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a. A temperature difference measuring system is being designed using chromel alumel

thermocouples with an output of 40 V / 0C. The two temperatures can vary over the range
200 0C to 300 0C , with either of them being hotter than the other. the analog signal is taken
to the input of an analogue to digital converter with an input of 0 to 1 volt. Design a suitable
amplifier, giving suggested values of passive components, and suggested voltages. You may
take the thermocouples as ideal voltage sources, with no resistance.
b. The resolution required from the measuring system in above is 0.10C. What is the required
number of bits for the analogue to digital converter.
c. The environment in which the measuring system works is electrically noisy, with a significant
amount of 50 Hz mains hum. What type of analog to digital converter would you use, and
how would you minimize the problem of mains hum ?


a. Analog to digital converter input range = 0 to 1 volts
temperature difference = 200 ~ 300
thermocouple output = 40 V/0C
Temperature difference is = 300 200 = 1000C
So voltage range = 40* 10-6 V * 100
= 4 mV
4 mV is very low value as an input to the Analog to digital converter with input range of
1 V. so we need amplification.

We can use the non inverting amplifier configuration.

in this
Voltage gain = 1 + R2 / R1 = 250 => R2 / R1 = 249

So we can take R1 as 1k and R2 as 249k .

b. Resolution required = 0.1 0C

So the total number of voltage levels required = .1
= 1000 levels

To represent 1000 levels we have to use at least 210 = 1024 digital values. Which takes
up 10 bits for the analog to digital converter.
29 = 1024 levels

26 = 128 levels
27 = 256 levels
28 = 512 levels

25 = 64 levels

21 = 04 levels
24 = 32 levels

23 = 16 levels

22 = 08 levels

20 = 2 levels
We have to use a dual slope converter

In dual slope type ADC, the integrator generates two different ramps. One with the known
analog input voltage and another with a known reference voltage -Vref. Hence it is called as dual slope A
to D converter.

The main hum can be gotten rid by applying a filter circuit. Hence we have to ground the VA
with a capacitor so that only the 50 Hz signal is grounded but the voltage from the thermocouple is not