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Table 841.1.11-1 Pipeline Cover Requirements they should be protected from the weather to prevent
Cover, in. (mm)
water from entering the casing. (Requirements for cross-
ings within casing of railroads and highways are shown
For Rock
in Table 841.1.6-2.)
Excavation [Note (1)]
(e) Additional Underground Pipe Protection. The pipe
Pipe Size Pipe Size
design factor, F, shall be in accordance with
NPS 20 Larger Than
For Normal (DN 500) and NPS 20 Table 841.1.6-2 for the crossing of roads and railroads.
Location Excavation Smaller (DN 500) The guidance provided by API RP 1102, Steel Pipelines
Crossing Railroads and Highways; or GRI Report
Class 1 24 (610) 12 (300) 18 (460) No. 91/0284, Guidelines for Pipelines Crossing
Class 2 30 (760) 18 (460) 18 (460)
Classes 3 and 4 30 (760) 24 (610) 24 (610)
Highways; or Gas Piping Technology Committees
Drainage ditch at public 36 (910) 24 (610) 24 (610) Guide Material Appendix G-15, Design of Uncased
roads and railroad Pipelines Crossing of Highways and Railroads, may be
crossings (all considered for design and installation of pipeline cross-
locations) ing. The pipeline operator shall evaluate the need for
extending additional pipe protection over the pipeline
(1) Rock excavation is excavation that requires blasting.
when the road or railroad right-of-way width is unde-
fined based on anticipated loading from traffic or heavy
equipment performing maintenance activities adjacent
(b) Cover Requirements for Pipelines. Except for off- to the road or railroad.
shore pipelines, buried pipelines shall be installed with Varying degrees of additional protection from third-
a cover not less than that shown in Table 841.1.11-1. party damage to a buried main or pipeline crossing
Where these cover provisions cannot be met or where within (or parallel to) the right-of-way of road or railroad
external loads may be excessive, the pipeline shall be may be achieved using the following techniques, or vari-
encased, bridged, or designed to withstand any such ants thereof, singly or in combination.
anticipated external loads. In areas where farming or (1) A physical barrier or marker may be installed
other operations might result in deep plowing, in areas above or around the pipe (see para. 851.7). If a physical
subject to erosion, or in locations where future grading barrier is used, the potential conflict with the right-of-
is likely, such as at roads, highways, railroad crossings, way maintenance activities should be recognized. Physi-
and ditch crossings, additional protection shall be pro- cal barrier or marker methods include:
vided. [See para. 841.1.11(e) for suggested methods to (a) a concrete or steel barrier placed above the
provide additional protection.] pipe
(c) Clearance Between Pipelines or Mains and Other (b) a concrete slab placed vertically adjacent to
Underground Structures the pipe on each side and extended above the top of
(1) There shall be at least 6 in. (150 mm) of clearance pipe elevation
wherever possible between any buried pipeline and any (c) damage-resistant coating material, such as
other underground structure not used in conjunction concrete
with the pipeline. When such clearance cannot be (d) extra depth of cover additional to that
attained, precautions to protect the pipe shall be taken,
required in para. 841.1.11(b)
such as the installation of casing, bridging, or insulating
(e) buried high-visibility warning tape placed
parallel to and above the pipe
(2) There shall be at least 2 in. (50 mm) of clearance
wherever possible between any buried gas main and (f) pipe casing [see paras. 841.1.11(d) and 861.1.6]
any other underground structure not used in conjunc- (2) A heavier wall thickness than is required by the
tion with the main. When such clearance cannot be pipe design factor, F, in accordance with Table 841.1.6-1
attained, precautions to protect the main shall be taken, or Table 841.1.6-2.
such as the installation of insulating material or casing. (3) Pipeline alignment should be as straight and
(d) Casing Requirements Under Railroads, Highways, perpendicular to the road or railroad alignment as possi-
Roads, or Streets. Casings shall be designed to withstand ble to promote reliable marking of the pipe location
the superimposed loads. Where there is a possibility of through the right-of-way and at the right-of-way limits.
water entering the casing, the ends of the casing shall Additional underground pipe protection shall be used
be sealed. If the end sealing is of a type that will retain in conjunction with an effective educational program
the maximum allowable operating pressure of the carrier (para. 850.4.4), periodic surveillance of pipelines
pipe, the casing shall be designed for this pressure and (para. 851.1), pipeline patrolling (para. 851.2), and utili-
at least to the design factor of 0.72. Venting of sealed zation of programs that provide notification to operators
casings is not mandatory; however, if vents are installed regarding impending excavation activity, if available.

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