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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Design/Commissioning
Tips for Variable Speed
Pumping Systems
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Differential Pressure
Transmitters
The main goal of the secondary chilled water system is to
distribute the correct amount of water to satisfy the load.
It must first accurately monitor the system for changes
in load dynamics.

Secondly, it must respond to these load changes


with the correct amount of flow.

Typically a differential pressure sensor is the device


chosen for feedback in a building management system.

Differential Pressure Transmitter Types


Mfg. Differential Pressure Burst
Photo Model No. Accuracy Output
Name Pressure Range Pressure

Taco DPS629 +/- 0.5% FS 0-25psid 50 psid 250 psi 4-20 mA | 0-10 VDC

Taco DPS3100 +/- 0.075% FS 1-100psi -14.5 to 2000 psi 10000 psi 4-20 mA | 0-10 VDC
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Differential Pressure
Transmitter Installation
NOTES:
Material of construction as required by application.
DP Transmitter may be wall mounted or pipe stand mounted.
Orientation of DP XMTR and pipes has no effect on performance.
Gauges can be rotated for best viewing.
DP XMTR Isolation Valve

High Gauge

DP XMTR

Low Gauge

DP XMTR Isolation Valve

Supply Upstream Return


(High Side)
Manifold
Block Valve

Downstream
(Low Side)
Manifold
Block Valve

Tag: AHU-________ HW It is critical that the design engineer


Tag: AHU-________ HW tell the installing contractor WHERE in
Tag: AHU-________ HW the system they would like the sensors
Tag: AHU-________ CW installed. This is most easily done with
Tag: AHU-________ CW a small schedule indicating which
Tag: AHU-________ CW terminal unit the engineer wants.
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Differential Pressure
Transmitter Quantity
Quantity:
Three sensors can provide a very
accurate picture of system demand.
One for the longest run
(Student dorm or remote part of East Campus)

One for the dominant load
(New basketball arena in Central Campus)

One for another zone
(Administrative office located in remote part of West Campus)

For buildings with a very asymmetric layout,


other sensors may be added to monitor
each zone.
TIP: Provide three way valves or bypass
at remote points of the system.
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Determining Differential
Pressure Setpoint
The sensor must keep enough pressure differential across
the supply and return to push the design capacity flow
through the coil and control valve.

3 psi (7) PD

DP 10 PD

Setpoint = Sum of coil pressure drop + control valve


pressure drop at design conditions (17)
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Sensor Placement
Whether the Dp sensor is located at the pump discharge or the end of
the pipe loop with the highest head does not affect the ability of the
pumps to move the design flow. However, it dramatically affects the
amount of energy consumed by the pumps.

A P sensor located near the pump discharge will save very little energy.
The setpoint must be equal to the pressure drop through all the coils,
control valves and connecting piping downstream of the sensor at
design flow. This value is only slightly less than the pumps design
head. The shaded area represents the energy savings compared to
constant speed pumps.

Pressure
Area of Power
TERMINAL Reduction
UNIT

Setpoint
CONTROL 100%
DIFF. PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER VALVE

BYPASS
Motor
W/VALVE Speed
Curves
PRIMARY

Speed

Sensor Location 80 setpoint (Across Pump)


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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

A P sensor located at the furthest most significant load will save


the most energy. Its setpoint must be equal to the pressure drop
through the single coil, control valve and connecting piping
downstream of the sensor at design flow. This will be about 17 like
our example on the previous page. Again the shaded area is how
much energy can be saved compared to constant speed pumps.

Pressure
TERMINAL Area of Power
UNIT Reduction

CONTROL
VALVE

BYPASS
W/VALVE

PRIMARY DIFF. PRESSURE Setpoint


PUMP TRANSMITTER 25%
Speed

Sensor Location with 17 setpoint (Across Load)


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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Minimum Allowable
VFD Speed
A good rule of thumb for 1750 RPM applications is that the minimum
allowable VFD speed should be no less than 15Hz (25% max speed).
The primary reasons are:
1. Protect the seal from premature failure
A minimum speed is required to overcome
the spring compression forces between the
stationary and rotating elements. Additionally,
it must overcome the difference in pressure
between the system fluid and atmosphere.
There are speeds at which the seal spring (or large differential pressure)
forces the two seal faces closed and forces out all of the fluid necessary
for lubricating and cooling. Operating in this condition is equivalent to
running the seal dry.
A good rule of thumb for 1750 RPM applications is that the minimum
allowable VFD speed should be no less than 15 Hz. Preferably 20 Hz.
The equivalent rule of thumb for 1150 RPM minimum VFD speed is 25Hz.
Process Fluid acts as
lubricant between faces Pump Housing
Gland

Process Fluid

Primary Ring Mating Ring

Invisible Leakage: Fluid evaporates upon reaching the atmosphere


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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

2. Below 15hz (25% max speed) is unlikely


to move water out of the mechanical room
According to the pump affinity laws, flow
is proportional to speed and head is
proportional to speed squared. When you
run a pump at speed or 15hz, you can
only generate 1/16 of the pumps head.

i.e. 1/4 2 = 1/16


1/16th of the head is unlikely to even move
the water out of the mechanical room.

Energy reduction at 1/4 speed = 1/4 3 or 1/64 of design HP.


This is the realistic lower end of turn-down.

3. Specialty Pump Exceptions


Some pumps such as vertical turbines require water
to lubricate journals and bearings. Particularly vertical
turbine pumps. The minimum speed must be set to move
water up the height of the column and overcome any static
head loss. There are times that this will be above the hz.
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Establishing Minimum
System Flow
The overall hydronic system and each of its major
branches need a minimum amount of flow.

It is recommended to use a bypass with balancing valve or a three way


valve at the end of each major zone for the following reasons:

Prevents thermal stagnation.


Impeller
Increases the life of the pump
at full
by preventing dead-head or speed
no-flow condition.
Rule of thumb: Ensure there is
Impeller at
at least 1/4 GPM per design HP
1/4 speed
to protect the pump at min speed.

Note: More flow will be required if you are trying to protect against dead head on a full speed situation.
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Design tips for


flow meters

Use a Flow Meter for:


Accurate Staging
End of Curve Protection
Shut Off Protection
Best Efficiency Control
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Pump staging with flow


Here we show 2 pump parallel operation.
Note the pumps are selected to allow the single pump
curve to intersect the system curve.
If the system flow increases beyond the single pump
intersection point(a), the system will see a drop below
the system setpoint and initiate the lag pump start.

Design System Head Curve

Design Point
HEAD

One Pump

Two Pump
A

Control DP
Lag Pump Reject Zone

GPM
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Liquid Flow Sensor


Installation Detail
NOTES:
Refer to instruction manual for mechanical installation details.
Orientation (Horizontally preferred).
Locate for use in full pipe (Make sure to eliminate air).
A Upstream 10 pipe dia. length of straight rin pipe
with no restrictions, enlargements, valves, couplings
or other intrusions. Fair (Unacceptable if air is present)

B Upstream 5 pipe dia. length of straight rin pipe


with no restrictions, enlargements, valves, couplings
or other intrusions. Best

Flow Sensor (Supplied)

Hot Tap (Supplied) Fair (Unacceptable if fluid contains sediment)

2 NPT Coupling
(By Field)
Nipple (Supplied)

Flow

A B
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Common Problems
Most systems are set up
with the following problems:
Incorrect pressure
sensor installation
Incorrect pressure
sensor setpoint
Air not bled out of sensor
Control loops detuned to
handle all situations
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Taco Variable Speed Drives Design/Commissioning Tips

Differential Temperature
Delta-T lends itself to even more cost effective variable speed pumping.
The issues associate with placement and of Delta-T sensors is replaced
with ease and simplicity of thermistors.
As the Delta-T falls below setpoint, the pumps would slow down.
As the Delta-T rises above setpoint, the pumps speed up.
Remember that BTUH = GPM x T x 500

Temperature Sensor
TRP1 Series Sensor is a thermistor type 10K Ohms (Type III) sensor.
The TRP1 Series is a stainless steel bullet probe which is 1/4 in
diameter and 1 long with a 24 wire leads.
Output: 10K Ohm @ 77F.
Taco Catalog #300-28 Effective Date: 10/11/12
Supersedes: 08/30/12
16 Printed in USA

Taco, Inc.,1160 Cranston Street, Cranston, RI 02920 / (401) 942-8000 / Fax (401) 942-2360
Taco (Canada) Ltd. 8450 Lawson Road, Unit #3, Milton, Ontario L9T 0J8 / (905) 564-9422 / Fax (905) 564-9436

www.taco-hvac.com