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VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Nature of Vertical Succession Different types of beds can succeed each other vertically in a great variety of ways. and distinctions can be drawn between rock units characterized by: – Lithologic Uniformity – Lithologic Heterogeneity – Cyclic Successions .

On the basis of mechanisms that form cyclic deposits. Allocyclic Successions . Autocyclic Successions 2. VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Cyclic Successions Cyclic Succession – repetitive orderly arrangement of strata formed through the process of cyclic sedimentation (or rhythmic sedimentation). 2 kinds of cyclic successions are recognized: 1.

Turbidites and slumping .Delta channel and lobe switching . VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Cyclic Successions Autocyclic Successions .local effects not widely geographically distributed Examples: .controlled by processes that take place within the basin itself (internal driving mechanisms) .Wind and current movement of sediments .Storm deposits (or Tempestites) .

Changes in seawater chemistry .Climate changes affecting erosion .Wide geographic distributions.Caused mainly by variations external to the depositional basin (external driving mechanisms) .Sea level changes . regional to global effects Examples: . VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Cyclic Successions Allocyclic Successions .Orbital forcing and Milankovitch cycle .

and sea level. influence sea level and depositional patterns and facies. VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Cyclic Successions Milankovitch cycles . Orbital Forcing – postulated link between orbital cycles. climate.variations in Earth’s orbital behavior that produce changes of climate which in turn. .

To ultimately make environmental interpretations from the facies . WHY DO THAT? . VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Sedimentary Facies Facies– According to Moore (1949) “ any areally restricted part of a designated stratigraphical unit which exhibits characters significantly different from those of other parts of the unit” Lithofacies – based on lithological characteristics Biofacies – based on fossil content without regard to lithologic character *A facies may be still subdivided into Subfacies Microfacies – very small-scale facies that can be recognized within microscope thin sections or polished sections of rock.

or when there is a relative lowering of the sea level . VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Relationships of Lateral and Vertical Facies Walther’s Law – by Johannes Walther .describes the interrelationship between horizontal and vertical variation of facies .the stratigraphic column is finer upward . or when the land sediment supply from the land is tectonically subsides tectonically uplifted and the sea retreats.also called Progradation -Facies show a transgressive pattern when -Facies show a regressive pattern when the the sediment supply is overwhelmed by a shoreline moves seaward due to an excess relative rise in sea level.“ only those facies(environments) that once existed side- by-side can be observed vertically juxtaposed in outcrop” Transgression Regression – also called Retrogradation .Stratigraphic column is coarser upward .

VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Transgressions and Regressions .

Occurs during rising sea level . VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Transgressions and Regressions NOTE: Transgression will not occur during rising sea level if the influx of terrigenous sediments is so high that outbuilding of the shoreline takes place.Can occur either in rising sea level or falling sea level . instead Regression occurs Therefore…. Transgression Regression .

the greater the erosion. VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSION OF STRATA : Effects of Climate and Sea level on Sedimentation Patterns Factors that affect sedimentation patterns: . the greater the terrigenous influx) .Tectonism (the higher the elevation.Changes in sea level Eustatic sea-level changes -changes in sea level that are worldwide and that affect sea level on all continents essentially simultaneously Relative sea-level changes – changes of sea level that affect only local areas . the greater the terrigenous influx) .Rate of influx of terrigenous clastic sediments .Climate (during periods of heavy rain.