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2.1

2002

80

1980

3 1981

41982

2
. . 2002p.126-247
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. . 19806p.41
4
. . 19821p.10

3
5

1983

1998

71999

82000

5
. () . 19826p.16
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. . 19832p.5
7
. . 19983p.20
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. . 19993p.20
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. . 20007p.12

2004

10

1991199920002004

200419912003

19992000
19951996

2.2

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. . 20043p.8-12

John Friedmann, 1987

11

12Richard Klosterman1985Arguments
for and against Planning

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34

13

14

15

16

17

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John Friedmann, 1987, Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action, Princeton University Press
12

John
Friedmann. Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987: P.28
13
Richard E. Klosterman, Arguments for and against Planning, in Readings in Planning Theory, ed. Scott Campbell and Susan S.
Fainstein. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1996, p. 150-168
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. . 200411P.15
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. . 1996P.14-22
16
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. . 20056P.??

2.3

2.3.1

2.3.1.1

1982 1988 1993 1999 2004

18

18

19

2.3.1.2

20

1990

21

19

20

21

9
2

2.3.1.3

2008

10

2.3.1.4

83

2.3.2

2.3.2.1

22 50

22

11

1950

1953 3

1979 3

1982

1984 7 1988

12

2.3.2.2

23

24

23

24

13

2.3.3

2.3.3.1

14

25

25
. . 75 . 2003-12-
12

15

2.3.3.2

26

26

16

2.3.4

2.3.4.1

17

20

A+B:




A:

A
A+B+C:
B

C



18

2002

200227

27
. .
2002

19

28

2.3.4.2

50

1950

28
2004 8 7

20

50

21

200029

2.3.4.3

29
99%
. . 20001:p.46

22

23

3.1

3.1.1

24
3.1.1.1

30

30

25

3.1.1.2

26

3.1.2

3.1.2.1

27

3.1.2.2

3.1.2.3

28

31

32

3.1.2.4

31
. 2001-04-30
32

29

3.1.2.5

3.1.3

30

31

32

3.2

3.2.1

33

3.2.2

33

34

33
20014
34

34

3.2.3

3.2.4

1994

50-60%

35

3.2.5

36

3.3

37

38
4 35

36

35

36
2000

39

4.1

40

2004

4.2

41

199837

1985

37
. . 19982p.13

42

4.3

4.3.1

43

4.3.2

44







*






*







45
4

38

4.4

38
. . 20033p.1

46

47
5

48

5.1

5.2

49

50

1

2

50


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5.3

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