You are on page 1of 35

Present Progressive /Continuous

S (I) am V+ing
S (he/she/it) is V+ing
S (we/you/they) are V+ing
We use the present progressive/continuous Pleas dont make noise. Im studying.
when we talk about something which is John is sleeping right now.
happening at the time of speaking. John and Marry are talking on the
Phone.
(at a party) Are you enjoying the party?

We also use the present continuous when Im taking five courses this semester.
we talk about something which is She is writing another book this year.
happening around the time of speaking,
Have you heard about Tom? He is
but not necessarily exactly at the time of building his own house.
speaking. (something generally in
progress for instance, this week, this
month , this year, etc)

We also use the present continuous when


The population of the world is rising very
talk about changing situations.
fast.
Simple Present Tense

S (I/you/we/they) V1st
S (She/he/ it) V1st + s/es/ies
S To be (am/is/are) Non-verb
We use the simple present tense to talk The earth goes around the sun
about things in general. We use it to say Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.
that something happens all the time or The world is round
repeatedly, or that something is true in I work in a bank. Barry works in a shop.
general. It is not important the action is
happening at the time of speaking.

We also use simple present tense to I get up at 8 oclock every morning.


express habitual or everyday activity or He always eats Sandwich for lunch.
how often we do things. In summer Tom usually plays tennis
twice a week.
I study for two hours every night.
How often do you go to dentist?

We use do/ does to make questions and


Ann often drinks coffee.
negative sentences.
Ann doesnt often drink tea.
Excuse me, do you speak English?
Do (I/we/you/they) I/we/you/they (dont)
I dont speak English.
Does (she/he/it) He/she/it (doesnt)

The spelling of s/ - es attached to a verb


Normally, a finding final s or es is added to a simple present verb when the subject is
a singular noun, such as Mary, my father, the car, etc, or third singular pronoun, such as she,
he, it.
(1) For most verbs, the final s, or es is added to a simple present verb when the subject is
simply added to spell the word correctly.
Example: sing sings kill sings
Sit sits see sees
(2) Verbs that end in hissing sounds, such as /sh/, /ch/, /s/, /z/, and /x/, take es.
Example: wash washes buzz buzzes
Mix mixes watch washes
Pass passes
(3) Verb that end in y:
If the y is preceded by a vowel, only s is added to the verb.
Example: buy buys pay pays say says
If the y is preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i and es is added to the
verb.
Example: Cry cries
Try tries
Spy spies
Exercise:
Fill the blanks with the most appropriate form of Be and Do. Use am, is, are, and do or does.
1. How oldyou?
2. How.you go to work every day?
3. Where..you go?
4. There. too many people in this room.
5. the children go to school on foot?
6. The baby.. thirsty.
7. She.not like banana.
8. I.not see any student there.
9. ..your wife work in that office?
10. .she late?
11. Where..your children? I .not see them
12. The girl.very pretty.
13. .your wife home?
14. What.you want? Money or happiness?
15. I not a teacher, so I..not teach.
Simple Past

S V2nd
S (I/he/she/it) was non-verb
S (you/we/they) were non verb
The simple past indicates that an activity I walked to school yesterday
or situation began and ended at a I bought a new car three days ago.
particular time in the past. Mr. Edward died ten years ago.
If a sentence contain when and has the
simple past in both clauses, the action in I stood under a tree when it began to rain
the when clause happens first. When she heard a strange noise, she got
up to investigate.
When I dropped my cup, the coffee
spilled on my lap.

Note: There are two kind of verb; they are Regular Verb (kata kerja tak beraturan) and
Irregular Verb (kata kerja beraturan)

Regular verb ends in ed: Decide decided


Work worked
Pass passed
Irregular verb doesnt end in ed: leave left
Go went
Get got

The negatives and interrogative s in the simple past tense are constructed with the help of the
auxiliary verb TO DO in the past form, we use did /didnt + V1 (infinitive) (do, open,
rain, etc.):
Ann: Did you go out last night, Tom?
Tom: yes, I went to the cinema but I didnt enjoy the film.

When did Mr. Edwards die?


What did you do at the week-end?
We didnt invite her to the party, so she didnt come.
Why didnt you phone me on Tuesday?

TO BE (was, were) in the simple past tense have the following forms:
Was I was a student last year.
She was sick yesterday.
Were Where were you last week?
You were not here then.
But we dont use did with to be (was/were):
Why were you so angry yesterday?
Was Tom at school yesterday?

Unit 4 Past Progressive/ Continuous

We use past progressive to tell an action At eight oclock last night, I was studying.
that was in progress in the past time, it Last year at this time, I was attending
doesnt tell us weather the action was school.
finished or not. What were you doing at 10 oclock last
night?

We often use the past continuous and the Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking
past simple together to tell one action the dinner.
began earlier and was in progress when the It was raining when I got up.
other action occurred. I saw Jim in the park. He was sitting on the
grass and reading a book.

Sometimes the past progressive is used in While I was studying in one room of our
both parts of a sentence when two actions apartment, my roommate was having a
are in progress simultaneously. party in the other room.
Simple Past or Past Progressive
1. Im sitting in class right now. I (sit)in class at this exact same time yesterday.
2. I dont want to go to the zoo today because it is raining. The same thing happened yesterday.
I (want, not) ..to go to the zoo because it (rain).
3. I (call) Roger at nine last night, but (be, not).at home. He
(study).at the library.
4. I (hear, not).the thunder during the storm last night because I
(sleep)..
5. My brother and sister (argue)about something when I (walk) into the room.
6. I got up a package in the mail. When I (open) it, I (find).a surprise.
7. Tommy went to his friends house, but the boys (be, not).there. They
(play)..soccer in the vacapnt lot down the street.
8. Stanley (climb).the stairs when he (trip) and
(fall)Luckily, he (hurt, not).himself.
9. While Mrs. Emerson (read).the little boy a story. He
(fall)a sleep, so she (close)the book and quite
(tiptoe)out of the room.
10. I really enjoy my vocation in last January. While it (snow).in Iowa, the sun
(shine)........in Florida. While you (shovel) .snow in Iowa, I
(lie).on the beach of Florida.
11. While Ted (shovel) .snow from his driveway yesterday, his wife (bring)
.him a cup of hot chocolate.
12. A: Why werent you at meeting?
B: I (wait)for an overseas call from my family.
13. A: (hear, you)what he just said?
B: No, I (listen, not)..I (think)about something else.
14. A: Im sure you met Carol Jones at the party last night.
B: I dont remember her. What (wear, she).?
15. A: How (break, you)..your arm?
B: I (slip)..on the ice while I (cross)the street in front of
the dorm.
The Present Perfect Tense (1)

S (I/We/You/They) Have V3rd

S (He/She/It) Have V3rd


The present perfect express the idea that They have moved into a new house.
something happened (or never happened)
before now, at an unspecified time in the
past. The exact time it happened is not
important.
The present perfect tense also, when used I have been here since seven oclock
with for and since, expresses a situation I have been here for two hours
that began in the past and continuous to the
present.
Since + a particular time
For + a duration of time
When we use the present perfect there is a I have lost my key (= I havent got it now)
connection with the present. Jim has gone to Canada (he is in Canada)

We often use the present perfect to give Ive just lost my key. Could you help me
new information or to announce a recent look for it?
happening. Do you know about Jim? Hes gone to
Canada

You can use the present perfect with just


Would you like something to eat? No,
(= a short time ago)
thanks. Ive just had lunch
Hello, have you just arrived?
You can use the present perfect with
When is Tom going to start his new job?
already to say that something has
He has already started.
happened sooner than expected.
Ann is on Holyday. She has gone to
Study the differences between gone to and Holyday ( She is there now)
been to. Tom is back in England now. He has been
to Italy ( = he was there but now he has
comeback)

We often use the present perfect with yet. Has it stopped raining yet (not did it
Yet shows that the speaker is expecting stop)

something to happen. Use yet only in I havent told them about the accident yet.
question and negative sentences.

The Present Perfect (2)


We often use ever and never with the Have you ever eaten apple?
present perfect. We have never had a car

We often use the present perfect after a Its the most boring film Ive ever seen.
superlative.
You have to use the present perfect with Tom has lost has lost his passport again. It
This is the first time, It is the second is the second time he has lost it.
time .etc.
Use the present perfect to say that you I have never smoke
have never done something or that you I havent smoke for three years
havent done something during a period of I havent smoke since September
time which continuous up to present.
Jill hasnt written to me for nearly a
month.
Jill has never driven a car
Present Perfect Continuous

Subject (I/We/You/They) have been V+ing


Subject (she/he/it) has been V+ing
This tense is used to indicate the duration I have been sitting here since seven
of an activity that began in the past and oclock
continuous to the present. When the tense I have been sitting here for two hours.
has this meaning, it is used with time words You have been studying for five straight
such as for, since, all morning, all day, all hours. Why dont you take a break?
week, etc. It has been raining all day. It is still
raining right now.
We also use the present perfect continuous
to ask or say how long something has been How long have you been learning
happening. This time the action or situation English?
began in the past and still happening. They have been waiting here for over an
hour
Ive been watching television since 2
You can also use the present perfect oclock.
continuous (with how long, for and since)
for actions repeated over a period of time.
She has been playing tennis since she was
eight.
With certain verbs (most notably live,
How long have you been smoking?
work, teach), there is little or no differences
I have lived here since 1985
in meaning between the two tenses when
I have been living here since 1985
since or for is used.
He has worked at the same store for ten
years.
He has been working at the same store for
ten years.
Past Perfect
Subject (I/We/You/They/She/He/It) HAD - V3rd
Past perfect expresses an activity that was My parents had already eaten by the time
completed before another activity or time I got home.
in the past. When I arrived at the party, Tom had
already gone home.
When I got home, I found that someone
had stolen my clothes.
The past perfect (I had done) is the past of present perfect (I have done).
Compare these situations below:
Present Past
Im not hungry, I have just had lunch It wasnt hungry. I had just lunch.
The house is dirty. We havent cleaned it for The house was dirty. We hadnt cleaned
weeks it for weeks.
Compare the past perfect (I had done) and the past simple (I did)
Was Tom there when you arrive? No he had already gone home
But: Was Tom there when you arrived? Yes, but he went home afterwards.
Ann wasnt in when I phoned her. She was in London
But: Ann had just got home when I phoned her. She had been in London

Use the simple past or past perfect with the correct form of the verb in the
brackets.
1. He (be)..a newspaper reporter before he became a businessman.
2. I (feel)..a little better after I (take)..the medicine.
3. I was late. The teacher (give, already) a quiz when I (get)..to the
class.
4. The anthropologist (leave).the village when she (collect).enough
data.
5. It was raining hard, but by the time class (be)over, the rain (stop) .
6. Class (begin, already)..by the time I (get)there, so I (take,
quietly).. a seat in the bank.
7. Millions of years ago, dinosaurs (roam).but they (become)..extinct
by the time humankind first (appear).
8. I (see, never)any of Picassos paintings before I (visit) the
art museum.
9. I almost missed my plane. All of the other passengers (board, lready) by
the time I (get).there.
10. Yesterday at a restaurant, I (see)..Pam Donnelly, an old friend of mine. I
(see, not)her in years. At first, I (recognize, not) her because she
(lose).at least fifty pounds.

The Past Perfect Progressive

Subject (I/We/You/They/She/He/It) HAD BEEN - V3ing


The past perfect progressive emphasizes The police had been looking for the
the duration of an activity that was in criminal for two years before they caught
progress before another activity or time in him.
the past. The patient had been waiting in the
emergency room for almost an hour before
a doctor finally treated her.

This tense also may express an activity in


progress recent to another time or activity He finally came at six oclock. I had been
in the past waiting shim since four-thirty.
When Judy got home, her hair was still wet
because she had been swimming.
Her eyes were red because she had been
crying.
Put the verb in brackets into the correct form, the PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE or
the PAST PROGRESSIVE.
Example :
Tom was leaning against the wall, out of breath. He (run)
he had been running
I tried to catch Tom but I couldnt. He (run) ...very fast.
he was running very fast.
1. Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He (look)..for his cigarettes
lighter.
2. We (walk) .along the road for about 20 minutes when a car stopped
and the driver offered us lift.
3. When I arrived, everyone was sitting round the table with their mouths full. They
(eat)..
4. When I arrived, everyone was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths were empty
but their stomachs were full. They (eat).
5. When I arrived, Ann (wait)for me. She was rather annoyed with me because
I was late and she (wait) for a very long time.
Simple Future
Subject ( I/We/You/They/She/He/It) will V
This tense indicates at one particular time He will finish his work tomorrow.
in the future. He is going to finish his work tomorrow.
Will is used to express future activities. They are going to finish their work soon.
Shall also possible used to express future
but it is only used with I and We.
The future simple can also be expressed
with be (am/is/are) going to.

Will Versus Be Going To


To express a prediction either will or be going to is used:
(a) According to the weather report, it will be When the speaker is making a prediction (a
cloudy tomorrow. statement about something she/he thinks will
(b) According to the weather report, it is be true or will occur in the future), either will
going to be cloudy tomorrow. or be going to is possible.
(c) Be careful! You will hurt yourself! There is no difference in meaning between (a)
(d) Watch out! Youre going to hurt yourself! and (b).
There is no difference in meaning between (c)
and (d).

To express a prior plan only be going is used:

(e) A: Why did you buy this paint? When speaker is expressing a prior plan
B: Im going to paint my bedroom (something the speaker intends to do because
tomorrow. she/ he has made a plan or decision to do it),
(f) I talk to Bob yesterday. He is tired f taking only be going is used.
the bus to work. He is going to buy a car. In (e): Speaker B has made a prior plan. She
Thats what he told me. decided to paint her bedroom last week. She
intends to paint her bedroom tomorrow.
In (f): The speaker knows Bobs attention to
buy a car. Bob made the decision in the past
and he intends to act on this decision in the
future. Will is not appropriated in (e) and (f).

To express willingness only will is used:


(g) A: The Phones ringing. In (g) speaker B is saying: I am willing, I am
B: Ill Get It happy to get the phone. He is not making a
(h) A: I Dont Understand This Problem. prediction. He has made no prior plan to
B: Ask your teacher about it. She will answer the phone. He is, instead, volunteering
help you. to answer the phone and uses will to show his
willingness.
In (h) : Speaker B feels sure about the
teachers willingness to help.
Be going to is not appropriate in(g) and (h).

Future Progressive
Subject (I/We/You/They/She/He/It) will be V+ing
(a) I will begin to study at seven. You will The future progressive express an activity that
come at eight. will be in progress at a time the future.
I will be studying when you come.
(b) Right now I am sitting in class.
At this same time tomorrow, I will be
sitting in class.
(c) Dont call me at night because I wont The progressive form of be going to:
be home. Im going to be studying at Be (am/ia/are) going to + be + -ing
library.
Exercise:
Put the verb in brackets into the correct form using will or be going to!
Example : 1. A: What are you turning on the television?
B : Im going to watch (watch) the news.
2. A: Oh, Ive just realized I havent got any money.
B: dont worry thats no problem. I will lend (lend) you some.
1. A: Ive got a terrible headache.
B: Have you? Wait there and I ..(get) an aspirin for you.
2. A: Why are you filling that bucket with water?
A: (wash) the car.
3. A: Ive decided to repaint this room.
B: Oh, have you. What color ..(you/paint) it?
4. A: Look there is smoke coming out of that house. Its on fire.
B: Good heavens! I.(call) the fire brigade immediately.
5. A: the ceiling in this room doesnt look very safe, does it?
B: No, it looks as it(fall) down.
6. A: Where are you going? Are you going shopping?
B: Yes,.(buy) something for dinner.
7. A: I cant work out how to use this camera
B: Its quite easy. I (show) you how to use this camera.
8. A: What would you like to drink tea or coffee?
B: I (have) tea, please.
9. A: Has George decided on what to do when he leaves school?
B: Oh, yes. Everything is planned. He..( have ) a holyday for a few weeks then
A: He.(start) a computer programming course.
10. A: Did you post that letter for me?
B: Oh, Im sorry. I completely forgot. I (do ) it now.
11. A: What shall we have for dinner?
B: I dont know, I cant make up my mind.
A: Come on, hurry up. Make a decision!
B: Okay, then. We (have) chiken
12. A: We need some bread for lunch.
B: Oh, do we? I ..(go) to the shop to get some. I feel like a walk.
Before he goes out, Ben talks to Jane:
Ben: I . . (get) some bread. Dou you want anything from shop?
Jane: Yes, I need some envelops.
Ben: Okay, I (get) you some.
Exercises :
1. Tomorrow afternoon. Im going to play tennis from 3 oclock until 4.30 oclock. So, at 4
oclock tomorrow I
2. Jim is going to study from 7 oclock until 10 oclock this evening. So at 8.30 this evening,
he..
3. We are going to clean the flat tomorrow. It will take from 9 until 11 oclock. So at 10 oclock
tomorrow evening we..
4. The family will leave for Soe by bus at 10 tonight. It will take 5 hours to get there. So, by
mid night tonight, the family (trave)
5. Mr. Andrew is goint to teach phonology from 8 until 10.00 tomorrow. When the team arrive
tomorrow at 9 oclock, he (teach)

1. You want your friend to give Tom a message this afternoon. ( you/ see/Tom this
afternoon?)..
2. You want to use your friends typewriter tomorrow evening. (you/use/your typewriter
tomorrow evenin?)
3. You want to see your friend at 5 oclock tomorrow. You just want to make sure he will be
home by the time.( you/not go out around 5 oclock tomorrow, will you?)
4. You want to know what your girl friend will be doing at 9 oclock tomorrow. (you /do at
9oclock tomorrow?)..
Future Perfect
Subject ( I/We/You/They/She/He/It) Will Have V3rd
(a) I will graduate in June. I will see The future perfect expresses an activity that
you in July. By next time I see will be completed before another time or
you, I will have graduated. event in the future.
(b) I will have finished my (Notice in the example: by the time introduces
homework by the time I go out on a time clause.)
date tonight.

Exercices
Example: Tom and Ann are going to the cinema. The film begins at 7.30. And it is already
7.20. And it will take those 20minutes to get there. When they get there, (the
film/already/start).

When they get there, the film will already have started.
1. Jim always goes to bed at 11 oclock. Tom is going to visit him at 11.30 this evening.
When Tom arrives, (Jim/go/to bed).
2. Tom is on holiday. He has very little money and he is sleeping too much quickly. Before the
end of this holiday, (he/spend/all his money)
3. Chuck came to Britain from the US nearly three yeas ago. Next Monday it will be exactly
three years since he arrived. Next Monday (he/be/here/exactly three years)..

1. Ann and Andy got married on June 1st . Today is June 14th. Ann and Andy (be)
.married for two weeks. By june 7th, they (be).married for one
week. By June 28th, they (be)married for four weeks.
2. This traffic is terrible. Were going to be late. By the time we (get).to the
airport, Bobs plane (arrive, already).., and hell be wondering where we
are.
3. The traffic was very happy. By the time we (get)to the airport, Bobs plane (arrive,
already).
4. Go ahead and leave on your vocation. Dont worry about this work. By the time you
(get)back, we (take)..care of everything.

Future Perfect Progressive


Subject (I/We/You/They/She/he/It) will have been Ving
The future perfect progressive I will start to work at eight oclock
emphasizes the duration of an activity tomorrow. You promise to see me at ten.
that will be in progress before another By the time you come to see me tomorrow,
time or event in the future. I will have been working for two hours.
Your flight is delayed but dont inform
your brother. By the time you arrive there,
he will have been waiting for you four
hours.
Sometimes the future perfect and the I will go to bed at 10 P.M. At midnight I
future perfect progressive give the same will be sleeping. I will have been sleeping
meaning as in the following examples. for two hours by the time he gets home.
The activity expressed by either of these
two tenses may begin in the past When professor Jones retires in 2005, he
will have taught at university for fifty-
four years.
When professor Jones retires in 2005, he
will have been teaching at the university
for fifity-four years.
Use any appropriated tenses for the verbs in parenthesis! In some instances, more than one
tense is possible.

1. Yesterday, John ate breakfast 8.00. He (eat, already)..breakfast when he


(leave) for class at 8.45. He (eat, always)..breakfast before he (go)..to
class. I (eat, not, usually)breakfast before I (go)..to class. But I
(get, usually) .hungry about midmorning. Tomorrow before I
(go).to class, I (eat)..breakfast.
2. Since the beginning of the semester, John (read)three novels. Right now,
he (read)..A FAREWELL TO ARMS he (read)..that novel for
the past three days. He (itend)to finish it next week. In his lifetime, (he)
..reading many novels, but this is the first Hemingway novel he (read,
ever)..
3. A: There is Jack.
B: Where?
A: He (lie)..on the grass under the tree over there.
B: Oh yes. I (see)him. He (look, certainly)comfortable. Lets go talk to
Him.
4. A: I (go) .to a party last night.
B: (be, it) any good?
A: I thought so. I (enjoy)it a lot.
B: what ( see, you) .?
A: Agnes Monica. I (see).her directly.
5. A: May I borrow some money? My check (be) supposed to arrive yesterday,
but I (receive, not)..it. I (need)to buy book for one of my
classes, but I (have, not).any money.
B: Sure. Id be happy to lend you some. How much (need, you)?
A: How about five dollars? Thanks. I (pay)..you back as soon as I
(get)..my check.
6. Last night I (go).to a party. When I (get).there, the room
(be).full of people. Some of them (dance).and others
(talk).One young women (stand)by herself. I (meet,
never)..her, so I (introduce) .myself to her.
7. About three yesterday afternoon, Jesssica (lie)in bed reading book. Suddenly
she (hear)a loud noise and (get).up to see what it was. She
(look)..out the window. A truck (back, just) ..into her new car.
8. Next month, I have a weeks vocation. I (plan).to take a trip. First, Im going to
Jakarta, Surabaya, to visit my brother. After I (leave).. Jakarta, I
(go)to Chicago to see a friend who (study).at the university
there. She (live)..in Chicago for three years.
9. Yesterday while I (sit)..in class, I (get)the hiccups. The person who
(sit).nest to me told me to hold my breath. I (try)that, but it didnt
work. The instructor (lecture)and I didnt want to interrupt hi, so I just sat there
trying to hiccup quietly.
10. My grandfather (fly, never)in an airplane and he has no attention of
ever doing so.
11. Jane isnt here yet. I (wait).for her since noon, but she still (arrive,
not).
12. In all the world, there (be)..only 14 mountains that (reach) above
8.000 meter.
13. I have a long trip ahead of me tomorrow, So I think Id better go to bed. But let me say good
bye now because I wont see you in the morning. I (leave, already).by
the time you (get)up.
1. A.
1. The students dont come late./ Do the students come late?
2. She doesnt go to campus by bus/ does she go to campus by bus?
3. They are not here now/ Are they here now?
4. Mr. Brown is not a lecturer/ is Mr. Brown a lecture?
5. Tom doesnt watch Television every night/ does Tom watch television every
night?
B.
1. Speaks
2. dont like
3. I dont know
4. I dont believe it.
5. He doesnt it meat.
C.
1. Where do they meet every morning?
2. How much do the books cost?
3. Who usually takes his children to school by car?
4. Does she usually go to campus by motorcycle?
5. Do you visit her very often?
D.
1. Do
2. Is
3. Are
4. Does
5. Am
II. A
1. Was/ wasnt
2. Wasnt/was
3. Were/was/wasnt
4. Were
5. Werent/were
B.
1. Why were you late this morning?
2. Why were you angry yesterday?
3. was the weather nice last week?
4. was your exam difficult?
5. where were Ann and Chris last week?
C.
1. Tom had a shower.
2. Came to see us.
3. Met them.
4. Didnt go/ wasnt well.
5. She didnt rush this morning because she wasnt in a hurry.
III.
1. Will
2. Im going to wash
3. Are you going to paint it?
4. Will
5. Will
IV
A
1. We are working
2. Is shining again
3. Am looking
4. Are you looking
5. Are shouting
B
1. Shines/ wakes
2. Is fixing/ needs
3. It is snowing/ doesnt snow.
4. Is standing/ are you talking about/is wearing
5. I dont talk/ mean/who is wearing.
V.
A
1. She was having breakfast
2. She was reading newspaper
3. She was cleaning her flat
4. She was having lunch
6. She was washing some clothes
5. She was watching TV.
B
1. Called/wasnt/ was studying
2. Didnt hear/were sleeping
3. Were arguing/ walked
4. Was reading/ fell
5. Did you hear/ I didnt listen/ was thinking
VI.
A
1. I will be playing tennis.
2. We will be cleaning.
B
1. What will you be doing at 9 oclock tomorrow?
2. Wont you be going around 5 oclock tomorrow?
3. Will you be using your computer this evening?
VII.
1. Have you washed it?
2. Have been
3. Have just gone
4. They have already arrived
5. I havent told her yet.
VIII.
1. Had died
2. Had changed
3. They had just had lunch
4. The film had already begun
5. I had not seen him for five years
IX
1. The film will already have started.
2. Jim will have gone to bed
3. He will have spent all his money.
4. He will have been here exactly three years
X
1. I dont wait long
2. Have you been cooking something?
XI
1. She had been lying in the sun too long.
2. Somebody had been smoking in the room.
XII
1. We will have been driving.
2. I have been sitting.
I. Fill the blanks with the most appropriate form of BE or DO
1. How old ..your daughters?
2. How.she go to school everyday?
3. There .a few people in the park.
4. .the child go to school on foot?
5. I .not hungry but thirsty.
6. Mr. Clement not go to campus today.
7. your husband work in the post office?
8. Where.your son? I want talk to him.
9. How much..it cost to phone Canada?
10. What..your sister do? she is a dentist.
II. Put the verb into the correct form, Present Simple or Present Continuous
1. Are you hungry?..................................something to eat? (you/want)
2. Dont put he dictionary away. I .it. (use)
3. Who is that man? What .? (he/want)
4. Adam says he is 90 years old but nobody.him.(believe)
5. I .of giving up my Job. (think)
6. Jane is interested in politics but she..to a political party. ( not/belong)
7. Dont put the dictionary away. I .it. (need)
8. Who is that man? Why at us. (he/look)
9. She told me her name but I .(not/ remember)
10. I .you should sell your car. (think) You ..it very often.
(not/use)

III. Complete the sentences using the most suitable form of BE. Sometimes you must use the
simple (am, is, are) and sometimes the continuous is more suitable (am, is, are being).
1. Why isnt Ms. Yeppy at work today? ..ill ?
2. Normally you are sensible, so why so silly about this matter.
3. Youll like Jane when you meet her. She .very nice.
4. Paul very nice to me at the moment. I wonder why.
5. I cant understand why .He isnt usually like that.

IV. Put the verb into the correct form, Past Continues or Past Simple.
1. I . (see) Sarah in town yesterday but she .(not/see) me. She
(look) at other way.
2. I (meet) Tom and Ann at the airport a few weeks ago. They (go)
to Berlin and I ..(go) to Madrid. We ..(have) a
chat while we (wait) for flight.
3. I (cycle) home yesterday when suddenly a man(step) out
into the road in front of me. I (go) quite fast but luckily I ..(
manage) to stop in time and (not/hit) him.
4. I havent seen Donny for ages. When I last..(see) him, he
(try) to find a job in Jakarta.
5. We (have).a wonderful dinner last night to celebrate our 25th wedding
anniversary.
6. We (have, at home)our anniversary dinner when my uncle
(call)to congratulate us last night.
7. A: Why is Henry in the hospital?
B: He (work, in his garage)on his car when the gas tank
(explode).
A: What (cause).the exlotion?
B: Henry (light)a cigarette.
8. A: Im sorry, officer. I (see, not)..the stop sign. I
(think).about something else.
B: What (you, think).about? You should have been thinking about your
driving.
9. Bill asked me to go over his apartment, but I (want, not) .to leave the
house because I (wait) for a phone call.
10. Amy (hear, not). her parents having an argument last night. She (listen, in
her room)to music.
11. When Richard (stop).his car suddenly, the groceries (fall)out
of the bag they were in and (spill)..all over the floor of the car.
12. When the door-to-door salesperson (come).yesterday, Claudia (hear,
not)..the doorbell because she (dry, in her room).her hair
with her electric hair dryer.
13. When I was a child, my mother always (serve) cookies and milk to my
friends and me when we (go).to my house after school.
14. When we (look) in on the baby last night, he (sleep) .I think he
(dream)about something nice because he (smile)..

V. Put the verbs into the correct form


Last Sunday Lisa.(fly) from London to Madrid. She (get) up at six
oclock in the morning and(have) a cup of coffee, at 6.30
she..(leave) home and.(drive) to the airport. When
she(arrive), she .(park) the car and then.(go) to the
airport caf where she (have) breakfast. Then she (go) trough passport
control and ..(wait) for her flight. The plane (depart) on time
and.(arrive) in Madrid two hours later. Finally she ...(take) a
taxi from the airport to her hotel in the centre of Madrid.

VI. Use the underlined information in the answer below to make question. Begin your
question with the question words or auxiliary.

1.
Michael goes to Semarang once a year.

Yes, she did. She did her homework last night.


No , he isnt. He is a mathematics lecturer.
We usually go to Surabaya by plane
She likes the white shirt very much
It takes us seven hours from Kupang to Atambua by car.
Because she dont like reading
I study at English Department FKIP Undana.
My brother usually goes to Gramedia on Saturday
Yes I think so. I think English is not difficult.
VII. Put the verb in the brackets into the correct form from using WILL or BE GOING
TO.
1. What .to the party tonight? (wear)
2. John is going to London nest week. He ..with some friends. (stay)
3. My bag is very heavy. I ..carry it for you.
4. I dont think Diana.pass the exam.
5. We .to buy some books tomorrow.
6. Look the black clouds at sky! It .rain.
7. Do you think exam.be easy?
8. I dont want to go home by bus. I ..walk.
9. Sherly says she is feeling very tired. She.lie down for an hour.
10. Can you show me how to operate this computer?
Its very easy. I ..show you.
I..
Are
Does
Are
Does
Am
Does
Does
Is
Does
Does

II
Do you want
Am using
Doe she want
Believes
Am thinking
Doesnt belong
Need
Is he looking
Dont remember
Think, dont use

III
Is she
Are you being
Is
Is being
Is he

IV
Saw, didnt see, was looking.
Met, was going, was going, had, were waiting.
Was cycling, stepped, managed, didnt hit.
Saw, was trying
Had
Were at home having, called
Was in his garage working, exploded, caused, lighted.
Didnt see, was thinking, were you thinking about
Didnt, was waiting
Didnt hear, was in her room listening
Stopped, fell, spilled
Came, didnt hear, in her room drying
Served, went
Looked, was sleeping, was dreaming, was smiling.
V
Flew
Got
Left
Drove
Arrived
Parked
Went
Had
Went
Waited
Departed
Arrived
Took

VI
How often does Michel go to Semarang?
Is he a doctor?
How do you usually go to Surabaya?
Which shirt does she like?
How long does it take you from Kupang to Atambua by car?
Why dont they reading?
Where do you study?
When does your brother usually go to Gramedia?
Do you think that English is not difficult?

VII
Are you going to wear
Is going to stay
Will
Will
Are you going to
Is going to
Will
Am going to
Is going to
Will
1. Forming the passive
A passive sentence, or passive voice as it is commonly called, is a construction in which
an intrinsically transitive verb is constructed in such a way that its underlying object
appears as its underlying subject being either absent or expressed by a prepositional
phrase using the preposition by (referred to as by phrase, here). Study the example
below.
Subject Verb Object /by phrase
Active 1.Andy Drives The bus
Passive 2.The bus Is driven By Andy
Active 3.Andy Is sleeping
Passive 4. None
Note that the change of an active sentence to passive one necessarily changes:
a. The order of the subject and object:
The object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. The bus in (1) becomes
the subject of the passive verb in (2). The subject of an active becomes the object of the
preposition by in the by phrase. Andy in (1) becomes by Andy in (2).
b. The verb form:
The verb form of a passive construction is: BE + PAST PARTICIPLE (V3).
c. Only transitive verbs (verbs that are followed by an object) are used in passive sentences. It
is not possible to use intransitive verbs (verbs that do not have an object), such as happen,
occur, sleep, come, etc. in the passive.
Exercise I
Which of the following sentences is passive. Indicate P for passive or A for active!
Example: 1. The book was bought yesterday P
2. Ann bought the book yesterday A

1. The lesson is going to be explained by the teacher.


2. Two horses were pulling the farmers wagon.
3. That play was written by Shakespear
4. Ann will be invited to the party
5. That report was prepared last night
6. It rained hard yesterday.
7. Peggy has been awarded a scholarship by the university
8. The book had been returned to the library before the due date.
9. The letter is being typed by my secretary
10. They will send you a bill
11. The heavy box must be removed from.
12. She must be informed about the news soon.
13. The car has been stolen.
14. The have sold the car.
15. Alex is preparing the report.
INDIRECT OBJECT AS PASSIVE SUBJECT

I.O D.O IO: Indirect Object


Active : (a). UNO gave Mr. Lee an award DO: Direct Object.
(b). UNO gave an award to Mr.Lee Either an indirect object or a direct object
Passive: (a). Mr. Lee was given an award by may become the subject of a passive sentence.
UNO. (a), (b), (c), and (d) have the same meaning.
(b). An award was given to Mr.Lee Note in (d): when the direct object becomes
by UNO. the subject, to is usually used in front of the
direct object.

Exercise:
Change the following active sentence into passive. Use both direct and indirect objects as
the passive subject.
Example: Some one handed Ann a menu at the restaurant.
Ann was handed a menu at the restaurant.
A menu was handed to Ann at the restaurant.
1. Indiana University has awarded Peggy a scholarship.
2. Some company paid Fred three hundred dollars in consulting fees.
3. A local advertising company has offered Maria a god Job
4. They will send you a bill at the end of the month
5. Someone will give the starving people a weeks supply of rice as soon as the fod
supplies arrive in the famine-stricken area.

Change the active sentences into passive sentences.


1. Someone invited you to a party
2. Someone wrote that book in 1987
3. Anas wrote that book in 1987
4. People grow rice in many country
5. The secretary is typing the letter
6. Someone is televising the game.
7. Teachers teach reading in the first grade.
8. Someone has offered John a good job.
9. Someone told you to be here at ten.
10. Someone published that book in 1985
11. Someone has sent Andre an invitation to a wedding
12. Someone has sent that hat in Mexico.
13. Someone will serve diner at six
14. Someone is going to serve the dinner at six
15. Someone will announce the news tomorrow.
16. Someone will give the exam next week.
17. Someone has paid the bill.
18. Someone has made a mistake
19. Someone has watered the plants.
20. The teacher is giving a test in the next room right now.
21. The teacher is asking you to use the passive.
Choose the right adjective

1. We were horrifying/horrified when we heard about the disaster.


2. Its sometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people for money.
3. Are you interesting/interested in football?
4. I enjoyed the football match. It was quite exciting/excited.
5. It was really terrifying/terrified experience. Afterwards, everybody was very
shocking/shocked.
6. I had never expected to be offered the job. I was really amazing/amazed
7. The kitchen hadnt been cleaned for ages. It was really disgusting/disgusted.
8. Do you easily get embarrassing/embarrassed.
9. I seldom visit art galleries. Im not very interesting/interested in art.
10. Why do you always look so boring/bored? Is your life really so boring/bored.

Response with a present or past participle


Example: If a book confuses you, how would you describe the book? And how would you
describe yourself?
Response: The book is confusing so Im confused.

1. If a story amazes you, how would you describe the story? And how would you describe
your self?
2. If a story depreses you, how would you describe the story? And how would you describe
your self?
3. If a person disappoints you, how would you describe the person? And how would you
describe your self?
4. If noise annoys you, how would you describe the noise? And how would you describe
your self?
5. If a painting interests you, how would you describe the paintings? And how would you
describe your self?
Complete the sentences with the present or past participle of the verb in parenthesis!

Example: I like to talk with her. I think she is an (interest) interesting person.
1. That (annoy)..buzz is coming from the fluorescent light.
2. Use the (give)words in the (follow)..sentences.
3. The teacher gave us a (challenge)assignment, but we all enjoyed doing it.
4. No one appreciate a (spoil)child.
5. Last night while we were walking home, we saw an unidentified (fly)..object.
6. I still have five more (require)..courses to take.
7. The (steal) .jewelry was recovered.
8. Success in ones work is a (satisfy).experience.
9. The dragon was a (terrify)sight for the villagers.
10. The (terrify).villagers ran for their lives.
11. A kid accidentally threw a ball at ne of the school windows. Someone needs to repair the
(break)window.
12. The (injure).woman was put into an ambulance.