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Unit3

DigitalModulation

Prof A K Ni am

ProfAKNigam

Syllabus

AmplitudeShiftKeying(ASK)

FrequencyShiftKeying(FSK),FSKDetectionUsingPLL

BinaryPhaseShiftKeying(PSK) Transmitters,Coherentand

noncoherentdetection,BitandBaudRate,Bandwidthand

Frequency Spectrum BER and Probability of Error

FrequencySpectrum.BERandProbabilityofError.

Quadrature PhaseShiftKeying(QPSK),QPSKDemodulator,

OffsetQPSK,ComparisonofconventionalQPSKandOffset

QPSK,BPSK,8PSK&16PSK

Quadrature AmplitudeModulation(QAM);8QAM&16

QAM transmitters and receivers

QAMtransmittersandreceivers,

BandWidthefficiency,

CarrierRecovery;SquaringLoop&CostasLoop,

y; q g p p,

DifferentialPSK,DBPSKtransmitterandreceiver,

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 2

Binary Modulation schemes

BinaryModulationschemes

ASK

FSK

PSK

S

M

Mary M d l ti

Modulationschemes

h

QPSK

QAM

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 3

NeedForMary Modulation

Mathematically stated, the Shannon limit for information capacity

is

signal to noise power ratio

of 1000 (30 dB) and a bandwidth of 2.7 kHz, the Shannon limit for

information capacity is

I = (3.32)(2700)

(3 32)(2700) log10 (1 + 1000) = 26.9

26 9 kbps

Using multilevel signaling, the Nyquist formulation for channel

capacity is I =2B log2 M

Thus

Th forf achieving

hi i 26.9

26 9 kbps

kb we haveh t have

to h

26900 =22700 log2 M

This gives log2 M=5 or L=32, thus in order to achieve 26.9 kbps we

have to use multilevel signals

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 4

Bit and Baud

BitandBaud

Mathematically,

y, baud is the reciprocal

p of the time of one

output signaling element, and a signaling element may

represent several information bits.

equals the bit rate fb divided by the number of bits encoded

into one signaling element. Thus,

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 5

AMPLITUDESHIFTKEYING

Mathematically,amplitudeshiftkeyingis

Modulating

Modulatingsignal[v

signal [vm(t)]isnormalizedwhere+1V=logic1

(t)] is normalized where + 1 V = logic 1

and1V=logic0.

Thereforeforalogic1input,vm(t)=+1V,Equation reducesto

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 6

Andforalogic0input,vm(t)=1V,Equation reducesto

Thus,themodulatedwaveiseitherAcos(wct)or0.

Hence,thecarrieriseither"onor"off"whichiswhy

amplitudeshiftkeyingissometimesreferredtoason

p y g

offkeying(OOK).

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 7

ASK(alsocalledDigitalamplitudemodulation,DAM)

PerformanceofBASK/OKK/DAM

Asnoiseaffectsonlytheamplitudeofthesignal,thenoise

performanceofthisisnotgood

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 8

ASKModulator

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 9

Asynchronous Demodulator

AsynchronousDemodulator

InputDemodulated

Envelope LPF

Detector output

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 10

SynchronousASKDemodulation

[ fc ( fb / 2)] fc

fc ( fb / 2)

fb / 2

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 11

FREQUENCYSHIFTKEYING

FSK is a form of constantamplitude angle

modulation similar to standard frequency q y

modulation (FM) except the modulating signal is

a binaryy signal

g

FSK is sometimes called binary FSK (BFSK).

The general expression for FSK is

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 12

The modulating signal is a normalized binary waveform

where a logic

g 1 = + 1 V and a logic

g 0 = 1 V.

For

F a logic

l i 0 input,

i vm(t)

( ) = 1,

1

shifted (deviated) up and down in the frequency domain by

the binary input signal

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 13

Asthebinaryinputsignalchangesfromalogic0toalogic1

andviceversa,theoutputfrequencyshiftsbetweentwo

frequencies

(a)mark,orlogic1frequency(fm),

(b)space,orlogic0frequency(fs).

*Themarkandspacefrequenciesareseparatedfromthecarrier

frequencybythepeakfrequencyf deviationandfromeach

otherby2f .

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 14

Frequencydeviationisexpressedmathematicallyas

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 15

FSKBitRate,Baud,andBandwidth

The bit time equals the time of an FSK signaling element,

and the bit rate equals the baud.

The

Th baud

b d for f bi

binary FSK can also

l b determined

be d t i d by

b

substituting N = 1 in

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 16

Example22

Determine(a)thepeakfrequencydeviation,(b)minimum

bandwidth and (c) baud for a binary FSK signal with a mark

bandwidth,and(c)baudforabinaryFSKsignalwithamark

frequencyof49kHz,aspacefrequencyof51kHz,andaninput

bitrateof2kbps

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 17

Modulationindex

h=FMmodulationindexcalledthehfactorinFSK

fo =fundamentalfrequencyofthebinarymodulatingsignal

f d t lf f th bi d l ti i l

f=peakfrequencydeviation(hertz)

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 18

FSKTransmitter

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FSKReceiver

(a)Noncoherent FSKdemodulator

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 20

(b)CoherentFSKdemodulator

PLLFSKdemodulator

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 21

PLLFSKdemodulatoroperation

As the input

p to the PLL shifts between the mark and spacep

frequencies, the dc error voltage at the output of the phase

comparator follows the frequency shift.

Because

B th

there are onlyl two

t i

input

t frequencies

f i (mark

( k and

d

space), there are also only two output error voltages.

One represents

p a logic

g 1 and the other a logic

g 0.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 22

Performance

Binaryy FSK has a ppoorer error p

performance than PSK or Q

QAM

and, consequently, is seldom used for highperformance

digital radio systems.

asynchronous

y data modems that are used for data

communications over analog, voiceband telephone lines.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 23

ContinuousPhaseFrequencyShiftKeying

FSK except

p the mark and spacep frequencies

q are synchronized

y

with the input binary bit rate.

signal when it changes from a mark to a space frequency or

vice versa.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 24

Non/continuousphaseFSK

waveforms

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 25

Comparison FSK/CPFSK

ComparisonFSK/CP FSK

CPFSK

CP FSK has a better bit biterror

error performance and

lower spectral width than conventional binary FSK

for a given signaltonoise ratio.

The disadvantage

g of CPFSK is that it requires

q

synchronization circuits and is, therefore, more

expensive to implement.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 26

PHASESHIFTKEYING

The simplest p form of PSK is binaryy p phaseshift keying

y g

(BPSK), where N = 1 and M = 2.

Therefore, with BPSK, two phases (2^1 = 2) are

possibleibl for

f the

h carrier. i

One phase represents a logic 1, and the other phase

represents a logic 0. 0

As the input digital signal changes state (i.e., from a 1

to a 0 or from a 0 to a 1), ), the p phase of the output

p

carrier shifts between two angles that are separated by

180.

Other h names for f BPSK are phase h reversall keying

k i (PRK)

( )

and biphase modulation.

BPSK is i a form

f off squarewave modulation d l ti off a

continuous wave (CW)

9/18/2013

signal.

LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 27

BPSK Modulator

BPSKModulator

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BalancedModulator

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BPSKmodulator:truthtablephasor andconstellationdiagram

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BandwidthconsiderationsofBPSK

out put = cos wmt.cos wc t (assuming unit amplitude)

(neglecting higher frequencies )

1

= [cos( wc + wm )t + cos( wc wm )]

2

2 fb

But here wm = putting this in above eq.we

eq we get

2

1 fb fb

= [cos( f c + )t + cos( f c )]

2 2 2

fb fb

BW = ( f c + ) ( f c ) = fb

2 2

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 31

OutputphaseversustimerelationshipforaBPSK

modulator

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 32

BPSKreceiver.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 33

Demodulation

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 34

Similarlyitcanbedoneforlogic0(doyourself

Quaternary PhaseShift

QuaternaryPhase ShiftKeying

Keying

QPSK

QPSKisanM

is an Mary

ary encodingschemewhereN

encoding scheme where N =2and

2 and

M=4

Therefore,withQPSK,thebinaryinputdataare

, Q , y p

combinedintogroupsoftwobits,calleddibits.

g p

eachdibit codegeneratesoneofthefourpossible

outputphases(+45,+135,45,and135).

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 35

QPSKtransmitter.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 36

QPSKtransmitter.

Two bits (dibit) are clocked into the bit splitter.

After both bits have been serially inputted, they are

simultaneously parallel outputted.

The I bit modulates a carrier that is in p phase with

the reference oscillator (hence the name "I" for "in

phase" channel)

The Q bit modulate, a carrier that is 90 out of

phase i.e. cosine wave .

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 37

For a logic

l i 1 = + 1 and

d a logic

l i 0= 1 , two phases

h are possible

ibl at the

h

output of the I modulator (+sinwct and sinwct)

Si

Similarly

il l two

t phases

h are possible

ibl att the

th output

t t off the

th Q balanced

b l d

modulator (+coswct), and (coswct).

For

ForinputofQ=I=1,thetwoinputstotheIbalancedmodulatorare

input of Q =I= 1 the two inputs to the I balanced modulator are

+1andsinwct,andThetwoinputstotheQbalancedmodulatorare

+1andcoswct.

Outputsare

(a)Ibalancedmodulator=(+1)(sinwct)=+1sinwct

(b) Q balanced modulator =(+1)(cosw

(b)Qbalancedmodulator (+1)(coswct)

t) =+1cosw

+1 coswct

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 38

Outputofthelinearsummerfor1,1inputdibits is

= sin wc t + cos wc t

= {sin wc t + sin(900 + wc t )}

2 wc t + 900 900

= 2sin cos

2 2

2 wc t + 900

= 2 sin

2

= 1.414sin( wc t + 45o }

(Similarlyitcanbecalculatedforallotherinputcombinations)

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 39

Truth table

Truthtable

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 40

Phasor diagram

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 41

Constellationdiagram

9/18/2013

IisforsineandQforcosine

LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 42

Salient features

Salientfeatures

Each

ac o of tthe

e four

ou poss

possible

b e output p

phasors

aso s has

as e

exactly

act y tthe

e

same amplitude. Therefore, the binary information

must be encoded entirely in the phase of the output

signal.

i l

The angular separation between any two adjacent

phasors in QPSK is 9090.

Thus a QPSK signal can undergo almost a +45 or 45

shift in p phase duringg transmission and still retain the

correct encoded information when demodulated at the

receiver.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 43

OutputphaseversustimerelationshipforaQPSK

modulator.

modulator

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 44

BandwidthconsiderationsofQPSK

Thehighestfundamentalfrequencyattheinputandfastestrateof

changeattheoutputofthebalancemodulatorsisequaltoone

fourthofthebinaryinputbitrate.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 45

MathematicalAnalysis

out put = cos wmt.cos wc t (assuming unit amplitude)

(neglecting higher frequencies )

1

= [cos( wc + wm )t + cos( wc wm )]

2

2 f b

But here wm = putting this in above eq.we get

4

1 fb fb

= [cos( f c + )t + cos( f c )]

2 4 4

fb fb fb

BW = ( f c + ) ( f c ) =

4 4 2

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 46

QPSKreceiver

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 47

Output of the I product detector

OutputoftheIproductdetector

(ForinputI=0andQ=1)

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 48

OutputoftheQproductdetector

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 49

OffsetQPSK.

IIs a modified

difi d form

f off QPSK where

h the

h bits

bi on the h I andd Q

channels are offset in phase from each other by onehalf of a bit

time.

Because changes in the i channel occur at the midpoints of the q

channel bits and vice versa, there is never more than a single bit

change in the dibit

Therefore, there is never more than a 90 shift in the output

phase compared

p p to conventional QPSK in which a change g in the

input dibit from 00 to 11 or 01 to 10 causes a corresponding

180 shift in the output phase.

Advantage

Ad t off OQPSK is i the

th limited

li it d phase

h shift

hift that

th t mustt be

b

imparted during modulation.

g Q g p p

disadvantageofOQPSKisthatchangesintheoutputphase

occurattwicethedatarateineithertheIorQchannel".

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 50

Offsetkeyed(OQPSK)

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 51

Baud and minimum bandwidth

Baudandminimumbandwidth

OQPSK

OQPSKthebaudandminimumbandwidth

the baud and minimum bandwidth

aretwicethatofconventionalQPSKfora

given transmission bit rate

giventransmissionbitrate.

OQPSKissometimescalledOKQPSK(offset

keyed QPSK)

keyedQPSK).

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 52

8PSKModulation

With 8PSK,

8 PSK three bits are encoded,

encoded forming tribits and

producing eight different output phases.

To encode eight different phases, the incoming bits are

encoded in groups of three, called tribits (2^3 = 8)

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 53

8PSKtransmitter.

Howtofindangles

For 111 input

For111input

Output=1.307sinwt+0.541coswt

Angle=tan^1(.541/1.307)in1st quadrangle

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 54

=67.5

OutputPhases

Note

Phases are +/ (22 5+45)

Phasesare+/(22.5+45)

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 55

Outputphaseversustimerelationshipforan8

PSK modulator

PSKmodulator

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Phasor Diagram

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 57

ConstellationDiagram:8PSK

Note:FormatisQIC

Q+ve

Q ve ((1)) Q+ve

Q ve ((1))

Q+ve ((1))

Q Qve

Q

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 58

Bandwidthconsiderationsof8PSK

With8PSK,thedataaredividedintothreechannels,

thebitrateintheI,Q,orCchannelisequaltoonethirdofthebinaryinput

datarate(fb /3).

A l i

Analysis

out put = cos wc t.cos wm t ( amplitude assumed to be unity )

(neglecting

g g higher

g ffrequencies

q )

1

= [cos ( wc + wm )t + cos ( wc wm )]

2

2 fb

But here wm = putting this in above eq.we get

6

1 fb fb

= [cos ( f c + )t + cos ( f c )]

2 6 6

fb fb fb

BW = ( f c + )t ( f c ) =

9/18/2013 6 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon

6 3 59

8PSKreceiver.

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8 PSK Performance

8PSKPerformance

With8PSK,theangularseparationbetweenadjacentoutput

, g p j p

phasesisonly45 (360/8).

Therefore,8PSKcanundergoonlya22.5 phaseshiftduring

transmissionandstillretainitsintegrity.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 61

16PSK

Truthtable

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Constellationdiagram

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16 PSK Performance

16PSKPerformance

With16PSK,theangularseparationbetweenadjacent

, g p j

outputphasesisonly22.5 (360/16).

Therefore,16PSKcanundergoonlya11.25 phaseshift

duringtransmissionandstillretainitsintegrity.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 64

QUADRATURE AMPLITUDEMODULATION

8QAM

where M = 8.

Unlike 8PSK, the output signal from an 8

QAM modulator is not a constantamplitude

signal.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 65

8QAMmodulator

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 66

8QAMmodulator

The incoming data are divided into groups of three bits (tribits): the

I, Q, and C bit streams.

EEach

h stream

t h a bit rate

has t equall to

t onethird

thi d off the

th incoming

i i data

d t

rate.

The I and Q bits determine the polarity of the PAM signal at the

output of the 2to4level converters

uninverted

inverted to both the i and the q channel

2to4level converters, the magnitudes of the I and Q PAM signals

are always equal.

and, therefore, may beLtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon

9/18/2013 different. 67

Truth Table

TruthTable

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 68

Phasor andconstellationdiagram

g

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 69

Outputphaseandamplitudeversustime

relationship for 8 QAM

relationshipfor8QAM

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Bandwidthconsiderationsof8QAM.

N=3

Thustheminimumbandwidthrequiredfor8

QAM is fb /3,thesameasin8PSK.

QAMisfb / 3 the same as in 8 PSK

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 71

8QAMreceiver.

An

An8

8QAM

QAMreceiverisalmostidenticaltothe

receiver is almost identical to the

8PSKreceiver

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 72

16QAM

PSK, 16

16QAM

QAM is an M Mary

ary

system where M =16.

The input data are acted on in groups of four

(2^4 = 16).

As

A withi h 8QAM,

8 QAM both

b h the

h phase

h and

d the

h

amplitude of the transmit carrier are varied.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 73

QAMtransmitter

Theinputbinarydataaredividedintofourchannels:I,I',Q,andQ'.

The

Thebitrateineachchannelisequaltoone

bit rate in each channel is equal to onefourth

fourthoftheinputbitrate

of the input bit rate

(fb/4).

The

TheIandQbitsdeterminethepolarityattheoutputofthe2to4level

I and Q bits determine the polarity at the output of the 2 to 4 level

converters

logic1=positive

logic0=negative

The

TheII'andQ

and Q'bitsdeterminethemagnitude

bits determine the magnitude

logic1=0.821V

logic0=0.22V

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9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 75

IandQ,1=+ve logic0=ve

QAM

IandQlogic1=0.821V,logic0=0.22V

transmitter

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 76

Computation of values of amplitude and phases

Computationofvaluesofamplitudeandphases

combined in the linear summer and produce a modulated output

p of I= 1,, I' = 0,, Q = 1,, and Q

Q' = 0 i.e.(1010)

( ) logic

g 1

for I and Q gives +ve value and logic 0 for I and Q gives 0.22 V

=0.22{sinwct + sin(90 + wct)}

=0.22[2{sin(wct + 45). cos45}

=0.311sin(wct+45)

Similarly other values of amplitude and phase can be computed

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 77

Valuesofamplitudeandphases

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 78

Phasor andconstellationdiagram

g

1

1023

0 2 3

Howtoremember

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 79

Bandwidthconsiderationsof16QAM.

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 80

Bandwidthconsiderationsof16QAM.

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BANDWIDTHEFFICIENCY

Bandwidthefficiencyis

Bandwidth efficiency is

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9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 83

Example

Qu.For16PSKandatransmissionsystemwith

a10kHzbandwidth,determinethemaximum

,

bitrate.

Solution

Thebandwidthefficiencyfor16PSKis4,which

h b d id h ffi i f i hi h

meansthatfourbitscanbepropagatedthrough

the system for each hert of bandwidth.

thesystemforeachhertzofbandwidth.

Therefore,themaximumbitrateissimplythe

productofthebandwidthandthebandwidth

efficiency,or

ffi i

bitrate=4x10,000=40,000bps

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9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 85

DIFFERENTIALPHASESHIFTKEYING

modulation where the binary input

information is contained in the difference

between two successive signaling

elements rather than the absolute phase.

p

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 86

OPofmodissameforinputas1

andisshiftedby180 for input 0

InputData

reference bit is assumed a logic 1, the output from the

XNOR circuit is simply the complement of that shown)

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9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 88

Demodulation

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 89

Demodulation

Changeofphaseindicates0,samephaseindicates1

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 90

PROBABILITYOFERRORANDBITERRORRATE

Probability of error P(e) and bit error rate (BER) are often used

interchangeably

It is a function of the carriertonoise power ratio (or, more

specifically, the average energy per bittonoise power density

ratio) and the number of possible encoding conditions used (M

ary).

ary)

Energy per bit is simply the energy of a single bit of information.

Mathematically,

Energy per bit is Eb = C.Tb=C/fb.............................1

Noise power density is the thermal noise power normalized to a

1 Hz

1 H bandwidth

b d idth (i.e.,

(i th noise

the i power presentt in i a 1Hz

1H

bandwidth). Mathematically, noise power density is

No = N/B

/ N= Noise,, B= BW2

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 91

From eq 1and2wecanwrite

Fromeq 1 and 2 we can write

Eb C / fb

=

N0 N / B

C B

=

N fB

Stated in dB

Eb C B

= +

N 0 dB N dB f B dB

or

B Eb C

=

B dB 0 dB N dB

f N

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 92

PSKErrorPerformance

For PSK systems, the phase

difference between two consecutive

signaling

i li points

i t is

i =2

2 /M

For error free transmission the

maximum shift of angleg p

permissible =2 /2M

=2

is = 2 /2M either way from d

signaling point.1 D

If d=

d distance

di b

between consecutive

i

two signaling points and D=Peak

signal amplitude then

sin =(d/2)/D or

Sin(2 /2M)=d/2D from Eq. 1

or d/2 =D.sin(/M).2

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 93

ComputationofBitErrorProbability

Ifno.ofstates=M,thenno.ofbitsrequiredtoencode

these=log2M

IfE

If Eb/N0 isthebitenergytonoisedensityratiothenenergyin

i th bit t i d it ti th i

allbits

Eb

D = log 2 M

0

N

Puttingthisineq.2weget

Eb

d / 2 = Sin log 2 M ................3

M N0

Nowtheprobabilitythatthenoisewillbegreaterthanzis

givenbyerrorfunction

2

e

z2

P( z ) = dz

9/18/2013

LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon

z 94

Nowmaximumerrorcanbed/2,thuserrorwillbeobtained

/ ,

byputtingz=d/2fromeq.3

Astherearelog2Mbitspersignal,thebiterrorprobability

wouldbe

ld b

1

P (e) = erfc( z )

log 2 M

WhereZisgivenby

g y

Eb

z = d / 2 = Sin log 2 M ................3

M N0

AndMisno.oflevels

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 95

Example of BPSK

ExampleofBPSK

M=2,thusfromeq.3weget

Eb

d / 2 = Sin log 2 2

2 0

N

Eb

=

N0

1 Eb Eb

P (e) = erfc = erfc

l 22

log N0 N0

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 96

Example of QPSK

ExampleofQPSK

E

d / 2 = Si

Sin log 2 4 b

4 N0

1 Eb Eb

= 2 =

2 N0 N0

1 Eb Eb

P (e) = erfc = erfc

g2 2

log N0 N0

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 97

Errorratesof

Error rates of

PSK

modulation

modulation

systems

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 98

QAMErrorPerformance

1 L 1

P ( e) = erfc

f ( z)

l 2 L L

log

Where z is given by

log 2 L Eb

z=

L 1 N0

9/18/2013 LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon 99

FSKErrorPerformance

TheprobabilityoferrorforcoherentFSKis

1 Eb

P(e) = erfc

2 2N

2 N0

ASKErrorPerformance

TheprobabilityoferrorforcoherentASKis

p y

1 Eb

P (e) = erfc

2 2 N0

TheprobabilityoferrorfornoncoherentFSKis

1 Eb

P (e) = erfc

2 2 N0

DPSK Error Performance

DPSKErrorPerformance

Eb

1

P(e) = e N0

FindingErrorfunctionvaluesusing

Finding Error function values using

approximateformula

x2

e

f ( x) =

erfc

x

Forexample

p

erfc(.7)=.493

erfc(.5)=.878

BANDWIDTHEFFICIENCY

Alsocalledinformationdensityorspectralefficiency,often

y p y,

usedtocomparetheperformanceofonedigitalmodulation

techniquetoanother.

Bandwidthefficiencyisdefinedas

B d idth ffi i i d fi d

Clock Recovery

ClockRecovery

SquaringLoop

Squaring Loop

CostasLoop

Remodulator

d l

SquaringLoop

The incoming modulated signal is squared and bandpass

filtered to extract the carrier component at 2 times its

original frequency.

frequency

This signal is then fed into a phase locked loop whose other

input comes from a VCO.

The error output of the phase locked loop is converted into a

DC voltage which is fed back into the VCO to cause it to

oscillate at a frequency which is almost same as the carrier

frequency such that the error output reduces to nearly zero.

This is then divided by two to give the in phase carrier

frequency

BPF Squarer PLL Divider

Input i wc t ( PSK input

i t)

Output of squarer

= + sin

i wc 2t

1

= + ((1 cos 2 wc t )

2

This is filtered to give

1

= cos 2 wc t

2

This is divided by 2 to give in phase carrier frequency

COSTASLOOP

It consists of two coherent detectors supplied with the same

received PSK input

Carrier is generated locally by using a VCO which is having a

phase difference of for simplicity we assume that it has

amplitude =1 volt.

This carrier is given as it is to I product modulator

Other

O h productd fi

figure i applied

is li d the

h locally

l ll generatedd carrier

i

with phase of 90 shift of as shown.

Both the outputs of I and Q channel are passed through a

LPF and are fed to a phase discriminator which is consisting

of a multiplier followed by a low pass filter

Output off the

h final

f l LPF is error voltage

l which

h h is proportionall

to sin2 and it corrects VCO frequency to carrier frequency

byy bringing

g g to to 0

O u tp u t o f I M o d u la to r is

= A c . c o s w c t .m ( t ) c o s ( w c t + )

Ac

= m ( t ) {c o s ( 2 w c t + ) + c o s }

2

A

A fte r L P F it is = c m (t ) c o s

2

O u tp u t o f Q M o d u la to r is

= A c . c o s w c t .m ( t ) s i n ( w c t + )

Ac

= m ( t ) {s i n ( 2 w c t + ) s i n ( ) }

2

A

= c m ( t ) {s i n ( 2 w c t + ) + s i n }

2

A

A fte r L P F it is = c m (t ) s in

2

O u tp u t o f p h a s e d is c r i m in a to r is

Ac Ac A c2 1 2

= m (t ) c o s . m (t ) s in = s i n 2 m (t )

2 2 4 2

a s 0 e r r o r v o lta g e g o e s to 0

a9/18/2013

n d i t l o c k s t o t h e c a r r LtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon

ie r fr e q u e n c y 110

Clock recovery and timing diagram

Clockrecoveryandtimingdiagram

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