You are on page 1of 64

TURBINE

EFFICIENCY

Sankar Bandyopadhyay
Email : sankarbando1956@gmail.com
Heat Rate - concept
Common term used for indicating Power Station efficiency

Heat rate = Heat input in Kcal / Power output in KWH

Defined : Heat required in Kcal to generate one KWH of Power


Heat Rate
UHR= TG HR/ BOILE EFFY
= 2000/0.85 = 2235 kcal/kWh

NHR (Net Heat rate)= UHR /(1-apc%/100)= UHR/0.93


(Assumed APC %= 7 %)
= 2235/0.93= 2403 kcal/kWh

Net Unit Thermal Efficiency= 860/2403 * 100 = 35.8 %


Efficiency and Heat Rate

Efficiency (%) = Power generated in KWH*860* 100 /


Heat Input in Kcal
= 860*100/Heat rate
Gross Turbine cycle Heat rate

Heat input to Turbine cycle in KCal


GTCHR =
Power generated in KWh
Sensitive Analysis of Turbine Efficiency on
Heat Rate

1 % change in HP or IP Turbine Efficiency in a 500


MW unit leads to change in HR by about
4.5 kcal/kWh and having cost implication of about Rs 57
lakhs per year (rail fed station)
A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal
energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful
mechanical work.
Classification

Impulse turbine
Reaction turbine
Based on Compounding:

Pressure compounded

Velocity compounded
Impulse Turbines

An impulse turbine uses the impact force of the steam jet


on the blades to turn the shaft. Steam expands as it passes
through the nozzles, where its pressure drops and its
velocity increases. As the steam flows through the moving
blades, its pressure remains the same, but its velocity
decreases. The steam does not expand as it flows through
the moving blades.
Impulse Turbines
Velocity compounded impulse
turbine
Pressure compounded
Reaction Turbines
In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are
arranged to form convergent nozzles. This type of turbine
makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam
accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor.
Reaction Turbines
Velocity Triangles
Basic analysis of the effect of the blade rows on the steam
flow can be done through velocity triangles
Impulse- Reaction Comparison
Three significant differences (nature of the expansion process)
Number of stages,
Bucket design,
Stage sealing requirements
Peak efficiency is obtained in an impulse stage with more work per stage
than in a reaction stage, assuming the same bucket diameter.
Relative to an impulse turbine, a reaction turbine requiring either 40% more
stages, 40% greater stage diameters, or some combination of the two to obtain
the same peak efficiency.
Reaction stage has a higher aerodynamic efficiency than an impulse stage.
Leakage losses are higher on the reaction stages
As the blade height increases, the influence of leakage losses decrease and a
point is reached where the reaction stage is more efficient
RANKINE CYCLE
Impact of Turbine Efficiency on HR/Output

Description Effect on Effect on


TG HR KW
1% HPT Efficiency 0.16% 0.3%

1% IPT Efficiency 0.16% 0.16%

1% LPT Efficiency 0.5 % 0.5 %

Output Sharing by Turbine Cylinders

210MW 500MW

HPT 28% 27%


IPT 23% 34%
LPT 49% 39%
Gross Turbine cycle Heat rate

Fms( H1 - Hf ) +Frhs( H3 - H2 ) + Fss ( Hf - Hs ) + Frs ( H3 - Hr )


= ----------------------- ------------------------------------------------
Pg
Where,

Fms = Main steam flow (T/Hr) Hs = Enthalpy of S/H spray water


Frhs= Hot reheat steam flow Hr = Enthalpy of R/H spray water
Fss= Superheater spray flow Pg = Power generated
Frs= Reheater spray flow
H1 = Enthalpy of Main steam
Hf= Enthalpy of feed water
H3 = Enthalpy of Hot reheat steam
H2= Enthalpy of Cold reheat steam
Heat Added to cycle :

Heat Added MS
= Flow MS * (hMS - hFW), kcal/hr

Heat Added CRH


= Flow CRH* (hHRH - hCRH),kcal/hr

Heat added by SH Attemp


= Flow SH Attemp* (hMS-hSHATT) Kcal/hr

Heat added by RH Attemp


= Flow RH Attemp * (hHRH-hRHATT) Kcal/hr
Turbine Losses
1.External Losses
2. Internal Losses

Turbine External Losses


1. Shaft gland leakage Losses
2. Journal & thrust bearing losses
3. Governor & oil pump losses
Turbine Internal Losses
Inter stage gland leakage loss
Wetness loss
Leaving Loss
Exhaust loss
Pressure drop losses
Control valves

Pipes
Turbine Stage Efficiency
P1
T1
H
Due to friction the relative
velocity of steam gets
P2 reduced and hence the
Z heat drop across the
X Y blade gets shifted from X
h to Z where HX is
P3 frictionless heat drop.

W X Z

Stage efficiency = (Heat drop HZ / Heat drop HX) x 100 %


Turbine Cylinder efficiency

HP cylinder efficiency

IP cylinder efficiency
Cylinder efficiency =
Actual enthalpy drop *100/ Isentropic
enthalpy drop
P3
P4 P5
h5 P1 P2

h1
HP exhaust HP eff. =(h1-h2)*100/(h1-h4)

IP eff.=(h5-h6)*100/(h5-h7)
h2
h3
h4

IP cylinder exhaust
h

Saturation line

h6 P6
h7

s
Parameters required For efficiency calculation

1 Gross Load 13 FW Press HPH Inlet


2 MS Pressure before ESV 14 FW Temp HPH Inlet
3 MS Temp before ESV 15 FW Press HPH Outlet
4 HPT Exhaust Pressure 16 FW Temp HPH Outlet

5 HPT Exhaust Temp. 17 Main Steam Flow (Q1)


6 HRH Steam Press. before IV 18 Feed Water Flow (Qf)
7 HRH Steam Temp. before IV 19 CRH Flow (Q2)
8 FW press after top heater 20 S/H Spray Flow (Qs)
9 FW Temp at Eco inlet 21 R/H Spray Flow (Qr)
10 HPH Ext. Steam Temp 22 S/H Spray Temp.
11 HPH Shell Pressure 23 R/H Spray Temp.
12 HPH Drip Temp 24 Leak Off Flow
Turbine Efficiency Measurement Points
Station "A" H P Turbine Efficiency vs Load
Turbine Cycle heat Rate Tests
83

81
HP Turbine Efficiency (%)

HP Turbine Ef ficiency at CPO (%)


79
HP Turbine Ef ficiency at VPO (%)
77

75

73

71

69

67

65
170 18 0 19 0 200 2 10 220
Gross Generator Output (MW)
Major energy losses in steam turbine

Blading part of flow path


Non bladed part :
Inlet & Exhaust sections of turbine
casing & valves
Shaft seals
Turbine Seals Loss break up

SHAFT
OTHERS
INTER SEALS
6%
STAGE 15%
27%

TIP
SEALS
52%
Turbine Surface Roughness

Surface finish degradation:

- Deposits

- Corrosion

- Solid Particle Erosion

- Mechanical damage

Roughness up to 0.05 mm can lead to decrease in


efficiency by 4%
Seal Leakage

DIAPHRAGM
TIP TENON
SPILL STRIPS
TIP
LEAKAGE

COVER OR
SHROUD
ROTATING STATIONARY
STAGE BLADE BLADE
PRESSURE STEAM FLOW
ROOT LEAKAGE

ROOT
SPILL STRIPS Impulse Wheel and
DOVETAIL
Diaphragm
Construction

BALANCE HOLE
FLOW
BALANCE HOLE

PACKING
WHEEL

INTERSTAGE PACKING LEAKAGE

SHAFT
Seal Leakage
BLADE
CARRIER

TIP SPILL
TIP STRIPS TENON
LEAKAGE
COVER

ROTATING
BLADE

STATIONARY
BLADE

TRAILING
EDGE Reaction Drum Rotor
Construction
LEADING
EDGE

INTERSTAGE
PACKING

ROTOR
Turbine Sealing
Seal leakage is important as it is the largest single
cause of performance reduction in HP turbines.
Interstage seals. These include seals to prevent
leakage around the rotating and stationary stage.
End seals or packing glands are used to minimize
leakage at the ends of cylinders. They are intended
to prevent air injection into the LP and condenser
Damaged Seals
Inter stage seals and peak seals
Diaphragm profile damage
SEALING GLANDS
Steam is supplied to the sealing chamber at 1.03 to 1.05
Kg/sq.cm abs and at temperature 130 deg.C To 150
deg.C from the header.
Air steam mixture from the last sealing chamber is
sucked out with the help of a special steam ejector to
gland steam cooler.
Provision has been made to supply live steam at the
front sealing of H.P. and I.P. rotor to control the
differential expansion, when rotor goes under
contraction during a trip or sharp load reduction.
Labyrinth seal
Typical Gland Seal in an HP Turbine
Rotor Shaft Area with Gland Seals Exposed
Seal Steam System
Power Loss (kW)

2000
4000
6000
8000
10000

0
Interstage Packings

585.1
Tip Spill Strips
3473.0

End Packings

601.3
Miscellaneous Leakages
Summary of Losses

Flow Path Damage


94.0

Flow Change Impact

Surface Roughness
4486.7

Cover Deposits
47.7

Hand calculations

Trailing Edge Thickness

Total
9287.8
Efficiency Assessment &
Issues
Followings are the reasons for error in computation
of efficiency.
HPT efficiency test not done at VWO
Measurement points are not representative
Steam Turbine gas plant (Exhaust point after mixing of
LP steam)

Steady conditions of Unit is not achieved.


Necessary corrections like ambient pressure,
water leg not taken care
Measuring instruments are not accurate
HP/IP Turbine Efficiency
Impact of Measurement error on Turbine efficiency
Main Steam HPT Exhaust
Pressure Temp Pressure Temp
Impact on Kg/cm2 Deg C Kg/cm2 Deg C
HPT
1 1 1 1
Efficiency
0.6 % 0.6 % 2.0 % 0.7 %

IPT Inlet IPT Exhaust


Pressure Temp Pressure Temp
Impact on Kg/cm2 Deg C Kg/cm2 Deg C
IPT
1 1 1 1
Efficiency
1.2 % 0.3 % 6.0 % 0.4 %
FACTORS EFFECTING TURBINE
EFFICIENCY
Effect of load

Terminal condition
i. MS and RH P
&T ii. Effect of
vacuum

Effect of heater efficiency


Feed pump power
Factors affecting Turbine cycle Heat rate
Unit Load
Main steam temperature
Main steam pressure
Hot reheat temperature
Condenser back pressure
Final feed water temperature
Make up water flow
Factors affecting Turbine cycle Heat rate

Reheater pressure drop


Superheater spray flow
Reheater spray flow
HP cylinder efficiency
IP cylinder efficiency
Generator hydrogen pressure
Grid frequency
Efficiency Tests for the Assessment of Turbine Cycle Efficiency
1. Turbine Heat consumption test 2. Condenser Performance Test 3. HP
Heaters Performance Test 4. Turbine Pressure Survey 5. HP / IP Cylinder
Efficiency Tests 6. Estimation of Unaccounted Losses

Turbine heat consumption test


To determine the heat input into the turbine for 1 KWh of output at a
particular loading.
During the test
The plant condition should be as steady as possible
RH spray flow should ideally be zero.
All the flow measurement of water and steam to be corrected for
amount of in-leakage.
Turbine heat consumption test
When heat consumption at different load are plotted on a graph,
it is supposed to lie on a straight line called Willans Line.
At lower load the heat rate increases because the prominence
of fixed heat component on total heat consumption.
The slope of the curve is known as incremental heat rate.
Unaccountable Losses

High Energy drain Passing


Instrument Error / Uncertainty
System Water Loss
L.P. Turbine Performance
L.P. Heaters
High Energy Drains

Passing of High Energy drain valve affects in 3 ways

Loss of High Energy steam

Deterioration in Condenser Vacuum

Damage to the valve


Methodology to reduce Unaccountable
High energy drains passing

Listing of all the drains/steam traps


Temperature mapping of drains
Action plan for repair replacement of valves
Installation of thermocouples on down stream
Progressive replacement of High energy drain valves
Attending valves during opportunity shut down.
Checking of valve of valve passing before O/H
Joint checking by Operation & TMD after unit startup
Methodology to reduce Unaccountable

Instrument Error

Use of accurate & calibrated Instrument

System Water Loss

D/A drop test to be conducted periodically.


THANK YOU