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# Unit 3

Unit3
DigitalModulation
Prof A K Ni am
ProfAKNigam
Syllabus
AmplitudeShiftKeying(ASK)
FrequencyShiftKeying(FSK),FSKDetectionUsingPLL
BinaryPhaseShiftKeying(PSK) Transmitters,Coherentand
noncoherentdetection,BitandBaudRate,Bandwidthand
Frequency Spectrum BER and Probability of Error
FrequencySpectrum.BERandProbabilityofError.
Quadrature PhaseShiftKeying(QPSK),QPSKDemodulator,
OffsetQPSK,ComparisonofconventionalQPSKandOffset
QPSK,BPSK,8PSK&16PSK
Quadrature AmplitudeModulation(QAM);8QAM&16
QAM transmitters and receivers
QAMtransmittersandreceivers,
BandWidthefficiency,
CarrierRecovery;SquaringLoop&CostasLoop,
y; q g p p,
DifferentialPSK,DBPSKtransmitterandreceiver,
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Binary Modulation schemes
BinaryModulationschemes
ASK
FSK
PSK
S

M
Mary M d l ti
Modulationschemes
h
QPSK
QAM

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NeedForMary Modulation
Mathematically stated, the Shannon limit for information capacity
is

## For a standard telephone circuit with a signaltonoise

signal to noise power ratio
of 1000 (30 dB) and a bandwidth of 2.7 kHz, the Shannon limit for
information capacity is
I = (3.32)(2700)
(3 32)(2700) log10 (1 + 1000) = 26.9
26 9 kbps
Using multilevel signaling, the Nyquist formulation for channel
capacity is I =2B log2 M
Thus
Th forf achieving
hi i 26.9
26 9 kbps
kb we haveh t have
to h
26900 =22700 log2 M
This gives log2 M=5 or L=32, thus in order to achieve 26.9 kbps we
have to use multilevel signals
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Bit and Baud
BitandBaud
Mathematically,
y, baud is the reciprocal
p of the time of one
output signaling element, and a signaling element may
represent several information bits.

## In addition, since baud is the encoded rate of change, it also

equals the bit rate fb divided by the number of bits encoded
into one signaling element. Thus,

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AMPLITUDESHIFTKEYING
Mathematically,amplitudeshiftkeyingis

Modulating
Modulatingsignal[v
signal [vm(t)]isnormalizedwhere+1V=logic1
(t)] is normalized where + 1 V = logic 1
and1V=logic0.

Thereforeforalogic1input,vm(t)=+1V,Equation reducesto

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Andforalogic0input,vm(t)=1V,Equation reducesto

Thus,themodulatedwaveiseitherAcos(wct)or0.

Hence,thecarrieriseither"onor"off"whichiswhy
amplitudeshiftkeyingissometimesreferredtoason
p y g
offkeying(OOK).

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ASK(alsocalledDigitalamplitudemodulation,DAM)

PerformanceofBASK/OKK/DAM

Asnoiseaffectsonlytheamplitudeofthesignal,thenoise
performanceofthisisnotgood

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ASKModulator

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Asynchronous Demodulator
AsynchronousDemodulator

InputDemodulated
Envelope LPF
Detector output

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SynchronousASKDemodulation

[ fc ( fb / 2)] fc

fc ( fb / 2)
fb / 2

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FREQUENCYSHIFTKEYING
FSK is a form of constantamplitude angle
modulation similar to standard frequency q y
modulation (FM) except the modulating signal is
a binaryy signal
g
FSK is sometimes called binary FSK (BFSK).
The general expression for FSK is

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The modulating signal is a normalized binary waveform
where a logic
g 1 = + 1 V and a logic
g 0 = 1 V.

For
F a logic
l i 0 input,
i vm(t)
( ) = 1,
1

## Thus With binary FSK, the carrier center frequency (fc) is

shifted (deviated) up and down in the frequency domain by
the binary input signal

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Asthebinaryinputsignalchangesfromalogic0toalogic1
andviceversa,theoutputfrequencyshiftsbetweentwo
frequencies

(a)mark,orlogic1frequency(fm),
(b)space,orlogic0frequency(fs).

*Themarkandspacefrequenciesareseparatedfromthecarrier
frequencybythepeakfrequencyf deviationandfromeach
otherby2f .

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Frequencydeviationisexpressedmathematicallyas

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FSKBitRate,Baud,andBandwidth
The bit time equals the time of an FSK signaling element,
and the bit rate equals the baud.
The
Th baud
b d for f bi
binary FSK can also
l b determined
be d t i d by
b
substituting N = 1 in

## The minimum bandwidth for FSK is given as

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Example22
Determine(a)thepeakfrequencydeviation,(b)minimum
bandwidth and (c) baud for a binary FSK signal with a mark
bandwidth,and(c)baudforabinaryFSKsignalwithamark
frequencyof49kHz,aspacefrequencyof51kHz,andaninput
bitrateof2kbps

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Modulationindex

h=FMmodulationindexcalledthehfactorinFSK
fo =fundamentalfrequencyofthebinarymodulatingsignal
f d t lf f th bi d l ti i l
f=peakfrequencydeviation(hertz)

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FSKTransmitter

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FSKReceiver
(a)Noncoherent FSKdemodulator

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(b)CoherentFSKdemodulator

PLLFSKdemodulator

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PLLFSKdemodulatoroperation

As the input
p to the PLL shifts between the mark and spacep
frequencies, the dc error voltage at the output of the phase
comparator follows the frequency shift.
Because
B th
there are onlyl two
t i
input
t frequencies
f i (mark
( k and
d
space), there are also only two output error voltages.
One represents
p a logic
g 1 and the other a logic
g 0.

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Performance
Binaryy FSK has a ppoorer error p
performance than PSK or Q
QAM
and, consequently, is seldom used for highperformance
digital radio systems.

## Its use is restricted to lowperformance, lowcost,

asynchronous
y data modems that are used for data
communications over analog, voiceband telephone lines.

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ContinuousPhaseFrequencyShiftKeying

## Continuousphase frequencyshift keying (CPFSK) is binary

FSK except
p the mark and spacep frequencies
q are synchronized
y
with the input binary bit rate.

## This ensures a smooth phase transition in the analog output

signal when it changes from a mark to a space frequency or
vice versa.

## This has effect of limiting the BW after modulation

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Non/continuousphaseFSK
waveforms

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Comparison FSK/CPFSK
ComparisonFSK/CP FSK
CPFSK
CP FSK has a better bit biterror
error performance and
lower spectral width than conventional binary FSK
for a given signaltonoise ratio.

The disadvantage
g of CPFSK is that it requires
q
synchronization circuits and is, therefore, more
expensive to implement.

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PHASESHIFTKEYING
The simplest p form of PSK is binaryy p phaseshift keying
y g
(BPSK), where N = 1 and M = 2.
Therefore, with BPSK, two phases (2^1 = 2) are
possibleibl for
f the
h carrier. i
One phase represents a logic 1, and the other phase
represents a logic 0. 0
As the input digital signal changes state (i.e., from a 1
to a 0 or from a 0 to a 1), ), the p phase of the output
p
carrier shifts between two angles that are separated by
180.
Other h names for f BPSK are phase h reversall keying
k i (PRK)
( )
and biphase modulation.
BPSK is i a form
f off squarewave modulation d l ti off a
continuous wave (CW)
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signal.
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BPSK Modulator
BPSKModulator

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BalancedModulator

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BPSKmodulator:truthtablephasor andconstellationdiagram

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BandwidthconsiderationsofBPSK
out put = cos wmt.cos wc t (assuming unit amplitude)
(neglecting higher frequencies )
1
= [cos( wc + wm )t + cos( wc wm )]
2
2 fb
But here wm = putting this in above eq.we
eq we get
2
1 fb fb
= [cos( f c + )t + cos( f c )]
2 2 2
fb fb
BW = ( f c + ) ( f c ) = fb
2 2
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OutputphaseversustimerelationshipforaBPSK
modulator

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BPSKreceiver.

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Demodulation

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Similarlyitcanbedoneforlogic0(doyourself
Quaternary PhaseShift
QuaternaryPhase ShiftKeying
Keying
QPSK
QPSKisanM
is an Mary
ary encodingschemewhereN
encoding scheme where N =2and
2 and
M=4
Therefore,withQPSK,thebinaryinputdataare
, Q , y p
combinedintogroupsoftwobits,calleddibits.
g p
eachdibit codegeneratesoneofthefourpossible
outputphases(+45,+135,45,and135).

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QPSKtransmitter.

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QPSKtransmitter.
Two bits (dibit) are clocked into the bit splitter.
After both bits have been serially inputted, they are
simultaneously parallel outputted.
The I bit modulates a carrier that is in p phase with
the reference oscillator (hence the name "I" for "in
phase" channel)
The Q bit modulate, a carrier that is 90 out of
phase i.e. cosine wave .

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For a logic
l i 1 = + 1 and
d a logic
l i 0= 1 , two phases
h are possible
ibl at the
h
output of the I modulator (+sinwct and sinwct)

Si
Similarly
il l two
t phases
h are possible
ibl att the
th output
t t off the
th Q balanced
b l d
modulator (+coswct), and (coswct).

For
ForinputofQ=I=1,thetwoinputstotheIbalancedmodulatorare
input of Q =I= 1 the two inputs to the I balanced modulator are
+1andsinwct,andThetwoinputstotheQbalancedmodulatorare
+1andcoswct.

Outputsare
(a)Ibalancedmodulator=(+1)(sinwct)=+1sinwct
(b) Q balanced modulator =(+1)(cosw
(b)Qbalancedmodulator (+1)(coswct)
t) =+1cosw
+1 coswct

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Outputofthelinearsummerfor1,1inputdibits is

= sin wc t + cos wc t
= {sin wc t + sin(900 + wc t )}
2 wc t + 900 900
= 2sin cos
2 2
2 wc t + 900
= 2 sin
2
= 1.414sin( wc t + 45o }
(Similarlyitcanbecalculatedforallotherinputcombinations)
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Truth table
Truthtable

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Phasor diagram

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Constellationdiagram

## (Howtoremember:For1+ve willgoandfor0ve willgo)

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IisforsineandQforcosine
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Salient features
Salientfeatures
Each
ac o of tthe
e four
ou poss
possible
b e output p
phasors
aso s has
as e
exactly
act y tthe
e
same amplitude. Therefore, the binary information
must be encoded entirely in the phase of the output
signal.
i l
The angular separation between any two adjacent
phasors in QPSK is 9090.
Thus a QPSK signal can undergo almost a +45 or 45
shift in p phase duringg transmission and still retain the
correct encoded information when demodulated at the
receiver.

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OutputphaseversustimerelationshipforaQPSK
modulator.
modulator

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BandwidthconsiderationsofQPSK

Thehighestfundamentalfrequencyattheinputandfastestrateof
changeattheoutputofthebalancemodulatorsisequaltoone
fourthofthebinaryinputbitrate.
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MathematicalAnalysis
out put = cos wmt.cos wc t (assuming unit amplitude)
(neglecting higher frequencies )
1
= [cos( wc + wm )t + cos( wc wm )]
2
2 f b
But here wm = putting this in above eq.we get
4
1 fb fb
= [cos( f c + )t + cos( f c )]
2 4 4
fb fb fb
BW = ( f c + ) ( f c ) =
4 4 2

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QPSKreceiver

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Output of the I product detector
OutputoftheIproductdetector
(ForinputI=0andQ=1)

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OutputoftheQproductdetector

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OffsetQPSK.
IIs a modified
difi d form
f off QPSK where
h the
h bits
bi on the h I andd Q
channels are offset in phase from each other by onehalf of a bit
time.
Because changes in the i channel occur at the midpoints of the q
channel bits and vice versa, there is never more than a single bit
change in the dibit
Therefore, there is never more than a 90 shift in the output
phase compared
p p to conventional QPSK in which a change g in the
input dibit from 00 to 11 or 01 to 10 causes a corresponding
180 shift in the output phase.
Advantage
Ad t off OQPSK is i the
th limited
li it d phase
h shift
hift that
th t mustt be
b
imparted during modulation.
g Q g p p
disadvantageofOQPSKisthatchangesintheoutputphase
occurattwicethedatarateineithertheIorQchannel".
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Offsetkeyed(OQPSK)

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Baud and minimum bandwidth
Baudandminimumbandwidth
OQPSK
OQPSKthebaudandminimumbandwidth
the baud and minimum bandwidth
aretwicethatofconventionalQPSKfora
given transmission bit rate
giventransmissionbitrate.
OQPSKissometimescalledOKQPSK(offset
keyed QPSK)
keyedQPSK).

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8PSKModulation
With 8PSK,
8 PSK three bits are encoded,
encoded forming tribits and
producing eight different output phases.
To encode eight different phases, the incoming bits are
encoded in groups of three, called tribits (2^3 = 8)

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8PSKtransmitter.

Howtofindangles
For 111 input
For111input
Output=1.307sinwt+0.541coswt
Angle=tan^1(.541/1.307)in1st quadrangle
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=67.5
OutputPhases
Note
Phases are +/ (22 5+45)
Phasesare+/(22.5+45)

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Outputphaseversustimerelationshipforan8
PSK modulator
PSKmodulator

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Phasor Diagram

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ConstellationDiagram:8PSK
Note:FormatisQIC

Q+ve
Q ve ((1)) Q+ve
Q ve ((1))

## Ive (0) I+ve

Q+ve ((1))
Q Qve
Q

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Bandwidthconsiderationsof8PSK
With8PSK,thedataaredividedintothreechannels,
thebitrateintheI,Q,orCchannelisequaltoonethirdofthebinaryinput
datarate(fb /3).
A l i
Analysis
out put = cos wc t.cos wm t ( amplitude assumed to be unity )
(neglecting
g g higher
g ffrequencies
q )
1
= [cos ( wc + wm )t + cos ( wc wm )]
2
2 fb
But here wm = putting this in above eq.we get
6
1 fb fb
= [cos ( f c + )t + cos ( f c )]
2 6 6
fb fb fb
BW = ( f c + )t ( f c ) =
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8PSKreceiver.

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8 PSK Performance
8PSKPerformance
With8PSK,theangularseparationbetweenadjacentoutput
, g p j p
phasesisonly45 (360/8).

Therefore,8PSKcanundergoonlya22.5 phaseshiftduring
transmissionandstillretainitsintegrity.

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16PSK
Truthtable

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Constellationdiagram

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16 PSK Performance
16PSKPerformance
With16PSK,theangularseparationbetweenadjacent
, g p j
outputphasesisonly22.5 (360/16).

Therefore,16PSKcanundergoonlya11.25 phaseshift
duringtransmissionandstillretainitsintegrity.

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QUADRATURE AMPLITUDEMODULATION

8QAM

## 8QAM is an Mary encoding technique

where M = 8.
Unlike 8PSK, the output signal from an 8
QAM modulator is not a constantamplitude
signal.

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8QAMmodulator

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8QAMmodulator
The incoming data are divided into groups of three bits (tribits): the
I, Q, and C bit streams.

EEach
h stream
t h a bit rate
has t equall to
t onethird
thi d off the
th incoming
i i data
d t
rate.

The I and Q bits determine the polarity of the PAM signal at the
output of the 2to4level converters

## Because the c bit is fed un

uninverted
inverted to both the i and the q channel
2to4level converters, the magnitudes of the I and Q PAM signals
are always equal.

## Their polarities depend on the logic condition of the i and q bits

and, therefore, may beLtColAKNigam,ITMUniversity,Gurgaon
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Truth Table
TruthTable

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Phasor andconstellationdiagram
g

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Outputphaseandamplitudeversustime
relationship for 8 QAM
relationshipfor8QAM

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Bandwidthconsiderationsof8QAM.

N=3
Thustheminimumbandwidthrequiredfor8
QAM is fb /3,thesameasin8PSK.
QAMisfb / 3 the same as in 8 PSK

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8QAMreceiver.

An
An8
8QAM
QAMreceiverisalmostidenticaltothe
receiver is almost identical to the
8PSKreceiver

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16QAM

## As with the 1616PSK

PSK, 16
16QAM
QAM is an M Mary
ary
system where M =16.
The input data are acted on in groups of four
(2^4 = 16).
As
A withi h 8QAM,
8 QAM both
b h the
h phase
h and
d the
h
amplitude of the transmit carrier are varied.

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QAMtransmitter
Theinputbinarydataaredividedintofourchannels:I,I',Q,andQ'.

The
Thebitrateineachchannelisequaltoone
bit rate in each channel is equal to onefourth
fourthoftheinputbitrate
of the input bit rate
(fb/4).

The
TheIandQbitsdeterminethepolarityattheoutputofthe2to4level
I and Q bits determine the polarity at the output of the 2 to 4 level
converters
logic1=positive
logic0=negative

The
TheII'andQ
and Q'bitsdeterminethemagnitude
bits determine the magnitude
logic1=0.821V
logic0=0.22V

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IandQ,1=+ve logic0=ve
QAM
IandQlogic1=0.821V,logic0=0.22V
transmitter

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Computation of values of amplitude and phases
Computationofvaluesofamplitudeandphases

## The outputs from the I and Q channel product modulators are

combined in the linear summer and produce a modulated output

## For a qquadbit input

p of I= 1,, I' = 0,, Q = 1,, and Q
Q' = 0 i.e.(1010)
( ) logic
g 1
for I and Q gives +ve value and logic 0 for I and Q gives 0.22 V

## Thus summer output = 0.22 sin wc t + 0.22cos wc t

=0.22{sinwct + sin(90 + wct)}
=0.22[2{sin(wct + 45). cos45}
=0.311sin(wct+45)
Similarly other values of amplitude and phase can be computed

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Valuesofamplitudeandphases

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Phasor andconstellationdiagram
g

1
1023
0 2 3

Howtoremember
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Bandwidthconsiderationsof16QAM.

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Bandwidthconsiderationsof16QAM.

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BANDWIDTHEFFICIENCY

Bandwidthefficiencyis
Bandwidth efficiency is

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Example
Qu.For16PSKandatransmissionsystemwith
a10kHzbandwidth,determinethemaximum
,
bitrate.
Solution
Thebandwidthefficiencyfor16PSKis4,which
h b d id h ffi i f i hi h
meansthatfourbitscanbepropagatedthrough
the system for each hert of bandwidth.
thesystemforeachhertzofbandwidth.
Therefore,themaximumbitrateissimplythe
productofthebandwidthandthebandwidth
efficiency,or
ffi i
bitrate=4x10,000=40,000bps

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DIFFERENTIALPHASESHIFTKEYING

## Is an alternative form of digital g

modulation where the binary input
information is contained in the difference
between two successive signaling
elements rather than the absolute phase.
p

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OPofmodissameforinputas1
andisshiftedby180 for input 0

InputData

## (initial reference bit is assumed a logic 0, If the initial

reference bit is assumed a logic 1, the output from the
XNOR circuit is simply the complement of that shown)
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Demodulation

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Demodulation

## Change of phase indicates 0 same phase indicates 1

Changeofphaseindicates0,samephaseindicates1
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PROBABILITYOFERRORANDBITERRORRATE
Probability of error P(e) and bit error rate (BER) are often used
interchangeably
It is a function of the carriertonoise power ratio (or, more
specifically, the average energy per bittonoise power density
ratio) and the number of possible encoding conditions used (M
ary).
ary)
Energy per bit is simply the energy of a single bit of information.
Mathematically,
Energy per bit is Eb = C.Tb=C/fb.............................1
Noise power density is the thermal noise power normalized to a
1 Hz
1 H bandwidth
b d idth (i.e.,
(i th noise
the i power presentt in i a 1Hz
1H
bandwidth). Mathematically, noise power density is
No = N/B
/ N= Noise,, B= BW2

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From eq 1and2wecanwrite
Fromeq 1 and 2 we can write

Eb C / fb
=
N0 N / B
C B
=
N fB
Stated in dB
Eb C B
= +
N 0 dB N dB f B dB
or
B Eb C
=
B dB 0 dB N dB
f N

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PSKErrorPerformance
For PSK systems, the phase
difference between two consecutive
signaling
i li points
i t is
i =2
2 /M
For error free transmission the
maximum shift of angleg p
permissible =2 /2M
=2
is = 2 /2M either way from d
signaling point.1 D

If d=
d distance
di b
between consecutive
i
two signaling points and D=Peak
signal amplitude then
sin =(d/2)/D or
Sin(2 /2M)=d/2D from Eq. 1
or d/2 =D.sin(/M).2
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ComputationofBitErrorProbability
Ifno.ofstates=M,thenno.ofbitsrequiredtoencode
these=log2M
IfE
If Eb/N0 isthebitenergytonoisedensityratiothenenergyin
i th bit t i d it ti th i
allbits
Eb
D = log 2 M
0
N
Puttingthisineq.2weget
Eb
d / 2 = Sin log 2 M ................3
M N0
Nowtheprobabilitythatthenoisewillbegreaterthanzis
givenbyerrorfunction

2
e
z2
P( z ) = dz
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z 94
Nowmaximumerrorcanbed/2,thuserrorwillbeobtained
/ ,
byputtingz=d/2fromeq.3
Astherearelog2Mbitspersignal,thebiterrorprobability
wouldbe
ld b
1
P (e) = erfc( z )
log 2 M

WhereZisgivenby
g y
Eb
z = d / 2 = Sin log 2 M ................3
M N0

AndMisno.oflevels

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Example of BPSK
ExampleofBPSK
M=2,thusfromeq.3weget

Eb
d / 2 = Sin log 2 2
2 0
N
Eb
=
N0

1 Eb Eb
P (e) = erfc = erfc
l 22
log N0 N0
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Example of QPSK
ExampleofQPSK
E
d / 2 = Si
Sin log 2 4 b
4 N0
1 Eb Eb
= 2 =
2 N0 N0

1 Eb Eb
P (e) = erfc = erfc
g2 2
log N0 N0

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Errorratesof
Error rates of
PSK
modulation
modulation
systems

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QAMErrorPerformance

1 L 1
P ( e) = erfc
f ( z)
l 2 L L
log
Where z is given by
log 2 L Eb
z=
L 1 N0

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FSKErrorPerformance

TheprobabilityoferrorforcoherentFSKis

1 Eb
P(e) = erfc
2 2N
2 N0

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ASKErrorPerformance

TheprobabilityoferrorforcoherentASKis
p y

1 Eb
P (e) = erfc
2 2 N0

TheprobabilityoferrorfornoncoherentFSKis

1 Eb
P (e) = erfc
2 2 N0

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DPSK Error Performance
DPSKErrorPerformance

Eb
1
P(e) = e N0

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FindingErrorfunctionvaluesusing
Finding Error function values using
approximateformula

x2
e
f ( x) =
erfc
x

Forexample
p
erfc(.7)=.493
erfc(.5)=.878

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BANDWIDTHEFFICIENCY

Alsocalledinformationdensityorspectralefficiency,often
y p y,
usedtocomparetheperformanceofonedigitalmodulation
techniquetoanother.
Bandwidthefficiencyisdefinedas
B d idth ffi i i d fi d

Clock Recovery
ClockRecovery
SquaringLoop
Squaring Loop
CostasLoop
Remodulator
d l

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SquaringLoop
The incoming modulated signal is squared and bandpass
filtered to extract the carrier component at 2 times its
original frequency.
frequency
This signal is then fed into a phase locked loop whose other
input comes from a VCO.
The error output of the phase locked loop is converted into a
DC voltage which is fed back into the VCO to cause it to
oscillate at a frequency which is almost same as the carrier
frequency such that the error output reduces to nearly zero.
This is then divided by two to give the in phase carrier
frequency

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BPF Squarer PLL Divider

## I t tto squarer = sin

Input i wc t ( PSK input
i t)
Output of squarer
= + sin
i wc 2t
1
= + ((1 cos 2 wc t )
2
This is filtered to give
1
= cos 2 wc t
2
This is divided by 2 to give in phase carrier frequency

COSTASLOOP

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It consists of two coherent detectors supplied with the same
received PSK input
Carrier is generated locally by using a VCO which is having a
phase difference of for simplicity we assume that it has
amplitude =1 volt.
This carrier is given as it is to I product modulator
Other
O h productd fi
figure i applied
is li d the
h locally
l ll generatedd carrier
i
with phase of 90 shift of as shown.
Both the outputs of I and Q channel are passed through a
LPF and are fed to a phase discriminator which is consisting
of a multiplier followed by a low pass filter
Output off the
h final
f l LPF is error voltage
l which
h h is proportionall
to sin2 and it corrects VCO frequency to carrier frequency
byy bringing
g g to to 0

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O u tp u t o f I M o d u la to r is
= A c . c o s w c t .m ( t ) c o s ( w c t + )
Ac
= m ( t ) {c o s ( 2 w c t + ) + c o s }
2
A
A fte r L P F it is = c m (t ) c o s
2
O u tp u t o f Q M o d u la to r is
= A c . c o s w c t .m ( t ) s i n ( w c t + )
Ac
= m ( t ) {s i n ( 2 w c t + ) s i n ( ) }
2
A
= c m ( t ) {s i n ( 2 w c t + ) + s i n }
2
A
A fte r L P F it is = c m (t ) s in
2
O u tp u t o f p h a s e d is c r i m in a to r is
Ac Ac A c2 1 2
= m (t ) c o s . m (t ) s in = s i n 2 m (t )
2 2 4 2
a s 0 e r r o r v o lta g e g o e s to 0
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Clock recovery and timing diagram
Clockrecoveryandtimingdiagram