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General Mining methods

Two methods;
Opencast
Underground.
When the cost of Overburden removal to
expose the coal is economical, opencast
mining is adopted.
Technology used in underground mining
depends on geology and geometry of the
seam.
Smaller deposits can have Manual loading and intermediate
technologies with continuous miners or LHDsand SDLsBord
and Pillar method.
Large reserve and uniform deposit are mined by Longwall
mining a bulk production but capital intensive technology.
Mechanisation in Bord and pillar has limitations of gradients.
Seams steeper than 12(1 in 5 ) are not suitable -leaving little
possibility to mechanise most of the mines with these
deposits.
Existing technologies
A) TECHNOLOGIES IN OPEN CAST
1)SHOVEL-DUMPER
2)SURFACE MINER
3)DRAGLINE
4)HIGH WALL MINING
B) TECHNOLOGIES IN UNDERGROUND
1) MANUAL
2) SEMI MECHANISATION
i)SDLs
ii)LHDs
iii)CONTINUOUS MINER
3) LONGWALL MECHANIZATION : Shearer, etc.
BP
METHODS
LW
UG EQUIPMENT
INTERMEDIATE
TECHNOLOGY
MASS PROD
DRILLING

LIGHTING BLASTING

PUMPING CUTTING
UG
OPERATIONS

VENTILATION SUPPORT

HAULING
TARNSFER /
TRANSPORT
UG MINING
EQUIPMENT

DRILLING SAFETY &


TRANSPORT
/BLASTING LOADING ROOF SUPPORT VENTILATION RESCUE
/HANDLING
CUTTING

COAL CUTTING
SDL COAL MATERIAL MAN
MC

SHEARER LHD HAULAGE CONVEYOR WINDING WINDING

CONTINUOUS
GAL ENDLESS BELT DRUM MAN RIDING
MINER

ROAD HEADER DIRECT CHAIN (AFC) FRICTION CAR

BORER
UNDERGROUND MECHANISATION STATUS (Feb11)

EQUIPMENT ECL BCCL CCL WCL SECL MCL CIL

SDL 161 147 19 73 211 21 632

LHD 38 3 6 116 148 30 341

ROAD HEADER 2 4 6

PSLW 1 3 3 7

SHW 1 1

CONT MINER 2 2 2 6
UNDERGROUND MECHANISATION PRODUCTION
STATUS (2009-10)
EQUIPMENT ECL BCCL CCL WCL SECL MCL CIL
SDL 3.08 2.79 0.23 2.86 9.81 0.47 19.24
LHD 1.02 0.05 0.16 5.94 6.75 4.67 18.59
ROAD HEADER 0.01 0.05 0.06
CONT MINER 0.46 0.17 0.48 1.11
SHW 0.33 0.33
PSLW 0.03 0.16 0.03 0.22
CONV MECH LW 0.03 0.03
MECHANISED 4.59 3.08 0.40 8.96 17.39 2.14 36.56
MANUAL 3.64 0.82 1.07 0.66 0.44 0.06 6.69
TOTAL UG 8.23 3.90 1.47 9.62 17.83 2.20 43.25
TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Based on gradient of the seam :
Manual : In all grdients

SDL : Where the gradient is <= 1 in 5 (120)

LHD : Where the gradient is <= 1 in 6 (100)

Continuous Miner : Where the gradient is <= 1 in 8 (70)

Longwall : Where the property is devoid of fault.


Board and pillar
In Board-and-pillar mining, coal deposits are mined by
cutting a network of roads into the coal seam and
leaving behind pillars of coal to support the roof of
the mine. These pillars can be up to 40% of the total
coal in the seam although this coal can sometimes be
recovered at a later stage. This can be achieved in what
is known as retreat mining, where coal is mined from
the pillars as workers retreat. The roof is then allowed
to collapse and the mine is abandoned.
Board and pillar
The main advantage of Boardand-pillar
mining over longwall mining is that it allows
coal production to start much more quickly,
with less costs.
Board
Road

Board
CONTINUOUS MINER package
For DEVELOPMENT & EXTRACTION
Continuous miner* - 1 no.
Shuttle cars - 2 no.
Twin/ Quad bolter* - 1 no.
Feeder breaker - 1 no.
Power pack - 1 no.
Mobile goaf edge support (Optional) -2 nos.
(* In some package both the machines are integrated into one)

POWER SUPPORT LONGWALL package


For EXTRACTION
Shearer -1
Powered support - 1 set
Armoured Face Conveyor -1
Stage loader - crusher -1
Power pack -1
For DEVELOPMENT
Continuous miner package or
Roadheader package 24
Longwall
Longwall mining involves the full extraction of coal from a
section of the seam or face using mechanical shearers to cut
and remove the coal at the face, which can vary in length from
100-350 m. .
A longwall face requires careful planning to ensure favourable
geology exists throughout the section before development work
begins.
The coal face can vary in length from 100-350m.
Self advancing Roof Supports (SARS) are used( hydraulically-
powered supports) to temporarily hold up the roof while coal is
extracted.
When coal has been extracted from the area, the roof is allowed
to collapse.
Over 75% of the coal in the deposit can be extracted from
panels of coal that can extend 3km through the coal seam.
LONGWALL MECHANISATION
Shearer
SARS
AFC
Stage loader
Gate belt
Trunk belt
Other belts
Self advancing support system
2 to 6 hydraulic props (legs) fixed to a common base plate.
A heavy roof canopy (plate) mounted over the legs for setting against the roof.
A double acting horizontal hydraulic ram linked to the face conveyor for shifting
the face conveyor and for pulling the support towards the face.
A rear guard shield for preventing the flow of debris into the face.
A power pack to provide the high pressure fluids through hoses as the power
medium for moving the support.

The Self-Advancing Roof Supports (SARS) perform the additional functions:


Protection of workers and the machines at coal faces.
Shift the coal face equipment with the help of hydraulic rams.
Provide immediate continuous support to the exposed roof.
Provide high rate of face advance in conjunction with coal cutting machines like
shearer/plough.
STATUS & PRODUCTION OF INDIAN LONGWALL MINING

Sl.No. PROJECT Capacity Rated (TPD)


ECL
1 Jhanjra 1&2 Inc. 1476
2 Jhanjra 1&2 Inc. 3000
3 Jhanjra-MIC 1476
BCCL
4 ML-IV 860
5 ML-V 840
6 ML-VI 470
7 ML-VII 3200
SECL
8 Balarampur 1950
9 New Kumuda 1950
10 Rajendra 2300
SCCL
11 VK-7 Inc 1600
12 JK-5 Inc 2000
13 GDK-10A Inc 2200
14 GDK-9 Inc 1900
15 PVK Inc 2200
Continuous miner
SIDE DISCHARGE LOADER (SDL)
LOAD HAUL DUMPER (LHD)
ROAD HEADER
CONTINUOUS MINER
SHUTTLE CAR
ROOF BOLTER
SHEARER
POWERED SUPPORT
POWERED SUPPORT LONGWALL
DRILLING

LIGHTING BLASTING

PUMPING CUTTING
UG
OPERATIONS

VENTILATION SUPPORT

HAULING
TARNSFER /
TRANSPORT
Product Range Roof
Supports

Shearers

A.F.Cs

Shuttle Cars

Continuous
Miners

Continuous
Haulage
Articulated
Haulage

Flexible
Conveyor
Train
UG MINING
EQUIPMENT

DRILLING SAFETY &


TRANSPORT
/BLASTING LOADING ROOF SUPPORT VENTILATION RESCUE
/HANDLING
CUTTING

COAL CUTTING
SDL COAL MATERIAL MAN
MC

SHEARER LHD HAULAGE CONVEYOR WINDING WINDING

CONTINUOUS
GAL ENDLESS BELT DRUM MAN RIDING
MINER

ROAD HEADER DIRECT CHAIN (AFC) FRICTION CAR

BORER
UG MINING METHODS
BORD & PILLAR Method

Coal deposits are mined by cutting a network of


roads into the coal seam and leaving behind
pillars of coal to support the roof of the mine.

LONGWALL Method

It involves the full extraction of coal from a


section of the seam or face using mechanical
shearers to cut and remove the coal at the face.
Self advancing Roof Supports are used to
temporarily hold up the roof while coal is
extracted. 59
MAJOR UG EQUIPMENTS
WINNING & LOADING
DRILLING MACHINES (Hand held, Tyre/ crawler mounted)
ROAD HEADER
SHEARER
CONTINUOUS MINER
SIDE DISCHARGE LOADER(SDL)
LOAD HAUL DUMPER(LHD)
TRANSPORTATION
CONVEYORS (Belt conveyors, Chain conveyors)
HAULAGES (Direct haulage, Endless haulage, Main & tail
haulage)
WINDING SYSTEMS (Drum winder, Friction/koepe winder)
MAN RIDING SYSTEMS
SHUTTLE/RAM CARS
LOCOS 60
Support UG Equipments
VENTILATION FANS
PUMPS
SAFETY RELATED EQUIPMENTS
Self contained self rescuers
Gas monitoring devices
SHOT FIRING EQUIPMENT
SUPPORTS
Shield type hydraulic power support
Individual hydraulic/friction/screw supports 61
Support UG Equipments
MONITORING DEVICES
ROOF BOLTER
Hand held
Crawler mounted
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Conventional wire based
From surface to UG- wireless and from
UG to surface Combination of wire
and microwave 62
MASS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
UNDERGROUND
Continuous Miner
Highwall Mining
Powered Support Longwall
OPENCAST
Surface Miner
Continuous Miner 63
U/G MECHANISATION IN CIL (February 2011)
Comp. SDL LHD High Road PSLW SHW Cont.
Cap Header Miner
LHD

ECL 161 38 - 2 1 - 2

BCCL 147 3 - 4 3 - -
CCL 19 6 - - - - -
NCL - - - - - - -
WCL 73 116 - - - - 2

SECL 211 140 8 - 3 1 2


MCL 21 30 - - - - -
CIL 632 313 8 6 7 1 6
64
Depth > 1000 m (3281 ft)
Multiple seam mining

Effects of mining Long-term stability


(subsidence / stress
redistributions) (shaft / pit bottom)

Support design

Calculation of deformation
(longwall / face roadways)

Several planning tools


TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN UNDERGROUND MINES

In CIL intermediate technology has been introduced for major operations


like coal winning by drilling and blasting with use of explosives, roof
supports by bolting etc. and coal loading with SDL/LHD.

SDL LHD
TECHNOLOGICAL OPTION IN UNDERGROUND MINES
MINING WITH BLASTING AT FACES
Conventional Bord and Pillar with Side Discharge Loader(SDL)/ Load Haul
Dump (LHD) m/c.
Bord and Pillar with SDL/LHD & Universal Drill Machine (UDM)
Cable Bolting method with Remote SDL/LHD
Blasting gallery Method of Mining

BLASTING FREE MINING


Long Wall Mining.
Short wall Mining.
MPT with Continuous Miner & Shuttle Car Combination.
Low capacity Continuous Miner (LCCM)
High Wall Mining
SDL LHD
Continuous Miner (CM) & Flexible Conveyor Train (FCT) Combination.
MINING WITH BLASTING AT FACES

Conventional Bord & Pillar with SDL/LHD.

Both development and final extraction of coal property by SDL/LHD is


a very commonly practiced mining methodology today in B&P layout.

However, hike in wages cost and quantum jump in coal demand now
necessitates search for suitable technological option.

SDL LHD
MINING WITH BLASTING AT FACES

Bord and Pillar with SDL/LHD & Universal Drill Machine (UDM).
UDMs have been introduced for coal face and roof drilling in several
mines with following advantages:

Faster rate of drilling both in coal face and roof.


Faster and better coal preparation.
Optimization in manpower.
Enhanced safety status due to elimination of manual drilling.
Higher production and productivity.

SDL LHD
MINING WITH BLASTING AT FACES

Cable Bolting method with Remote SDL/LHD in Bord & Pillar layout.

Useful for extraction of moderately thick seams and support of high


roof is by cable bolts.

Practiced successfully in some mines of ECL and SECL using Remote


Controlled SDL/LHD.

SDL LHD
MINING WITH BLASTING AT FACES
BARRIER
Step 6

Blasting Gallery Method of Mining.


B
successfully introduced in SCCL, ECL A
R
R
I
and SECL for moderately thick coal E
R

seams
(6-8 m) BARRIER

Major equipment in use :


- Remote controlled LHDs
- Jumbo Drill machine.
- MDCC
- Lump Breaker.
- 40T Individual Props. SDL LHD
BLASTING FREE MINING

Long Wall Mining.

PSLW technology experimented in the country at:


Dhemo Main, Seetalpur, Jhanjra (ECL)
Patharkhera (WCL)
Moonidih (BCCL)
Church, New Kumda, Balrampur, Rajendra (SECL)
GDK , PVK Mine etc (SCCL)
This technology has yielded mixed results in terms of output and
economics due to problems in strata management in case of hard and
massive overlying strata, equipment support and back-up services,
SDL etc.
inadequate geological investigations LHD
BLASTING FREE MINING

Short wall Mining.


Envisages extraction of standing coal pillars developed in Bord &
Pillar layout with the help of PSLW equipment.
The developed galleries are suitably supported in advance.
Short wall mining was commissioned at a UG mine in SECL in
December07.
Six panels were successfully extracted giving an average production
of 1200-1400 TPD.
Powered supports of 4 x 650 Te. capacity at the face.

SDL LHD
BLASTING FREE MINING

Mass Production Technology (MPT) with Continuous Miner (CM) &


Shuttle Car.
Introduced at a number of mines in the country since the year 2002 in
WCL, SECL, SCCL and ECL.
Suited to the Indian conditions. It is versatile, flexible and less capital
intensive.
percentage of coal extraction in a panel is significantly higher (around
75-80%). Coal production to the tune of 0.60 Mty has been achieved
from a CM package in the country.
A higher production level is possible with moderate seam thickness.
SDL LHD
BLASTING FREE MINING

Low Capacity Continuous Miner (LCCM).

A scaled down version of the Continuous Miner package.


This equipment has experimentally been introduced in some coal mines
and average coal output is anticipated to be at a level of 600 TPD from
both development/ depillaring in Bord and Pillar mining with 2.2m to
2.4m thick coal seam.
Such equipment may find wider application considering relatively low
capital investment and the advantages.
Further steps ahead shall be taken towards equipment design/capacity
improvement after review based on operational experiences.
SDL LHD
RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS.

High Wall Mining.


This is a new technology and planned to be operational shortly in the country.
Suitable for thin and moderate coal seams and seams not possible to be
exploited economically by any available UG or OC method now and where the
coal reserves are liable to be lost or sterilized.
Well suited under the following geo-mining environment:
I) At quarriable limit where highwall position reached.
II) Where coal has become sterilized due to surface constraints.
Coal seam is approached through a trench. Exposed coal on either side of the
trench is extracted by remotely operated Continuous Miner leaving adequate
remnants between two consecutive webs where the overlying strata remain
unaffected.
SDL LHD
TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT ON THE
HORIZON

1.Continuous Miner (CM) & Flexible Conveyor Train (FCT) Combination.

The technology is operating in some mines in UK and USA.


The requirement of Shuttle Car is dispensed with and is replaced by Tyre
mounted flexible conveyor which can be articulated as per requirement
during mining operations in a panel.
The flexible conveyor is linked to the out bye end of the Continuous Miner
and discharges coal on the gate belt. The length of the FCT varies between
70m to 130m.
Due to greater continuity in mining cycle, productivity is enhanced by
around 50% to 60% compared to Continuous Miner and Shuttle Car
combination.
SDL LHD
UNIQUE EXPERIENCE ON SHORTWALL
MINING IN INDIAN COAL MINING
INDUSTRY

M.P. Dikshit
Chairman-cum Managing Director
South Eastern Coalfields Limited
SHORTWALL MINING AT
BALRAMPUR MINE, BISHRAMPUR
AREA, SECL
B A R R I E R

GOAF

FACE
RETREATING

P I L L A R S
PANEL LENGTH = 540M
110
INTRODUCTION
The Shortwall technology for extraction of developed
bord & pillar property.
PSLW with associated equipment.
Implemented at Balrampur Mine in CIC.
SHORTWALL MINING
Shortwall Mining - an evolutionary variation of L/W
mining for extraction of developed B&P workings.
Geometric simplicity (Shorter face length : 84m/104m)

Effective strata control by Powered Supports.


Face optimum obliquity = 9-110 to limit exposure at a time.
Roof Supports: Powered Support + OC Props and cable
bolting at developed galleries/gate roads for better strata
management.
SCOPE OF SHORTWALL
TECHNOLOGY
In India around 3000 MT Coal is locked in developed
pillars in different geomining environment.

Encouraging results in operation, productivity, safety,


conservation of coal & strata management during
operation.

To avoid crushing/spalling of sides, ventilation


constraints, spontaneous heating, locking of other
prospective seams besides inconvenience for longer
maintenance of these standing coal pillars.
SALIENT INFORMATION OF
SHORTWALL PANELS
Sl Parameters Panels already worked
No 63L 58L 57L
01 Depth of Cover (M) 40-51 34-42 34-37
02 Panel Length (M) 540 460 530
03 Working Seam Height 2.5
(M)
04 Face Length (C-C) (M) 80
05 Face Orientation 90 110
06 Pillar Size (C to C) 20m X 20m
07 Width of the Gallery 4 to 4.5m
08 Seam Gradient 1 in 51
09 Location of Main Gate Top Top Bottom
Sl Parameters Panels already worked out
no 34L S-7 S-6
01 Depth of the Cover 30-34 32 30
(M)
02 Panel Length (M) 380 440 440
03 Seam Thickness 2.5m
04 Face Length (m) 100 80
05 Face Orientation 90 - 110
06 Pillar Size (C to C) 20m X 20m
07 Width of the 4 to 4.5m
Gallery
08 Gradient 1 in 51
09 Location of Main Bottom Top Top
PHYSICO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
OF COAL
Density Compressive Tensile Modulus of
(kg/m3) Strength Strength Elasticity
(MPa) (MPa) (GPa)
1400 27.9 3.11 1.8
PHYSICO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLOOR ROCK

Roc Densit Compressi Tensile Modulus RM


k y ve Strengt of R
Typ (Kg/m3 Strength h Elasticity
e ) c t ,
(MPa) (MPa) E
(GPa)
Sand 2243 14.5 2.2 3.0 65
PHYSICO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ROOF
ROCK ( From immediate roof & upwards)
Rock Thick- Density RQD c t E RM
Type ness (kg/m3) (%) (MPa) (MPa (GP R
(M) ) a)

Mg. Sst. 5.5 2267 40 11 1.5 1.8 55


with
laminatio
ns
Cg.-Mg. 6.7 2250 78 17.1 1.4 3.0 65
Sst.
VCg. Sst. 3.9 2250 43 13.9 1.4 2.0 55
Mg. Sst. 14.0 2243 75 14.5 2.2 3.0 70
Weathere 11.0 2138 40 14.5 2.2 0.3 42
d rock
SHORTWALL EQUIPMENT
Powered Supports

Armoured Face Conveyor

EQUIPMEN Shearer
T
Bridge Stage Loader & Crusher
Power Pack & Communication
System(Ck2), Electricals
POWERED SUPPORTS
3.62 m

Canopy

Back Shield
Leg
1.4-2.7m

Lemniscates linkage

Base

2.14 m
POWERED SUPPORTS-
TECHNICAL FEATURE
Type of Support 4 Leg Chock Shied
Height 1.4- 2.7m
Canopy Length 3.62m
Width 1.5m
Support Density 116 Te/m 2 (min.span)
100 Te/m2 (max.span)
Setting Pressure 30MPa
Yield Pressure 41MPa
Capacity 650 Te.
Operation Mode Adjacent Control
Weight 16.13 Te.
SHEARER
TECHNICAL FEATURES
Coal Seam
Cutting Height 1.5 3.1 m
Inclination <= 35
Coal Hardness Medium to Hard

DESCRIPTION OF SHEARER
Drum Diameter : 1600mm
Centre dis. of Drum : 8432mm
Web Depth : 600mm

CUTTING SYSTEM POWER


Length of ranging arm : 1681mm 375 kW / 1100 V
Swivel angle of arm : 17 to 50 Haulage Speed : 0-6.1m/min
Total picks per drum : 48 nos. Control system : Electrical & Mechanical
ARMOURED FACE CONVEYOR
Description Value
a) Capacity 800 Te./ hours

(Maximum)
b) Chain 0.92m/second
Speed
c) Motor 150 kW Tail
(Tail and and Drive end
Drive) at 1.1 KV.
d) Line Pan 1500mmX
Size 764mm X
275mm
e) Chain Size 26 X 92 mm
BRIDGE STAGE LOADER (B.S.L.)
Make CME, I&E, PR-China
Type SZZ-764/132
Effective overlap 12m
Line Pan Size 1500mmX764mmX222m
m
Chain Configuration 2 In-board
Chain Dimension 26mm X 92mm
Chain Speed (m/Sec) 1.2 m/Sec.
Distance bet. flight (mm): 736mm
Conveying Capacity 900 TPH
Drive Motor 132 KW / 1.1 KV
POWER PACK
DESCRIPTION VALUE
A) Nominal Pressure 31.5 MPa
B) Nominal Flow 200 LPM
C) Motor Power 125 kW / 1100 V
D) Water emulsion oil 95 : 5
ratio
E) Emulsion Tank
i) Model R X 1600
ii) Capacity 2 X 1000 Ltrs.
iii) Fluid medium Emulsion (95% clean &
neutral water with 5%
POWER TRAIN / ENERGY TRAIN
Electricals for Shortwall operation installed at main gate
in Energy/ Power Train (on 14 trolleys).

Transformers, Circuit Breakers, Gate End boxes, Water


spray pump, Power Packs, Emulsion tanks, Face
Communication system, Lighting Transformer
hoses/cables in the circuit.

Operating voltage is 1.1KV.


CYCLIC METHOD OF OPERATION

Coal Cutting by Shifting of


Shearer Powered
+ Support of
Advancing of advanced
(Powered Supports galleries
+ Shifting of AFC ) and
OC Props of
Gate Roads
COAL WINING & EVACUATION
OPERATION
Coal Cutting
by
Shearer

AFC

Bunker

BSL +
Crusher
Gate Belt At Surface
Conveyor Trunk Belts
LAYOUT OF EQUIPMENT AND STRATA
MONITORING INSTRUMENTS AT THE
SHORTWALL PANEL

Top Gate Dip: 1 in 51 Bottom Gate


(Main Gate) (Tail Gate)
UNDERGROUND COAL MINING
Background

UG coal mining has travelled from early pick & shovel


mining to todays fully mechanised power supported
longwall faces producing 10 mty with ease.
During its history mining methods and matching
equipments have evolved, by complimenting each
other to achieve higher production, productivity and
safety
For a focused discussion sake, only those equipment
which are used underground, are covered in the
presentation
General equipment requirements

Must confirm to Indian Electricity Rules 1956.


Must be approved by Directorate General of
Mines Safety (DGMS).
Depending upon the degree of gassiness, the
relevant regulation for Intrinsically safe and
FLP (Flame proof) are to be adhered to.
Broad classification of mining methods
Common UG mining Methods
Bord/ Room & pillar
Development
Depillaring
With caving
With stowing
Long wall
Advancing
Retreating
Special UG mining methods
Blasting gallery
Yankowice etc.
Challenges ahead
Continuously declining trend of production from
underground mines, particularly in CIL, is a
matter of grave concern.
By 2024-25, production from underground mines
is to be increased by about 3 times from the
present level a very challenging and daunting
task for CIL.
This would need to plan strategically to increase
rate of output from mines.
Possible options to meet the challenge

Introduction of suitable mass production


technology such as,
Longwall,
Continuous Miner (CM), and
Low Capacity Continuous Miner (LCCM).
Application of Universal Drilling Machine
(UDM) with SDLs and LHDs for improving rate
of output in B&P method of working.
Longwall mining technology

Application of longwall technology in future would be


limited due to non-availability of suitable geological
patches,
The contribution of longwall mining technology is
expected to be low and therefore, may not be considered
the technology for future for the Indian coal industry as
on today.
CMPDI has a massive plan for detailed exploration during
the XI Plan period in the regionally explored green-field
areas. It is expected that a few projects with longwall
technology would come up in Trans-Mand sector of
Mand-Raigarh coalfield also.
CM, LCCM, and LHDs with UDM
Continuous miner technology has been introduced into three
mines of CIL one each in SECL, WCL, and ECL, and has given
encouraging results.
Indigenously developed LCCM has been recently introduced in
one mine of WCL and is to be introduced in SECL as well.
A total of 42 additional CM/ LCCM sets are envisaged to be
deployed in CIL mines during XI Plan period producing to the
tune of 17.63 Mt by the terminal year 2011-12. Four projects -
two in ECL (Tilaboni & Shyamsundarpur/ Sarpi Ph-I) and one
each in WCL (Murpar) and MCL (Jagganath) have been
identified for implementation on turnkey basis.
LHDs with UDM has also shown encouraging results.
UG Mining methods
Type of equipments
Winning & loading Transportation
equipments Conveyors
Drilling machines Belt conveyors
Hand held Chain conveyors
Tyre/ crawler mounted Haulages
Road-header Direct haulage
Endless haulage
Continuous Miner
Main & tail haulage etc.
Side discharge loader
Winding systems
Load haul dumper
Drum winder
Friction / koepe winder
Man riding systems
Shuttle/ Ram cars
Locos
Type of equipments
Ventilation fans
Pumps Supports
Safety related equipments Shield type hydraulic power
support
Self contained self rescuers
Individual hydraulic/ friction/
Gas monitoring devices screw supports
Shot firing equipment Monitoring devices
Roof bolter
Hand held
Crawler mounted
Communication systems
Conventional wire based
From surface to UG- wireless
and from UG to surface
Combination of wire and
microwave
Type of equipments
Continuous miner PSLW package
package (For development & For extraction
extraction) Shearer -1
Continuous miner* - 1 Powered support - 1 SET
Shuttle cars - 2 Armoured Face Conveyor - 1
Twin/ Quad bolter* - 1 Stage loader - crusher -1
Feeder breaker -1 Power pack -1
Power pack - 1 For Development
Mobile goaf edge support Continuous miner package or
(Optional) -2 Roadheader package
* In some package both the machines are
integrated into one
UG Mining equipments

Side discharge loader (SDL)

Load haul dumper (LHD)


UG Mining equipments - Road header
UG Mining equipments Continuous
Miner
UG Mining equipments Shuttle car
UG Mining equipments Roof bolter
UG Mining equipments Shearer
UG Mining equipments Powered
support
UG Mining equipments Powered support Longwall Face
Bolter miner in operation (Animation)

ClickMe.exe
Continuous miner in operation (Animation)
5-entry_R&P.exe
Coal Indias plan for enhancing UG coal
production Projections

Production (Mt)
Company 2006-07 Increase
2011-12
(Actual) over 06-07
ECL 8.27 16.73 8.46
BCCL 4.90 6.00 1.10
CCL 1.96 3.30 1.34
WCL 9.92 11.92 2.00
SECL 16.20 23.78 7.58
MCL 1.97 4.40 2.43
NEC 0.11 0.40 0.29
Total 43.32 66.53 23.21
Coal Indias plan for enhancing UG coal production
Equipment requirement (XI Plan)

Particulars ECL BCCL CCL WCL SECL MCL Total

SDL (Existing) 110 117 14 135 385 19 780


Additional 117 47 30 0 76 0 270
LHD (Existing) 24 2 8 105 57 29 225
Additional 3 0 2 25 42 14 86
CM (Existing) 1 0 0 2 2 0 5
Additional 9 2 2 10 13 5 42

PSLW (Existing) 3 1 0 0 1 0 5

Additional 1 2 0 2 1 0 6
2. Mining Technology of China

Coal-mining Method
Coal-mining method

Longwall mining Sublevel caving


Sharp angle Stowing coal Hydraulic coal Pillar and
coal mining mining mining chamber mining

Thin & mid- Thick & super Pneumatic Hydraulic


thick seam thick seam stowing stowing

others
Single Single Top-slicing
LWM LWM Full seam mining system of
on the on the Inclined slicing sublevel caving
strick dip On the strike
Flexible shield Overhand mining
mining in the Oblique slicing
false dip Shrinkage stoping, and so on
2. Mining Technology of China

Coal-mining Method

Room and pillar mining (under building)


Blastwinning technology
Conventionally mechanized coal wining
technology (small scale mines)
Full-mechanized coal wining technology
Full-mechanized top-coal drawing mining
method
2. Mining Technology of China
Full-mechanized top-coal caving technology

Yield support
Full-mechanized
workface

Back flight
conveyor

Coal wining
machine

Front flight conveyor


2. Mining Technology of China

Auxiliary transport
Auxiliary transport personnel,
materials and facilities, and so on.
Underground auxiliary transport: mine
locomotive, trackless transport,
overhead rope monorail, road railer,
endless-rope haulage.
Underground mine locomotive

Mine locomotive

Track transport
Trackless transport conveying yield support
Trackless transport conveying
people
Battery
engine

Overhead
monorail

Diesel engine
Diesel engine road wailer running on oriented
track, driven by diesel engine.

Road wailer

Diesel engine
Underground Overhead
System sketch
Conveyor for People

Conveying people in flat


or inclined roadway.
3. Manufacture& Equipment of CCI
Mine hoist machinery

Hoist drum diameter: 6.0m


Power: 5000kW
Velocity: 12m/s
3. Manufacture& Equipment of CCI
Power: 2150 kW
Mining height: 1.16.5m
Kinds: Single arm, double
arms, big angle

Coal wining machine


3. Manufacture& Equipment of CCI

Flexible flight conveyor

Capabality:100~3000t/h
Power:100~2000kW
Pan width:0.4~1.2m
Double straps in the
middle, side unloading
3. Manufacture& Equipment of CCI

Sublevel caving hydraulic support

Support strength:
10000kN
Support height:
1.8~4.0m
3. Manufacture& Equipment of CCI
High Mining Height Hydraulic Support

Electricity Hydraulic control, velocity<8s


Support strength: 12000kN
Support height:6.5m
3. Manufacture& Equipment of CCI

Belt conveyor

Belt strength:250~6300N/mm
Belt width:0.6~2.0m
Conveyor capability:
150~5000t/h
3. Manufacture& Equipment of CCI

Road-heading machinery
Producing tunneling machine,
continuous miner, driving anchor
machine, driving& boring
machine.
Power:50200kW
Section area:1025m2

Tunneling machine

Continuous miner Driving anchor machine Tunneling machine


3. Manufacture& Equipment of CCI

Mine
ventilation

Changeable blade angle


Blade Diameter 4.0m
Air quantity 600m3/s, negative
pressure 4500Pa
4. Selection Projects Designed by BHEC

Introduction to some selection projects--Tashan

Production capacity
designed: 15.0Mt/a
( largest mine being put
into operation currently)
Drift tunnelingbelt
conveyor length reaches
7km
Full-mechanized top-coal
caving workface ,
10.0Mt/a
high efficiency
Trackless transport
Introduction to some selection projects--Huojitu

Output10.0Mt/a
Drift tunneling
Large cutting height face, mining height 5.5m
270workers, average efficiency: 74t/worker
Introduction to some selection projects--Tunliu

Main shaft headframe Auxiliary shaft headframe

Vertical shaft, the net diameter reaches 8.2m, the deep


reaches 580m

Main vertical shaft equipped with two sets of skip, auxiliary


shaft headframe a set of wide skip and a set of riding skip

Auxiliary
vertical shaft
4
North
airshaft
Coalface of north-
1 mining area

Main vertical Central airshaft
shaft

Coalface of south-1
mining area Tunneling face

Three-dimensional sketch of Tunliu mine development


Full mechanized top coal caving
with high gas condition
Output of face 3.0Mt/a
Introduction to some selection projects--Tunliu

Underground coal transport systemsBelt conveyor

Ground

Hoisting
Belt conveyor

Underground

Belt conveyor
Belt conveyor
4. Selection Projects Designed by BHEC

Inclined shaft mixed with vertical shaft


development

Huangyuchuan mine of Shenhua Group(10.0Mt/a)


4. Selection Projects Designed by BHEC
Introduction to some selection projects--Sihe

Inclined shaft, large cutting height face in whole seam, output of face is
3

Vertical shaft
tunneling

Frozen depth more than 500m


Construction shaft speed over 100m
per month
Rock drift tunneling: drilling


Roadway tunneling and support

Roadway layout in coal seams


Roadway layout in rocks
fully-mechanized coal winning machine in coal
seams
drilling in rocks
Anchormetal net injection and
anchor cable
Concrete or reinforced Concrete
Type steel support set
Drift tunnelingshield TBM

1-disk-cutter;2-head frame;3-horizontal supportplate;4-roof bolter;5-driver room;6-


oblique belt conveyer;7-transfermachine;8-gantry vehicle;9-laser orientation
instroment;10-ring supports mschine;11-tramcar;12-electric locomotive
Coal roadway tunnelingroadheader

1-roadheader2-transfermachine3-telescopic4-slideway
5-dedusting fan;6-scalable;7-jackleg drill

Tunneling machine Continuous miner


HYDRAULIC PROPS (40 Te) AT THE GATES OF
SHORTWALL PANEL
PRODUCTIVITY IN UG
SIDE DISCHARGE LOADER
110 tonnes per day (For a 5-heading district
having 3 SDLs)
LOAD HAUL DUMPER
200 tonnes per day (For a 5-heading district
having 3 LHDs)
CONTINUOUS MINER
1,200 to 2,400 tonnes per day (depending
on the seam thickness)
POWERED SUPPORT LONGWALL
3,280 tonnes per day onwards (1 MTY) 184
TO ENHANCE UG COAL PRODUCTION IN INDIA
Introduction of mass production
technology
Longwall
Continuous Miner (CM)
Low Capacity Continuous Miner (LCCM)

Application of UDM, SDL & LHD

Application of Universal Drilling Machine


(UDM) with SDLs and LHDs for improving
rate of output in B&P method of working.185
ENVIRONMENTAL & SAFETY ISSUES
During UG mining, the inherent dangers of roof & side
fall, fire, explosion, noxious gases, water inundation etc.
are to be dealt with.
Roof & side fall remains the most common cause of UG
mine accidents.
Switching to mass production technology will reduce the
no. of accidents due to strata control and those related
with the handling of explosives.
Extensive R&D work is being done to limit accidents due
to roof fall. One such major R&D work for detecting of
early bed separation and hidden slips accompanied
with audible warning is going on in IIT Kharagpur
Use of bolting techniques will reduce the chances of
accidents in semi-mechanised mines 186
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION

Limited Span Method


Wide & Stall Method
Chess Board Method
Yield Pillar Method
Non Effective Width of Extraction
Stable Pillar formation as Final Operation
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION

SUITABILITY

Extraction under built up area and other important


surface features.

To ensure that cracks due to mining do not reach


surface or to the upper seam.

To work a lower seam when upper seam is virgin or


developed.
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION
LIMITATIONS

Physico-Mechanical Analysis of immediate roof/strata.


Stability inculcation of in seam workings.
Status of Surface Features.
Overlying / Underlying seams / workings.
Depth of workings.
Cavability of strata.
Geological features.
Socio-political environment.
Mine Economics.
Conservation.
Strategic actions for Long Term prevention of mine fire.
Quantum of blockage of reserve.
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION

ADVANTAGES

Liquidation of blocked coal in standing pillars.


Protecting Surface features.
Mitigation of socio-political issues related to
evacuation / shifting.
Avoidance of R & R modalities.
Recovering a part of blocked property, which might be
a total forfeiture otherwise for the reason stated
above.
Subsequent direct & indirect economical gains.
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION

METHODOLOGY
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION

WIDE & STALL METHOD

This method aims at widening existing galleries


of Bord & Pillar workings, up to the extent, so
that roof fall never takes place in the span. This
method necessitates strong immediate roof,
with moderately thick seam.
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION

CHESS BOARD METHOD

This method necessitates complete extraction of


selected pillars, leaving alternate pillars,
untouched and as standing on for ever, so that
subsidence must not occur. This method
necessitates strong immediate roof as well as
higher compressive strength of coal, providing
adequate resistance for subsidence.
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION

YIELD PILLAR METHOD

In this method of mining, pillars or stocks are


left in the goaf as per designed scheme of pillar
extraction. These pillars and stocks are of a
definite dimension which neither makes them
too strong nor too weak. When roof weight
comes, these pillars get crushed and allow the
roof to come down smoothly.
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION

NON EFFECTIVE WIDTH

This method involves complete extraction of


selected chain of pillars with precisely
determined extraction width of panel, so that
subsidence never reaches the surface.
PARTIAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION

STABLE PILLAR / REMNANT FORMATION

This is the youngest evolution of Partial


Extraction Method. This method necessitates
reduction of original coal pillar, by driving
narrow galleries across it, leaving remnants as
Stable Pillar for ever.
BLASTING FREE MINING
BLASTING FREE MINING

Long Wall Mining


Mass Production Technology with Continuous
Miner & Shuttle Car Combination
Short Long Wall Mining
High Wall Mining
BLASTING FREE MINING
LONGWALL MINING

Suitability & Advantages:

Flat & Moderate thick coal seams.


Nearly full extraction

Limitations:

Fair / Good cavability of roof strata.


Seam continuity.
Preferably flat seams.
Seams, free from major geological disturbances.
BLASTING FREE MINING

LONGWALL MINING

Operational Experience:

SECL has Long Wall workings in three of its under


ground mines, i) Rajendra, ii) Kumda (New) & iii)
Balrampur UG.
BLASTING FREE MINING
LONGWALL MINING

Operational Constraints:

Strata Management
Difficulties due to shallow depth of cover
Intrusion of hard sand stone
Warranty failures of major hydraulic components
Thinning of coal seams
Spares management
MASS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Suitability & Advantages:

Familiarity of Room and pillar-mining due to resemblance of


Bord & Pillar layout.
Familiarity of equipment
Flexibility of mining method due to mobile equipment.
Lower Capital cost for high production and productivity as
compare to Long wall method.
Not much preparatory work/infrastructure is needed for
introduction of this system.
MASS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Limitations:

Flat / Mild gradient seams.


Seam thickness should be moderate, not very
thick.
MASS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Operations:

SECL has experienced this method of mining at


two of its under ground mines, Anjan Hill Mine
& NCPH Colliery successfully.
MASS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
Development

Figure 1 A Typical 5 Road Mining Layout


MASS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
Extraction

Roof bolts were used for systematic supports in


and around working area as well as in the
breaker lines at the goaf edges during the
depillaring of the panel.
SHORT LONG WALL MINING

This method of mining envisages the extraction of standing on


pillars (formed due to Bord & Pillar development) with the help
of Self Walking Powered Supports and Shearer as that if a PSLW
retreat face.

But the gallery openings are suitably supported in advance of


extraction to attain adequate support resistance to restrict
movement of Abutment Loading with in working areas.

SECL is at the verge of commissioning a Short Wall Face at


Balrampur mine.
SHORT LONG WALL MINING

Suitability & Advantages:


Faster extraction of long standing on pillars.
Good quality roof.
Nearly full extraction of seam.

Limitations:
Applicable to developed B & P workings.
HIGH WALL MINING

In this technology coal seam is


approached by trench / contour /
bench. Coal thus exposed on
either side of the trench can be
extracted by remotely operated
Continuous Miner, leaving
adequate remnants between two
consecutive webs. SECL is shortly
going to introduce this
methodology at few of its old
mines.
HIGH WALL MINING

Suitability:
Enables recovery of coal from surface pits -
that have reached final high wall position due to
uneconomic stripping ratio or
where coal has become sterilized due to surface
constraints.
Limitations:
stability of web-pillars & sustainability of roof have to be
established by scientific investigations.
Advantages:
Minimises safety risks as persons are not required at active
working faces.
Coal is recovered from very difficult situations, other wise it
could have been forfeited for good.
MINING WITH SDL / LHD COMBINATIONS
MINING WITH SDL / LHD COMBINATIONS

CABLE BOLTING REMOTE LHD COMBINATION

This method is very useful for extraction of thick


seams.
In SECL, this is being practiced at Chirimiri Area, where
thickness up to 7m is being extracted successfully in
conjunction with Remote Controlled SDL.
Basically this method is Rib Slice pillar of extraction
and supporting of high roof is being ensured by
hanging cable bolt in the goaf.
MINING WITH SDL / LHD COMBINATIONS

Suitability & Advantages:

Very effective extraction of thick seam up to 7m.


Preferably Degree-1 of gassiness seam.
Fair / good roof condition.
Longer Incubation period.
Low capital intensive than BG method.
MINING WITH SDL / LHD COMBINATIONS

Limitations:
This method is not yet proved for seam thickness
more than 7m.
Not suitable for higher degree of gassiness.
Not suitable under poor roof condition.
Not suitable shorter incubation period.
MINING WITH SDL / LHD COMBINATIONS

BLASTING GALLERY METHOD

SECL is going to introduce this mining method at Anjan Hill


Mine, Chirimiri Area. Blasting Gallery method is cyclic in nature
involving of following operations.

Room Drivages / Splitting of pillars & POTATO Blasting


Ring Drilling by Jambo Drills
Charging , Stemming & Blasting of Ring Holes
Loading of Coal ( Remote controlled LHD)
Induced Blasting , if required.
BORD & PILLAR WITH SDL / LHD COMBINATIONS

To over come the constraints of conventional Bord & Pillar


workings with SDL / LHDs, Universal Drilling Machines have
been introduced for coal and roof drilling, in several mines of
SECL with following advantages,

Faster rate of both coal and roof drilling.


Faster and better coal preparation.
Eliminations of manual drilling, resulting faster and effective
roof bolting.
Better utilization / reduction of man power.
Better safety due to elimination of manual drilling.
Higher production and productivity.
CONCLUSION

Energy, the basic requirement of the country, remains largely


dependant on coal. Under Ground mining, dictates its pioneer
status in the anticipated Socio Economics of the country.
Hence Modern mechanization of Indian under grounds,
Development of mechanization culture and strategic success out
comes are the yard sticks of future Indian Coal Industry.
UNDERGROUND MINING TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS

BORD & PILLAR

LONGWALL
BORD & PILLAR

MANUAL

SDL & LHD

CONTINUOUS MINER
UNDERGROUND MINING TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA AND ABROAD:
- Shuttle Car Gathering Arm Loader Combination.
- Slusher/Coal Scrapper
- Bord and Pillar Technology with SDL/LHD as loading and suitable
compatible conveying equipment.
- Sub-level caving.
- Limited Span Mining
- Wide Stall Mining
- Longwall with Single ended Ranging Arm Drum Shearer and hydraulic/friction
props.
- Mechanised Longwall with Powered Support equipment & DERD Shearer.
- Continuous Miner and Shuttle Car Combination.
- Road Header/Alpine Miner for faster heading development in coal seams.
- Blasting gallery technique of extraction in moderately thick coal seams
with remotely operated SDL/ LHD .
(c) Strategic underground mining technology in SECL:
Mechanisation culture and adoption of new technology is continued in SECL since long.
Some of the new technologies as planned for implementation in SECL mines are :-

(i) Low Capacity Continuous Miner(LCCM)

- Planned to be introduced in Rani-Atari UG mine of Chirimiri Area.


- Likely to be commissioned by January, 2008 to produce a minimum level @
600 TPD from both development/depillaring in Bord and Pillar layout with 2.2m
to 2.4m thick coal seam with 5.4m width galleries where supports are normally
planned by resin grouted roof bolts.
-There is future scheme for introduction of such equipment in seven
underground mines in SECL besides Rani-Atari UG mine by XIth Plan period.

(ii) Shortwall Technology(Fig.3):


- Suitable for extraction of developed coal pillars planned for Balrampur underground
mine.
- Already implemented to extract Passang seam(2.2 mtr. 2.8 mtr.). It is an R&D Project
which will be tried for the first time in the country and perhaps in the globe with
imported equipment from P. R. China consisting of 4x650 Te.(108 Te/m2 ) capacity
Powered Supports.
(iii) Blasting Gallery Method(Fig.4a & b)

- Will be operated shortly at Anjanhill mine of Chirimiri Area, SECL. L


-likely to be commissioned in this financial year 2007-08.
3
-Remote Controlled high capacity LHD (3m ) will be operated to evacuate
blasted coal at depillaring faces by this technology.

(iv) High Wall Mining

- This new technology in SECL as well as in the country likely to be introduced


where neither the established opencast nor the conventional underground
mining techniques are possible to be used to exploit the coal seams so
proposed economically.
- It is a remotely operated mining method to extract coal from thin seams or
coals from underlying coal seams in the Highwall of a surface mine which has
reached the quarriable limit & uneconomical stripping ratio or local surface
constraints limit further surface mining operation.
- SECL would be among the pioneering companies to introduce it under
the new initiations for advanced technology.

(v) A small quantum of coal production from conventional manual districts in the
underground mines of SECL is also planned for conversion to mechanized operation within a
short spell of time.
SDL & LHD
CONTINUOUS MINER
LONGWALL

INDIVIDUAL PROPS
SOLID BLASTING
SHEARER
PLOUGH

POWERED SUPPORT LONGWALL


SINGLE SLICING
MULTIPLE SLICING
BLASTING GALLERY
LONGWALL MINING
PLOUGH
OTHER MINING TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS

HIGH WALL MINING

AUGER MINING

PUNCH LONGWALL

HYDRAULIC MINING
HIGH WALL MINING
HIGH WALL MINER
AUGER MINING
PUNCH LONGWAll
HYDRAULIC MINING
COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
OC/UG BREAK-UP
COM- OC/ ACTUAL TARGET, Mt (%)
PANY UG (Mt)(%)
06-07 07-08 11-12 16-17 21-22 26-27

ECL OC 22.2 (72.86) 23.18 (69.38) 32.84 (71.39) 34.86 (72.63) 32.20 (71.97) 32.20 (72.18)
UG 8.27 (27.14) 10.23 (30.62) 13.16 (28.61) 13.14 (27.38) 12.54 (28.03) 12.41 (27.82)

TOTAL 30.47 33.41 46.00 48.00 44.74 44.61

BCCL OC 19.30 (79.76) 20.62 (81.83) 24.72 (82.40) 28.75 (82.14) 31.39 (74.74) 31.70 (76.18)
UG 4.90 (20.24) 4.58 (18.17) 5.28 (17.60) 6.25 (17.86) 10.61 (25.26) 9.91 (23.82)

TOTAL 24.21 25.20 30.00 35.00 42.00 41.61

CCL OC 39.36 (95.26) 42.00 (95.45) 75.60 (96.92) 112.60(97.91) 114.29(97.25) 115.87(97.30)
UG 1.96 (4.74) 2.00 (4.55) 2.40 (3.08) 2.40 (2.09) 3.23 (2.75) 3.21 (2.70)

TOTAL 41.32 44.00 78.00 115.00 117.52 119.08

WCL OC 33.30 (77.07) 32.39 (76.39) 34.38 (76.40) 34.21 (76.02) 26.65 (67.28) 22.36 (60.66)
UG 9.92 (22.93) 10.01 (23.61) 10.62 (23.60) 10.79 (23.98) 12.96 (32.72) 14.50 (39.34)

TOTAL 43.21 42.40 45.00 45.00 39.61 36.86

SECL OC 72.30 (81.69) 74.04 (80.92) 91.30 (82.25) 119.00(85.00) 109.11(81.57) 107.05(86.01)
UG 16.20 (18.31) 17.46 (19.08) 19.70 (17.75) 21.00 (15.00) 24.66 (18.43) 17.41 (13.99)

TOTAL 88.50 91.50 111.00 140.00 133.77 124.46

NCL OC 52.16 (100) 58.00 (100) 70.00 (100) 80.50 (100) 81.50 (100) 81.50 (100)
UG - - - - - -

TOTAL 52.16 58.00 70.00 80.50 81.50 81.50


COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
OC/UG BREAK-UP (CONTD.)

COM- OC/ ACTUAL TARGET, Mt (%)


PANY UG (Mt)(%)

06-07 07-08 11-12 16-17 21-22 26-27

MCL OC 78.03 (97.54) 85.60 (97.27) 134.00(97.81) 193.40(98.17) 179.00(97.86) 167.00(97.90)


UG 1.97 (2.46) 2.40 (2.73) 3.00 (2.19) 3.60 (1.83) 3.92 (2.14) 3.59 (2.10)

TOTAL 80.00 88.00 137.00 197.00 182.92 170.59

NEC OC 0.94 (89.52) 1.70 (85.00) 3.10 (88.57) 3.10 (88.57) - -


UG 0.11 (10.48) 0.30 (15.00) 0.40 (11.43) 0.40 (11.43)

TOTAL 1.05 2.00 3.50 3.50

OC 317.59(88.00) 337.53(87.78) 465.94(89.52) 606.42(91.33) 574.14(89.42) 557.68(90.14)


CIL UG 43.32 (12.00) 46.98 (12.22) 54.56 (10.48) 57.58 (8.67) 67.92 (10.58) 61.03 (9.86)

TOTAL 360.91 384.51 520.50 664.00 642.06 618.71


COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
CIL
700 664.00 642.06
618.71
600
Coal Production Target, Mt

520.50
500
384.51
400360.91
606.42 574.14 557.68
300 465.94
200 337.53
317.59
100
46.98 54.56 57.58 67.92 61.03
0 43.32
2006-07 2007-08 2011-12 2016-17 2021-22 2026-27
(Actual)
Year

Underground Opencast Total


COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
ECL
60

50 48.00
Coal Production Target, Mt

46.00 44.74 44.61


40
33.41
30.47
30 32.84 34.86 32.20 32.20

20 23.18
22.20

10
10.23 13.16 13.14 12.54 12.41
8.27
0
2006-07 2007-08 2011-12 2016-17 2021-22 2026-27
(Actual)
Year

Underground Opencast Total


COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
BCCL
45
42.00 41.61
40
35.00
Coal Production Target, Mt

35
30 30.00
25.20 31.39
25 24.21 31.70

20 28.75
24.72
15 20.62
19.30
10
5 10.61 9.91
4.58 5.28 6.25
0 4.90
2006-07 2007-08 2011-12 2016-17 2021-22 2026-27
(Actual)
Year

Underground Opencast Total


COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
CCL
140

120 115.00 117.52 119.08


Coal Production Target, Mt

100

80 78.00

60 112.60 114.29 115.87


41.32 44.00
40 75.60

20 42.00
39.36

0 2.00 2.40 2.40 3.23 3.21


1.96
2006-07 2007-08 2011-12 2016-17 2021-22 2026-27
(Actual)
Year

Underground Opencast Total


COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
WCL
50
4543.21 45.00 45.00
42.40
39.61
Coal Production Target, Mt

40 36.86
35
30
32.39 34.38 34.21 26.65
25 33.30 22.36
20
15
10
12.96 14.50
5 10.01 10.62 10.79
9.92
0
2006-07 2007-08 2011-12 2016-17 2021-22 2026-27
(Actual)
Year

Underground Opencast Total


COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
SECL
160
140.00
140 133.77
124.46
Coal Production Target, Mt

120 111.00
10088.50 91.50
80 119.00 109.11
107.05
60 91.30
72.30 74.04
40

20
17.46 19.70 21.00 24.66 17.41
0 16.20
2006-07 2007-08 2011-12 2016-17 2021-22 2026-27
(Actual)
Year

Underground Opencast Total


COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
NCL
90
80.50 81.50 81.50
80
70.00
Coal Production Target, Mt

70
60 58.00
52.16
50
40 80.50 81.50 81.50
70.00
30 58.00
52.16
20
10
0
2006-07 2007-08 2011-12 2016-17 2021-22 2026-27
(Actual)
Year

Opencast Total
COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
MCL
250

197.00
Coal Production Target, Mt

200 182.92
170.59

150 137.00

100 88.00 193.40


80.00 179.00 167.00
134.00
50 85.60
78.03

0 2.40 3.00 3.60 3.92 3.59


1.97
2006-07 2007-08 2011-12 2016-17 2021-22 2026-27
(Actual)
Year

Underground Opencast Total


COAL PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
NEC
4
3.50 3.50
4
Coal Production Target, Mt

3
2.00
2 3.10 3.10
2
1.05 1.70
1

1 0.94
0.30 0.40 0.40
0 0.11
2006-07 (Actual) 2007-08 2011-12 2016-17
Year

Underground Opencast Total


Introduction of Continuous Miner Technology :
After introduction of Continuous Miner technology at Tandsi mine on Risk & Gain sharing
basis & at Kumbharkhani Mine with a minimum and guaranteed production on per tonne
basis, the similar technology to be introduced in the following 6 mines :
The Board of Directors has approved for introduction of Continuous Miner Technology.
i. Saoner-I UG Expn. Mine
ii. Maori UG Mine
iii. Sarni UG
iv. Nandan-II UG Dhau North Block
v. Dhankasa
vi. Borda UG Mine
In 1st phase, Saoner-I & Maori UG Mines has been taken up for Introduction of Continuous
Cutting Technology. Tender floated earlier has been cancelled. It is in the process of further
approval of Board for the deviations from CMC Turnkey manual. The Tenders will be
floated shortly.
Introduction of CCT in the remaining mine/block will be taken up in 2nd phase.
Application of Man-riding System in Mines
It has been decided to introduce Man-Riding System in certain underground mines, where
the workings are very deep and far from the surface. As it takes longer time to travel to
reach at the working face of the mine and at the same time it leaves all the work persons
fatigued while going down and coming up the mine. Taking this view into consideration the
Rail Car System has been introduced at two mines.
i. Tandsi 1&2 Mine
ii.Maori UG Mine
At following mines, the man-riding system is under installation & will be
commissioned shortly :
Saoner No. 1Chair lift systemShobhapur No. 1Rail car system & chair lift systemTawa
MineChair lift systemKumbharkhaniRail car system
Man-riding system in 2nd phase :
i. Ballarpur 3&4
ii. Chhattarpur
iii. Saoner No.2
iv. Saoner No.3
v. Tandsi 3&4
Introduction of Mass Production Technology
Global bid for introduction of Mass Production technology in respect of
Development, Construction & Operation of high capacity underground
mines on turnkey basis had been floated for two blocks identified are :
1. Murpar Expn., Umfer Area (2.0 Mty capacity).
2. Borda Block, Wani North Area (2.0 Mty capacity).
Status Since, there was no response from the short listed Bidders, the
aforesaid tender was cancelled.
The draft NIT for Murpar Expn., Borda Block and Nand Block has been
uploaded on WCL's website, with a view to have Pre-NIT meeting with
prospective Bidders on 26.08.2010 to further modify the Bid documents
for re-tendering.
3. Nand Block, Umrer Area (1.00 Mty capacity).
Alongwith the draft NIT for Murpar Expn., Borda Block and Nand Block
has also been uploaded on WCL's website, with a view to have Pre-NIT
meeting with prospective Bidders on 26.08.2010 to further modify the
Bid documents.
ecl
Increase in Underground Production:
2nd Continuous Miner at Sarpi commissioned in Sept. 2010.
Re-organization of UG districts started with introduction
of mechanized loading replacing manual loading in phases.
Tender for procurement of 113 more SDLs is under finalization to
avoid manual loading and enhance safety.
LOI issued for PSLW at Jhanjra
ECL Board has approved in principle deployment of 6 more
Continuous Miners in different UG mines.
A few number of UG reserves like Narayankuri, Dhangajore,
Puapur, Sonepur Bazari etc. have been identified for high capacity
UG mines under MDO concept.

INTRODUCTION
- The gap between production and demand of coal
in future can not be totally met by the depleting
Opencast mines. Hence immediate and urgent
attention is required to plan and execute large
underground coal mining projects.
- For bulk production of coal at a faster rate from
underground mining, particularly at depth, the
proven technology world over is Longwall.
INDIAN LONGWALL
- PAST EXPERIENCE:
- Introduction of advanced technology system in
Indian coal mining industry marked a major step
with the installation of first mechanized Longwall
Powered support face at Moonidih in August 1978.
- In 25 years about 20 mechanised longwall sets from
- U.K, Russia, China, France have been tried in
various locales, mostly funded by GOI.
Mechanised Longwall mining was introduced
in India about 25 years back with much
fanfare but could not fully meet the
expectations of the mining industry for various
reasons, while China starting at the same time
was quite successful and even exported their
Longwall packages to India.
PAST EXPERIENCE
- In early nineties, higher capacity of Longwall
powered supports were introduced.
- These faces were mostly succesful except the
collapse of Churcha and Kotadih.
- With the perspective of history of Longwall of China,
US etc and the need of understanding the
technology these should be treated as experiences
rather than failures.
REASONS FOR THE UNSUCCESSFUL
ATTEMPTS TO INTRODUCE
LONGWALL TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA

MAIN REASONS CAN BE GROUPED UNDER TWO HEADINGS:


TECHNICAL ASPECTS
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS

Reasons which led to lower production than expected:


Integration problems between the equipment
Starting up phase takes much longer
Training of personnel is more difficult & time consuming
Problems in maintaining the equipment
Infrastructure was not suitable to support the higher production
Geological conditions were more difficult than expected
REASONS FOR SLOW PROGRESS OF LONGWALL

Large expansion in opencast mining in the


past two decades provided cheaper and safe
method for bulk coal production and as a
result long wall had to take back seat.
Clear strategies were not pursued for its
sustenance as there was mixed results from
long wall in the early years of its
introduction.
REASONS FOR SLOW PROGRESS OF LONGWALL

Long walls were introduced mostly in the blocks left


over by working Bord and pillar method. Clean and
extensive blocks have not been identified. Even the
smaller blocks, which were identified, were of
inferior grade coal.
Long wall had to co exist with the conventional
mining in most of the mines, which caused
management problems.
There were some deficiencies in the imported
spares management and the supplies were not
reaching in time.
REASONS FOR SLOW PROGRESS OF LONGWALL

Coal companies were sensitive to the failures


of a few long wall faces and were not
prepared to risk huge investments.
Development could not keep pace with the
extraction of Long wall panels, slow progress
in dip has delayed the formation of Long wall
panels and affected the performance.
PRESENT & FUTURE

With the likely reduction of contribution from Open cast and


the more or less stagnant production from Underground by
Conventional methods, it is time that an impetus is given to
boost Long wall Technology to able to meet the future
energy needs of the country.
On the positive side, coal companies have now gained
experiences right from senior executive level to front line
workforce to be able to plan, execute and work longwall
faces. What are required are policy decisions and logistics.
CAUSES FOR FAILURE OF LONGWALL IN THE
INITIAL STAGES
Geo-mining Conditions
Difficult geo-mining conditions were experienced in almost all the
faces
Moonidih met with a series of step faults at the face, the existence of
which were not known at the time of development.
The roof at Pathakera and Dhemo main mines proved to be difficult
caving roofs.
Coal was found to be extremely hard and abrasive in Pathakera and
Singareni.
The face at Seetalpur encountered a massive inrush of water from
the overlying seam1.
This highlights the need to incorporate geology and geotechnical
engineering into the management process to build a data base of
experience for dealing with geotechnical conditions. The revenue lost
per day per hour of downtime due to geological features on a 3000 t
Longwall is sufficient to employ a fulltime geologist for the order of
10 years.
CAUSES FOR FAILURE OF LONGWALL IN THE
INITIAL STAGES
Faulty Planning
In mechanised Longwall mining, the performance from the face depends on many
factors and a systems approach is necessary, while designing the layout and in
selecting the equipment. Few typical examples of faulty planning are cited :
The outbye coal clearance system in Seetalpur and Dhemo main mines were
inadequate.
Replacement face could not be made available due to slippage in the drivage
programme in Moonidih, Seetalpur and Dhemo main.
Inadequacy of the conveyor transfer points to handle lumps created problems in
coal clearance in Moonidih, Seetalpur and Dhemo main.
Absence of well designed system for the transportation of materials in all the
mines.
Deficiency in maintenance and engineering setups, workshop facilities etc at
Seetalpur and Dhemo main.
The capacity of shafts or inclines in most of the mines were too low to ensure
sustained coal clearance from the face. In some cases, the outbye conveyor was
not able to carry the peak outputs and transfer points were also not designed
properly.
CAUSES FOR FAILURE OF LONGWALL IN THE
INITIAL STAGES
Improper Selection
Since mechanised Longwall mining in India was passing through its embryonic
stages, the basic selection of equipment for the first crop of faces was done by
equipment suppliers from abroad who were guided by experience from other
countries. As a result, the achievements were below the expectations, since major
problems cropped up with the selected equipment. Estimation of support
requirements was one major problem area and some of the faces
were equipped with lower rated supports.
Frequent failures of valves, legs, etc and non-uniform setting load of supports led
to a host of complications. Difficulties were also faced with the ranging drum
shearer as the power requirements were estimated on the lower side.
Matching stage loaders with crusher and gate belt conveyor is the basic requisite
and cases have occurred where malfunction or absence of lump-breakers have
created major jams. Significance of auxiliary items are also to be kept in view as
their absence creates operational and maintenance difficulties1.
Longwall Support Selection Deficiencies