Standard Oil, Design and Construction of Typical German and Japanese Test Structures

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DESIGN AND CONS'l'EUCTION OF TYPICAL {~':CR;VIAI'T AND JAPANESE TES'I' S'I'RUCnmES

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SOD Project 30601

Re qu e s t Chenlical. W[crfare Service-'Technical D'i v i s Lon spcwrr 161 Llarch 12, 1943

Letter Contract Corps of En[ineers, March 18, 1943

f'DN 1340 - ~,;ay 27, 1943

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cTi\PANESE STHUCTUHES

A. Roof Coverage

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B. Typical Constructi)D

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c. Fur-n.l s hf.n gs

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DESIGN AI'W COI\rSTRUCTIOl'~ OF 'YiPICAL GETIUIAN AND JAPANESE 'TEST STRUC·TUR3S

AT DUGWAY ?RClfING GROmmS, UTAH

As requested by Chemical Warfare Service-Technical Divisi~n (SPCWT 161-March 12, 1943) and as outlined in the letter contract with the Corps of Engineers (March 18, 1943), research studies were conducted, designs, plans and specifications were prepared and con s t.r uc t.Lon was c orip l.e t.e d on May 11, 194cl of test structures located at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah.

These test structures consisting of approximately 400,000 cu.ft. of construction on a plot approximately 140 ft.

x 252 ft. represent the majority of the roof ar-e a in the in-

dus tr La L sec ti ons a f the J.e ading ci tie s of Germany and Japan. Research was conducted by contacting several authorities on such c:mstruction; generally e xpe r Le n ce d architects, who had lived and practiced in these countries f'or- many years. Studies were made of the various types of construction in the industrial sections of leading ~ities and designs were c omp Le t ed representing ap p r-o x Ima tely 70% of the roof area. In these designs the typical structures were faithfully reproduced in full scale as regards structural details which influenced bomb penetrati0n

and incendiary destructibility. Such design was necessary in order that service scale bombing tests could be c0nducted to determine the relative merits of existing incendiary mun l t Lo n s , to determine necessary improvements in design and functioning

of existing munitions, and to program future incendiary development.

The site of this target structure was selected by Chemical Warfare Service because constructi011 could be expedited wi t h the minimum delay from bad weather, lumber could be dried and maintained in a dry condition similar to aged structures, and high altitude bombing tests could be conducted w it hou t interference.

A target area approximately 150 ft. x 250 ft. was reca ':(]'XIf'llC]t)(1 ::;y repTe~)ent8.tivc'8 of the U. S. Ar-my Air Force as a practical target for test bombing with incendiaries at high altitudes. "\ roof area of approximately 15,000 sq.ft. was required in or-d er' to test ada qua te ly the number I] f rnun i tions.)u tlined by C\j{S-!]_"echnical. The roof area wes to be appr-ox imet.e Ly equally distributed between German and Japanese structures and on the final des i gns .Ia pan e s e s truc ture scans ti tu ted 571; of the

.total roof area, 43% of the roof area representing German construction. Approximately 50;1, of the t ar ce t area (ltbO ft. x 252 ft.) is represented by roof area.

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Fire breaks 40 ft. wi~e were provided between types of construction to prevent a 10s3 of the entire target by a destructive fire of conflagration proportions. Within each

s e c tLon , brick fire walls were also constructed to p er m.l t the max Lmum number of destruction tests without endangering the er,tire target, although such protective measures were made to cons e r ve the test structure and are not typical of foreign construction. As a consequence of this study and design_. there

are four types of r'o o f construction and eighteen separate two story tes t units, briefly outlined as follows:

German

--'I'ile on batten roof - 3 apartments including attics Slate on sheathing roof - 3 apartments including attics

Japanese

~le on sheathing - 6 double dwellings

Sheet metal on sheathing - 6 double dwellings

General views of the structures are shown in Figure 1 and a plot plan of the structures is s hown in Figure 2. In addition to the preparation of plans and specifications, copies of which were delivered to the U. S. District Engineer, construction was supervised by an engineer and architects to insure (;01:1p18 t e compliance wi t.h de tailed plans and spe cif Lc a t I on s , Construction was completed 54 days after the letter contract

and c14 days after comme n c eme n t of cons truetion.

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II . GER1\1AN STRUC TURES

A. Roof Coverage

To obtain reliable data regarding the roof area coverage of German types of buildings in the industrial sections of large German ci ties, a survey was made. by one of Germany I s former leading archi tects of sixteen large ci ties, including Berlin, Breslau, Dresden, Leipzig and Munich. The results of this survey were confirmed by other ex-German architeots and are summarized in the following table:

SURlfSY OF PUI LDING CONSTRUCTION IN GEIDr'.ANY

10 of Bldgs. within Zones I and II
_j_~0% + Roof_:/irea ) _____
Area Occup. Before
bv Zones I 19th 19th 20th Tile or Slate
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City & II Cent. Cent • Cent. on 'frood Frame
Augsburg .. 1.5 so .mi. -47- 50 -~ 90
Berlin ( city only) 38.0 5 65 30 60
Berlin (g mi. radius) 70.0 2 83 15 75
Breslau 15.0 15 80 5 90
Danzig 1.2 6 92 2 86
Dresden (city only) 3.'±- 10 85 5 90
Dresden (incl.-suburbs) 14.0 5 89 6 88
Duisburg; (Ruhrort inc 1. 4.0 2 80 18 64
Frankfort-On-Main 3.0 5 80 15 75
Halle 2.5 15 70 15 78
Hannover (city only) 2.5 22 73 5 90
Hannover (inc 1. suburbs) 8.0 8 80 12 78
Koenigsberg 8.0 5 9·1, 1 89
Leipzig (city only) 2.5 10 70 20 74
Loipzig (incl. suburbs) 6.0 6 89 5 90
Magdeburg (inc 1. suburbs) 3~5 8 88 4 81
Mannhcim 3~5 2 80 18 62
Munich 10.0 12 83 5 85
Nuremberg 6.0 20 75 5 85
StuttGart 5.5 12 73 15 78
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sq .ml. These data ina. ica te that approximately 210 s;}ua re miles in' these cities have a roof' ooverage area of' 4010 or higher. In· that area (Zones I, IIA and lIB in R,A.F. terminology) which, is generally the industrial section of these cities, 80% of the buildings are c~nstructed with roofs of tile or slate on wooden frame supports. Although most of these buildings are dwellings, about 9% of the factory buildings in Germany also have this same type of roof. Pictures of sections of Bremen, Chemnity, Duisburg and Frankfort-On-Main (Figures J and 4) illustrate this typioal construction. .

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B. Typical Constructio~

Pur ther analysis of German dwelling cons truction showed tho. t the buildings wi th tile or s La te roof were subdivided into the f'o Ll ow Lng types:

Percentage of Total Builoings w i. th Tile or 31a te Ro of

Roof C'Jnstruction

Secti0n of Germany where Predominant

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25

Slate on wood sheathing, ·1" x 4-3/L1" rafters on

2 ft. centers

Rhineland

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Flat tile on batten (6" centers), 4" x 4 .. 3/!J:n rafters on 3 ft. centers

Ce n tral and Northern

30

Curved Spanish-type tile Eastern

on batten (10·-1/4" centers)

4-3/4" x 5-1/2" rafters

on 3 ft. centers

Corroborating these data the British rHnistry of Home Security repor ted tha t a survey independen tly c ondu c ted by ex-German architects in England had shown that the majority ofvvorkers' homes, particularly in industrial sections, were constructed with flat tile on batten supp0rted by w00den frame construction.

'I'he target structure built at Dugway Pr-o v i.n g Grounds was constructed in two sections, one representative of the Rhineland construction (slate-on-sheathing roof) and the o t.he r of C en tra 1 and Nor: t.he r n German con s tru c tion (tIle -orr-b a t ten roof). These types of construction we r-e chosen because of

their prevalence and because of g eo gr-aph i c a I considera tions. 'The Dugway structures are representative of approximately 587(, of the to tal build ings wi thin Zone s I and II in the whole 0 f Germany, and are representative of nearly 80% of the total buildings in the industrial sections in Western, Central and Northern Germany, which aro probably the most likely targets .for the U. S. Army Air Forces.

Pictures illustrating the general types of roofs found in the indus trial SEl c tions 0 r Gc-;rmany are shown in Figures 5 and 6.

The details of construction of typical German dwellings were obtRined from a study made by a leading exGerman architect. These data were extended and confirmed by a member of the Harvard Archi tecturaJ. School, an expert on German wooden fr8.?T1C building c ons t.r-u c t io n , An independent

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COMPARATIVE ANALYS-!S'~BETlYEE1LnpICAL 'GERY.AN: TARGE'l

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lIaterial R.F..E'. Studies in Gennan Target erected at
DomestIc Architecture Ha r-mond swor-th struc tur-e *1 ~tl
(Br1tish) ( Br1tish)"
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Slate Til
(2) Length 36 mm. (l4i") 15" max. 14"
(3) Overlap 20% 2 layers of tiles (a) 20% 2 layers of tiles 21% 2 layers rs
80% 3 layers of tiles 80% 3 layers of tiles 7fl'/ :3 layers Sl
Sa tten" (4) Sizes 3 CIIIS. x 5 cms , (u: x 2") Board1ng or
(la tna ) 4 CIIIS. x S ems. i 1 " x 2~"l l}" x 2t~ Sheathing 1
5 ems. x 8 cme , (2" x 3t") 15/16"
(5) Spaeir.g 15 ems. (for doppeldaeh) (5-7/8") 15 ems. (5-7/8") 5~"
centre to centre
Spars (6) Sizes 8 elliS x 1:2 ems (3~" .1 d:"_l
(Rafters) 8 ems. x 15 ems. (~t" x 5t") 4" x st" (10 CIlIS .x16 .5ems .) 4" x 41"
10 em! • x 14 ellis. (4 x 5t")
12 ems. x 16 ellis. (4~" x st")
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(7) Spaci"g 80 - 90 ems. (31i-" x 35~") 90 ClD8. (35t·) 24"
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~I Size
m. ~cms.lI' 16 em8. (4 "x 6t")
'3.5 m. 12 ems.x 18 ems. (4 "x 7-1/8")
'4.0 m. 16 CIlIS.lI' 18 cme , ~ 6 "x 7-1/:3")
1'"',,5 m, 16 ems.x 20 CIlIS 6 "x 8") 9t" x 7" (24 elllS.X 17.5 CInS.
5.0 m. 16 ellis .7. 22 ems. \6 ,"x ~~"l
'5.f' m. 18 elllS.lI' 24 cme , (7-1/8"x 9f)
6.0 m. 20 emS.7 24 ems. (7-7/S"x 9 It)
:(b) 65 ems, centres
'3.0 m. 8 elllS.X 16 ems. (3-1/8"x 6t")
.3.5 m. S ems.x 20 ems. (3-1/S"x 8")
;4.0 m. lC ems.x 20 QIlS. 14" x ~;~) 4" X 10"
[;4,5 m 10 cms,lI' 22 ems (A_"" "
5.0 m. Ie ClllS.X. 24 en e , (4" x ~r) nom. size
.:5.5 m. 1:2 cmll.x 24 cms , (4l'''x 9 ")
'6.0 m. 1:2 CIlIS.X 26 ems, (41"x lot")
(9) Centres (a) 90 CIIIIl. 90 ema , 24"
(b) 65 ems.
Finish (10) Floor (a) board1ng 30 mm , (1-1/8") 1-1/S" (30 mm) It/16" I
(b) boarding 22 !I!lII. (7/8") I
(11) Ceiling Can be similar to floor finish 1-1/8" (:50 1DIl.) 3/8" wood lath :F'l
under 3/8" plaster .' ;2'
1 ;53/
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Pugging (12) Ma terial Clay w1th eand or ashes Sand Cinders ,
( joht II
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(13 ) Thickness 3t" min. (S ClIIS. ) 4t" 3t" :I
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'1 (a) scale layouts indicate 29% (2 layers) .. rid 71 ~ ,3 luyerB) instead of values reported.

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Target!'! at Bayway - nugwa~ Structure
Structure #1 Structure #2 Structure /l2A Structure /I"j Structure A
Sla t e Portion I Tile Portion
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Ludowici Nor- Reroofed Ludowi ci t"
Bangor Sl" t e LUdowici Pro- Sp"ni~h Bangor Slate Ludowici Pro-
"j/8" man Sh1n~le vlncial Shingle 'fUe vincial Shingle
Tile 1/2 + Tile 1/2" + - 1/2" Tile 1/2" +
14" 12" 15" 14t" 14" 15"
21~ 2 layers 19% 2 layers 24%' 2 layers 34%, Single 2S%, 2 layers I 24%' 2 layers
79t 3 layers 81;t 3 La ye 1'8 76% 3 layers 66%' Double 75% 3 layere I 76% 3 layers
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Boarding or Boarding or
She a tb.ing It X 2t" It X 2t" 1t X 2t" Sheathing Ii- x 2tB
15/16" 15/16"
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24- 36" 36" 36" 24" J 36"
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8.
nom. s Ize I nom. size nom. slze (nom.~ize)
4" x 10" 4" X 10"
nOm. size
nom. eize
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24" 36" 36" 36" 24" :56"
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1t/16 " 15/16" 1 15/16" 15/16" 15/16· 15/16"
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3/8" wood lath Furring-l" X Furring-l" x Furrinf'-l" X 3/8" wood lath; 1" x 2" (nom. size)
3/8" p La s t er- ! 2"; wood la th 2"; '4'00d La th 2"; wood lJ3. th I 3/8" p La s tel' furring;
3/8" - 3/8" 3/8" - 3/8" I 3/8" - 3/8" 3/8" wood lath;
p La s tel' plaster p La a t.er- 1:3/8" p Las tel'
Cinders Cinder!'! Cindere Cinders Cinders Clnders
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I Star,de.!'d 011 Dev , Co. £sso L8ba.-Proc. Div.

WTK, Jr./gs May 27 1943

PO'" 1"j40-A '

5.

study of German domestic architecture made by the British Ministry of Home Security (R.E. 8) previously mentjoned in th1s report V'JaS critically examined arid found to be in excellent agreement with these data. A table summarizing these data,

t.o ge t.ho r with data regarding test structures built in England and by N.D.H.C. at Elizabeth, New Jersey is.shown oppos Lt.e ,

German dwelling cons truc tion follows the s arne general wooden truss construction but is appreciably heavier and moro mas s i ve than e i t.he r English or American building practices.

The outstanding featur~s of the German wooden frame constructfun are the large rafters (4" x 4-3/4" to 4-3/4" x 5-1/2ff), he avy roofing tile and slate (l/~;rt and 3/8" thick r-e spe c t l ve Ly ) laic} with a 60% overlap, large batten (1-1/2" x 2-1/2"), and in particular the massive floor shown in Figure 7. Instead of wooden s t.ud walls typical German pr-a c tice employs he avy mas orir-v walls both on the inside and outside of the building. A

plaster coat is applied to the masonry walls as an interior finish.

InverJtigation of German lumber types disclosed that r1kiefer" 01' Scotch p:i.ne and to a lesser extent flfichtefl (Jr' European spruce were the predominant woods used in German construction. Advise received from ex-German consultants indicated tha t Southern Loblolly Pine and Coastal Douglas Fir

1.'[8 re so. tis f'a c tory subs ti tu tes for "kie f'e r , u According t.o the D. S. Department of Agriculture, ,specific gravi ty is the mo o t reliable index of the strength properties of a wood. Tro

s pe c Lf'Lc gravi ties (12% mois ture) for rrkieferfl and ff fichts fl

are approximately 0.53 and 0.41, respectively. Coastal Douglas Fir has a specific gravity of approximately 0.48 (12% mo t e t.ure ) and, while not duplicating "kiefer" as closely as Southern Loblolly Pine (0.54 sp.gr.), wac, considered to be a s e.t.La f'ac tory subs t i.bu t.e for typical German lumber and was used in the Dugway German structures.

e(~2[:":'G ,r~.:...irs ,~:~ble e nd Settee in 2 .,j; ~('u~ ~j: r:i ng Lc om a rte ngerne n t

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Fire severity (the me a sur e of intensity and duration of fir 0) in German s truc tures b e Low the a tt ic is mainly a

f'un c t.i on of t.he combustible furnishings. Unlike Pmerican or Japanes13 construction, the typical German structure utilizes little wood as framework or trim below the attic. For thls reason a thorough study of typical furnishings was made so that proper fire s everi ty would be r-epr-odu ced in floors beneath the

attic. . r

studies were conducted by the Authenticity Dd v Ls i on of RKO Stu,dios, by two Iur-n it.ur e makers who learned the ir trade in Germany, and by an e xpe r Le n c ed ex-German archi t e c t and sociologist. Results of theso studios indicated:

1. Articles of furnishing found in typical German dwellings are heavier in construction than American furnishings as snown i Ln Figure 8.

2. More furnishings are c r-owd ed Ln to available floor space in the German home than in the Amer-Lc an home. Arrangement is such that the density of furnishings is more than twi ce tha t found in American homes. Pictures_illustrating this crowded c cnd'l t Lon are shown in Figures 9 and 10.

Toreproc1uce faithfully the s econdi t i ons special furni ture was designed and manufactured since it was not available in stock pieces •

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FIGURE 11

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TEST FTJFmISI-JINGS USED IN DUCYNA.Y GERMAN STRUCTURES

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Living Room-Dining Room Combination

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Living Room-Dining Room Combination

FIGURE 12

TEST FURNISHINGS USED IN' DUGWAY GERMAN STRUCTURE8,

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Beds,Crib and· Bedside Table in Bedroom

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'I'he furniture in the Dur way structures is typical

a s regards arrangement and density; the articles are authentic as regards size and materials ~f construction. The density

of these test furnishings are: bedroom - 9.7 Ib./sq.ft.; liv:1.ngroom-cHning r oorn - 4.9 Ib./sq.ft. A c ompa r-Laon w Lt.h aV'-3rsr:e Japanese and American furnishings is tabulated b e Low s

_?:ype of Home

Movab Ie Furnishings

Ib .j sq. ft. floor area Ib.j Cll ~"f'"f:-st\;.ucf1.ll'e --vol.

German Japanese (a) Ame r Lc an

7 2.5 3.5

0.5 0.1

(a) Includes 2.0 Ib./sq.ft. of Tatami (floor mats)

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FIGURE 13

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CONSTRUCTION UY DUGWAY GERMAN STRUCTURES

Laying Foundations

Details of Roof Construction

)

nstruction of Heavy Masonry Wall

Tile-Roofed Structure

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_ -15 FIGU ~l.

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11 t.T Il.1 C. (j ~MAIl 6H __ , ,_ Il

L~"°t.'D - DU~WA)'" -_f.·wn. CLCY!.LUlL

SL(lH. ~(JO F____ - D"J . DUG ,

- ?-~C.vl,,~ __ ,(jf.OU,1I __

~VUGWAY

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8.

D. Design and C0nstruc~_i)~.()f Dugway structures

In accordance "vi t.h Lnf'o r-met l on obtained from the

abcve vme n t.Lone d consultants, the GerTnan target s t.r-u c t.ur e at DUFway was designed as an apartment-type building sImilar to workers' quarters in industrial sections of large German cities. 'I'wo ad joining bu i Ld l rrgs w L th di fforon t types .01' roofs wor e built:· s La t.e+on+e he a t Iring representative o f Rh i ne Land clties

and ti Le -on-ba t ten re pr-e aerrt at'l ve of Central and Nor thern

c l t.Le s , Pictures showing the heavy ma s onr-v walls and heavy roof cons truc t Lon , as we 11 as the finished apa r t.men t s truc tu r e are presented in Figure 13 and general features of the German structures are shown in Fi~urei 14 and 15.

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FIGURE 16

DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION OF DUGWAY GERMAN STRUCTURE

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)

Inside of Tile-Roofed Attic Showing Dormer Window and Masonry End Wall

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,,~p4FreEI4 i lAC""

FIGURE 17

VIEWS INSIDE DUGWAY GEnMA.~ STRUCTURE

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. . .

Inside of 'Slate-roofed Attic ~ Showing ~ead of Stair-Well

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9.

Pa c tures showing cons truc tJJ:JD o.f the tile -roofed and roofed att:Lcs arc; presented in ~<ligur8s 16 and 17.

slate·-

Till wood employed in the German s truc tures was yard dried Coastal Douglas Fir, which was further dried by me an s of steam radiators to about 10~ to 15~ moisture content. Avera~e moisture contents of some of the more pertinent structural memb\ers are given below':

structure Member

----_._---

Av. Moisture Content - %

1-1/2!1x2-1/2!1 Batten under r.rile 15/1611 Shea thing under Sla te .

4"x4-3/4!1 Rafters under Slate 4-3/4I!x5-1/2 Rafters under Tile

15/16t! Top Flooring (attic)

II II !I (2nd floor)

rr rr !! ( Is t f'L 0 0 r )

11.0 10.5

14.4 15.1

13.1 13.6 13.2

'I'he data indicate that the moisture content of the wooden. structural members of the German target will approximate 10% to 15~t at the time of the destruction tests which COI'I'eSponds to but is slightly higher than the known moisture content of wood in structures from 10 to 100 years old located on the Northeastern U. S. coast.

For further de tails of construc t.Lcn , reference should be made to the specifications and detailed drawings submitted to the U. S. District Engineer, Salt Lake City, Utah.

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FIGURE 18

AERIAL VIEWS OF TYPICAL JAPANESE CITIES

)

View of Osaka showing Workers Quarters' . in Industrial .Se~tion

)

View of ~apoya shcwin~ Tenement Buildings

, "" ~' :' 8 I B t r' i o t

CO~I~ICiP'T'A~ FIGURE 19

AERIAL VIEWS OF TYPICAL JAPANESE CITIES

Yawata Steel Mills,Wor~rs Hpuses in Foreground

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10.

III.

JAPANESE STRUCTUP.ES

-----_._--

A. Roof Coverage

Analysis of roof coverage and roof types in the larger industrial cities of Japan,V(a:ff; made by former residents of Japan now in the Mi~i~ary Int~11igen?e Branch of the U, S~ Army and bya practlclng archltect wlth eighteen years expe~ience in Japan. Results of these studies closely checked each other and showed:

1) Approximately 60% of the industrial area of the larger ci ties of Japan is built-up, i.e., covered by roofs~

2) The predominant roof area in industrial sections of the larger Japanese cities is occupied by workers' dwelliAgs~ At least 80% of the se dwellings are of . tile or sheet metal roof construction,

3) Tile and sheet metal roof construction is also typical of at least 65% of the roof construction of the entire area of most Japanese cities as shown in the following tabulation:

% Roof Area of Entire City Occupied by Type Roof·

Consul tant A Consul tant B
Tile Metal: other Tile Wetal Other
Tokio 60-65 5-15 20 ... 30 45 40 15
Yokohomo 50 .30 20 40-50 40-50 10
Kyoto 85 5 10 80
Kobe 75 15 10 65 25 10
Nagoya 70-85 10-15 10 80
Osaka ...,. 80 Figs~ 18. and 19 are views of large industrial centers in Japan, showing the high percentage of total roof area and the large proportion of workers dwellings in the factory districts. Fig. 20 shows typical roof construction as found in Tokio.

FIGURE 21

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FIGURE 22

)

[)i!:TAlLS OF CONSTRUCTION OF TYPICAL JAPANESE mVELLINGS

Assembly of Framework

Fabrication of Wall Construction Placing Bamboo Framework before Plastering

)

)

Typical Wood Si~lJg over Plaster Walls

..P-- 'Q ~vp. ~""~+' p~~

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11 •

B. Typical Construction

Research on Japanese construction was concentrated on small dwellings and tenement type construction which represent the larges.t portion of roof area in industrial Japan. Several authotities on Japanese construction were consulted and a survey of existing literature was made. Results indicated the following construction details to be typical:

'1) Construction is of the column and beam type employing heavy wood members

( 4" ,x 4 ", 5" x 1 0 If, etc.) but no t uti 1- t izing diagonal bracing.

2) Roof construction is either:

a) tile ( appr ox , 3/4" thick) embedded in mud pla ster laid ov'er 1/2" wood sheathing supported by 2" x 3'" rafters on 18" centerst or

b) sheet metal (approx. 26 gage) laid on tar felt over 1/2" wood sheathing supported by 2" x 3" rafters on 18" centers.

The roof rafters are generally supported by heavy purl ins running parallel to the ridge pole. The roof slope is generally 200 or less as

illustrated in Fig~ 21. '

3) Wall constructi on is permanent on only

two or occasionally three sides--the

other sides are closed by sliding screens (Shoji)' and wood shutters. Permanent wall construction is predominantly mud plaster" over split bamboo framework _ as shown by Fig. 22.

4) Concrete foundations are not used; dwellings are rai sed- approximately 18" off ground on pillar supports.

5) Maj or portions of the floor are covered by hard packed rice straw Tatarni mats. 'I'h e -at ze of the Tatami is the Japanese unit of measure and construction is dimensioned to fit th e 'I'a tami. Subflooring is generally 1/2" thick under the Tatami.

t,

12.

6) Ceiling construction is a light wooden section built on ribs and suspended from the structural beams in the floor or roof above.

7) The int erior of th e dwelling is divided into rooms by sliding paper partitions (Fusuma)~ There are no permanent partitions~ Closets for storage of household goods are closed by the Fusuma.

I

8) Wood construction is seldom painted or stained-~the natural finish is used4 Typical Ja~anese wood construction employs:

Use

Wood Hinoki Sugi Pine

Approx. Equivalent Rocky Mt. Douglas fir Russian spruce

\ .

ponderosa plne

Structural members Frame work & trim Roo f and floor

sheathing Ceiling and wall

siding

The Board of Economic darfare reported that one or two story buildings of wooden frame construction as descrtbed account for 95% of all the structures in Tokio. Ih the most congested district this construction totab-68% of the entire target area. Approximately 50% of the buildings in tliis district (Asaku sa ) are one story. Typical one and two story buildings of thi8 construction are shown in Fig. 22~

Cedar

Red Cedar

One consultant reported that this typical dwelling is frequently an integral part of the Japanese industrial system where manufacture and sub-assembly is carried on in the home.

The woods employed in the Japanesestruc tures were mainly Mountain Douglas Fir, Russian Spruce, \fuite Ponderosa Pine, and WeS'tern Red Cedar. These woods were generally airdried before being used, and the structures themselves were then further dried by means of temporary steam radiators to simulate aged wood. Moisture contents of the various beams and boarding in these structures varied from about B% to 15% (excepting the ceilings), as shown by the following table:

5"x5" Sllls

5"x5" Interior Columns 5"x5" Exterior,Columns 1-1/8" T.&G. Flooring 1/2" Flooring

1/211 Shelving

5/16" Ceiling

Mt. Douglas Fir

Wood

Av, Moisture Content

Structural Member

"

"

"

12-.6 14~0 15.7 10.5 11-.2

8.0 3.0

II

" I'

"

II

II

Russian Spruce Ponderosa Villi te Pine 'destern Red Cedar

FIGURE 23·

TVVICAL JIJ'ANESE FURNISHINGS Al"JD EQUIVALENT TEST ynmG3HHTGS USED IN DUGVIAY STRUCTURE

T8n~u (Chest of Drawers)

/

Tansu (Chest of Drawers)

,

Futon (Bedding)

FIGURE 24

TYPICAl., JAPANESE FURNISHINGS AND EQ.UIVALENT TEST FURNISHINGS USED"IN DUGWAY STRUCTURE

Zabuton .(Sitting Pillow)

Low Table in Typical Dwelling

)

Finished Room showing Tatami and Futons stored .. in Closet:

Low Table and Zabuton in Dugway Structure

)

13.

c. Furnishings

.Japane s e furnishings ve r-e s t ucl.ied and found to differ f'r-orn typical A.merican furnishings both in the nature of the articles and in arrangement, 'I'he main item of furnishing h! the Tatami mat which covers the major portion of the floor area. Other items found to be typical are:

Article

Illustrated

Equivalent

Use

'I'aria u

Fig. 2~~

Chest of Drawers

3torage of clothingy etc.

Futon

II

Mattress

Bed (stored in closet during day time).

Zabuton

Fig.24

Pillow

Chair.

Hibachi

stove or Brazier

Cooking & heating (burns charcoal) .

Low Table

Fig.24

Stool-table Dining table, writing c1esky etc.

Radio

Shoe Cabinet

Shoe storage in hallway - no shoes worn in house.

All of the,furnishings are of inflammable construction. The woods used are generally oak, pine or poplar and are seldom painted. The ;::utons and 'iabutons are stuffed with cotton batting.

For the purpose of the Dugway tests special furnishings were constructed from authentic materials to reproduce size and density. Figures 23 and 24 show views of typical Japanese furnishings in the ordinary dwelling and the reproductions in the test structures. These represent a density (not including Tatami) of 1.1 Ib./sq.ft. of floor area or

0.05 Ib./cu.ft. of structure volume. Comparative figures of Amer-Ican and German furnishing density are included in the German section of this report.

The Tatami floor mats are the most important item of Japanese furnishing since they greatly influence bomb penetration as we Ll as the inflammability of the test structure. The Tatami used at Dugway are either originals made in Japan from hard packed rice straw or imitation mats manufactured from istle which have been shown by test to approach the original mats in both bomb penetration characteristics and inflammability.

FIGUr~E 25

J ;'Fj\..,.T\JESE TEST STPUC11!f(ES AT DUC7NAY

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Tile Roof with Plaster Siding

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~ '1'1'1

11~~111 ,It

4, " •• ~ ••

. '

FIGURE 27

DET ;"ILS OF CONSTRUCTION OF DUGWAY J APP.NESE STRUCTURES

Columm and Beam Construction

Detail of Roof Members

)

)

'ypical Japanese Structure Joint

Wood Framework

FIGURE 26

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J APA...~~SE TEST STRUCTURES AT DUGWAY

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Narrow Street Between Test Structures

)

Typical Uhit Bet~een Fire Walls

FIGURE 28

CONSTRUCTION OF PLASTER WALLS

General View of Rattan Matting Before Plaster Application

Close Up of Rattan Matting

First Adobe Plaster Coat Over Rattan Matting

Finished Plaster WallLime Plaster Over Adobe

! ./

\

D. Design and Construotion of Dugway Struotures

In aooordanoe with the information obtained from the aforementioned souroes, Japanese struotures were designed for oonstruction at Dugway and are shown in Fig. 25. Struotures JA and JB are fundamentally the same in design details, differing only in size. Both represent typical workers' dwellings in the industrial districts of the larger Japanese ci ties and are representative of the major portion of the roof area in theSe districts,

One set of both.' the JA and JB structures is built wi th a, tile-in ... plaster on sheathing type roof' ( the most! typical of all Japanese construction); the other set employs' typical sheet metal over sheathing.

The narrow 8 r t , street betw~en sets of structures can be seen in Fig~ 26, This is t yp i ca.l" of Japanese city plan and accouhts for the congestion noted in Figs, 18 and

. 19. ,:The roof area of the Japanese test structures is approximately 60% of that portion of the plot covered by Japanese struc tures.

\

The construction, is of the column ~eam type

rather than the usual American stud-frame type. Heavy structural members are used' as shown in Fig, 27 and employ c omplica ted keyed or mortised joints, a typical joint being shown in Fig. 27, The columns are spaced on 6 foot centers' or mul tiples thereof; floor joists are ei ther 2" x 3" or

2" x 5" depending on span length. Fig. 28 shows the construction detail of the permanent walls. Here 2 .... 1/2" of adobe plaster is laid over a rattan screen held between the columns. The rattanwas used as a substitute for bamboo which is typical of Japan~ Fig, 28 also shows the. outside

wa Ll, of the fini::;;hed cons.truction; 1/4" of lime plaster is laid dVer the adobe as a finish coat.

The sliding Shoji and Fusuma screens are shown in 'Fig. 24~ These add to the density of inflammable construction material which is higher than in the German construction -as tabulated below.

I

Inflam.Materials in Construction Based on Lb~7sq.Ft. Floor Area Based on Lb~/Cu.Ft.of Struct.Vol.

Japanese Test, structure

G,erman Te s t Structure '34.4

, ' 1,1

67.8 3.0

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