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Highly Efficient Brushless Motor Design for an Air-conditioner

of the Next Generation 42V Vehicle

Hiroshi Murakami 1 Hisakazu Kataoka 1 Yukio Honda 1
Shigeo Morimoto 2 Yoji Takeda 2
1
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ,ltd., 7-1-1, Morofuku, Daito, Osaka 574-0044, JAPAN.
Phone: +81-720-70-3066, Fax: +81-720-70-3158, E-mail: mura@mot.mei.co.jp
2
Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, JAPAN

Abstract - In the past few years, worldwide awareness of to satisfy these requirements, attention has been paid to an
environmental problems has grown dramatically. The idling interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM)
stop and 42V battery system attract large attention for next with concentrated winding stator that would enable a smaller
generation vehicle. In order to adapt to idling stop, coil volume and that could maintain the required mechanical
air-conditioning compressors are required to be changed to the
electric-motor drive from the gasoline engine drive. This paper
strength under high speed operation while keeping the high
discusses the optimum design of a high speed and high efficiency drive[1]-[8]. Hence, studies were launched in how
efficiency brushless motor for a compressor of the 42V to reduce the size and boost the motor efficiency of an
operated vehicle. The compressor motors require high IPMSM with concentrated winding. Studies included
efficiency at high speeds. Therefore, turning our attention to an simulations and experimental results with prototype motors
IPMSM which guarantees structural strength, improved that aimed to optimize the motor configuration of an IPMSM
techniques such as an optimal method of designing a magnet rotor for minimum iron loss in the high speed range, because
layout that minimizes iron loss, and concentrated winding iron loss was expected to be higher for a concentrated
technology using rectangular wire that minimizes copper loss winding IPMSM than with a distributed winding IPMSM.
have been developed. As a result, a method of designing
IPMSM that offers high efficiency of 94% at 15,000 min-1 and is 4
suitable for the 42V vehicle has been established.
Higherpower
Torque (Nm), Power (kW)

3 Wide range
I. INTRODUCTION
Higher torque

Amidst growing awareness of global environmental 2
problems, the research and development on the hybrid 90% efficiency range
Electric Vehicle (HEV), Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
1
and idling stop systems attract much attention in the
Improve efficiency
automobile Industry. At the same time, the 42V battery
system is recommended rather than the conventional 12V 0
system for energy saving. Therefore, today there is a big 0 5000 10000 15000
-1
20000
technical turning point for automotive manufacturers. Rotational speed (min )
Recently, a lot of interest is focused on hybrid EV and idling
stop systems as technologies for the next generation in low Fig. 1. Compressor motor requirements
fuel consumption vehicle. In order to apply the idling stop for the car conditioner.
system, the automobile air-conditioner must continue to
work even while the engine is stopped on the signal stop. For
this reason, the conventional engine-driven compressors are II. MOTOR DESGIN OF IPMSM FOR
gradually being replaced with electric motor-driven types. DECREASING THE IRON LOSS
This paper reports on the car air-conditioner compressor
motors for the next generation 42V vehicle. The motor A. Comparison between Distributed Winding IPMSM and
requirements of the car air-conditioning compressor are Concentrated Winding IPMSM
shown in Fig. 1. In the summertime, the compressor motor
must rapidly cool the cab environment, which means it will Fig. 2 shows the cross-sections of typical IPMSMs with
required high speeds more than 10,000 min-1and high motor distributed and concentrated windings stator. These motors
efficiency in the high speed operation range. Moreover, it have the same rotor configuration. At first, the flux
must be low fuel-consuming, small and lightweight. In order distribution between the two stator configurations are
calculated and compared. Fig. 3 shows calculation results of

0-7803-7116-X/01/$10.00 (C) 2001 IEEE
461

That makes N S v3 w2 us think greater iron loss will occur in the concentrated v2 w1 u2 u3 V v1 W winding IPMSM than the distributed winding IPMSM. 3 q-axis flux distribution.5 v2 Distributed winding w1 V v1 W u2 0. (a) IPMSM with distributed winding. the magnets in the rotors were treated as an air. 2. In this comparison. 462 . and the current is directed into the stator winding shown in Fig. Rotor position (deg. Comparison of inductance. the difference between the maximum and minimum values is almost the same. This inductance is obtained from the interlinkage flux at each rotor position 60 deg. the Fig.) u1 1. hand. This phenomenon occurs because the stator has 6 slots arrayed at a 60 degrees pitch whereas the 4 rotor poles are arranged every 90 degrees. It has d-axis been found that the basic wave component of IPMSM with U the concentrated winding is higher than the distributed u1 u4 u1 winding IPMSM. much of the 3rd and 5th S N u2 harmonic components overlap. 3. A From this figure. As is seen in Fig.u. Moreover.5 q-axis d-axis Concentrated winding U Inductance (p.0 u1 u2 w2 0. the inductance of the concentrated winding is greater than that of the distributed winding. this study is focused on the effects of iron loss of the concentrated winding IPMSM in the higher speed range. Therefore. 4 shows the calculation results of the motor A inductance from the FEM analyses [9]-[10]. it can be found that the magnetic flux distribution of the IPMSM with distributed winding has the 90 deg. The reason for this result is u3 u4 that the IPMSM with the concentrated winding has a higher v4 w4 w3 inductance than the distributed winding IPMSM. Therefore. 5 shows the calculation results of harmonic order q-axis analyses at the stator core point A. the inductance of the concentrated winding is higher in comparison to that of the distributed winding and.0 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 (b) IPMSM with concentrated winding. (b) IPMSM with concentrated winding. 4. Fig. flux density at the stator and rotor core should be higher with the concentrated winding than the distributed winding.) Fig. 3. which leads us to believe that the generated reluctance torque is nearly the same. even if the same torque is generated between the two.the q-axis flux distribution using the FEM analyses. However. The calculation results by the FEM analyses and experimental results of the prototype motors are discussed. indicated in Fig. On the other 90 deg. Fig. q-axis flux distribution in the concentrated winding IPMSM differed from rotor pole pitch as it is distributed winding asymmetrically at 120 degrees pitch to the left and 60 degree pitch to the right. 120 deg. Fig. (a) IPMSM with distributed winding. Typical Configuration of IPMSM. same 90 degrees pitch as the rotor pole pitch. a important feature of the concentrated winding stator. 1. 4.

(mm) 60 Airgap Length (mm) 0.072 0. Type A Type B Type C 1. 463 .u. Table 1.8 All rotors have the same magnetic volume. 7.36 T the rotor in the order of Type A. thus causing a higher flux density around the stator teeth and yoke. (mm) 110 1.6 Stack length (mm) 42 0.3 1. Saliency ratio L q /L d 1.35 Magnet Nd-Fe-B  Br (T) 1.94 Fig. 1. Harmonic order analysis of stator flux density.68 10.7 1.) Stator outer Dia. 1. Fig.074 B.074 0.0 Volume  (mm3) 2642 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rated torque (Nm) 1.55 T the rotor. 7 shows the maximum flux density distributions that are calculated from the FEM analyses. that is all magnets are of the same thickness and width.5 Nm. Type B 1. 6. 5. The rotors are modeled with differing saliency ratios as Type A.5 Stator Configuration Concentrated winding Distributed winding Pole 4 Concentrated winding Number of stator Slot 6 Flux density (p.5 Nm. 6 shows the rotor configurations used in this study. This difference in flux density affects iron loss. Rotor configuration. Motor parameter.88 5.5 Thickness of core  (mm) 0. This widens the q-axis flux path and thus increases the q-axis inductance Lq and saliency ratio. Table 1 and Table 2 show the motor specifications and parameters used in this studies.52 T and Type C.0 Stator Inner Dia. Type A Type B Type C Flux linkage ϕ a (Wb) 0. Motor Specifications.65 T (a)Type A (b) Type B (c) Type C (c) Type C Fig.80 T 1. which has the smallest saliency ratio. Fig.91 5. In this study. Calculation of Iron Loss by Rotor Configuration q-axis inductance L q (mH) 7.25 iHc (kA/m) 1670 0.75 T This happens because magnetic resistance in the q-axis direction decreases and consequently q-axis inductance increases as the permanent magnets are embedded deeper in 1. All models are on the (a )Type A steady state at the rated torque of 1.05 10. which leads us to believe that iron (b) Type B loss at high speed will be high because of the higher frequency. Table 2. the focus is on the iron loss to identify how the difference in Lq affects motor characteristics. and increases as saliency ratio become larger.5 Rated output (W) 750 Harmonic order Fig. Type B and Type C. This figure shows the flux density values around the stator teeth and yoke. This indicates that more flux flows through the rotor's q-axis flux paths. The permanent magnets are embedded progressively deeper into 1.64 d-axis inductance L d (mH) 5. Flux density distributions at1. Flux density is the lowest in Type A.

It can be seen from Fig. stress in the -100 A B rotational direction decreases by about 3%. 8. 10. confirming that it had little or no effect on torque. 9. 3.5 Nm. From these results. Stress distribution of improved stator. Vibration mode of 4poles/6Slots motor. it has been concluded that a low iron loss rotor such as Type A A would be best suited for a compressor motor with higher speed drive. Fig. On the other hand.1 mm calculation result of Maxwell stress that has been applied to the surface of the stator teeth at rated torque. 9 shows the 0. 9 that a lot more stress occurs in the radial direction than the rotational direction. Fig. However in the high speed region. It verifies that the proposed stator configuration Stator podition (deg. and decreases with Type A. The stress on the positive side in this chart represents stress of the rotational (torque) component. Fig. 9.) Fig. not much difference in iron loss is noted in the low speed region because of the low frequency. Fig. a high magnitude of stress is applied in two points. whereas the negative side represents the radial component. As a result. 12. 11 so as to partially widen the air -50 gap. 10. Iron loss is calculated at the 1. Fig. Based on these results. the stator is believed to warp under the vibration mode shown in Fig. 464 . The maximum radial direction stress is at a point about 20% lower than the conventional stator indicated in Fig. 150 Type A 50 Type B rotational direction Type C 100 Iron loss (W) 0 Stress (N/mm 2) 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 50 -50 radial direction -100 0 0 5000 10000 15000 A B Speed (r/min) -150 Fig. Stator position (deg. 13 shows harmonic order analyses result of the Maxwell stress for the two -150 stators. 0 Stress (N/mm ) Therefore. Fig. 8 shows the calculation result of iron loss obtained in FEM analyses.5 Nm rated torque and different speeds as the motors are driven at a B current phase that produced the maximum torque. which has a small saliency ratio and flux density.) reduces stress at all points. 12 shows the calculations results. minimizes torque loss and effectively reduces vibrations. the stator position and the corresponding teeth are also shown. the focus is on a stator with highly stressed teeth 2 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 shaven as shown in Fig. The horizontal axis shows Fig. it is confirmed that iron loss increases with Types B and C. Tooth configuration to improve vibration. which have higher saliency ratios and flux densities. the concentrated winding stator would vibrate more than a distributed winding stator. C. Iron loss analyses at 1. 11. Improvement of Vibration and Noise Because of the asymmetrical flux distribution shown in Fig. rotational direction A and B.Maxwell stress distribution of concentrated winding stator. in the radial direction. 50 Moreover.

18 show the motor efficiency of Type A and Type B. 30 Conventional stator 25 Proposed stator Stress (N/mm ) 2 20 15 10 5 0 (a) New type (Rectangular wire) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Harmonic order Fig. 465 . which had a smaller saliency ratio and flux density of the stator core in order to minimize ion loss in the high speed Fig. Fig. the rectangular wire stator reduced volume 15% with respect to the conventional stator. Configuration of test motor. 6 and are subjected to performance tests. 14. As can be seen in Fig. motor efficiency at a speed more than 10. By comparison. rectangular wires are used to improve the space fill factor of the stator slot and to reduce stator size. Fig. 15 (a) shows the prototyped stator coil. Fig. The test motor is shown in Fig. 15 Stator Winding of test motor region. it was confirmed that a low iron loss rotor would be good as a high efficiency drive in applications that require efficiency in the high speed region. Fig. reduces overall loss. 17 and Fig. 14. respectively. Rectangular wire Round wire This has been attributed to the fact that the low iron loss (c) Sator Outline rotor. 16 shows a block diagram of the experimental setup used in this study. 15 (b) shows the conventional stator with round wires. III.13. because iron loss accounts for more of the overall loss than copper loss does. Block diagram of experimental equipment. Because a 42V motor needs a lot of current. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS To verify the iron loss reduction and motor efficiency improvement obtained in FEM analyses. Based on this information. 15 (c). Fig. prototype motors are made with Type A and Type B rotor configurations in (b) Conventional type (Round wire) Fig. Rotor Stator Fig. 16. Harmonic order analysis of Maxwell stress.000 min-1 as nearly 1% higher in Type A.

Design and Motor Performances of a Double Layer Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor". Y. 91% 90% 1. 18 Motor Efficiency of Type B [4]W.Honda. making the motor more susceptible to the Evaluation of Interior Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric effects of iron loss in the high speed region. H. pp.75-82 [9]S.Bose. "Magnet car air-conditioning. concentrated winding IPMSMs and determine the best rotor Electrical Engeneering in Japan.Jahn.J. T. the flux profile generated as current flows through the [8]Y.Murakami.A.Takeda. A. Vol. 1987.H. the 92% 1. IEEE Trans.128. For this Torque (Nm) 2.Staton.Villata. No.1. 23. H.Kawano. K.Vagati. As a result.Nishiyama.E.27-36 [5]Y.0 reason. “Performance core is high. F. S. appropriate as it can reduce iron loss in the high speed range. No. Proceedings of IEEE Industry Applications Society 1999 Annual meeting. T. S. Y.pp.Higaki.pp. T.Miller.No. Proceedings of the 1996 Japan Industry Applications Society Conference. therefore it would require a large gauge wire for the winding. The following are obtained.Miller.E.Soong..Takeda.Higaki. Vehicle”. “Motor Design winding of a concentrated winding IPMSM contains a high Consideration and Test Results of an Interior Permanent Magnet harmonic component and is not sinusoidal in waveform. N.350 (1996) (2) In applications that require high efficiency drive at high [10]E.K.Wood.C. 17 Motor Efficiency of Type A efficiency of 94% was obtained at 15.1. "Optimum Design of a Multi Layer Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Reluctance Torque". owing to high inductance.4. "Design of a New Axially Laminated Interior Permanent Magnet Motor". IEE Proceedings-B.5 [2] A. 1.000 min-1. IEE Proceedings of Electric.. to identify the flux distribution and thus iron loss effects of Y.Nakamura.1993. March 1998 performed on motors with different saliency ratios in order [6]Y.Honda. vol. Y.L.Takeda.M. "Design Criteria of an IPM 90% Machine Suitable for Field-Weaken Operation". "Maximising the Saliency Speed (r/min) Ratio of the Synchronous Reluctance Motor".Yokote. This paper reported on comparative analyses and tests Vol. Appl. a rectangular wire is used for the stator winding and the new winding technology is established.249-259 (1993) Fig. 2. July 15.1059-1065 (1990) 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 [3]D.J.140.Takeda.Higaki. pp347.Honda. April 15. Proceedings of IEEE Also. S. Proceedings of 89% the International Conference on Electrical Machines.5 93% REFERENCES 92% Torque (Nm) 2. CONCLUSIONS Optimisation of a Multi-lyayer Interior Permanent Synchronous Motor". "A High-Performance Inverter-Fed drive system of an 91% interior permanent magnet synchronous machine ".145.Morimoto.5 (3) A motor driven by a 42 V power supply would need a lot 94% of current flowing through it.Morimoto. 1999 configuration for the next generation compressor motor for [7]Y. indicating that the Type A rotor would be best-suited for a car air-conditioning compressor motor that must be highly efficient at high speeds. J. "Rotor Design IV. 681-689 1.E. S. 2. S.2. T. 1999 pitch. the flux density at the stator Industrial Applications Society.Lang : "A Saturating Lumped speeds range.Higaki.0 (4) The prototype motor with Type A rotor reduced q-axis 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 inductance by 23% and iron loss at high speed by 20% over Speed (r/min) the prototype motor with Type B rotor. T. an IPMSM of low q-axis inductance is Parameter Model for an Interior PM Synchronous Machine". pp. vol. T. As a result. vol.5 coil end was 15% smaller than a conventional stator wound with round wire.Honda.Murakami. No. which would consequently 93% lower space fill factor and make the coil end longer. a motor Fig.553-555 466 . 1997.Lovelace. Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles”. T.Electrical Engeneering (1) Since the rotor pole pitch differs from the stator winding in Japan.0 [1]B.1. Power Applications.127. Ind. T. pp.Morimoto.Narazaki.0 pp. Proceeding of annual meeting of IEEE Industrial Applications Society.Fratta.