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This table is intended to give a comparison of American, British, German, and Japanese
Standards for common boiler tubing and boiler piping specifications. There is seldom an
exact match between specifications in two different Standards. Use this table only to find
an approximate equivalent, then compare the details of the specifications to determine if
substitution is permissable.

The table is divided into tubing, (which is used inside the boiler setting, as in steam
generating tubes, wall tubes, superheaters and economizers) and piping (which is used
ouside the boiler setting, as in headers, steam piping, and feedwater lines). The German
(DIN) Standards don't appear to differentiate between the two. Heat exchanger tube specs
are not included here. In general, the Japanese (JIS) specs match up pretty well with the
American(ASME/ASTM), while the British (BS) and German specs are usually more
difficult to find an equivalent in.


Tubing Specs
SA-178 A 3059 ERW 320 17177 St37.8 G 3461 STB35 E
SA-178 C 3059 ERW 440 17177 St42.8 G 3461 STB42 E
SA-178 D G 3461 STB52 E
SA-192 3059 S1 360 17175 St35.8 G 3461 STB35 S
SA-210 A1 3059 S1 440 17175 St45.8 G 3461 STB52 S
SA-210 C G 3461 STB42 S
SA-209 T1 3059 S1 243 17175 15Mo3 G 3462 STBA12 S
SA-209 T1a G 3462 STBA13 S
SA-213 T2 G 3462 STBA20 S
SA-213 T11 3059 S1 620-460 17175 13CrMo4-4 G 3462 STBA23
SA-213 T12 17175 13CrMo4-4
SA-213 T22 3059 S1 622-490 17175 10CrMo9-10 G 3462 STBA24
SA-213 T23 (not
SA 213 T24 (not
17175 7CrMoVTiB10-10
SA-213 T5 G 3462 STBA25
SA-213 T9 3059 S1 629-470 G 3462 STBA26
SA-213 T91 3059-2 Gr. 91 17175-X10CrMoVNb9-1 G 3462 STBA28
SA-213 Tp-304 17456 X2CrNi1911 G3463 SUS304TB
SA-213 Tp 304H 3059 CFS304S51 G3463 SUS304HTB
SA-213 Tp 316 17456 X5CrNiMo17122 G3463 SUS316TB
SA-213 Tp 316H 3059 CFS316S51 G3463 SUS316HTB
SA-213 Tp 321 17456 X6CrNiTi1810 G3463 SUS321TB
SA-213 Tp 321H 3059 CFS321S51 G3463 SUS321HTB
SA-213 Tp 347 17456 X5CrNiNB1810 G3463 SUS347TB
SA-213 Tp 347H 3059 CFS347S51 G3463 SUS347HTB
Pipe Specs
SA-53A 3602 HFS360 17175 St35.8 G 3454 STPG38
SA-53B 3602 HFS460 17175 St45.8 G 3454 STPG42
SA-106B 3602 CFS460 17175 St45.8 G 3456 STPT42
SA-106C 3602 CFS460 G 3456 STPT49
SA-335-P11 3604 CFS621 17175 13CrMo44 G 3458 STPA23
SA-335-P22 3604 CFS622 17175 10CrMo910 G 3458 STPA24
SA-335-P9 3604 CFS629-470 G 3458 STPA26
SA-335-P91 3604-2 Gr. 91

ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specs are generally identical to ASME).
BS - British Standards
DIN - Deutsche Industrie Normen (German Standards)
JIS - Japanese Industrial Standards
BSi - British Standards
ASTM International Material
A120 1387 Carbon Steel
A53 Gr. A 3601/23 Carbon Steel
A53 Gr. B 3601/27 Carbon Steel
A106 Gr. A 3602/23 Carbon Steel
API 5L Gr. A 3602/27 Carbon Steel
A106 Gr. B 2602/27 Carbon Steel
API 5L Gr. B 3602/27 Carbon Steel
A333 Gr. 1 3063/LT50 Killed Carbon Steel
A333 Gr. 3 3603/503LT100 3.5% nickel
A335 Gr. P1 3604/240 1/2% molybdenum
A335 Gr. P12 3604/620 1% Cr 1/2% Mo
A335 Gr. P11 3604/621 1 1/4% Cr 1/2% Mo
A335 Gr. P22 3604/622 2 1/4% Cr 1% No
A335 Gr. P5 3604/625 5% Cr 1/2% Mo
A335 Gr. P7 3604/627 7% Cr 1/2% Mo
A335 Br. P9 3604/629 9% Cr 1% Mo
Austenitic chromium
A312 Gr. Tp304 3605/304 S18 (EN58E)
Austenitic chromium
A312 Gr. Tp304L 3605/304 S14
nickel (extra low carbon)
Austenitic chromium
A312 Gr. Tp316 3605/316 S18 (EN58J) nickel molybdenum
Austenitic chromium
nickel molybdenum
A312 Gr.Tp316L 3605/316 S14
bearing (extra low
Austenitic chromium
A312 Gr. Tp321 3605/321 S18 (EN58B)
nickel titanium stabilized
Austenitic chromium
A312 Gr. Tp347 3605/347 S18 (EN58G)
nickel nobelium stabilized

ASTM cross reference material specification of fittings, flanges, unions

and cast and forged valves can be found in the table below:
Material Forgings Castings
Carbon Steel A105 A216-WCB A234-WPB
Cold Temperature Service A350-LF2 A420-WPL6
Carbon-1/2 Molybdenum Alloy Steel
High Temperature Service A182-F1 A217-WC1 A234-WP1
3-1/2 Nickel Alloy Steel
Low Temperature Service A350-LF3 A352-LC3 A420-WPL3
1/2 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel A182-F2
1/2 Cr-1/2 Mo-1 Ni Alloy A217-WC4
3/4 Cr-1 Mo-3/4 Ni Alloy Steel A217-WC5
1 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel A182-F12 A234-WP12
1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel A182-F11 A217-WC6 A234-WP11
2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo Alloy Steel CL2 A217-WC9 CL2
5 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel A182-F22 A234-WP22
5 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel CL3 A217-C5 CL3
9 Cr-1 Mo Alloy Steel A182-F5 A217-C12 A234-WP5
13 Cr Alloy Steel A182-F5a A743-CA15
A182-F9 A234-WP9
Type 304 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-8 Ni)
Standard A182-F304 A351-CF3 A403-
Low Carbon A182-F304L WP304
High Temperature Service A351-CF8 A403-
A182-F304H WP304L
Type 310 Stainless Steel (25 Cr-20 Ni) A182-F310H A351-CK20 A403-
Type 316 Stainless Steel (16 Cr-12 Ni-2 WP310
Standard A182-F316 A403-
Low Carbon A182-F316L A351-CF3M WP316
High Temperature A403-
A182-F316H A351-CF8M WP316L
Type 317 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-13 Ni-3 A403-
Mo) WP317
Type 321 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-10 Ni- A182-F321
Ti) A182-F321H A403-
Standard WP321
High Temperature Service A403-
Type 347 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-10 Ni-
Cb) A182-F347 A351-CF8C A403-
Standard A182-F347H WP347
High Temperature Service A403-
Type 348 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-10 Ni-
Cb) A182-F348 A403-
Standard A182-F348H WP348
High Temperature Service A403-

What Is Stainless Steel?

Stainless steel is a name given to a group of steel alloys with many

differences in properties and behaviour having one property in
common - resistance to orrosion.

When an Alloy of Steel contains more than approximately 10.5%

Chromium it can be classed as a stainless steel. This is due to the fact
that Chromium has a high affinity for oxygen and forms a tenacious,
stable oxide film, which is resistant to further chemical or physical
change. This film, known as the passive film, forms practically
instantaneously in ordinary atmospheres and has the remarkable
property of being self-healing and rebuilding when it has been

The large group of stainless steels can be divided into two major
groups, namely Austenitic and Ferritic. The Ferritic group can be split
again into two groups, Martensitic and Ferritic.

Austenitic Stainless Steel , Ferritic Stainless Steel

Martensitic Stainless Steel

Effects of alloying elements in steel

Austenitic Stainless Steel

This group of steel alloys contains chromium normally in the range 17-
25% and nickel in a range 8-20%, with various additional elements to
achieve the desired properties. In the fully annealed condition, the
steel alloys exhibit a useful range of physical and mechanical
properties. The mechanical properties can be can be increased with
cold working. Welding of this group must be carried out with the
correct methods but the low carbon content results in fewer problems
than the Ferritic or Martensitic grades. Normally these steels are non-
magnetic but when a significant amount of cold working is involved, as
in centreless grinding, the magnetic permeability may be increased. If
this group is included with the Ferritic and Martensitic groups it can be
seen that the stainless steel alloys offer a great deal of versatility for
applications within modern industry. The numbers listed below
represent grades within British Standard 970(bar) and British Standard
1449 (sheet and plate). The figures in brackets after each number are
the Euronorms currently being introduced to supersede British

Type 302 (BS EN 10088 1.4310)

A basic 18% chrome, 8% nickel, 18/8, grade from which the majority of
other forms have been developed. It has excellent ductility and welding

Type 304 (BS EN 10088 1.4301)

Similar to type 302 but due to lower carbon content, 0.08% is less
susceptible to inter-granular corrosion after welding.
Type 304L (BS EN 10088 1.4307)

A low carbon form of 304, 0.03%-0.035% carbon maximum, designed

primarily to avoid inter-granular corrosion after welding. The tensile
strength is somewhat lower than type 304.

Type 321 (BS EN 10088 1.4541)

Basically type 302 but with the addition of titanium, in direct

proportion to carbon content, to prevent inter-granular corrosion and
offer scale resistance at higher temperatures, up to 850C. Corrosion
resistance is slightly lower than type 304. This grade is not suitable for
bright or mirror polishing.

Type 347 (BS EN 10088 1.4550)

Similar to type 321 but with niobium added to stabilise the steel
instead of titanium. This reduces the incidence of inter-granular
corrosion, but has the effect of increasing corrosion resistance to the
level of type 304.

Type 303 (BS EN 10088 1.4305)

This is a free machining variant of type 304 with added sulphur or

selenium to improve machining characteristics.

Type 316 (BS EN 10088 1.4401)

This is a molybdenum bearing stainless steel designed for applications

involving severe corrosion conditions, resulting in a wide application in
the chemical, textile and paper industries.

Type 316L (BS EN 10088 1.4404)

Similar to type 316 but with lower carbon content, 0.03%00.035%

maximum, to avoid inter-granular corrosion after welding.

Type 310 (BS EN 10088 1.4845)

A 25% chrome, 20% nickel stainless steel developed for high

temperature service where high creep strength is required, its
maximum service temperature is aproximately 1100C. This group is
not recommended for applications of prolonged service as brittleness
may occur.
Ferritic Stainless Steel

This group contains a minimum of 17% chrome and carbon in the

range of 0.08% - 2.00%. The increase in chromium imparts increased
resistance to corrosion at elevated temperatures, but the lack of
mechanical properties due to the fact that it cannot be heat treated,
limits its applications. Like martensitics they are magnetic and the
welding of this group should be carried out with the necessary

Type 430F (BS EN 10088 1.4105)

A 17% chrome, low alloy ferritic steel that is non-hardenable and

possessing only mild cold working properties due to the high chrome
content. This alloy possesses good corrosion resistance up to a
temperature of approximately 800C. It's lack of tensile properties, and
poor usability, limit its applications and as a result is usually found in
strip and sheet form.

Martensitic Stainless Steel

This group contains a minimum of 12% chrome and usually a

maximum of 14% with carbon in the range of 0.08% - 2.00%. Due to
the high carbon content of the steel, it responds well to heat treatment
to give various mechanical strengths, such as hardness. The carbon,
however, is detrimental when welding and care should be taken during
this operation. In the heat-treated condition this group of steels show a
useful combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties
that qualify them for a wide range of applications. The numbers listed
below represent grades within British Standard 970. The figures in
brackets after each number are the Euronorms currently being
introduced to supersede British Standards.

Type 410 (BS EN 10088 1.4006)

A 13% chrome, 0.5% carbon stainless alloy possessing good ductility

and corrosion resistance. It can be easily forged and machined and
exhibits good cold working properties.

Type 416 (BS EN 10088 1.4005)

Similar to type 410 but has added sulphur to improve usability, usually
in bar form.
Type 431 (BS EN 10088 1.4057)

A 17% chrome, 2.5% nickel, 0.15% (max) carbon stainless alloy which
has superior corrosion resistance to 410 or 416 due to the addition of
nickel. It can be heat treated to ensure good tensile strength, in the
range of 55/56 tonnes tensile. Due to its good machining properties
combined with strength it has numerous applications, particularly in
machined components where the above mechanical property is
required. The material is usually supplied in bar form.

Effects of Alloying Elements in Steel

Steel is basically iron alloyed to carbon with certain additional

elements to give the required properties to the finished melt. Listed
below is a summary of the effects various alloying elements in steel.



The basic metal, iron, is alloyed with carbon to make steel and has the
effect of increasing the hardness and strength by heat treatment but
the addition of carbon enables a wide range of hardness and strength.


Manganese is added to steel to improve hot working properties and

increase strength, toughness and hardenability. Manganese, like nickel,
is an austenite forming element and has been used as a substitute for
nickel in the A.I.S.I 200 Series of Austenitic stainless steels (e.g. A.I.S.I
202 as a substitute for A.I.S.I 304)

Chromium is added to the steel to increase resistance to oxidation.

This resistance increases as more chromium is added. 'Stainless Steel'
has approximately 11% chromium and a very marked degree of
general corrosion resistance when compared with steels with a lower
percentage of chromium. When added to low alloy steels, chromium
can increase the response to heat treatment, thus improving
hardenability and strength.


Nickel is added in large amounts, over about 8%, to high chromium

stainless steel to form the most important class of corrosion and heat
resistant steels. These are the austenitic stainless steels, typified by
18-8, where the tendency of nickel to form austenite is responsible for
a great toughness and high strength at both high and low
temperatures. Nickel also improves resistance to oxidation and
corrosion. It increases toughness at low temperatures when added in
smaller amounts to alloy steels.


Molybdenum, when added to chromium-nickel austenitic steels,

improves resistance to pitting corrosion especially by chlorides and
sulphur chemicals. When added to low alloy steels, molybdenum
improves high temperature strengths and hardness. When added to
chromium steels it greatly diminishes the tendency of steels to decay
in service or in heat treatment.


The main use of titanium as an alloying element in steel is for carbide

stabilisation. It combines with carbon to for titanium carbides, which
are quite stable and hard to dissolve in steel, this tends to minimise
the occurrence of inter-granular corrosion, as with A.I.S.I 321, when
adding approximately 0.25%/0.60% titanium, the carbon combines
with the titanium in preference to chromium, preventing a tie-up of
corrosion resisting chromium as inter-granular carbides and the
accompanying loss of corrosion resistance at the grain boundaries.


Phosphorus is usually added with sulphur to improve machinability in

low alloy steels, phosphorus, in small amounts, aids strength and
corrosion resistance. Experimental work shows that phosphorus
present in austenitic stainless steels increases strength. Phosphorus
additions are known to increase the tendency to cracking during


When added in small amounts sulphur improves machinability but does

not cause hot shortness. Hot shortness is reduced by the addition of
manganese, which combines with the sulphur to form manganese
sulphide. As manganese sulphide has a higher melting point than iron
sulphide, which would form if manganese were not present, the weak
spots at the grain boundaries are greatly reduced during hot working.


Selenium is added to improve machinability.

Niobium (Columbium)

Niobium is added to steel in order to stabilise carbon, and as such

performs in the same way as described for titanium. Niobium also has
the effect of strengthening steels and alloys for high temperature


Nitrogen has the effect of increasing the austenitic stability of stainless

steels and is, as in the case of nickel, an austenite forming element.
Yield strength is greatly improved when nitrogen is added to austenitic
stainless steels.


Silicon is used as a deoxidising (killing) agent in the melting of steel, as

a result, most steels contain a small percentage of silicon. Silicon
contributes to hardening of the ferritic phase in steels and for this
reason silicon killed steels are somewhat harder and stiffer than
aluminium killed steels.


Cobalt becomes highly radioactive when exposed to the intense

radiation of nuclear reactors, and as a result, any stainless steel that is
in nuclear service will have a cobalt restriction, usually aproximately
0.2% maximum. This problem is emphasised because there is residual
cobalt content in the nickel used in producing these steels.

Chemically similar to niobium and has similar effects.


Copper is normally present in stainless steels as a residual element.

However it is added to a few alloys to produce precipitation hardening


Composition ASME Section-I DIN TRD 300 BS 1113

Carbon SteelSA178 Gr.C, Gr.D, St 35.8 BS3059 P2 S2 360, 440

SA192, SA210 St 45.8 BS3602 P1 360, 430,
Gr.A1 500 Nb
& Gr.C
Mo SA106
SA209 Gr.B,
T1 Gr.C 15 Mo3 ----

1 Cr Mo SA335 P12 13 Cr Mo 44 BS3059 P2 S2 620

SA213 T12 BS3604 P1 620 440

1 Cr Mo SA213 T11 ---- BS3604 P1, 621

SA335 P11

2 Cr 1 Mo SA213 T22 10 Cr Mo 910 BS3059 P2 S2 622-490

SA335 P22 BS3604 P1, 622

9 Cr 1 Mo V SA213 T91 X 10 Cr Mo V -----

SA335 P91 Nb91

12 Cr 1 Mo V ----- X 20 Cr Mo V BS3059 P2 S2 762

121 BS3604 P1 762

18 Cr 8 Ni SA213 TP304 H ----- BS3059 P2 304 S51

BS3605 304 S59 E

18 Cr 10 Ni b SA213 TP347 H ----- BS3059 P2 347 S51

BS3605 347 S59 E