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Tribology 101 Introduction to

the Basics of Tribology

SJ Shaffer, Ph.D. Bruker-TMT


Steven.shaffer@bruker-nano.com
Outline

Origin/Definition of Tribology (Term and Field)


Encompassing Fields
Fundamentals of Tribology:
Surfaces in Contact
Friction
Lubrication
Wear
Concluding Words
Upcoming Topics in Series

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What is Tribology ?

Tribology comes from the Greek word, tribos,


meaning rubbing or to rub

And from the suffix, ology means the study of

Therefore, Tribology is the study of rubbing,


or the study of things that rub.

This includes the fields of:


Friction,
Lubrication, and
Wear.
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Tribology is a new word

Coined by Dr. H. Peter Jost in England in


1966
The Jost Report, provided to the British Parliament
Ministry for Education and Science, indicated Potential
savings of over 515 million per year ($800 million) for
industry by better application of tribological principles and
practices.

But
Tribology is not a new field!
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The First Recorded Tribologist 2400 B.C.

Transporting the statue of Ti from a tomb at Saqqara, Egypt

Figure taken from


History of Tribology,
by Duncan Dowson.
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The First Recorded Tribologist 2400 B.C.

Transporting the statue of Ti from a tomb at Saqqara, Egypt

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The First Recorded Tribologist 2400 B.C.

The first recorded tribologist pouring lubricant (water?)


in front of the sledge in the transport of the statue of Ti.
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A more famous Tribologist 500 years ago

Sled Friction Test 4-Ball Test Geometry


Geometry

Leonardo Da Vinci

Ball Bearing
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A more famous Tribologist 500 years ago

Sled Friction Test 4-Ball Test Geometry


Geometry

ASTM D1894 Static


Leonardo Da Vinci and Kinetic COFs of
Plastic Film & Sheeting

ASTM D5183 - COF


ASTM D2266, D2596 EP
ASTM D4172, D2783 - Wear
Ball Bearing
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A more famous Tribologist 500 years ago

Sled Friction Test 4-Ball Test Geometry


Geometry

ASTM D1894 Static


Leonardo Da Vinci and Kinetic COFs of
Plastic Film & Sheeting

Two Observations:
1. The areas in contact have no effect on
friction.
2. If the load of an object is doubled, its ASTM D5183 - COF
ASTM D2266, D2596 EP
friction will also be doubled. ASTM D4172, D2783 - Wear
Ball Bearing
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Tribology 101 - Basics

Applications and Fields which


Encompass Modern Tribology

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Tribology is All Around Us,
In Applications from Simple to Complex
and Scales from Small to Large

Individual Components

Assemblies or Products

Manufacturing Processes

Construction/Exploration

Natural Phenomena
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Individual Components

Gears

Brake & Clutch Pads


Bearings

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Assemblies or Products

Rock Climbing
Shoes

Pocket Watch

Engines

Curling Stones
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Manufacturing Processes

Turning

Rolling

Stamping Grinding/Polishing
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Construction/Exploration

Mine Slurry Pumps

Oil Drilling Rig


Excavator

Chunnel Digging Drill Space Shuttle


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Natural Phenomena

Wear Friction
Water Erosion Wind Erosion

On/Off Stiction: Super-


Gecko Feet hydrophobicity:
Lotus Leaf

Plate Tectonics
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Tribology 101 - Basics

In Parallel to these different Scales,

There are Many Areas of

Engineering and Industry which

have a Need to Use/Understand Tribology

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Tribology is also in Virtually every Area of
Engineering and Industry
Aerospace Fabric/Clothing
Agriculture Flooring
Automotive Food Processing
Engine: Piston ring/cylinder, Highway/Transportation
Bearings, valve seats, injectors
Depts.
Brakes/clutch
Tooling/Machining/Sheet metal Lubricant Manufacturers
forming
Medical Diagnostics
Coatings Providers
Medical Implants
Low Friction
Wear Resistant Military
Thin Films or Hardfacings Pharmaceutical
Cosmetics/Personal Care Shoe Manufacturers
Dental Implants Sports Equipment Companies
Energy Universities/Educators
Nuclear Mechanical Engineering
Wind Materials Science Engineering
Fossil Physics
Solar Chemistry
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Commonality in Tribology

What do All These Diverse Fields


and Applications have in Common?

What do we need to think about as


engineers and scientists when we
design products or friction/wear
experiments?

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Commonality

Every Application has:


Surfaces in Contact, and
in Relative Motion
(e.g. sliding, rolling, impacting)

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Tribology Basics - Surfaces in Contact

So lets begin by looking


closely at a surface

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The Surface is not Simple

Lubricant
Adsorbed
Contaminants
Oxide

Surface Properties
Disturbed Material

Bulk Material
Properties
Handbook
values

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The Surface is not Simple

Lubricant
Adsorbed
Contaminants
nms - ms
Oxide

Surface Properties
Disturbed Material

Bulk Material
mms - cms Properties
Handbook
values

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Nor is it Flat!

Lubricant

Adsorbed
Contaminants
Oxide
Surface Properties
Disturbed Material

Bulk Material
Properties

All engineering surfaces have a roughness, and this


roughness plays an important role in tribology.

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Nor is it Flat!

Lubricant

Adsorbed
Contaminants
Oxide
Surface Properties
Disturbed Material

Bulk Material
Properties

All engineering surfaces have a roughness, and this


roughness plays an important role in tribology.

Surface Roughness comes from all prior history of the


part: Manufacturing, handling and prior use in application.
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We need to think about

2 Aspects of a Surface:
Physical - Surface Roughness
Dictates Contact Area
Dictates Contact Stresses
Lubricant Paths or Reservoirs
Chemical - Intervening Layers
Chemical Compatibility
Shear Strength
Lubricant Properties, e.g. Viscosity
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We need to think about

2 Aspects of a Surface: Ground

Physical - Surface Roughness


Dictates Contact Area
Dictates Contact Stresses
Paths or Reservoirs for Bead Blasted
Lubricants/debris
Chemical - Intervening Layers
Chemical Compatibility
Shear Strength
Lubricant Properties, e.g. Viscosity
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We need to think about

2 Aspects of a Surface:

Physical - Surface Roughness


Dictates Contact Area
Dictates Contact Stresses
Lubricant Paths or Reservoirs

Chemical - Intervening Layers


Chemical Compatibility
Shear Strength
Lubricant Properties, e.g. Viscosity,
EP or boundary-forming
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Surface Characterization

Variety of Methods available, if needed


Physical Characterization
Roughness
Macro Waviness and Form (CMM)
Micro Surface Roughness
Stylus Profilometers (contact)
Optical Profilometers (non-contact)
AFM (sub-micron)
Hardness
Indent, Scratch

Chemical Characterization
Infrared, XPS, Raman, Auger
Lubricant Shear propertiesViscometry

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Tribology 101-Basics

Summary of Surfaces in Contact

Tribo-Forces are Dictated by Interaction of


Asperities
Asperities have Mechanical and Chemical
Properties
Methods Exist to Characterize these
Properties
Asperity Geometry and Distribution result
from Manufacturing Method, Handling and
Prior Rubbing History

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Friction
Fundamentals

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Friction Fundamentals
Conceptual Definition of Friction

Friction is the resistance to


relative motion between two
bodies in contact.

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Where does the resistance come
from?

When objects touch there are forces between them.

Microscopic Microscopic
forces of forces of
molecular mechanical
Adhesion. Abrasion.
(includes electrostatic, (includes elastic and
Van der Waals, metallic plastic deformation)
bonds)

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Where does friction come from?

Remember, there are also contaminants at the interface

Oxides,
Adsorbed films,
Adsorbed gases,
Foreign or
domestic particles

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Friction Fundamentals The COF

The Coefficient of Friction: A simple

constant of proportionality.

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Friction Fundamentals The COF

The Coefficient of Friction: A simple

constant of proportionality.

Or is it?

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Friction Fundamentals
Measuring Friction:
The Coefficient of Friction

Very Simple Relation:

F=N
N

= F/N = COF
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Friction Fundamentals The COF

Suppose a colleague wants to know:

What is the
COF of steel?

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Friction Fundamentals The COF

A: Well, dear colleague, you can use from


0.1 to 0.6. Take your pick.
What is the
COF of steel?

Is that close enough for your needs?

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Friction Fundamentals The COF

Well not really.

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Friction Fundamentals The COF

Well not really.

Then I guess well need a bit more


information.
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Friction Fundamentals The COF

What we need to know


What steel?
Stainless steel: 304, 316 , a 400-series or hardened 17-4PH or the like?
Carbon steel: if so is it pearlitic or martensitic?
Tool Steel?
Well I need to use it in water, so stainless steel, I guess.
What is the function? What is the mechanism?
Im designing a gear-driven mechanism, and I need to size the motor, assuming some
frictional loss in the gears, so I need the COF.
Gears Then, it needs to be hardened. How about the driven gear, whats its material?
The same, I suppose.
Im not sure thats a good idea, depending on the contact stress, sliding velocity and
surface finish. Do you know these parameters yet?
Not yet, Ill probably use standard values from my gear design handbook.
OK, I gather you need low friction, how about lubricant or use of a lubricious coating, are
these permitted in the design?
A coating is OK, but I dont think a liquid lubricant is permitted in this application.
OK, a coating then. How long will it need to last?
For the life of the mechanism. Cant you just tell me the COF?
Really, I need more information, because Ill likely need to run a test, depending on how
precisely you need the COF.
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All things considered,

The COF is Somewhat Complicated

Surface roughness plays a role


Lubricant plays a role
Surface chemistry plays a role
Contact Stress plays a role
Contact geometry plays a role
Environment plays a role
Temperature plays a role
Sliding speed plays a role

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All things considered

Its not so bad after all

Fortunately, while it appears complicated,


friction is relatively easy to measure,

(Only two things: Normal Load and Friction Force)

But, we have to measure it under the right


conditions.

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Summary of Friction Fundamentals
The equation is simple, but measuring it correctly
requires care:

When assessing a systems tribology need, we must consider:


Materials, Coating, Lubricant
Contact Area, Geometry, Stress
Surface Roughnesses
Sliding Speed
Sliding Mode (unidirectional, reciprocating, multidirectional)
Duty Cycle (continuous contact, intermittent contact)
Environment
Temperature, Humidity,
Atmosphere (air, exhaust gases, vacuum)

Friction is NOT a Material Property


Friction is a System Property
No such thing as the COF of steel, or the COF of rubber
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Lubrication
Fundamentals

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Lubrication Fundamentals

The role of a lubricant is to:


Reduce Friction
Prevent / Minimize Wear
Transport Debris away from Interface
Provide Cooling

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Lubrication Fundamentals:
Lubrication Regimes, with liquid present

In Liquid Lubrication, Regimes can be based


on: Fluid Film Thickness
The Lambda Ratio is defined as the ratio of the
fluid film thickness to the composite surface
roughness*
> 3 full film (thick film) lubrication,
hydrodynamics
1.2 > > 3 mixed or thin film lubrication
< 1.2 boundary lubrication
* - composite surface roughness = (rq12 + rq22)1/2
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Lubrication Regimes:
The Stribeck Curve

Thin Film,
Mixed
Journal Bearing
Boundary

Thick Film

Speed*Viscosity
Load
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Lubrication Regimes:

Boundary Lubrication Solid Lubricants

Solid Lubricants
Compounds with Low Shear Stress
MoS2, Graphite, WS2, HBN
Behave like a deck of cards
Bonded Films
DLC
Resin-bonded PTFE
Impregnated porous anodizing

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Summary of Lubrication
Fundamentals:

Key Factors in Lubricant Effectiveness


Fluid Shear Properties
Viscosity, Viscosity Index
Pressure-Viscosity Index
Chemistry
Reactivity with the Surface
Boundary Film-Forming Properties
Extreme Pressure Constituents
Shear strength of solid lubricant or coating
Thermal Conductivity/Heat Capacity
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Wear
Fundamentals

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Wear Fundamentals
Conceptual Definition of Wear

Removal (or displacement) of material


from one body when subjected to contact
and relative motion with another body.

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Wear Fundamentals - Wear Modes
6 Primary Wear Modes:

1. Abrasive Wear, Scratching


2. Adhesive Wear, Galling, Scuffing
3. Fretting/Fretting Corrosion
4. Erosive Wear, Cavitation, Impact, Electro-arcing
5. Rolling Contact Fatigue, Spalling, Delamination
6. Tribo-Corrosion

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Wear Fundamentals

Abrasive Wear, Scratching

The harder material


scratches the softer
material.

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Wear Fundamentals

Adhesive Wear, Galling, Scuffing


Begins as local welding

10 mm
Material compatibility is
important for adhesive
wear.
Galling of Stainless Steel Samples

Stacking fault energy,


crystal structure, natural
oxide formation all
influence adhesive wear.
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Wear Fundamentals

Fretting/Fretting Corrosion
Small
amplitude
displacement
(< 50 m).

Experiments generally have zones of no-slip,


and slip.
Small adhesive pull-outs occur at the boundary.
Often these oxidize, so sometimes called
fretting corrosion.
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Wear Fundamentals

Erosive Wear, Cavitation, Impact, Electro-arcing


Dependency on
particle size, shape,
composition, angle of
impingement, as well
as ductility of target

Particle Classification

1 cm

Fluting Damage
Steam Control Valve Cavitation Damage
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Wear Fundamentals

Rolling Contact Fatigue, Spalling, Delamination


Reversing sub-surface shear each
time the roller or ball passes over
the surface.
Accumulation of these stresses
Propagation to surface of
sub-surface-initiated cracks leads to subsurface crack
formation, usually at a
microstructural inhomogeneity.
Cracks grow toward surface and
particle spalls off.
Debris typically gets rolled over,
Spalled Bearing Inner Race
creating additional damage.
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Wear Fundamentals

Tribo-Corrosion
Wear in the presence of corrosion
can have synergistic effect.
Can happen with erosion or
sliding wear.
Bio-tribo-corrosion is major area
Erosion-Corrosion
Down-hole drilling environment is
another
ASTM Method G119 Standard
Guide for Determining Synergism
between Wear and Corrosion

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Wear Assessment

The Wear Coefficient, k


k volume of material removed per unit load and sliding
distance
Units of k are:
mm3/Nm
Please do NOT reduce the units of k to mm2/N or 1/kPa
This has no physical meaning

k can be used to predict component lifetimes, providing the


tribosystem does not change wear modes
Duty cycle and directionality can influence wear
Start-stop can be much more damaging than continuous
motion
Unidirectional sliding is very different from reciprocating
sliding
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Summary of Wear Fundamentals

Like Friction, Wear is a System Property, NOT a


Materials Property
There are several distinct wear regimes, though
some can operate simultaneously, or sequentially
Observed abrasive wear can results from initial
adhesive wear

If you properly simulated the system and wear


mode, the wear coefficient, k, can be used to
predict lifetimes

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Some
Final Words for
Todays Webinar

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Tribology Fundamentals
Key Concepts

1. COF is not a material property, it is a system


property.

2. Wear Rate or wear resistance depends on the wear


mode, which is a function of the Tribosystem.

3. If we properly characterize and understand the


Tribosytem, the odds are better that we will
succeed, because we can make the right choice for
materials, contact geometry and chemistry, and
make the appropriate measurements to give us
the answer we seek for our design.
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Means to Assess
Tribo-systems
Tribology & Mechanical Testing (TMT)

Universal platform for Tribology studies: Wear, Friction,.. when 2


surfaces meet.

Large load range


Wide variety of environments (corrosion, HT, liquid)
Wide variety of configurations (rotating & translating motions)
Many different Tribology tests

Linear Stage Block-on-Ring Drive

Reciprocating Drive Rotary Drive


Indentation & Scratch Testing

Indentation & Scratch Tester


Scratch test example

Large load range: nano & micro Indentation example

Wide variety of imaging options


(AFM, profiler, optical)
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