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GREETING, LEAVE TAKING, INTRODUCING OTHERS

Follow the dialogue.


Mr Bean meets Mrs Breuer, one of his students, and her husband in the street.
Mr Bean: Good morning, Mrs Breuer.
Mrs Breuer: Good morning, Mr Bean. How are you?
Mr Bean: I'm fine thanks, and you?
Not too bad. Mr Bean, this is my husband Michael, Michael this is Mr
Mrs Breuer:
Bean my English teacher.
Mr Breuer: Pleased to meet you.
Mr Bean: Pleased to meet you too. Are you from Germany, Mr Breuer?
Mr Breuer: Yes, East Germany, from Dresden. And you, are you from London?
Mr Bean: No, I'm from Derby, but I live in London now.
Mrs Breuer: Well, goodbye Mr Bean, it was nice to see you.
Mr Bean: Yes, goodbye.

Ordering multiple adjectives

When a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the adjective. The usual
order is:

Quantity, Value/opinion, Size, Temperature, Age, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material

What the adjective expresses Examples

Quantity four, ten, a few, several

Value/Opinion delicious, charming, beautiful

Size tall, tiny, huge

Temperature hot, cold

Age old, young, new, 14-year-old

Shape square, round

Color red, purple, green

Origin Swedish, Victorian, Chinese


What the adjective expresses Examples

Material glass, silver, wooden

Examples

They have a lovely old red post-box.


The playroom has six small round plastic tables.
I bought some charming Victorian silver ornaments at the flea market.
She is selling her flashy 3-year-old Italiancar.
It was a beautiful cold day.

Order of adjectives

How to order adjectives in English


In many languages, adjectives denoting attributes usually occur in a specific order. Generally, the adjective
order in English is:

1. Quantity or number
2. Quality or opinion
3. Size
4. Age
5. Shape
6. Color
7. Proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin, or material)
8. Purpose or qualifier

For example:

1. I love that really big old green antique car that always parked at the end of the street.
2. My sister adopted a beautiful big white bulldog.

When there are two or more adjectives that are from the same group, the word and is placed between the two
adjectives:

1. The house is green and red.


2. The library has old and new books.

When there are three or more adjectives from the same adjective group, place a comma between each of the
coordinate adjectives:
1. We live in the big green, white and red house at the end of the street.
2. My friend lost a red, black and white watch.

A comma is not placed between an adjective and the noun.

Order of adjectives examples


Quantity or Quality or Proper Purpose or
Determiner Size Age Shape Color Noun
number opinion adjective qualifier

A beautiful old Italian sports car

The three beautiful little gold plates

heart- red and


An amazing sofa
shaped white

More examples:

1. I love that really old big green antique car that always parked at the end of the street. [quality age size
color proper adjective]
2. My sister has a big, beautiful, tan and white, bulldog. [size quality color color]
3. A wonderful old Italian clock. [opinion age origin]
4. A big square blue box. [dimension shape color]
5. A disgusting pink plastic ornament. [opinion color material]
6. Some slim new French trousers. [dimension age origin]
7. A wonderful old Italian clock. [opinion age origin]
8. I bought a pair of black leather shoes. [color material]

Order of adjectives exercises


1. Choose the best answer for each sentence.

A. The house is __________________.


o large and white
o white and large
o large white
B. They live in a __________________ house.
o large and white
o white and large
o large white
Answers: A large and white B large white

2. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?

A. We took a ride on a blue, old Chinese bus.


B. We took a ride on a Chinese, old, blue bus.
C. We took a ride on an old, blue Chinese bus.

Answer: C

3. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?

A. Id like three good reasons why you dont like spinach.


B. Id like a good three reasons why you dont like spinach.
C. Id like good reasons three why you dont like spinach.

Answer: A

4. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?

A. I like that really big red old antique tractor in the museum.
B. I like that really big old red antique tractor in the museum.
C. I like that old, red, really big antique tractor in the museum.

Answer: B

5. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?

A. My brother rode a beautiful big black Friesian horse in the parade.


B. My brother rode a beautiful Friesian big black horse in the parade.
C. My brother rode a big, black, beautiful Friesian horse in the parade.

Answer: A

6. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct order of adjectives to fill in the blank.

A. My grandmother lives in the ________________________ house on the corner


o little blue, green and white
o little blue and green and white
o little, blue, green, and white
B. The store carries an assortment of _____________________ objects.
o interesting new, old and antique
o new, old, interesting and antique
o interesting, old and new and antique
C. We went for a two-week cruise on a __________________________ ocean liner.
o incredible brand-new, huge Italian
o incredible, huge, brand-new Italian
o Italian incredible, brand-new, huge

Answers: A little blue, green and white B interesting new, old and antique C incredible, huge, brand-
new Italian

7. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct order of adjectives to fill in the blank.

A. I bought a pair of _________________ boots.


o new, nice, red rain
o nice new red rain
o red nice new rain
B. My dad was thrilled with his gift of ______________________ bowties for his clown act.
o three squirting new nice big polka-dotted
o three polka-dotted nice new squirting
o three nice big new polka-dotted squirting
C. Please put the marbles into that ______________________ box.
o round little old red
o little old round red
o little old red round

Answers: A nice new red rain B three nice big new polka-dotted squirting C little old round red

8. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct order of adjectives to fill in the blank:

A. I was surprised to receive a __________________ puppy for my birthday.


o little, cute, eight-week-old golden retriever
o cute eight-week-old little golden retriever
o cute little eight-week-old golden retriever
B. Our work uniform consists of black pants, black shoes, and a ________________ shirt.
o yellow baggy big polo
o big baggy yellow polo
o baggy yellow big polo
C. Ive been spending a lot of time in antique shops looking for the perfect _______________ clock.
o little silver Italian cuckoo
o little Italian silver cuckoo
o silver little Italian cuckoo

Answers: A cute little eight-week-old golden retriever B big baggy yellow polo C little silver Italian
cuckoo

9. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?

A. Our grandparents drive a motorhome with black and white stripes.


B. Our grandparents drive a motorhome with black with white stripes.
C. Our grandparents drive a motorhome with black, white stripes.
Answer: A

10. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?

A. During my college years, I wore a red, white and black big hat to sporting events.
B. During my college years, I wore a big red, white and black hat to sporting events.
C. During my college years, I wore a big red white and black, hat to sporting events.

Answer: B

Possessive Pronouns

What is a possessive pronoun?


Possessive pronouns are those designating possession. They may also be used as substitutes for noun phrases,
and they are typically found at the end of a sentence or clause. There are only a few possessive pronouns in
the English language, and there are only two specific rules for using them correctly. Keep these rules in mind
when using possessive pronouns, and youll discover that writing properly is easier.

Like its name suggests, a possessive pronoun indicates ownership.


Possessive pronouns do not contain apostrophes.

A possessive pronoun is used to avoid repeating information that has already been made clear. These useful
pronouns make sentences less confusing, as youll see when you read the following sentences containing
examples of possessive pronouns.

Examples of Possessive Pronouns


The following sets of sentences illustrate how possessive pronouns provide clarity. Possessive pronoun
examples are italicized.

1. This is my cat, not your cat. (Sounds repetitive)


2. This cat is mine, not yours.
3. I didnt have my book so Jenny lent me her book. (Sounds repetitive)
4. I didnt have my book, so Jenny lent me hers.
5. Your car is a lot faster than my car. (Sounds repetitive)
6. Your car is a lot faster than mine.

Common Noun Examples


Possessive pronouns are often accompanied by common nouns. The following are some examples of
common nouns that are frequently used in the same sentences as possessive pronouns.

1. I
2. It
3. You
4. Me
5. This
6. That
7. Him
8. Her
9. They
10. We
11. Them

In the following example sentences, the common noun is in bold, and the possessive pronoun is in italics.

I lost my watch.
This is her birthday.
Im going to give you your money back

Possessive Pronoun Exercises


The following exercises will help you gain greater understanding about how possessive pronouns work.
Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.

1. The mother cat and __________ kittens napped in the sunshine.


A. His
B. Your
C. Hers
D. Her

Answer: D. The mother cat and her kittens napped in the sunshine.

2. I like cream cheese on _________ bagels.


A. My
B. Mine
C. Your
D. Our

Answer: A. I like cream cheese on my bagels.

3. ________ grandfather used to take us fishing.


A. Mine
B. My
C. Our
D. Ours

Answer: C. Our grandfather used to take us fishing.

4. Elaine bought ________ dress at the mall.


A. Yours
B. Mine
C. Her
D. D. Hers

Answer: C. Elaine bought her dress at the mall.

5. The car lost _________ rear bumper in an accident.


A. Its
B. Its
C. His
D. Her

Answer: B. The car lost its rear bumper in an accident.

6. The horse swished _________ tail to keep flies away.


A. Its
B. Its
C. Its
D. The

Answer: B. The horse swished its tail to keep flies away.

7. This dessert is ___________ but you can have it.


A. My
B. Mine
C. Yours
D. Delicious

Answer: B. This dessert is mine but you can have it.

8. Please return _________ money at once.


A. Mine
B. Your
C. My
D. Its

Answer: C. Please return my money at once.

9. ______ car is so dirty I cant even tell what color it is.


A. Your
B. Yours
C. Hers
D. Ours

Answer: A. Your car is so dirty I cant even tell what color it is.

10. When the cat saw the dog, it stopped in ______ tracks.
A. My
B. Its
C. His
D. Hers

Answer: B. When the cat saw the dog, it stopped in its tracks.

Possessive Pronouns List


The following list of possessive pronouns is accompanied by a list of corresponding subjects. While other
subjects may be substituted, the following examples give the possessive pronouns context.

Subject Possessive
Pronoun

It Its

I My, Mine

You Your

She Her, Hers

He His

We Our, Ours

They Their, Theirs

You (plural) Yours


Thanking someone / Responding to Thanks
December 17, 2012 falibo

Thanking someone personally

Thanks! / Thanks a lot.


Thank you very much. / Thanks very much. / Thank you so much.
Thanks for coming along.
Thanks for spending time on this.
I cant thank you enough.
If theres anything that 1 can do for you, just let me know.
Youre a star!
I dont know what I would have done without you.
Youre just so kind!
It was very kind of you.
I really appreciate your help.
I really appreciate what you did for us.
I owe you big time. (informal)
Thanks a million. (informal)

Responding to thanks

Not at all. (formal, UK)


Youre welcome!
(Its) my pleasure!
Dont mention it!
It was the least I could do.
Thats OK.
No problem.
No sweat. (informal)
Any time! (informal)
It was nothing. (informal)
Thats alright. (informal)

Thanking someone who tried to help

Thanks anyway.
Thank you for (looking).
Thanks for trying.
Thanks and Expressions of Gratitude

Most languages have an automatic response to thanks. The British do not automatically respond to thanks,
but Americans do. A response is not necessary in British English, but is becoming more frequent. In the past,
Youre welcome sounded very American. Nowadays its common in Britain too. Another common response
in Britain is No problem (at all). Remember that Please is not an acceptable response to thanks in either
Britain or the USA.

Expressing thanks

Thanking someone

o Thanks.
o Thank you.
o Thanks a lot.
o Thank you very much.
o Thank you very much indeed.
o It was very kind of you.
o I appreciate your help.
o Youve been very helpful.

Thanking someone who tires to help

Thanks anyway.
Thank you for (looking).
Thanks for (trying).
It doesnt matter. Thanks.
Never mind. Thanks.

Responding to thanks

Youre welcome. (US)


Not at all. (formal, UK)
Dont mention it.
(Its) my pleasure.
It was nothing.
Thats alright/OK.
No problem.
Any time.
Thanking People and Responding to Thanks
1. Thanking for directions

Sample phrases (from formal to informal)

A: Thank you so much for your directions. You've been a tremendous help.
B: It was my pleasure.

A: Thank you for taking the time to explain it to me. I hope it wasn't too much of a bother.
B: Not at all. It was the least I could do.

A: Thanks for all your help. I really appreciate it.


B: You're welcome. Good luck.

A: Thanks a million!
B: Forget it/Don't worry about it.

2. Thanking for invitations

Sample phrases

A: Thank you for inviting me. Of course I'll come.


B: Great! We're sure to have a lot of fun.

A: Thanks for your invitation, but I'm afraid I won't be able to come. I've got an appointment.
B: I'm sorry to hear that. We'll certainly miss you.

3. Thanking for gifts

Sample phrases

A: Thank you very much for the flowers. They look so beautiful. Are they from your garden?
B: Yes. I'm glad you like them. Happy anniversary!

A: Thanks a lot, but you really shouldn't have.


B: Well, I just wanted to show my appreciation for your kindness.

4. Thanking for favors

Sample phrases

A: Thank you so much for lending me your bicycle.


B: Don't mention it. Let me know if you need it again.
A: Thanks for doing the washing-up.
B: It was nothing. I enjoyed helping you.

5. Thanking for offers of help

Sample phrases

A: Can I take you to the airport?


B: Thank you. That would be great.

A: Do you need help carrying these suitcases?


B: Thanks, but I'll manage OK by myself.

6. Thanking for expressions of sympathy

Sample phrases

A: I'm sorry to hear your grandmother is ill.


B: Thank you. I hope she'll be all right.

A: That's too bad about your car.


B: Thanks. I think the police will find some clues.

7. Thanking for compliments and wishes of success

Sample phrases

A: You are such a good cook!


B: Thanks. I learned a lot from my mother.

A: Good luck with your exams!


B: Thanks. I'll need it!