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of islanding detection using passive methods

DOI: 10.1109/IEEEGCC.2013.6705797

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Retrieved on: 20 December 2015

2013 IEEE GCC Conference and exhibition, November 17-20, Doha, Qatar

Islanding Detection using Passive Methods

Marwa Ashour, Lazhar Ben-Brahim, Adel Gastli, Nasser Al-Emadi, Yara Fayyad

Doha, Qatar

Abstract The extensive use of Distributed Generators in passive techniques seems to be sufficient in detecting an

Electrical and power systems made it a must to explore its islanding case. However, when the mismatch is very small, it is

functionality and the issues related to their connection to the difficult to detect the islanding state because the variations in

grid. One of the main issues is unintentional islanding, which has voltage or frequency at the PCC are also very small. The area

been considered and studied for many years since it has serious where the mismatch percentage is small to reach a specific

consequences on electric systems and line workers safety. level islanding is not detectable by passive methods is called

Therefore, islanding detection methods is a motivating topic to be None Detection Zone (NDZ). The NDZ limits are defined

discussed by many scientists and engineers. Islanding detection according to particular values of voltages amplitude and

methods can be divided into two main categories, remote

frequency which are considered as the maximum/minimum

methods and local methods; the later method is classified into

allowable limits that voltages amplitude and frequency should

passive techniques and active techniques. This paper represents

two methods of the passive islanding techniques and a simple not exceed. The passive islanding detection methods are known

comparison between both of them. The selected two methods are to be inefficient in the NDZ. That is why they were replaced

the over/under voltage and over/under frequency detection with active methods which are based on injecting small

method and the wavelet based method. These two were disturbances to the network at the PCC and watching the

implemented and simulated using Matlab/Simulink toolboxes. response of the system accordingly. Even though most of

The simulation results proved that the two studied methods have active method has almost zero NDZ, they have the

a good performance for parallel RLC loads having quality factor disadvantage of being more complex and also they may affect

of 2.5. The simulated passive techniques have no negative impact the delivered power quality. While the passive methods are

on the power quality. usually simpler and do not disturb the network.

This paper presents and discusses two passive methods

Keywords- Distributed generator, Islanding detection, passive which are Over/Under voltage, over/ under frequency and

methods, over under voltage/frequency, Wavelet transform. wavelet based. The paper is organized as follows: section 2

I. INTRODUCTION presents the two algorithms, section 3 describes the

Matlab/Simulink modeling and simulation blocks, section 4

Distributed Generation (DG) is an electric power source presents and discusses the simulation results and finally

placed in the distribution network in a direct manner or in the section 5 concludes the paper.

customer side of the meter. It may be understood in simple

term as small-scale electricity generation. It can be defined also II. ALGORITHMS

as a generating resource, other than standalone generating Fig.1 shows the system model was used to test the

power plants. DG and load that consumes the power generated performance of the proposed islanding detection technique.

by them are usually connected close to each other. The increase The modeled circuit is the same as the anti-islanding testing

usage of DG in distribution systems has many advantages as circuit defined in UL 1741 (Standard for Inverters, Converters,

they can avoid transmission and distribution (T&D) capacity Controllers and Interconnection System Equipment for Use

upgrades, reduce transmission and distribution line losses, with Distributed Energy Resources) and IEEE 929 [3].The

improve power quality, improve voltage profile of the system, testing procedure requires that the active and reactive power

etc [1]. supplied from the DG match the power required by the test

Energy exhaustion and the recent environmental issues load. Because the load is very close to the DG compared with

forced many countries to introduce DG in different distribution the grid, almost all the power required by the load is taken

systems. There are some known types of distributed generation from the DG. Therefore, when islanding takes place, the

systems such as wind power generation, photovoltaic power detection is difficult.

generation, fuel cell power generation, and micro-turbine

power generation. Islanding detection is a key issue when a DG

works in connection with the power grid. A passive method 1. OUV/OUF passive islanding technique

which can be defined as monitoring the output parameters of The first discussed passive method is the Over/under voltage

the DG such as the variation of voltage and frequency at the and over/ under frequency (OUV/OUF), which is one of the

PCC (point of common connection) [2]. When the mismatch most used passive anti-islanding detection technique. These

between the generated power and the size of the load is large,

2013 IEEE GCC Conference and exhibition, November 17-20, Doha, Qatar

frequency in order to decide whether or not an islanding has

taken a place [4].

L Ipcc jQload

PPV + jQPV

P + jQ

Pload +

Grid

Vpv Vpcc

Figure 2: None- detection zone for UOV and UOF passive techniques

Gating

the islanding is not detectable. In fact the efficiency of

islanding detection methods are categorized according to

signals PLL

Id* the area of the non-detective zone (NDZ), defined in

power mismatch space (P versus Q) at the Point of

Va* Vd* + Ia Common Coupling (PCC). P is the real power output of

Sin-PWM dq - Id abc

the grid, Q is the reactive power output of the grid, PDG

modulation Vb* Ib and QDG are the real output power and reactive output

scheme

Vc* abc Vq*

- dq Ic power of the distributed generation respectively. Pload and

Iq

+ Qload are the real output power and reactive output power of

load respectively.

Iq*

Pload=PDG + P

OUV/OUF islanding technique

Fault Qload=QDG + Q

Voltage and

OUV/OUF frequency The behavior of the system at the time of utility

Islanding Relay measurement disconnection will depend on P and Q at the instant

before the breaker open to form island. Active power is

Islanding

Wavelet based islanding technique directly proportional to the voltage. After the disconnection

of the grid, the active power of the load is forced to be the

Compare Calculate the same with the power generated by the distributed

with the Standard One cycle

normal

Wavelet generation; hence the grid voltage changes. The change in

deviation of the Transform window

operation details

reactive power corresponds to the change in frequency and

the amplitude of the voltage. The worst case for islanding

detection is represented by a condition of balance of the

Figure 1: Circuit diagram of designed circuit

active and reactive power in which there is no change in

Thresholds for UOV and UOF can be calculated as follows: amplitude and frequency, i.e. P=0 and Q=0 [5].

( )2 1 ( )2 1 (1)

As the islanding occurred the change in active power and

)2 )

)2 ) (2) reactive power leads to changes in voltage and frequency.

. (1 ( . (1 (

Considering the proportional relationship between the active

Where Vmax, Vmin, fmax and fmin are the UOV and UOF power and voltage and the reactive power and frequency

thresholds. Typically, Vmax=110% and Vmin=88% of the respectively; a large mismatch in power results a drift in

nominal voltage. fmax= 60.5 Hz and fmin=95.3 Hz voltage and frequency to exceed the limits of the NDZ and to

detect an islanding.

2. Wavelet based passive Islanding technique

Then for Qf= 2.5:

2.1 Wavelet transform

17.36% 23.46% (3) Wavelet transform (WT) is an effective mathematical tool

which has been widely used in many engineering applications

4.22% 4.12% (4) such as speech and image processing. WT has found many

numerous applications in the power systems field some of the

These limits define the non detection zone shown in Fig1. applications are power system protection, power quality, and

partial discharge.

from the time domain to the frequency domain. The WT

321

2013 IEEE GCC Conference and exhibition, November 17-20, Doha, Qatar

extract the frequency components of the signal while 9]. In the this paper , db1 wavelet (with two filter coefficients)

preserving the time domain properties [6]. has been used as the mother wavelet to extract the standard

Similar to FT which breaks the signal into sinusoidal deviation of the detail coefficient of voltage waveforms. db1 is

waves of different frequencies; WT breaks the signal into a short wavelet and therefore it can efficiently detect

shifted and dilated version of a short term waveform called transients. The signal was decomposed for 12 wavelet levels.

mother wavelet. Mathematically, the continuous wavelet Table 1 gives the frequency band information of the wavelet

transform (CWT) of a signal can be represented by (5): analysis. The sampling frequency is 100 kHz.

( , )= ( ). ( ) (5)

Wavelet Frequency Wavelet Frequency

level Band (Hz) level Band (Hz)

Where: a is the scale, b is the translation or position,

( )is the analyzed signal, and is the mother wavelet 1 D1 25000-50000 7 D7 390.625-781.25

described in (6). 2 D2 12500-25000 8-D8 195.3-390.625

3 D3 6250-12500 9 D9 97.65-195.3

1 4 D4 3125-6250 10-D10 48.825-97.65

, ( )= (6)

5 D5 1562.5-3125 11-D11 24.4125-48.825

The definition of CWT shows that the wavelet analysis is 6 D6 781.25-1562.5 12-D12 Dc- 24.4125

a measure of the resemblance between the wavelet and the

original signal. The calculated coefficient refers to the

correlation or similarity between the function and the wavelet The standard deviation of the details of the measured

at the current scale. If the coefficient is relatively large then voltage signal at the point of common coupling were used to

the signal is similar to the wavelet at this point in time-scale differentiate between the normal operation - the grid is

plane. In practical implementation of CWT there will be connected- and the islanded situation [10].

redundant information. Therefore, for the ease of III. MATLAB/SIMULINK MODELING

computational purposes the scale and translation variables are

discretized. The discrete wavelet transform is described in (7). The software design of the circuit implemented using

MATLAB/Simulink toolboxes as shown on Fig. 3.

( , )= ( ) ( )

, (7)

1 0 0

, ( )= (8)

0 0

Where ao > 1 and bo > 0 are fixed real values, m is the scale

and n is the translation are positive integers.

Figure 3: Simulink model of system

The model in Fig. 3 represents the grid to inverter

term, and nonstationary waveforms. Since Wavelet transform connection and the load is an RLC load, it is shown that the

is capable of extracting the frequency components of a signal opening the circuit breaker would form an island consisting of

without affecting the time domain properties it can be defined the inverter and the load. The load parameters are determined

as an efficient tool in islanding detection [7-8]. A transient to maintain a quality factor of 2.5. The model consists of three

signal can be fully decomposed into smoothed signals and parts; the grid and the circuit breaker side, the RLC load and

detailed signals for L wavelet levels. Islanding conditions the three phase inverter representing the DG side. The

were detected with the help of wavelet transform. Using the parameters of the system are presented in Table. 2.

properties of WT, Important features can be extracted from the

Table 2: SYSTEM PARAMETERS

decomposed waveforms [9]. A standard deviation curve at Parameter Value

different resolution levels was introduced as a feature to Grid voltage 600 V

classify the occurrence of islanding. This feature can be used Nominal frequency 60 Hz

to detect the occurrence of islanding [10]. Vdc 900 V

In fact, using a proper wavelet mother has a significant role Rload 1.6

Lload 1.69 mH

in the analysis. Daubechies wavelet family is commonly used

Cload 4.14 mF

in analyzing power system transients as investigated in [6, 7,

322

2013 IEEE GCC Conference and exhibition, November 17-20, Doha, Qatar

opening of this breaker would form the islanding case. The

RLC load is connected to the grid and the DG where a circuit

breaker is added to stop feeding power to the load in the case of

islanding. The three phase inverter is controlled and

synchronized to the grid using a Phase Locked-Loop (PLL).

The input of the PLL Vabc is the sensed grid voltage which

is converted in to DC components using transformation block

build in Simulink abc-dq0 transformation and the PLL gets

locked by setting Vd* to zero. The loop filter PI is a low pass Figure 4: Output voltage at PCC in case of Under Voltage

filter. It is used to suppress high frequency component and

provide DC controlled signal to voltage controlled oscillator

(VCO) which acts as an integrator. The output of the PI

controller is the inverter output frequency that is integrated to

obtain inverter phase angle . When the difference between

grid phase angle and inverter phase angle is reduced to zero

PLL becomes active which results in synchronously rotating

voltages Vd= 0 and Vq gives magnitude of grid voltage [11].

The control unit consists of voltage and frequency

measurement blocks which compare the output values to a pre

determined standards. As a result if any measurement exceeds

the limit, a control signal is generated to open the circuit

breaker connected to the load. Figure 5: Output frequency at PCC in case of over frequency

In this section, three cases corresponding to OUV/OUF are

demonstrated according to the value of P and Q. It should be

noted that in simulation the islanding occurs at 0.1 s.

A. Case 1: P > Plimit and Q > Qlimit (under voltage and

over frequency)

x Figure 4 illustrate the case of under voltage where P

>Plimit. . The islanding occurs at 0.1s and the trip

signal is generated at 0.116 s to shut down the inverter

at 0.15s.

x Figure 5illustrate the case of over frequency where Q

>Qlimit. . The islanding occurs at 0.1s and the trip

signal is generated at 0.148s.

Figure 6: Output frequency at PCC in case of under frequency

B. Case 2: P > Plimit and Q > Qlimit (over voltage and

under frequency)

x Figure 6 illustrate the case of over voltage where. . P

> Plimit. The islanding occurs at 0.1s and the trip

signal is generated at 0.13 s to shut down the inverter

at 0.15s.

x Figure 7 illustrate the case of under frequency where

Q > Qlimit. . The islanding occurs at 0.1s and the trip

signal is generated at 0.148s.

323

2013 IEEE GCC Conference and exhibition, November 17-20, Doha, Qatar

In this case islanding occurs at 0.1 s; however this case is

included in the None-detective zone and there is no change in

the amplitude of neither the voltage nor the frequency.

voltage system for both non-islanding normal operation- and

islanding condition. The islanding occurs at t=0.01 sec. Fig. 12

Figure 8: Output voltage at PCC in case of non-detection zone and fig. 13 gives an example of the first two details (D1 and

D2) for both non-islanding and islanding situations. It is

illustrated from both fig.12 and fig. 13 that some differences

can be noticed between the two events when analyzing the

voltage waveforms using DWT.

of the voltage signal was measured from the PCC. Then WT

was carried on and the standard deviation of the details was

calculated and compared to the non-islanding situation.

Figure 12: Detail 1 for both non-islanding and islanding situation

324

2013 IEEE GCC Conference and exhibition, November 17-20, Doha, Qatar

calculated. Fig. 14 shows the standard deviation curve for both This paper discussed two passive islanding techniques;

non-islanding (normal) and islanding operation. OUV/OUF and the wavelet based islanding detection, these

Fig. 15 shows the standard deviation curve for three techniques have shown no effect on power quality. Though,

different cases: non-islanding, islanding, and an islanding OUV/OUF is easy and simple to implement it has the

event in case of power mismatch. It is shown in the graph that disadvantage of having large NDZ. In contrast, the wavelet

the standard deviation curve differs in the cases of power based technique showed potential in detecting islanding even

mismatch and power match. if the power mismatch is smaller.

REFERENCES

[1] N. Acharya, P. Mahat, and N.Mithulananthan, An analytical

approach for DG allocation in primary distribution network,

International journal of Electrical power & Energy systems, Volume

28, Issue 10, December 2006, Pages 669678.

[2] Byung-Yeol Bae, Jong-Kyou Jeong Islanding Detection Method for

Inverter-based Distributed Generation Systems using a Signal Cross-

correlation Scheme, Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 10, No. 6,

November 2010.

[3] W. Xu, K. Mauch, S. Martel An assessment of distributed generation

islanding detection methods and issues for Canada CANMET energy

technology center, 2004.

[4] H. Zeineldin, E. El-Saadany, M. Salama, Impact of DG Interface

Control on Islanding Detection and Nondetective Zones, IEEE Trans.

on Power Del., Vol. 21, Issue 3, July 2006, pp.1515 - 1523.

[5] R. Teodorescu , M. Liserre and P. Rodriguez Grid Converters for

Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems, 2011 :IEEE-Wiley

Figure 14: Standard deviation curve for both non-islanding [6] R. Kunte A wavelet transform-based islanding detection algorithm

and islanding operation for inverter assisted distributed generators Ms.c. thesis, Tennessee

Technological University, 2009.

[7] N. W. A. Lidula, N. Perera, Investigation of a Fast Islanding

Detection Methodology Using Transient Signals power and energy

society general meeting, 2009.

[8] W. Xu, K. Mauch, S. Martel An assessment of distributed generation

islanding detection methods and issues for Canada CANMET energy

technology center, 2004.

[9] I. Daubechies, Ten Lectures onWavelets. Montpelier, VT: Capital

City Press, 1992

[10] A.M. Gaoudam M. Salama, M. Sultan, A. Chikhani, Power Quality

Detection and Classification Using Wavelet-Multiresolution Signal

Decomposition IEEE Trans. on Power Del., Vol. 14, No. 4, October

1999, pp.1469 - 1476.

[11] Nandurkar, Miss Sangita R., and Mrs Mini Rajeev. "Design and

Simulation of three phase Inverter for grid connected Photovoltic

systems."

power match, and islanding operation when power mismatch

325

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