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electronic. mechanical. Dhankal Bus Stop Panihati Kolkata 700 114 Phone : 033-25530454 CWC Complex Maligaon Guwahati 781 021 Phone : 0361-2674869 ` 170. Greater Noida Lalit Maurya . December 2009 Pausa 1931 q This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not. NCERT PD 260T HK NCERT Campus Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi 110 016 Phone : 011-26562708 © National Council of Educational 108. 133.Navjivan Ahmedabad 380 014 Phone : 079-27541446 CWC Campus Opp. December 2014 Pausa 1936 January 2015 Pausa 1937 January 2017 Pausa 1938 OFFICES OF THE PUBLICATION DIVISION.00 Publication Team Head. hired out or otherwise disposed of without the publisher’s January 2011 Magha 1932 consent. be lent. Udyog Kendra-I. New Delhi 110 016 and printed at Supreme Illustrations Offset Press. ISBN 81-7450-639-X First Edition December 2006 Pausa 1928 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Reprinted q No part of this publication may be reproduced. by way of trade. 2006 Hosdakere Halli Extension Banashankari III Stage Bengaluru 560 085 Phone : 080-26725740 Navjivan Trust Building P. recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the January 2009 Pausa 1930 publisher. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted. November 2007 Kartika 1929 photocopying. Sri Aurobindo Marg.O. Siraj Anwar Division Chief Editor : Shveta Uppal Chief Business : Gautam Ganguly Manager Chief Production : Arun Chitkara Officer (Incharge) Assistant Editor : Shashi Chadha Printed on 80 GSM paper with NCERT watermark Production Assistant : Sunil Kumar Published at the Publication Division by the Cover and Layout Secretary. National Council of Educational Shweta Rao Research and Training. re-sold. 100 Feet Road Research and Training. in any form or by any means. in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is January 2012 Magha 1933 published. Any revised price indicated by a rubber stamp or by a sticker or by any other November 2013 Kartika 1935 means is incorrect and should be unacceptable. Publication : M. November 2012 Kartika 1934 q The correct price of this publication is the price printed on this page.

time and freedom. The success of this effort depends on the steps that school principals and teachers will take to encourage children to reflect on their own learning and to pursue imaginative activities and questions. This principle marks a departure from the legacy of bookish learning which continues to shape our system and causes a gap between the school. Inculcating creativity and initiative is possible if we perceive and treat children as participants in learning. recommends that children’s life at school must be linked to their life outside the school. discussion in small groups. The textbook attempts to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering. given space. children generate new knowledge by engaging with the information passed on to them by adults. Syllabus designers have tried to address the problem of curricular burden by restructuring and reorienting knowledge at different stages with greater consideration for child psychology and the time available for teaching. appointed III . We are indebted to the institutions and organisations which have generously permitted us to draw upon their resources. home and community. These aims imply considerable change in school routines and mode of functioning. We wish to thank the Chairperson of the advisory group in science and mathematics. The syllabi and textbooks developed on the basis of NCF signify an attempt to implement this basic idea. Several teachers contributed to the development of this textbook. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) appreciates the hard work done by the textbook development committee responsible for this book. Treating the prescribed textbook as the sole basis of examination is one of the key reasons why other resources and sites of learning are ignored. Professor K. They also attempt to discourage rote learning and the maintenance of sharp boundaries between different subject areas. We are especially grateful to the members of the National Monitoring Committee. Narlikar and the Chief Advisor for this book. Department of Zoology. We must recognise that. The methods used for teaching and evaluation will also determine how effective this textbook proves for making children’s life at school a happy experience. material and personnel. and activities requiring hands-on experience. rather than a source of stress or boredom. Professor J. Delhi for guiding the work of this committee. We hope these measures will take us significantly further in the direction of a child-centred system of education outlined in the National Policy on Education (1986).V. not as receivers of a fixed body of knowledge. Muralidhar. University of Delhi. Flexibility in the daily time-table is as necessary as rigour in implementing the annual calendar so that the required number of teaching days are actually devoted to teaching. We are grateful to their principals for making this possible. FOREWORD The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005.

for their valuable time and contribution. Director New Delhi National Council of Educational 20 November 2006 Research and Training IV . Ministry of Human Resource Development under the Chairmanship of Professor Mrinal Miri and Professor the Department of Secondary and Higher Education. NCERT welcomes comments and suggestions which will enable us to undertake further revision and refinement. As an organisation committed to systemic reform and continuous improvement in the quality of its products. Deshpande.P.

Brenner. Biology. classical and so-called reductionist biology fought artifical battles. Luria. On the other hand it gave rise to Structural Biology (structure of biomacromolecules). Monod. Patent laws brought biology into political domain and commercial value of biology became obvious. While the Class XI book dealt with morphology. Lederberg. Leder. The fact is both are important. Physics and Chemistry were applied to Biology and the new science of Biochemistry soon became the dominant face of biology. using mathematical tools. Description of their habitats and (in the case of animals) their behaviour was included in this study. Medical practice. Classical descriptive and clueless biology found a theoretical framework in the evolutionary theory of Darwin. the nature of genetic material and its function. nomenclature. Hodgkins. Mclintock. the Class XII book deals with the physiological process of reproduction in flowering plants and humans. The work of Bernal. Daytoday life of man was influenced by developments in Physics. In later years. especially diagnostics. behaviour of populations and ecosystems on the other. classification of all recorded living forms enjoyed the attention of scientists for a long time. Chemistry and their respective manufacturing industries. Kornbergs (father and son). PREFACE Biology is the study of life in its entirety. Cohen. Most important. Identification. the guidelines under NCF-2005 have been followed in letter and spirit. basic principles of biotechnological processes and their applications and achievements. Physics and Chemistry dominated public perception of science for a long time. taxonomy. the principles of inheritance. Beadle and Tatum. molecular and cellular aspects of physiology. is bringing about a modern synthesis of both the aspects of Biology. not to be left behind. green revolution and the newly emerging biotechnology and its success stories made the presence of biology felt by the common man. Boyer. The Class XI and XII textbooks in biology essentially were to reflect these threads of biological thought. becoming almost synonymous with it. the focus was physiology and internal morphology or anatomy. Pauling. Watson and Crick. Darwinian ideas of evolution by natural selection changed the perception completely. The total learning load has been reduced V . Systems biology. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Initially it was description of life forms. Perutz and Kendrew. originally called Molecular Biology. Delbruck. On one hand Biochemistry was integrating with Physiology. demonstrated its utility for human welfare. The Class XII book also relates genes to evolution on one hand and presents ecological interactions. Sanger. Nirenberg. the contributions of biology to human welfare. Ecology brought in synthesis of both approaches and emphasised integrated understanding of biology. Benzer. Form and process are both equally important. Chambon and scores of others brought in and established a modern version of Molecular Biology dealing with life processes at molecular level. The growth of biology as a natural science during the last 1000 years is interesting from many points of view. For more than a century. Slowly and steadily. Khorana. One feature of this growth is changing emphasis.

Joint Director. I thank them all.K. One may notice a perceptible change in the writing style. i. NCERT for constant support. (ii) appreciate and believe in the Darwinian evolutionary process exhibited by the living world. I am thankful to Professor Krishna Kumar. and the school teachers have contributed enormously in the preparation of this book. Tripathi. K. Most of the chapters are written in an easy dialogue style engaging the student constantly while some chapters are in the form of critical comments on the subject matter. (v) appreciate the profound contributions of biology to human welfare. (vii) experience the humbling effect of this realisation that all living organisms are related to each other by virtue of shared genetic material. adolescent problems and reproductive health have been dealt with in some detail. We hope that the book would meet the expectations of all the stakeholders. (iii) understand the dynamic state of constituents of living bodies. Studied together. (viii) realise that biology is the story of the struggle of living organisms for existence and survival. DESM. All suggestions for further improvement are always welcome. animals and microbes. Ravindra. NCERT and Professor Hukum Singh.e. (iv) realise the structure and function of genetic material in directing the inherited phenotype pattern as well as a mediator of evolutionary process. metabolic basis of all physiological processes in plants. Reader. the experts and reviewers. I am indeed highly thankful to the members of monitoring committee constituted by Ministry of Human Resource Development for their valuable observation that helped in the improvement of the book at the final stage. The book is prepared keeping in mind the guidelines of the NCF-2005 especially the emphasis on reducing the learning load. NCERT for his relentless efforts as coordinator in bringing out the Biology textbook for both the Class XI and XII. Students have to read supplementary material. (vi) reflect on the physico-chemical basis of living processes and at the same time realise the limitation of reductionism in understanding behaviour of organisms. A number of questions have been provided at the end of each chapter though answers to some may not be found in the text. Head. MURALIDHAR Department of Zoology Chief Advisor University of Delhi Biology Textbook for Class XII VI . All the members of the development team. Professor G.. DESM. I must place on record my deep appreciation for Dr B. Director NCERT. to answer such questions.considerably and themes like environmental issues. upon advise from the teacher. the class XI and class XII textbooks in Biology would enable the student to — (i) become familiar with the diversity of biological material.

Sri Venkateswara College.N. ADVISORY GROUP FOR TEXTBOOKS IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS J. Shillong B. Delhi Shanti Chandrashekaran.V. Reader. Professor. New Delhi Sunaina Sharma.) School of Enviornmental Studies. Rao. Emeritus Professor. Professor. Lecturer. Delhi MEMBERS Ajit Kumar Kavathekar. University of Delhi. New Delhi T. Delhi N. Mysore MEMBER-COORDINATOR B. Bhopal V.TEXTBOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSON. NIIT Institute of Information Technology. Division of Genetics.R.V. I. New Delhi VII . North-Eastern Hill University. Muralidhar. Virdi.K.C. Reader (Zoology). NCERT. Rai. University of Delhi. JNU. Lecturer (Biology). Principal.K. Professor. Department of Zoology.P. Reader. Gupta. University of Delhi. Regional Institute of Education. Reader.K. Department of Botany. PGT (Biology). Narlikar. NCERT. Delhi B. NCERT. Principal. Delhi V. Department of Education in Science and Mathematics. Banaras Hindu University. Department of Botany. Prasad. New Delhi K.A. Assistant Professor.I. New Delhi Dinesh Kumar.R. Reader. Pune CHIEF ADVISOR K. Department of Education in Science and Mathematics. Science College. Sarath Chandran. University of Delhi. Reader. Professor (Retd.M. Ordinance Factory Higher Secondary School. Department of Zoology. Professor. Acharya Narendra Dev College. University of Delhi. Department of Education in Science and Mathematics.R.S. Dwarka.V. Department of Microbiology. Department of Botany. Principal Scientist. University of Delhi. Reader (Botany).. Chaturvedi. Patna University. Patna Simminder K.P. Delhi Sangeeta Sharma. Tripathi. New Delhi Shardendu. Pune University. Reader. Delhi L. Varanasi M. Dehradun C. Kendriya Vidyalaya. Professor. Regional Institute of Education. Reader (Botany). Sri Venkateswara College. New Delhi J. Thukral. Varanasi J.B. Sri Venkateswara College.V. Department of Zoology. South Campus. Anand. Banaras Hindu University. Pandey. Kakaria. Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA). Gaur. Rajkiya Pratibha Vikas Vidyalaya. New Delhi Savithri Singh. University of Delhi.S. University of Delhi. Shimray.

M.).K. Varte. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) gratefully acknowledges the valuable contribution of K.P. Lecturer. NCERT. Chaitali Dixit. Incharge. Kishan ganj. PGT (Biology). BHEL. Singh. Professor. Kolkata. Haridwar.L. Kant. PGT (Biology). D. Dixit. Carmel Higher Secondary School. Department of Education in Science and Mathematics. Reader (Zoology).R. St. Mrs. Reader.M. Professor and Head. Proof Readers and APC office and administrative staff of Department of Education in Science and Mathematics. S. The Council is highly thankful to Hukum Singh. PGT (Biology). PGT (Biology). Delhi. PGT (Biology).R. NCERT for his valuable support throughout the making of this book. New Delhi. New Delhi. DTP operators. New Delhi. Department of Education in Science and Mathematics.N. R. Senior Physician. Shillong and Abhishek Chari. A. Madhya Pradesh. Suvarna Fonseca è Antao. Sushma Jairath. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya. Karnataka University Dharwad. PGT (Biology). VIII . Singh. North-Eastern Hill University. Acharya Narendra Dev College. I Teacher (Biology). Rachna Dogra and Abhimanu Mohanty. in bringing out this publication are highly appreciated. Copy Editor. Kendriya Vidyalaya. University of Delhi. in the development of the Biology textbook for Class XII. Deepti Sharma. Ishwant Kaur. Jain. WUS Health Centre. NCERT. Ambedkar Centre for Biomedical Research. Bhopal. NCERT also acknowledged. Professor. School. Professor. Professor. Professor (Retd. A. Gr. NCERT. Seema Mehmi and Arvind Sharma. Anthony’s Higher Secondary School (Don Bosco). NCERT is also grateful to K. New Delhi.K. Department of Zoology. Acharya Narendra Dev College. RIE. Lecturer.K. NCERT. The contributions of Deepak Kapoor. Shivanna. Goa. University of Delhi. Delhi. Mandsaur. Bhopal. Shillong. Department of Women’s Education. Carmel Convent Senior Secondary School. Department of Zoology. Cantt. Shivanna and T. Bose Institute. IIT. Lahiri Majumdar. Kendriya Vidyalaya. S. Computer Station.Subramanyam. Delhi. Varanasi. Anil Tripathi. Reader. The efforts of the Publication Department. Department of Women’s Education. Rajkiya Pratibha Vikash Vidyalaya.S. Vani Brahmachari. Delhi. Lecturer (Biology). Saidapur. New Delhi. Department of Botany. Varanasi. University of Delhi. Nuvem. A. Banaras Hindu University. Roshnabad. Mona Yadav. Department of Biotechnology.L. Kanpur for some of the photographs used in the book. Poonam A. Rashmi Mishra. J. Tiwari. NCERT sincerely acknowledges the contributions of the members who participated in the review of the manuscripts – A.K. Ganguly.

289) UNIT VIII BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE 143-190 Chapter 8 : Human Health and Disease 145 Chapter 9 : Strategies for Enhancement in 165 Food Production Chapter 10 : Microbes in Human Welfare 179 IX . CONTENTS FOREWORD iii PREFACE vii UNIT VI REPRODUCTION 1-66 Chapter 1 : Reproduction in Organisms 3 (Please see Supplementary Material on page no. 287) Chapter 2 : Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 19 Chapter 3 : Human Reproduction 42 Chapter 4 : Reproductive Health 57 UNIT VII GENETICS AND EVOLUTION 67-142 Chapter 5 : Principles of Inheritance and Variation 6 9 (Please see Supplementary Material on page nos. 287-289) Chapter 6 : Molecular Basis of Inheritance 95 Chapter 7 : Evolution 1 2 6 (Please see Supplementary Material on page no.

290) Chapter 14 : Ecosystem 241 Chapter 15 : Biodiversity and Conservation 258 (Please see Supplementary Material on page no.UNIT IX BIOTECHNOLOGY 191-216 Chapter 11 : Biotechnology : Principles and Processes 193 Chapter 12 : Biotechnology and its Applications 207 UNIT X ECOLOGY 217-286 Chapter 13 : Organisms and Populations 219 (Please see Supplementary Material on page no. 290) Chapter 16 : Environmental Issues 270 SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL 287–290 X .