You are on page 1of 4

Application Data Sheet

ADS-PWR-005

Full Metered Boiler Control with O2 Trim


Combustion Control Systems (CCS)

Introduction
Combustion control is a critical function for all utility, industrial and institutional customers for the following
reasons:
Safety of operating personnel is paramount
Reliability of utility operations is essential
Energy usage is a major cost
Value of boiler equipment must be protected.

To safely, reliably and efficiently operate package boilers, the engineers at MicroMod have developed
and supplied automatic combustion control systems for many years. This Application Data Sheet
discusses control strategy as applied to automatic combustion control systems for full-metered, single
burner, dual fuel boilers.

PT STEAM
100 FT
107
LT
108
FT
109
FCV
109 FW
FT
101

GAS FT FCV-101 AT TT
102 103 103
PT
TT 106 FCA-106
OIL FCV-102 104
FT FD
104 FAN
FCA-104 FCA-105

ATOM MEDIA FGR


FIGURE 1: TYPICAL FIELD DEVICES FOR FULL METERING

APPLICATION DESCRIPTION
The automatic combustion control field hardware for a typical single burner, dual fuel package boiler is
shown in Figure 1. The system shown is a full-metered system, i.e. the fuel and air are independently
measured and furnished with closed loop control. This is the safest and most efficient method for boiler
control. Measurement of excess oxygen is provided for automatic fuel/air ratio trim. Flue gas recirculation
is shown for low NOx burners.

CONTROL STRATEGY
The control diagram for this combustion control strategy is shown in figure 2. The component descriptions
are as follows:

Boiler Master
The boiler master controller receives the plant demand signal from the plant master pressure controller
and adds an operator-entered bias. This output is the boiler demand for steam. The operator may adjust
the bias in automatic or place the controller in manual to fire the boiler manually. When the fuel control is
not in auto mode, this controller tracks the total fuel signal and any difference between plant and boiler
demand is calculated as a bias in order to provide a bumpless, balance-less transfer to auto. The control

MicroMod Automation, Inc. Page 1 of 4


ADS-PWR-005 Fully Metered Combustion Control

rejects to Manual on bad signal quality. The boiler pressure is indicated and a high/low pressure alarm is
shown.

Fuel / Air Cross Limits


Operational safety is greatly improved during automatic control by fuel/air cross limiting. This technique
utilizes a high select between boiler demand and actual fuel flow as the airflow setpoint. A low select
between boiler demand and actual airflow is used as the fuel flow setpoint. The net effect of these
selectors is that on a load increase, the fuel must remain within a certain percentage of the airflow or the
fuel setpoint cannot increase. On a load decrease, the fuel must remain within a certain percentage of the
airflow or the air setpoint cannot decrease. If at any time the fuel exceeds the air, the fuel setpoint is
decreased. The limiting dead-band is provided by gains on the flow measurements provided to the
selectors. A 1.05 gain on air and 0.95 gain on fuel are typical, providing a +/-5% dead-band.

Fuel Flow Control


The gas and oil flows are measured, totalized, and summed by heat value before being sent as a total
fuel signal to the fuel flow controller. The total flow is compared to the fuel demand setpoint and added as
a trim signal to the feed forward for fuel demand. This combined output modulates the gas or oil valve
(whichever is selected) to eliminate any error when in the auto mode. Adaptive gain and reset allow
separate tuning constants for gas and oil. The demand for oil or gas is linearized through the use of
function generators on the outputs. The operator may place the controller in manual mode to provide a
manual fuel demand signal. A logic interface to the BMS is provided where a contact closure will position
the fuel valves to a pre-programmed light off position. The control rejects to Manual on bad signal quality.
The controller also contains logic to prevent fuel automation until the airflow is automated.

Air Flow Control


The airflow is measured, temperature compensated, and sent as a total airflow signal to the airflow
controller. The total flow is compared to the air demand setpoint and added as a trim signal to the
feedforward for air demand. This combined output modulates the FD damper to eliminate any error when
in the auto mode Adaptive gain and reset allow separate tuning constants for gas and oil. The air demand
for oil or gas is linearized through the use of function generators on the output. The operator may place
the controller in manual mode to provide a manual air demand signal. A logic interface to the BMS is
provided where contact closures will position the air damper to pre-programmed light off or purge
positions. The control rejects to Manual on bad signal quality. The controller also contains logic to prevent
air automation until the furnace pressure is automated (If provided).

Excess O2 Trim
The excess O2 leaving the boiler is measured by an O2 analyzer and compared to setpoint by the O2
master. Load programmed setpoints for oil and gas, are provided by function generators, for the fuel
selected. The O2 controller output will modify the demand for airflow to eliminate any error in the auto
mode. This modification is limited to +/-5% for safety. The operator may bias the setpoints in auto or
provide a manual fuel/air ratio in manual mode. The control rejects to Manual on bad signal quality. The
controller tracks actual fuel air ratio when the airflow is not auto.

FGR Control (If required)


The demand for air provides a signal to the pre-programmed positions for the FGR damper which
are located in function generators for oil or gas. The operator may bias the setpoints in auto or provide a
manual FGR position in manual mode. The control rejects to Manual on bad signal quality.

VFD Control (If required)


When the fan is equipped with both a damper and a Variable Frequency Drive. The demand for air
provides a signal to the pre-programmed positions for the fan VFD and damper that are located in
function generators for oil or gas. The fan operates in a split range control mode with the damper
controlling flow at low loads and the VFD controlling flow at high loads. The control rejects to Manual on
bad signal quality.

On Line Boiler Efficiency


The addition of flue gas temperature allows the on line calculation of boiler efficiency by the Heat Loss
method.

Page 2 of 4 MicroMod Automation, Inc.


Fully Metered Combustion Control ADS-PWR-005

Other Loops
Note that Furnace Pressure control and Drum Level control are shown for completeness. See individual
Application Data Sheets for details on these loops.

GAS OIL DRUM PLANT EXCESS AIR AIR FURN STEAM DRUM FW
FLOW FLOW PRESS DEMAND O2 TEMP FLOW PRESS FLOW LEVEL FLOW
FT FT PT AT TT FT PT FT LT FT
101 102 100 103 104 104 106 107 108 109

H/L H/L H/L H/L


F(x)
FQ FQ IND O2 FQ FQ
MASTER
A T A STEAM A T A
VS O2
BOILER F(x) F(x)

MASTER F(x) T <> AIR
BTU
BASIS F(x)
VS
STEAM
T F(x)
H/


< X >
STEAM T
VS MIN A
DMPR AIR
A T FUEL AIR A T A T A A T A
A/M F(x) F(x) A/M
FURNACE DRUM
T PURGE A PRESS LEVEL
MASTER MASTER
LOW A LOW
FIRE
T FIRE
A T

A T A STEAM
VS F(x) F(x)
FGR
STEAM DMPR STEAM
A/M STEAM
F(x) VS F(x) LOGIC T F(x) VS F(x) VS
LOGIC
VALVE DMPR VALVE

FCV FCV LOW O/G FCA PURGE REL FCA FCV


FCA
101 102 FIRE SE 105 AUT 106 109
104
GAS OIL FROM BMS FGR FD OUTLET FW
VALVE VALVE ACTUATORFROM BMS ACTUATOR ACTUATOR VALVE
FIGURE 2: TYPICAL FULL METERED CONTROL STRATEGY

MicroMod Automation, Inc. Page 3 of 4


ADS-PWR-005 Fully Metered Combustion Control

Page 4 of 4 MicroMod Automation, Inc.