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Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error.

Authors: Hanauer, Merlin M.1 Reid, John2

Urbanization has placed pressure on open space within and adjacent to cities. In recent decades, a greater awareness has developed to
the fact that individuals derive multiple benefits from urban open space. Given the location, there is often a high opportunity cost to
preserving urban open space, thus it is important for both public and private stakeholders to justify such investments. The goals of this
study are twofold. First, we use detailed surveys and precise, accessible, mapping methods to demonstrate how travel-cost methods
can be applied to the valuation of urban open space. Second, we assess the degree to which typical methods of estimating travel times,
and thus travel costs, introduce bias to the estimates of welfare. The site we study is Taylor Mountain Regional Park, a 1100-acre
space located immediately adjacent to Santa Rosa, California, which is the largest city (170,000 population) in Sonoma County and
lies 50 miles north of San Francisco. We estimate that the average per trip access value (consumer surplus) is $13.70. We also
demonstrate that typical methods of measuring travel costs significantly understate these welfare measures. Our study provides policy-
relevant results and highlights the sensitivity of urban open space travel-cost studies to bias stemming from travel-cost measurement

Evaluating the Evacuation and Rescue Capabilities of Urban Open Space from a Land Use Perspective: A Case Study in
Wuhan, China.
Jie Gong1,2,3, Yaolin Liu1,2,3, Yanfang Liu1,2,3, Pujiang,
Huang4, Jiwei Li1,2,3
This study proposes an innovative integrated method for evaluating the evacuation and rescue capabilities of open spaces through a
case study in Wuhan, China. A dual-scenario network analysis model was set up to calculate travel time among communities, open
spaces, and rescue facilities during peak and non-peak hours. The distribution of traffic flow was derived on the basis of a gravity
model and used to construct supply-demand indexes (SDIs). SDIs such as evacuation (ESDI), rescue (RSDI), and comprehensive SDIs
(CSDI) were used to evaluate the suitability of open space locations. This study drew five major findings as follows: (1) ESDI, RSDI,
and CSDI can effectively evaluate the spatial suitability of open spaces when these SDIs are integrated with the gravity model; (2) The
quadrant distribution analysis of ESDI can be an effective method for determining the reasons for the change in values in the two
traffic scenarios and for helping planners in adjusting their policies to enhance the capability of an area; (3) The impact of the different
values on SDIs can show positive, negative, and inconspicuous correlations with large, moderate, and minimal variations,
respectively; (4) The analysis of the supply-demand relationship of open spaces in Wuhan indicates a spatial mismatch in
comprehensive evacuation and rescue capacities; (5) Traffic congestion can be a significant impact factor on evacuation and rescue
capabilities but not on comprehensive capability.

Effect of sound-related activities on human behaviours and acoustic comfort in urban open spaces.
Meng, Qi1, Kang, Jian1,2
Human activities are important to landscape design and urban planning; however, the effect of sound-related activities on human
behaviours and acoustic comfort has not been considered. The objective of this study is to explore how human behaviours and
acoustic comfort in urban open spaces can be changed by sound-related activities. On-site measurements were performed at a case
study site in Harbin, China, and an acoustic comfort survey was simultaneously conducted. In terms of effect of sound activities on
human behaviours, music-related activities caused 5.121.5% of persons who pass by the area to stand and watch the activity, while
there was a little effect on the number of persons who performed excises during the activity. Human activities generally have little
effect on the behaviour of pedestrians when only 1 to 3 persons are involved in the activities, while a deep effect on the behaviour of
pedestrians is noted when > 6 persons are involved in the activities. In terms of effect of activities on acoustic comfort, music-related
activities can increase the sound level from 10.8 to 16.4 dBA, while human activities such RS and PC can increase the sound level
from 9.6 to 12.8 dBA; however, they lead to very different acoustic comfort. The acoustic comfort of persons can differ with
activities, for example the acoustic comfort of persons who stand watch can increase by music-related activities, while the acoustic
comfort of persons who sit and watch can decrease by human sound-related activities. Some sound-related activities can show
opposite trend of acoustic comfort between visitors and citizens. Persons with higher income prefer music sound-related activities,
while those with lower income prefer human sound-related activities.
The connectivity of Haifa urban open space network.
Toger, Marina1, Malkinson, Dan2, Benenson, Itzhak3, Czamanski, Daniel1
Urban open spaces are considered as spatial residuals of the expansion of built areas. The environmental impact of the resulting land-
cover pattern and associated ecosystem services are frequently evaluated at a crude spatial resolution only. However, wild animals use
remaining interconnected fine-grain open spaces as an infrastructure for movement.In this paper, we traced the evolution of an open-
space system in Haifa, Israel, and examined the impact of urban morphology on size and distribution of open spaces at different
spatial resolutions.At a 30m resolution, our analysis indicated fragmentation and increasing partial elimination of open spaces. Over
time the connectivity declined at a diminishing rate, yet the network did not disintegrate into separate components. The evolution
analysis implied that in crude resolution, the open space network is threatened.At a 5m resolution, our analysis showed that Haifa
remains porous to animal movement. Using combined multiple least-cost paths through the urban landscape of heterogeneous
permeability, we illustrated extensive connectivity among open spaces. Backyards and other urban in-between spaces complemented
the seminatural open-space network connectivity, enabling wildlife movement between habitat patches and thus survival in an
urbanized environment.

The Continuity of Sacred Urban Open Space: Facilitating the Indian Conversion to Catholicism in Mesoamerica.
Authors: Wagner, E. Logan1
During the sixteenth century, the Spanish crown sent Mendicant friars of the Franciscan, Dominican, and Augustinian monastic orders
to evangelize and convert the indigenous people of America. With huge populations to convert, spread over an extremely vast
territory, a limited number of friars had to find expedient ways to facilitate the conversion effort. Among the many conversion
strategies used by the Mendicant friars under the early guidance of Fray Pedro de Gante were: to locate places of Christian worship
over or near native ceremonial centers and continue the use of ceremonial open urban space; the incorporation of native religious
rituals deemed compatible with Catholic liturgy such as processions, music, art, and dance; the creation of new architectural forms and
open urban spaces to provide a setting for these rituals; and the substitution of native rituals for Catholic ceremonies including
adjusting native and Catholic ritual calendric dates. Based on recent architectural field surveys and ethnographic documentation, this
research focuses on the architectural and urban space adaptations that the missionary friars undertook to facilitate conversion efforts.

Principles of plant species selection in urban open space design: Case of Istanbul.
Baer, Bahar1; Yildizci, Ahmet Cengiz1
Abstract (English):
In our age which is called as urban century, with the transformation of landscapes, the definition of the term landscape has refreshed
its meaning. In this sense, we should refine our traditional knowledges and knowhows in the context of our expertise vocabulary.
During the history, cities and their components have been always seen as threats to the natural environment, also identified as the main
sources of the problems on decreasing the biological diversity. On the other hand, the vegetation layer of the cityscape is the most
violent tool in order to connect urban and human to the nature. In Turkey, the existing plant cover of urban open spaces shows an
inconsistent structure in terms of both, the relations among the plant species and compatibility with the ecological characteristics.
Generally, the plantation works in Turkey's cities has been managed by the municipalities and local authorities, according to the
technical factors such as nursery availability, easement of plantation, maintaining requirements and budget. On the other hand,
planting actions has been implemented considering to the provisional requirements of the cities instead of developing a green planning
approach taking into consideration green structure of the city as a whole. The most significant reason of this process depends on the
gap between landscape ecological approach and practical approach. Because importance and content of the landscape ecological
studies has not been comprehended in the institutional arena, any scientific approach, which might be used for plant species selection
in designing the urban open spaces, could have not been developed in our country. The relation with the plants and urban environment
is actually multidimensional and highly variable across time and space. Moreover urban environments have limited and restricted
conditions for plants such us poor air and soil quality, human disturbance, limited spaces for roots or crown growth. Consequently,
right choice of the plant species at the beggining of the plantation process, could provide a selfsustain urban vegetation cover and
urban green space system. The aims of this study are to eliminate the deficiency in the field of urban horticulture, and to provide a
guidance for designers, practitioners, plant productors and local authorities. In the context of the research model, all national or
general knowledge and datas about the urban plantation will being synthesized and systematized around sustainable urban vegetation
planning issue. In this study, we aim to bring a scientific approach to the plant species selection issue which is mostly proposed for the
designers and decision makers whose working field is especially public spaces of the cities where the urban image display itself. Our
study area, Istanbul is the greatest metropolis of Turkey. At the same time, Istanbul is the main economic capital, also the core of
industrial and financial development center of the whole country. Due to its location being on the transition point of different climatic
regimes between Middle Europe and Mediterrannean regions, the city has high potentials in terms of biological diversity and native
habitats. As a result of the rapid urbanization process, especially after the 1970s the city has lost its huge amount of natural forests and
native vegetation land cover. At the beginning of the 1990s urban landscape has been planted with the thousands of nonnative and
exotic species by unplanned but well-intentioned efforts of the municipality. On the other hand, although there are many scientific
inventory studies about Istanbul's flora and vegetation, this dataset has not been organized for decision makers, designers or plant
producers. This study seeks to find main principles around the plant selection issue through organizing existing floral data of Istanbul's
cityscape and overlapping the different dimensions of the complex metapolis, such us historical and social dimensions as well as
ecologic, functional, aesthetic and horticultural requirements affecting the plant species selection in the urban environment.

Factors influencing the sound preference in urban open spaces

Yu, Lei1, Kang, Jian
Abstract: In this paper, based on a large scale survey in Europe and China as well as corresponding laboratory studies, the influencing
factors on the sound preference evaluation, considering social, demographical, physical, behavioural and psychological facets, have
been systematically examined based on statistical analyses for each of the 19 case study sites. Various sound types have been
considered, including natural, human, mechanical and instrumental sounds. In terms of social/demographical factors, the results
suggest that age and education level are two factors which universally influence the sound preference significantly, although the
influence may vary with different types of urban open spaces and sounds. With increasing age or education level, people tend to prefer
natural sounds and are more annoyed by mechanical sounds in general. It has also been found that gender, occupation and residence
status generally would not influence the sound preference evaluation significantly, although gender has a rather strong influence for
certain sound types such as bird sounds, especially at certain case study sites. In terms of physical factors (season, time of day),
behavioural factors (frequency of coming to the site, reason for coming to the site), and psychological factors (site preference),
generally speaking, their influence on the sound preference evaluation is insignificant, except for limited case study sites and certain
sound types. The influence of home sound environment, in terms of sounds heard at home, on the sound preference has been found to
be generally insignificant, except for certain sounds. It is noted that there are some correlations between social/demographical factors
and the studied physical/behavioural/psychological factors, which should be taken into account when considering the influence of
individual factors on sound preference.

The value of urban open space: Meta-analyses of contingent valuation and hedonic pricing results
Brander, Luke M.1, Koetse, Mark J.2
Urban open space provides a number of valuable services to urban populations, including recreational opportunities, aesthetic
enjoyment, environmental functions, and may also be associated with existence values. In separate meta-analyses of the contingent
valuation (CV) and hedonic pricing (HP) literature we examine which physical, socio-economic, and study characteristics determine
the value of open space. The dependent variable in the CV meta-regression is defined as the value of open space per hectare per year
in 2003 US$, and in the HP model as the percentage change in house price for a 10 m decrease in distance to open space. Using a
multi-level modelling approach we find in both the CV and HP analyses that there is a positive and significant relationship between
the value of urban open space and population density, indicating that scarcity and crowdedness matter, and that the value of open
space does not vary significantly with income. Further, urban parks are more highly valued than other types of urban open space
(forests, agricultural and undeveloped land) and methodological differences in study design have a large influence on estimated values
from both CV and HP. We also find important regional differences in preferences for urban open space, which suggests that the
potential for transferring estimated values between regions is likely to be limited.

A spherical metric for the field-oriented analysis of complex urban open spaces.
Teller, Jacques
The author deals with the analysis of urban open spaces, once conceived as part and parcel of our urban heritage. He introduces a
mathematical modelling technique that is capable of mapping the variation of the sky visible from points distributed throughout space.
The resulting maps overcome the limits of orthographic (plan, section, and elevation) and perspective methods of analysis by
considering the dynamic qualities of the Gibsonian 'visual world' that takes account not only of bifocal vision but also of the relatively
free movement of the head and shoulders, that is, vision as part of the human ecology. The maps show how a person might experience
those volumes of a void that define a space, not from a fixed point but from moving about inside the entire urban open space.
Neighbourhood - Open Space Relationships in Metropolitan Planning: a look across four scales of concern.
Gobster, Paul H.
New Urbanism and other metropolitan planning strategies may discount the importance of neighbourhood - open space relationships
when dealing with some types of open spaces, particularly in city centre and urban fringe areas. In this paper I review a series of
studies I have carried out over the past decade looking at people's perceptions and uses of urban open space. This research examined
neighbourhood - open space relationships in the metropolitan area of Chicago, Illinois, USA at four scales of concern: quasi-public
space within an immediate neighbourhood; a public park that spans different neighbourhoods; regional greenways; and a metropolitan
bioreserve. In all of this work, my findings show how adjacent neighbourhoods are critical to the success of these open spaces,
regardless of their scale. Lessons are drawn from each scale for how neighbourhood - open space relationships might be improved.

On the Definition of Urban Green Areas: (Re)Production Modes of Urban Green in Ankara as Representational Spaces.
lkay, Yasemin1
Abstract (English):
Urban green areas, such as parks, gardens, recreation spots, urban forests and groves, penetrate urban pattern limiting the built
environment and supporting the delicate balance among occupied and void spaces. Urban greenery is on one the hand natural, on the
other hand urban open space. As cities evolved, the public space dimension has been added to being natural and open; urban
green turned out to be meeting spaces where people come together and socialize while contacting with both the nature and the other
citizens; gaining new social and symbolic content. As public spaces, urban green areas have a two-folded appropriation: they are open
to anyone (perception and experience) as public property; besides, they are regulated by state institutions. On the basis of this conflict,
urban green areas are (re)produced and can be analysed as perceived, conceived and lived spaces. This article problematizes the
technical and political motives shaping the reproduction of urban greenery in Ankara, focusing on the concept of conceived space;
and discusses how urban green has turned out to be representational spaces. The main question of the study is: within reproduction
process how far urban greenery has transformed from its natural origins and what urban green has recently been in Ankara in relation
with the city and what it represents so far. Determined three representational modes demonstrated the shift in definition of urban green
from a natural to a political entity: (1) a policy instrument; (2) a context of policy; and (3) a site of policy.

Simulating the sheltering effects of windbreaks in urban outdoor open space

Li, Wei1, Wang, Fan1, Bell, Simon2
Abstract: This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of wind environment in an urban open space containing windbreaks
and buildings. The sheltering effects of windbreaks on outdoor open spaces has been investigated regarding their physical properties,
such as porosity and locations. A selection of turbulence models and discretization schemes has also been evaluated in the CFD
simulations in order to create a suitable module to simulate airflow in a domain containing both porous objects and bluff bodies. The
result shows that the combination of the KE-two-layer model and SMART discretization scheme provides satisfactory accuracy to the
modelling with affordable computing resources. It also shows that the effect of buildings on the flow regime behind windbreaks is
significant, equivalent to the porosity of windbreaks when the outdoor space is comparatively small in proportion to the height of the

New Estimates of the Demand for Urban Green Space: Implications for Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Boston's Big
Dig Project.
Tajima, Kayo1
Parks and open spaces enhance the quality of life in urban areas. Over the last 15 years, the city of Boston has sponsored the most
expensive urban infrastructure project in history. This project relocates an elevated highway underground and creates urban parks,
increasing the city's green space. The study estimates the economic benefits of proximity to parks in Boston, Massachusetts, based on
hedonic pricing methods. Using Boston's land use and assessed property price data, it is determined that proximity to urban open
space has positive impacts on property values, while proximity to highways has negative impacts on property prices. Based on this
observation, it is expected that the spatial alteration will cause a significant increase in nearby property prices.