You are on page 1of 6

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2016)

Increased Productivity through Six Sigma

Yash Parkhi1, Nikhil Shukla2, Swapnil Patel3, Pratik Dhanotiya4
Mechanical Engineering Final Year Student, Swami Vivekanand College of Engineering

and product quality characteristics which are critical to the

Abstract Six Sigma is a business process that customer Assumptions of the Study. The word Sigma is a
eliminates waste or defects by focusing on outputs that statistical term that measures how far a given process
are essential to the customer. Through the use of deviates from perfection. The central idea behind Six
DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Sigma: If you can measure how many "defects" you have in
Control) organizations can reduce waste in their a process, you can systematically figure out how to
processes. The goal of this study is to look at prosperity eliminate them and get as close to "zero defects" as
of implementing Six Sigma at Company XYZ on a possible and specifically it means a failure rate of 3.4 parts
particular product line by capitalizing on the DMAIC per million or 99.9997% perfect
process. Process maps were created to show critical
paths; data will was collected and analyzed.
Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from
the analyzed data.

Keywords DMAIC, SIPOC (COPIS), QFD, Root

cause Analysis, Quantitative marketing research
Six Sigma is a highly disciplined process that helps us
focus on developing and delivering near-perfect products
and services. Six Sigma is a quality methodology that
increases profits by reducing costs associated with quality I. LITERATURE REVIEW
issues and warranty problems. It focuses on reduction in Six Sigma's aim is to eliminate waste and inefficiency,
variations of process and product quality characteristics thereby increasing customer satisfaction by delivering what
which are critical to the customer. At Company XYZ, one the customer is expecting. It follows a structured
warranty claim for defective paint or a bad bearing of methodology, and has defined roles for the participants. Six
products can be tens of thousands of dollars; and that does Sigma is a data driven methodology, and requires accurate
not include potential lost business due to bad company data collection for the processes being analyzed. It is about
reputation. Statement of the Problem. Company XYZ has putting results on Financial Statements. Six Sigma is a
implemented lean manufacturing in February 2008. This business-driven, multi-dimensional structured approach for.
has resulted in waste reduction in the company's operations. 1. Improving Processes
However, the company would like to improve customer 2. Lowering Defects
satisfaction further by reducing in variations of process and 3. Reducing process variability
product quality characteristics which are critical to the 4. Reducing costs
customer. Purpose of the Study Purpose of this study is to 5. Increasing customer satisfaction
improve customer satisfaction by using the six sigma 6. Increased profits
quality improvement methodology to compliment the At its core, Six Sigma revolves around a few key concepts.
implemented lean methods to reduce variations of process

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2016)
Critical to Quality: Attributes most important to the problem. When the main cause has been identified the
the customer. process is being improved and necessary follow-ups and
controls are established to ensure that the improvement will
Defect: Failing to deliver what the customer
be efficient.
wants. Define: Define specific goals to achieve outcomes,
Process Capability: What your process can consistent with customers demand and business strategy
deliver. Measure: Measure reduction of defects
Variation: What the customer sees and feels. Analyze: Analyze problems, cause and effects must be
Stable Operations: Ensuring consistent, considered
predictable processes to improve what the Improve: Improve process on bases of measurements and
customer sees and feels. analysis
Design for Six Sigma: Designing to meet customer Control: Control process to minimize defects
needs and process capability.
Our Customers Feel the Variance, Not the Mean. So Six
Sigma focuses first on reducing process variation and then
on improving the process capability


Six Sigma is new, emerging, approach to quality assurance
and quality management with emphasis on continuous 8D Training (Research Phase)
quality improvements. The main goal of this approach is Eight Disciplines (8Ds) Problem Solving is a method
reaching level of quality and reliability that will satisfy and developed at Ford Motor Company used to approach and to
even exceed demands and expectations of todays resolve problems, typically employed by engineers or other
demanding customer. If Sigma quality level equals six, professionals. Focused on product and process
chances for defective products are 3.4 ppm. Achieving Six improvement, its purpose is to identify, correct, and
Sigma quality level involves leadership, infrastructure, eliminate recurring problems. It establishes a permanent
appropriate tools and methods, while quality have to corrective action based on statistical analysis of the
become a part of corporate business plan. The main problem and on the origin of the problem by determining
objective of Six Sigma initiative is to aggressively attack the root causes. Although it originally comprised eight
costs of a quality. stages, or 'disciplines', it was later augmented by an initial
planning stage. 8D follows the logic of the PDCA cycle
Commercial vehicles being the commercial market leader
(Plan Do Check and Act). The disciplines are:
of LD vehicles (Approx. 35% Share) and is on its way of
D0: Plan: Plan for solving the problem and determine the
ruling the HD vehicles segment. Although having a strong
financial image the organization is now focused more on
D1: Use a Team: Establish a team of people with
cost saving in the terms of Initial product quality by Initial
product/process knowledge.
Quality Improvement and Warranty Cost Reduction,
D2: Describe the Problem: Specify the problem by
detecting problems at various ends. The organization is
identifying in quantifiable terms who, what, where, when,
focused on 100% Straight Pass, which means zero defect
why, how, and how many (5W2H) for the problem.
vehicles are to be produced right first time.
D3: Develop Interim Containment Plan: Define and
implement containment actions to isolate the problem from
any customer.
When using Six Sigma a standardized model named D4: Determine, and Verify Root Causes and Escape Points:
DMAIC is commonly used for project management. Identify all applicable causes that could explain why the
DMAIC ensures a standardized working procedure and problem has occurred. Also identify why the problem was
consists of five phases. These are Define, Measure, not noticed at the time it occurred. All causes shall be
Analyze, Improve and Control. Using the model the verified or proved. One can use five whys or Ishikawa
problem is first being defined, thereafter facts about the diagrams to map causes against the effect or problem
problem are collected through measurements. The facts are identified.
then analyzed with the purpose of finding the main cause of
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2016)
D5: Verify Permanent Corrections (PCs) for Problem will in major defect generation in the field. Also, to identify the
resolve problem for the customer: Using pre-production areas in the process where defect generation was taking
programs, quantitatively confirm that the selected place, improve process and introduce improvements. An
correction will resolve the problem. (Verify that the adequate metrics for evaluating project should be
correction will actually solve the problem.) established.
D6: Define and Implement Corrective Actions: Define and When the project was started, few useful historical data
Implement the best corrective actions. were available, so the first step was to collect the data. On
D7: Prevent System Problems: Modify the management the base of collected data decision about selection of
systems, operation systems, practices, and procedures to process for improvement should be made, all process
prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems. phases should be screened and appropriate action plan for
D8: Congratulate Your Team: Recognize the collective minimizing variability within the process. In accordance to
efforts of the team. The team needs to be formally thanked Six Sigma philosophy, Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve
by the organization. and Control strategy approach was employed. In
8Ds has become a standard in the automotive, assembly, accordance with DMAIC methodology, project goals
and other industries that require a thorough structured should be defined, cross-functional teams formed including
problem solving process using a team approach. individuals with adequate process knowledge, historical
information collected, and appropriate process selected for

In general a six sigma project takes 4 to 6 months for

completion as it is a very detailed and structured
methodology, while in 8D as per Volvo golden rule
deadline to submit the 8D for any defect is 21 days.
Therefore due to time constraints we opted out for 8D
methodology for Problem Solving.

2. The sample
A sample of 26 months of warranty data corresponding to
the field failures was taken for the project

3. For data analysis

MS- Excel was used for data analysis.
Six Sigma Methodologies Is . . . Our data contain information from January 2014 to
An overall methodology that drives February 2016 and it is a warranty claimed data which
business improvement. contain dealer description with their location and different
A proven tool set for driving and variety of SD Vehicles. This data also contain odometer
achieving transformational change reading, culprit description and as well as credit date and
within an organization. total approved value for the replacement.
A Business Improvement Process Initially I received the Warranty Data of the replaced Parts
that focuses an organization on from January 2014 to February 2016. The above given data
Customer requirements, was analyzed by me under various heads. The heads are as
Process alignment, follows-
Analytical rigor, 1. Month Range wise
Timely execution. 2. Model wise
3. Odometer range wise
4. Aggregate wise
5. Warranty Cost wise
1. The study and its objectives 6. State wise
The main objective was to reduce initial quality failure or 7. Roll Out month wise
unplanned visit within 6 months from installation date and 8. Credit month wise
to identify and eradicate the reasons which are contributing
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2016)
Month Range wise analysis depicting percentage Odometer Range wise analysis depicting
of Field Failures- percentage of Field Failures-

(Graph 3)
The above data provides the informaion of Odometer
Range wise analysis depicting percentage of Field Failures.
From the above data we find that more defects are caused
in the initial travel of the vehicle (0-5k) in range of 253 out
(Graph1) of the total. And it decreases greatly, but we also find that
From the above data we find that during the statrting month (0- in the travel of (5-20k) it increases.
3 month) of the vehicle roll out the frequency of the defect is
more. The efect contibutes up to 54.6% of the total SD
vehicles, and as the time ellapses i.e ( during the period of 4-6 Culprit Part analysis from data of Jan 2014 to Feb
month ) there is a decrement in the defect. While considering 2016-
the above data we found that during the period of the(7-12
month) there is a slight increase In the defect caused in the
parts of the SD vehicle but in the time perod of (13-24 month)
there is least defect observed.

Model wise analysis depicting percentage of

Field Failures-

(Graph 4)

Pareto Principle-
The Pareto principle (also known as
the 8020 rule, the law of the vital few, and the principle of
(Graph 2) factor scarcity) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of
the effects come from 20% of the causes.
The above graphical reperesentation repesents model wise
defect analysis depecting percentage of feld failure od SD The distribution is claimed to appear in several different
vehicles . Fron the above data we found that most of the aspects relevant to entrepreneurs and business managers.
defects are caused In the 20.15 model vehicles (151 of the For example:
total ) and the least is caused in 40.35 model vehicle 80% of problems can be attributed to 20% of
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2016)
80% of a company's profits come from 20% of its Frequency of defects recorded in the year 2014 to
customers 2016-

Pareto Chart of Culprit Part analysis-

Roll Out month wise defect analysis-

(Graph 5)
The above pareto chart depicts the major culprit parts
which contributes to 80 of failure in HD segment
Pareto Chart of Models

(Graph 9)
Credit month wise analysis-

(Graph 6)
Aggregate analysis of defects-

1. It fails generally due to improper alignment of
(Graph 7) plunger inside the Vehicle speed sensor.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2016)
2. It also gives false reading in meter when proper Harry MJ (1998). Six Sigma: a breakthrough
distance is not maintained between the vehicle strategy for profitability.
speed sensor and propeller shaft. Qual. Progr., 11: 60- 64.
Control Engineering On line, Design for Six
Sigma Capability,
1. Proper alignment of plunger should be checked
before the fitment of vehicle speed sensor in 1999
trucks. Forrest W. Breyfogle III, Implementing Six
2. Proper torqueing of guns should be done. Sigma, John Wiely & Sons, Inc,1999
Infinity Performance Systems, Six Sigma
Six Sigma looks at all work as a series of processes with 2000
inherent variations, which can cause waste or inefficiency.
Focusing on those processes with greatest impact on
business performance, as defined by leadership teams, the
methodology involves statistical analysis to quantify
repeated common cause variations - which can then be
reduced by the Six Sigma team. Six Sigma becomes a
continuous process for quality improvement and cost
reduction flowing throughout the company.
Originally developed from a Japanese quality control
process for manufacturing electronic semi-conductors, Six
Sigma developed the capability of reducing problems or
issues effecting customer expectations on key business
processes. Six Sigma has provided the opportunity to drive
forward important customer focused initiatives across the
Cummins global organization.
As an improvement and cost reduction process, Six Sigma
is equally valid for marketing and product development as
well as manufacturing and customer services. Six Sigma
improvement projects and techniques are now the
cornerstone of Cummins continued success in cost
reduction and quality improvement.

Kumar M, Antony J (2008). Comparing the
quality management
Practices in UK SMEs. Ind. Manage. Data Syst.,
108(9): 1153-1166.
Thomas A, Barton R, Byard P (2008).
Developing a Six Sigma maintenance model. J.
Qual. Mainten. Eng.,
14(3): 262-271.
Nilakantasrinivasan N, Nair A (2005). DMAIC
failure modes, ASQ Six
Sigma Forum Mag., 4(3): 30-34