics
Smallest conducting Pulmonary
tubes inside the lungs (COPD)
o Alveoli Lung Cancer long-term coughing (with removal of damaged
exposure to blood), mucus part, chemotherapy,
Balloon-like air sacs tobacco smoke production, weight and radiation
Thin & moist wall loss, shortness of
breath, and
Exchange of gases blockage of
Diseases of the Respiratory Tract airways
(Made by Andrea Lomibao) Flow
Disease Cause Symptoms
o Oxygen-rich blood -> Nasal cavities ->
Common Cold sneezing, runny taking enough pharynx -> larynx -> trachea -> bronchi ->
nose, congestion, bronchioles -> oxygen and carbon dioxide
rests and
and mild fever
drinking lots of exchange at the alveoli -> back to
fluids bronchioles -> bronchi -> trachea -> larynx
Influenza several influenza chills, fever, vaccinations and
viruses severe headache, -> pharynx -> nasal cavities -> carbon
antiviral drugs
muscular pains, dioxide-rich air
runny nose, and which are
general available in some
discomfort countries.
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GENETICS Non-Mendelian Genetics
o Incomplete Dominance
o Genetics branch of biology that studies
Third phenotype appears in the
hereditary information
heterozygous condition as a
o Heredity passing of characteristics (to the
blend of the dominant and
recessive phenotype
o Variations differences among individuals
o Codominance
o DNA deoxynlonucleis acid; blueprint of life
Two equally dominant alleles
o Map of Chromosome: karyotype; 46
are expressed at the same time
chromosomes; condensed form of a DNA
Multiple Alleles 3 or more
o Heterozygous pair of allele is unlike (Cc)
o Homozygous pair of allele is the same
Blood Types
O universal donor
o Dominant strong
AB universal recipient
o Recessive - weak
o Accidentally mixed:
o Genes
o Cells burst kidney damage
Unit of heredity
o Agglutinate (makumpol) reduced
Made up of DNA
blood supply
Act as an instruction to make
Phenotype observable
Genotype gene that codes for
the phenotype
o DNA Structure
Double Helix ladder like
structure Sex-Related Inheritance
Nucleotides tiny sub units o Sex Chromosome
o Phosphate Group o Most traits are in X chromosome
o Pentos sugar Sex-Limited Traits
o Nitrogenous base o Autosomal traits (in
Adenine Thymine chromosome 1-22)
Cytosine Guanine o Expression manifested in one
o Genetic Information sex chromosome
Genome collection of genetic info Sex-Influenced Traits
Chromosome storage units of o Autosomal traits that are
genes influenced by sex chromosome
o Chromosome Logical Structure o If a male has one recessive
Locus location of a gene allele, he will show that trait
Allele one variant form of a gene o Female - two recessive alleles
Mendelian Genetics for her to show the same trait
o One allele is dominant over the other o Baldness, stuttering & dip
o Punnet Square simple handy palate
diagram; Reginald Punnet o Male > female
Law of Segregation meiosis; 2 Sex-Linked Traits
alleles of one trait segregate from o Gene only on the X
each other during gamete formation chromosome and not in Y
Law of Independent Assortment chromosome
inheritance of one trait is not o More males (XY) develop
affected by the inheritance of these traits than females (XX)
another trait because females have a
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second X gene to counteract
the recessive trait
Polygenic Inheritance
o Many genes, 1 trait
o Continuous traits, governed by
alleles at two or more loci, and each
locus has some influence on the
o Hair, eye, and skin color
o Stature, shape of face, fingerprint
patters, and height

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