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Rigid body

Moment of inertia

Centre of gravity

Axis of rotation

Torsional vibration

Spring constant

Angular restoring force

Principle:

The period of vibration of a circular

disc which performs torsional vibra-

tions about various parallel axes, is

measured. The moment of inertia of

the disc is determined as a function

of the perpendicular distance of the

axis of rotation from the centre of

gravity.

Rotation axle 02415.01 1

Disk, w. diametrical holes 02415.07 1

Spring balance, transparent, 2 N 03065.03 1

Light barrier with Counter 11207.30 1

Power supply 5 V DC/2.4 A 11076.99 1

Tripod base -PASS- 02002.55 1

Barrel base -PASS- 02006.55 1

Rule, plastic, l = 200 mm 09937.01 1

Moments of inertia of different bodies /

Steiners theorem P2132801

Tasks:

1. Determination of the angular

restoring constant of the spiral

spring.

2. Determination of the moment of

inertia of a circular disc as a func-

tion of the perpendicular distance

of the axis of rotation from the

centre of gravity.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG D - 37070 Gttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 45

LEP

Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiners theorem 1.3.28

-01

Rigid body, moment of inertia, centre of gravity, axis of rota- 1. Determination of the angular restoring constant of the

tion, torsional vibration, spring constant, angular restoring spiral spring.

force.

2. Determination of the moment of inertia of a circular disc as

a function of the perpendicular distance of the axis of rota-

Principle tion from the centre of gravity.

The period of vibration of a circular disc which performs tor-

sional vibrations about various parallel axes, is measured. The Set-up and procedure

moment of inertia of the disc is determined as a function of the The experimental set-up is arranged as shown in Fig. 1. In

perpendicular distance of the axis of rotation from the centre order to measure the angular restoring factor, the disc is fixed

of gravity. on the torsion axis at its centre of gravity. With the spring bal-

ance, which acts in a hole in the disc, the force needed to

deflect the disc through a given angle is measured. When

Equipment doing this, the lever arm forms a right angle with the spring

Rotation axle 02415.01 1 balance. It is convenient to select an angle of 180, since the

Disk, w. diametrical holes 02415.07 1 row of holes can thus be used as a protractor.

Spring balance, transparent, 2 N 03065.03 1

Light barrier with Counter 11207.30 1 For measuring the vibration period of the disc, a mask (width

Power supply 5 V DC/2.4 A 11076.99 1 3 mm) is stuck on, on the line of the row of holes. The light

Tripod base -PASS- 02002.55 1 barrier is pushed over this mask with the disc in its position of

Barrel base -PASS- 02006.55 1 rest.

Rule, plastic, l = 200 mm 09937.01 1 Switch the light barrier to -mode.

Fig. 1: Experimental set-up for measuring the moment of inertia (Steiners theorem).

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen 21328-01 1

LEP

1.3.28 Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiners theorem

-01

The disc is deflected through about 180 and the half-cycle Fig. 2: Moment (torque) of a spiral spring as a function of the

time of the vibration is measured with the counter, anticlock- angle of rotation.

wise and clockwise measurements being averaged. For safe-

ty and stability reasons, it is recommended that the spring

should not be twisted beyond 720.

S

The relationship between the angular momentum L of a rigid

body in a stationary coordinate system with its origin at the

S

centre of gravity, and the moment T acting on it, is

S d S

T L . (1)

dt

Sv and the inertia tensor I from

L I S

S

v ,

S

tia axis (z-axis), so that L has only one component:

LZ = IZ v,

the plate. For this case, equation (1) reads:

dv d2f

TZ IZ IZ .

dt dt

where f is the angle of rotation.

If r (x, y, z) is the density distribution of the body, the moment

TZ = -D f (2)

of inertia IZ is obtained as

where D is the angular restoring constant.

IZ = (x2 + y2) r (x, y, z) dx dy dz.

From the regression line to the measured values of Fig. 2 with

the linear statement The origin of coordinates is located at the centre of gravity.

The same component of the inertia tensor, in relation to a

Y = A BX coordinate origin displaced by a, is

the slope IZ = IZ m a2,

B = 0.0255 Nm/rad. (see (2))

where m is the mass of the body.

The angular restoring factor, from (2) is Therefore

4p2

D = 0.0255 Nm/rad. T2 1IZ m a 2 2 (3)

D

The equation of motion reads: From the regression line to the measured values of Fig. 3 and

the linear statement

d2f D

f = 0.

dt IZ Y = A BX

IZ A = 6.86 s2 0.15 s2 (see (3))

T 2p

BD

and from this the moment. of inertia of the disc with the axis

of rotation through the centre of gravity

1 D

f

2p B IZ IZ = 4.52 103 kgm2.

2 21328-01 PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen

LEP

Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiners theorem 1.3.28

-01

dicular distance of the axis of rotation from the centre

of gravity.

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen 21328-01 3

LEP

1.3.28 Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiners theorem

-01

4 21328-01 PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen

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