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Engineering aspects of the St.

Peter sandstone in the


Minneapolis-St. Paul area of Minnesota

Item type text; Thesis-Reproduction (electronic)

Authors Payne, Charles Marshall, 1937-

Publisher The University of Arizona.

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ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF THE ST. PETER SANDSTONE
IN THE MINNEAPOLIS - ST. PAUL AREA OF MINNESOTA

by
C h a r l e s M a r s h a l l Payne

A T h e s i s . S u b m i t t e d t o t h e F a c u l t y of. t h e

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY

I n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f th e Requirements.
F o r t h e D e g r e e o f -
j '
MASTER OF SCIENCE

In th e Graduate C ollege
THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

196?
The St. Peter sandstone at the
Minnesota Silica Company quarry,
Minneapolis.
STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

T his t h e s i s has b e e n s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l
ment o f r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t The U n i v e r
s i t y o f A r i z o n a and i s d e p o site d in the U n iv e rs ity L ib ra ry
t o be made a v a i l a b l e to borrow ers under r u le s o f the
Li b r a r y .

B r i e f q u o t a t i o n s fro m t h i s t h e s i s a r e a l l o w a b l e
w ith o u t s p e c i a l p e r m i s s io n , p ro v id e d t h a t a c c u r a t e acknow
l e d g m e n t o f s o u r c e i s made. R equests f o r p e rm is s io n f o r
e x t e n d e d q u o t a t i o n fro m o r r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t
i n whole o r i n p a r t may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f t h e m a j o r
d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e Dean o f t h e G r a d u a t e C o l l e g e when i n h i s
ju d g m e n t t h e p r o p o s e d u s e o f t h e m a t e r i a l i s i n t h e i n t e r
e st of scholarship. I n a l l o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , however, p e r
m i s s i o n must be o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a u t h o r .

SIGNED:

APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR

T h i s t h e s i s has b een a p p r o v e d on t h e d a t e shown below

Date
P r o f e s s o r o f M in in g & G eological E ngineering
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o a c k n o w l e d g e w i t h g r a t i t u d e t h e

a b l e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by D r . G eorge M0 S c h w a r t z i n t h e c o l
l e c t i o n o f s t u d i e s and l i t e r a t u r e n e e d e d t o c o m p i l e t h i s p&-
per. The w r i t e r w i s h e s a l s o t o e x p r e s s h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o

D r . P a u l K. S i m s , d i r e c t o r o f t h e M i n n e s o t a G e o l o g i c a l S u r

v e y , f o r a l l o w i n g t h e t i m e and f a c i l i t i e s to conduct t h is

s t u d y and f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and u s e o f t h e B e d r o c k G e o l o g i c

Map o f M i n n e a p o l i s , S t . P a u l and V i c i n i t y . D r . J o h n E.
S t o n e , of- t h e M i n n e s o t a G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , was' v e r y h e l p f u l

in supplying g e n eral in fo rm a tio n reg ard in g th e en g in e erin g

p r o p e r tie s of the S t. P e te r sandstone. R ecognition i s given

t o ' D r. W i l l a r d C. L a c y , p r o f e s s o r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i

z o n a , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and a s s i s t a n c e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and
preparation of th is th e s is .

ill
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vl

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v iii

J_L 1^ . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . e o o . ". o o o o . . 2-5C


INTRODUCTION 1.
D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s Area . . . . . . . . . . 2
G e n e r a l G e o lo g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ST. PETER SANDSTONE . . 9

General D e s c r ip tio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
F r i a b i l i t y and C e m e n t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
M i n e r a l o g y and L i t h o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
T e x t u r a l and G r a i n S i z e A n a l y s e s . . . . . . . . . 19
R o u n d n e s s 5 F r o s t i n g , and P i t t i n g . . . . . . . . . 25
S i l t Horizon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
G r e e n Sand H o r i z o n . ^ . 27
Shakopee D olom ite - S t . P e t e r S andstone C o n ta c t . . 28
Glenwood S h a l e - S t . P e t e r S a n d s t o n e C o n t a c t . . . 29
J o i n t i n g and. F r a c t u r i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
S a n d s t o n e Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
O rigin of the S t . P e te r Sandstone 37
HYDROLOGIC ASPECTS OF THE ST. PETER. SANDSTONE . . . . . 4l

GENERAL GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS IN THE ST. PETER


SANDSTONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF THE ST. PETER SANDSTONE . . . . 53

Previous E ngineering S tu d ie s . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Sam pling T echniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-
U n i t W e ig h t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
U nconfined Com pression T e s ts . . . . . . . . . . . 56
T r i a x i a l Com pression T e s ts . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
P la te Bearing T ests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
C o n s o l i d a t i o n and S e t t l e m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . 73
P e n e tr a tio n R e sista n c e T ests . . . . . . . . . . . 75
B earing C a p a c itie s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
FOUNDATION USE OF THE ST. PETER SANDSTONE . . . . . . . 80

iv
V

TABLE OF CONTENTS- - C o n t i n u e d
Page

P o t e n t i a l Problems 80
B ridges 83
Locks and Dams 85
B uildings , 87
E O a d S o o o o e o o o\ 91
TUNNELING IN THE ST. PETER SANDSTONE 92
Problems i n T u n n e lin g . . . . . . . . . . . < 92
Tunnel D e s c r i p t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
A r c h i n g and S t r e s s D i s t r i b u t i o n . . . . . . . . 96
Tunnel S u p p o rts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
M in in g Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Case H i s t o r i e s o f T u n n e l i n g i n t h e S t . P e t e r
1C^3S o 1C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
E a s tm a n T u n n e l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Wabasha S t r e e t I n t e r c e p t o r Sewer . . . . , 109
R o b ly n Avenue I n t e r c e p t o r S e w e r , S t . P a u l , 110
D a y to n 's B l u f f I n t e r c e p t o r Sewer, S t . Pau l 111
Rondo S t r e e t T u n n e l C a v e - i n . . . . . . . . ill
S t e v e n s Avenue S e w e r T u n n e l C a v e - i n ,
M inneapolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

LIST OF REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

F ig u r e Page

1. I n d e x map o f M i n n e s o t a sh o w in g l o c a t i o n o f
t h e s i s a r e a < , < , . < , . < > 6 = <,>.<, 3

2 Rock f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e M i n n e a p o l i s - S t . P a u l

3. P h o t o g r a p h o f a f r e s h e x p o s u r e o f t h e St-.
' P e te r sandstone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

4. Photograph o f a f r e s h exposure o f th e S t .
P e te r sandstone 10

5. Photograph o f th e r i v e r b l u f f a t H oliday
Harbor i n S t , Paul . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6. P h o t o g r a p h o f a mine d r i f t a t H o l i d a y H a r b o r
in S t. Paul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

7. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h sh o w in g g r a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n
th e S t. P e t e r Sandstone . . . . . . . . . . . 15

8. G rain s i z e a n a l y s i s , v e r t i c a l s e c t i o n . . . . . . 21

9. G rain s i z e a n a l y s i s , h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n . . . . . 23
10. H i s t o g r a m s h o w in g t h e b i m o d a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
grain sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

11. Rose d i a g r a m sh o w in g j o i n t d i r e c t i o n s i n t h e S t .
P e te r sandstone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
12. P h o t o g r a p h o f t h e r i v e r b l u f f b e lo w t h e S o l d i e r s
Home i n M i n n e a p o l i s (1 9 3 2 ) . . ... . . . 7 . 34

13. P h o t o g r a p h o f t h e r i v e r b l u f f belo w t h e S o l d i e r ' s


Home i n M i n n e a p o l i s ( 1 9 6 4 ) . . . . . . . . . 35
14. Sketch of th e n a t u r a l sa n d sto n e cave,
M inneapolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
15. M oisture - d en sity re la tio n sh ip s . . . . . . . . 57

16. S t r e s s - s t r a i n curves f o r unconfined com pression


tests . 0 . a . . . e .0 o o o o 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 59
vi
v ii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS--C o n t i n u e d

F igure P ag e

17. U n disturbed t r i a x i a l com pressions t e s t s 64

18. T r i a x i a l com pression t e s t s - - d i s t u r b e d O O O O O O 69


1 9 o . T r i a x i a l com pression t e s t s 5 d i s t u r b e d sand -
St one O O O 0 9 0 0 0 0 OO O O C OO o' o 71
20. F ie ld bearing t e s t s 72

21 o C onsolidation t e s ts 0 . = . , , , o . 76
22. Photograph o f an e x c a v a tio n i n th e S t . P e t e r
s a n d s to n e a t th e D a y to n s D epartm ent S t o r e
in S t. Paul o , . ..L 90
Photograph of p la c in g la g g in g i n a san d sto n e
t unne1 . . . . . . . . . . . a . . . . 101
24. .P h o t o g r a p h o f a n u n s u p p o r t e d t u n n e l d r i v e n i n
com petent s a n d s to n e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

25. P h o t o g r a p h o f f u l l r i n g beam s u p p o r t s i n a
sandstone tu n n el . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

26. P h o to g rap h o f h y d r a u l i c l y m ining th e S t .


P e te r sandstone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

27. S k e t c h and p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e Rondo S t r e e t


Tunnel C a v e-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

28. G e o l o g i c s e c t i o n , S t e v e n s Avenue Sew er T u n n e l ,


M inneapolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
1 .
29. P h o t o g r a p h o f t h e S t e v e n s Avenue c a v e - i n . . . . 118
30. B e d r o c k g e o l o g i c map o f M i n n e a p o l i s -
S t . P a u l and v i c i n i t y . . . . . . . . Map P o c k e t

31. N orth-South c ro ss s e c tio n of the


M in n eap o lis-S t. Paul area . . . . . . Map P o c k e t

32. East-W est c ro s s s e c t i o n of th e


M in n eap o lis-S t. Paul area . . . . . . Map P o c k e t
LIST OF TABLES

T a b le Page

1. T e x tu ra l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the S t. P e te r
sandstone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2. C o e ffic ie n t of T ra n s m is s ib ility . . . . . . . . . 4-2


3. Test r e s u lts - unconfined com pression t e s t s . . . 60

4. T r i a x i a l com pression t e s t s c o n d itio n s ,


u n d istu rb ed S t. P e te r sandstone . . . . . . . . 66

v iii
ABSTRACT

I n t h e Twin C i t y a r e a a v a r i e t y o f h e a v y s t r u c t u r e s
and t u n n e l s h a v e b e e n b u i l t on o r i n t h e S t P e t e r s a n d

stone. The r o c k i n s i t u , though f r i a b l e , i s c o m p e t e n t and


capable of w ith sta n d in g high b e a rin g lo a d s . Because th e

s o f t s a n d s t o n e i s e a s i l y e x c a v a t e d and s u p p o r t e d , . t u n n e l s
c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d - a t b elo w n o r m a l t u n n e l i n g c o s t s .

B u r i e d r i v e r c h a n n e l s , g r o u n d w a t e r p r o b l e m s , and

th e u n iq u e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s a n d s t o n e have c au se d

numerou s e n g i n e e r i n g p e r p l e x i t i e s . The s a n d s t o n e n o r m a l l y

l a c k s c o h e s i o n , h a s a low s h e a r s t r e n g t h , b u t h a s a h i g h

angle of i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n . I f the rock i s d istu rb e d o r


exposed t o ru n n in g w a t e r , th e m a t e r i a l l o s e s i t s stren g th ,
and s t r u c t u r a l f a i l u r e r e s u l t s .

The e n g i n e e r i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s a n d s t o n e h a v e

n o t been th o r o u g h ly d e f i n e d . The f o r m a t i o n i s u n u s u a l b e

cause i t i s n e i t h e r a s o i l nor rock. The e l a s t i c properties


of the sandstone c a te g o r iz e i t as a rock; c o h e s io n le s s

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e more t y p i c a l o f s o i l s .

The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s p a p e r h a v e b e e n t o c o m p i l e
a l l a v a i l a b l e e n g i n e e r i n g d a t a i n an a t t e m p t t o b e t t e r u n

d erstan d the en g in eerin g p r o p e r tie s of the S t. P eter sand

stone.
ix
X

S e v e ra l c a se h i s t o r i e s a r e reviewed to d e m o n stra te

t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a d e q u a t e e x p l o r a t i o n and t e s t i n g o f t h e
sandstone. I n a d d i t i o n 5 a s u b s u r f a c e g e o l o g i c map o f t h e

Twin C i t y a r e a was made t o show t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e


v a rio u s rock types p r e s e n t.
INTRODUCTION

F o r o v e r one h u n d r e d y e a r s t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e 5

I n t h e Twin C i t y a r e a , has been u t i l i z e d f o r f o u n d a t i o n


p u r p o s e s and f o r t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f u t i l i t y and s e w e r t u n

nels . As t h e c i t i e s e x p an d and grow s k y w a r d , a n e v e r i n


c r e a s i n g u s e o f t h e s a n d s t o n e w i l l become e v i d e n t . As

s u c c e e d i n g p r o j e c t s become l a r g e r and more e x t e n s i v e , the

number and c o m p l e x i t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s w i l l i n c r e a s e .

C i t y g o v e r n m e n t s , among o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a r e

c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , and f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r
p o s e s t h e y m u s t u n d e r s t a n d t h e e n g i n e e r i n g and g e o l o g i c

param eters of th e se p r o j e c t s .

A c o n s i d e r a b l e amoun t o f r e s e a r c h has* b e e n c o n d u c t

ed on t h e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e

by f o u n d a t i o n e n g i n e e r s , u s u a l l y w i t h t h e a i d o f a c o n s u l t

ing g e o lo g is t. To d a t e , t e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s and e x p e r i e n c e

h a v e n o t t h o r o u g h l y d e f i n e d t h e g e o l o g i c and e n g i n e e r i n g
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the san d sto n e, but i t i s v i t a l t h a t r e

s e a r c h be c o n t i n u e d .

T h is d i s c u s s i o n i s p r e s e n t e d w ith t h e hope o f c l a r

i f y i n g e n g in e e rin g a s p e c ts of th e S t. P e t e r sa n d sto n e as

r e l a t e d t o t u n n e l c o n s t r u c t i o n and f o u n d a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s .

I t i s a l s o hoped t h i s s t u d y w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e how modern e n

g i n e e r i n g g e o l o g y and r o c k o r s o i l m e c h a n i c s t e c h n i q u e s may
1
$

be u s e d t o o b t a i n more p r e c i s e d e s i g n d a t a and t o c o n t r o l
c o n stru ctio n c o sts.
The a r e a s t u d i e d and mapped c o v e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y
265 s q u a r e m i l e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e c i t i e s o f M i n n e a p o l i s

and S t . P a u l w i t h a d d i t i o n a l p o r t i o n s o f Ramsey, D a k o t a ,
H e n n e p i n , and Anoka C o u n t i e s . The b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e mapped

a r e a a r e t h o s e o f t h e U. S . G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y Map, Minneapo
lis - S t . P a u l and V i c i n i t y , 19 5 2 .
The s u b s u r f a c e g e o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y a r e a was r e

mapped and b r o u g h t up t o d a t e . Data p e r t a i n i n g to th e e n

g i n e e r i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e s a n d s t o n e were c o l l e c t e d o n l y
w i t h i n t h e mapped b o u n d a r i e s . However, due t o t h e c o n s i s

te n t physical d is tr ib u tio n , s im ila r engineering p ro p e rtie s

o f t h e f o r m a t i o n c a n be e x p e c t e d i n o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s .

D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s Area

G l a c i a l f e a t u r e s f o r m much o f t h e Twin C i t y l a n d
scape. E x c e p t f o r t h e v a l l e y s o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i and M in

n e s o t a R i v e r s , g r o u n d m o r a i n e s mask t h e b e d r o c k . The l a n d

s u r f a c e i s g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g w i t h many a l i g n e d e l o n g a t e d e

p re s s io n s in the d r i f t . L a k e s , swamps, and s t r e a m c o u r s e s

now o c c u p y t h e s e d r i f t f i l l e d d e p r e s s i o n s which s u g g e s t t h e

l o c a t i o n o f p r e g l a c i a l and i n t e r g l a c i a l r i v e r c h a n n e l s .

The M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r s e p a r a t e s t h e C i t i e s o f M i n

n e a p o l i s and S t . P a u l . As t h e R i v e r f l o w s s o u t h f r o m S t .
3

ST. PAUL

MINNEAPOLIS

INDEX MAP OF MINNESOTA

SHOWING LOCATION OF THESIS AREA

FIGURE I
A n th o n y F a l l s a a y o u t h f u l and n a r r o w g o r g e h a s b e e n f o r m e d ,
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h v e r t i c a l b l u f f s o f e x p o s e d b e d r o c k .

At F o r t S n e l l i n g , w h e r e t h e M i n n e s o t a R i v e r c o n v e r g e s w i t h

t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r , t h e r i v e r v a l l e y b ro ad e n s as does i t s

flood p la in s . The r i v e r b l u f f s s t i l l p e r s i s t i n t e r m i t t e n t l y
on e a c h s i d e o f t h e v a l l e y f o r many m i l e s s o u t h o f t h e c o n
fluence.

E x c e p t f o r t h e M i n n e s o t a and M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r s ,

stream d e g ra d a tio n , sin c e the l a s t g l a c i a l r e t r e a t , has n o t

been r a p i d . R e a s o n a b l y good p e r c o l a t i o n , h e a v y v e g e t a t i o n ,
and numerou s l o c a l p o n d a g e s h a v e m i n i m i z e d f l u v i a l e r o s i o n .
C lim atic c o n d itio n s in th e M etro p o litan a re a are
t y p i c a l o f t h e N o r th e r n Middle W estern S t a t e s . Long w i n

ters, s h o r t summers, and e x t r e m e s i n t e m p e r a t u r e a r e common.

Normal a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e s r a n g e f r o m 1 5 F i n J a n u a r y t o

7^F i n J u l y . The n o r m a l a n n u a l r a i n f a l l i s 25 i n c h e s and

r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y 68 p e r c e n t .

G e n e r a l G e o lo g y

M inneapolis - S t . P a u l and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a a r e
s i t u a t e d in the c e n te r o f a f l a t s t r u c t u r a l b a sin e n c irc le d

by g e n t l y d i p p i n g s e d i m e n t s . The b a s i n i s e l o n g a t e s o u t h

w e st-n o rth e a st. w ith th e c e n te r lo c a te d south of th e U n iv er


s i t y o f M innesota i n M in n e a p o lis . Dips o f th e se d im e n ts

v a r y b u t a v e r a g e l e s s t h a n one d e g r e e o r t w e n t y f e e t p e r
m ile.
5

M inor s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e Twin C i t y a r e a h a v e b e e n
observed a t s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s . The Glenwood s h a l e - S t.

P e t e r s a n d s t o n e c o n t a c t m a y . v a r y a s much a s t h r e e f e e t w i t h
in th e a re a of a block. T h i s phenomenon i s p r o b a b l y due t o
d i f f e r e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t o r m inor f a u l t i n g . A more p r o
n o u n c ed s t r u c t u r e was n o t e d i n t h e R o s e v i l l e a r e a . The c o n

t a c t of the P l a t t e v i l l e lim estone - S t. P e ter sandstone,

p a r a l l e l i n g New B r i g h t o n B o u l e v a r d , v a r i e d o v e r 100 f e e t i n
e l e v a t i o n w i t h i n a few h u n d r e d y a r d s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e

boulevard. More w e l l d a t a a r e n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r
t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s a f a u l t o r a m onoclinal f le x u r e .
Recent aero m ag n etic su rv ey s o f th e b a s i n , conducted

by t h e U S . G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , s u g g e s t t h e t h i c k n e s s o f

s e d i m e n t s t o be i n e x c e s s o f 4 , 0 0 0 f e e t . . The a e r o m a g n e t i c

d a ta a l s o i n d i c a t e a p o s s ib l e f i v e m ile t h i c k s e c t i o n of

Keweenawan b a s a l t f l o w s b e n e a t h t h e s e d i m e n t s (Sim s, 19 6 2 ).

The s t r a t i g r a p h y i n t h e Twin C i t y a r e a h a s b e en
re a so n a b ly w ell determ ined as a r e s u l t of r e c e n t s tu d ie s o f

w e l l c u t t i n g s and o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 d r i l l e r s ' logs. The B e d r o c k

G e o l o g i c Map o f M i n n e a p o l i s , S t . P a u l and V i c i n i t y , F i g u r e

3 0 , was c o m p i l e d f r o m a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e s u b s u r f a c e d a t a .

The map shows t h e t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e b e d r o c k s u r f a c e a n d ' t h e

d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the m ajor bedrock u n i t s . N o r t h and e a s t

t r e n d i n g s t r u c t u r a l s e c t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e s 31 and 32
resp ectiv ely .
6

The a g e s o f s e d i m e n t s r a n g e from P r e c a m b r i a n t o m i d

d le O rdovician. The f o r m a t i o n s a r e e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e
and r e a d i l y c o r r e l a t a b l e b e tw e e n w e l l s . A lso, th ic k n e s s o f

th e e s s e n t i a l l y c o n tin u o u s fo rm a tio n s b en eath M inneapolis


and S t . Paul changes l i t t l e . A com plete d e s c r i p t i o n of th e

l i t h o l o g y of each s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t i s u n n e ce ssa ry f o r t h i s

in v estig atio n . How ever, a r e v i s e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c column h a s


b e en made b a s e d on r e c e n t w e l l c u t t i n g s t u d i e s , and a b r i e f

d e s c r ip tio n o f the fo rm atio n s a re ta b u la te d (Figure 2 ).

F o u r f o r m a t i o n s a r e r e c o g n i z e d on t h e s u r f a c e i n t h e

Twin C i t y a r e a . A ll ro c k o u tc ro p s a r e i n th e form o f R iv e r

b l u f f s a l o n g t h e M i s s i s s i p p i and M i n n e s o t a R i v e r s . The

Decorah s h a l e , P l a t t e v i l l e l i m e s t o n e , Glenwood s h a l e , and

S t, P e te r sandstone crop out to g e t h e r d is c o n tin u o u s ly along

the r i v e r b lu f f s throughout the m e tro p o lita n a r e a .

The b e d r o c k s u r f a c e i s m a n t l e d by 10 t o 350 f e e t o f

u n co n solidated g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l s . G l a c i a l and i n t e r g l a c i a l

r i v e r s s h a p e d t h i s s u r f a c e t o r e s e m b l e a. c a n y o n and p l a t e a u

type o f environm ent. A c o m p lex s y s t e m o f d e e p , n a r r o w c a n

y o n s , r e s e m b l i n g t h e p r e s e n t day n a r r o w g o r g e o f t h e M i s s i s

s i p p i R i v e r below S t . Anthony F a i l s , was c u t i n t o t h e u n d e r

ly in g sedim ents. F i g u r e 3 0 shows w i t h r e a s o n a b l e a c c u r a c y

the c o n fig u r a tio n , s i z e , and e x t e n t o f t h e s e c h a n n e l s .

D u r i n g t h e summer o f 1964 a Warden G e o d e t i c G r a v i t y

M e t e r was u s e d t t o h e l p l o c a t e b u r i e d c h a n n e l s i n t h e n o r t h
e r n h a l f o f t h e New B r i g h t o n Q u a d r a n g l e . The low d e n s i t y .
PERIOD FORMATION LITHOLOGY THICKNESS

P leistocene U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d d r i f t and g l a c i a l 50-350

o u t w a s h . More r e c e n t d e p o s i t s : (feet)
l o e s s , t a l u s , r i v e r sands and g r a
v e l s , an d l a k e d e p o s i t s .

O rdovician G a l e n a l i m e s t o n e an d A rg illaceo u s green shale w ith in - 0-60


Decorah terbedded f o s s i l i f e r o u s lim esto n e.

P l a t t e v i l l e lim esto n e 50
Caramona member Medium b e d d e d , f i n e g r a i n e d l i m e
stone w ith in terb ed d ed sh a le .
Ojuimby * s Mi l l me mb e r Fine g ra in e d , conch o id al f r a c t u r e d
lim estone.
McGregor member Very f i n e g r a i n e d l i m e s t o n e w i t h
a m inor c la y f r a c t i o n .

Glenwood s h a l e S h ale g r a d i n g i n t o sandy s h a l e 6


downward.

S t. P e te r sandstone Medium t o f i n e g r a i n e d c l e a n 150


q u artzo se sandstone.

P r a i r i e du O h ie n
S hakopee d o l o m i t e Fine to medium g r a i n e d d o l o m i t e . 45
New Richmond s s Fine to medium g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e . 11
Oneota d o lo m ite Fine to medium g r a i n e d d o l o m i t e , 80
compact and v u g g y .

Cambrian Jordan sandstone 90
Van O s e r member Coarse g r a in e d q u a rtz o s e sand
stone.
N o r w a lk member Fine g ra in e d q u a rtz o se sand
stone.

S t . Lawrence f o r m a t io n 50
L o d i member Fine g r a in e d d o lo m itic sandstone
and s i l t s t o n e .
- B l a c k E a r t h member Sandy a n d g l a u c o n i t i c d o l o m i t e
w ith in terb ed d ed dolo m itic s i l t -
stone bed s.

Franconia form ation 200


Mazomanie member F a c ie s - e a s tw a r d o n ly . F in e to
medium g r a i n e d , t h i n b e d d e d s a n d
s t o n e . Some c r o s s b e d d i n g .
Reno member G la u c o n itic f in e sandstone.
Tomah member V ery f i n e s a n d s t o n e and i n t e r
bedded s h a l e .
B i r k m o s e member G la u c o n itic fin e sandstone.
W o o d h i l l member C r o s s b e d d e d medium t o c o a r s e
g ra in e d snadstone.

Dresbach fo rm atio n 400


G a l e s v i l l e member M a s s i v e t o c r o s s b e d d e d f i n e to
medium g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e .
Eau C l a i r member T hin b e d d ed , v e ry f i n e s a n d s to n e ,
s i l t s t o n e , and s h a l e .
Mt. Simon member Medium t o c o a r s e w h i t e q u a r t z o s e
sandstone.

P recam brian H inckley sandstone Medium g r a i n e d , sa lm o n c o l o r e d 40


(Keweenawan) q u artzo se sandstone.
Fond du Lac ( r e d b e d s ) A rk o s ic and l i t h i c s i l t y sa n d s to n e 3000 /
B asalt B asalt flo w s. 5

j ROCK FORMATIONS OF THE MINNEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL AREA

FIGURE 2 -4
8

u n c o n s o l i d a t e d g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l s r e s t i n g on t h e h i g h e r d e n
s i t y s e d im e n ts gave a d e n s i t y c o n t r a s t g r e a t enough t o p r o

v i d e t h e g r a v i t y metho d w i t h a f a i r l y h i g h d e g r e e o f
reso lu tio n . Two s i x m i l e t r a v e r s e s w e re made n o r m a l t o t h e
assumed c h a n n e l s and w i t h s t a t i o n s 100 y a r d s a p a r t R esults

were r e c o r d e d on two p r o f i l e s w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d r e m a r k a b l y

w e l l w i t h t h e mapped s u b s u r f a c e t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e s o u t h e r n
h a l f o f t h e New B r i g h t o n Q u a d r a n g l e .
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ST. PETER SAMDSTONE

General D e s c r ip tio n
The S t . P e te r sandstone (O rdovician) i s one o f t h e
m ost c o n s p i c u o u s r o o k f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r

V alley. The f o r m a t i o n i s v e r y w i d e s p r e a d and d i s p l a y s r e a

s o n a b l y c o n s i s t e n t p h y s i c a l and m i n e r a l o g i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .

P e r h a p s t h e m o st u n u s u a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t

i t i s composed o f 99 p e r c e n t p u r e q u a r t z s a n d g r a i n s and
lac k s cem entation.
In the M etropolitan a re a th e S t. P e t e r everywhere
l i e s u n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r t h e S h a k o p e e d o l o m i t e member o f t h e

P r a i r i e du C h i e n f o r m a t i o n . The s a n d s t o n e f o r m a t i o n a v e r

a g e s 150 f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s and i s u n i f o r m e x c e p t f o r a d i s

c o n t i n u o u s s h a l e l a y e r l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 f e e t ab o v e

t h e Shakopee c o n t a c t . The t o p o f t h e s a n d s t o n e i s c h a r a c

t e r i z e d by a t r a n s i t i o n zone t h a t g r a d e s upward i n t o t h e

Glenwood s h a l e . The s h a l e v a r i e s f r o m t h r e e t o f i v e f e e t i n

t h i c k n e s s i n t h e Twin C i t y a r e a . Conformably o v e r l y i n g th e

Glenwood i s t e n t o t h i r t y f e e t o f P l a t t e v i l l e l i m e s t o n e .

The b e s t e x p o s e d and m o s t c o m p l e t e s e c t i o n o f t h e
S t. P e te r sandstone i s lo c a te d a t Holiday H arbor. The h a r

b o r i s s i t u a t e d a c r o s s th e M i s s i s s i p p i R iv e r from t h e ty p e

s e c tio n of the S t. P e te r sandstone a t F o rt S n e llin g . The

s e c t i o n i s a s e v e n t y - f i v e f o o t h i g h r i v e r b l u f f and i s

9
10

Figures 3 and 4. Fresh exposures of the St. Peter sandstone


at the Minnesota Silica Company quarry,
Minneapolis. Platteville limestone, Glenwood
shale, green sand horizon also are shown.
11

FIGURE 5. River bluff at Holiday Harbor, St. Paul exposing


the St. Peter sandstone. Opening at right was
caused by the caving of an unsupported mine
drift.
FIGURE 6 . Mine drift in the St. Peter sand
stone. Opening was purposely
arched. (Holiday Harbor, St. Paul)
13

e a sily accessib le. S e v e ra l l a r g e h o r i z o n t a l d r i f t s have

been d r i v e n a s much a s f i f t y y a r d s i n t o t h e b l u f f , perm it

t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n o f f r e s h l y exposed ro ck .

F r i a b i l i t y and C e m e n t a t i o n

The S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e c a n n o r m a l l y be d e s c r i b e d a s

a f r i a b l e w h i t e s a n d s t o n e w h ic h l a c k s c e m e n t a t i o n . However,

l o c a l l y w i t h i n t h e f o r m a t io n i r r e g u l a r shaped masses of

s a n d s to n e a r e cemented w ith i r o n o x id e , form ing a v e ry h a rd


and d e n s e s a n d s t o n e . O ccasionally, the iro n oxide appears

t o h a v e fo rm ed c o n c r e t i o n a r y m a s s e s w h ic h a r e s p h e r o i d a l i n

shape.
I n e x a m i n a t i o n o f p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s made o f t h e

s a n d s t o n e , u n d e r a p e t r o g r a p h i c m i c r o s c o p e , no o b v i o u s c e

m e n t i n g a g e n t s w e re o b s e r v e d e x c e p t i n t h o s e c a s e s where
i r o n o x i d e had i n d u r a t e d t h e s p e c i m e n s . S econdary growth of

s i l i c a , w h i c h was i n o p t i c a l c o n t i n u i t y w i t h t h e g r a i n s , was

o b s e r v e d on l e s s t h a n 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e g r a i n s . The g r o w t h s

w e re c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s c o n t i n u o u s b a n d s a r o u n d t h e c o a r s e r

g r a i n s and w e re u s u a l l y t e r m i n a t e d by one o r more o f t h e

faces of the in d iv id u a l g r a i n s . T h i s s e c o n d a r y g r o w t h may

h a v e b e e n f o rm ed by a p r e v i o u s r o c k c y c l e , p r i o r to the s e d
im e n ta tio n of the S t. P e te r san d sto n e . In a d d itio n , t h e low

p e rc e n ta g e of g r a i n s d i s p l a y i n g overgrow ths i s un u su al f o r a

ro ck m a t e r i a l t h a t has undergone th e i n t r o d u c t i o n of s i l i c a

in so lu tio n .
The b o n d i n g f o r c e t h a t k e e p s t h e s a n d s t o n e t o g e t h e r

a s a u n i t c a n b e s t be e x p l a i n e d m e c h a n i c a l l y by a n i n t e r
locking g rain e f f e c t The f i n e r g r a i n s t h a t make up t h e

s a n d s t o n e a r e a n g u l a r i n s h a p e and h a v e become i n t e r l o c k e d
w i t h e a c h o t h e r t o f o rm an a g g r e g a t e . The s h a p e o f t h e s e
a g g r e g a t e s conform t o t h e shape o f t h e i n t e r s t i t i a l o p en in g s

b e t w e e n t h e l a r g e r , more r o u n d e d g r a i n s . In a d d itio n , the

coarser grains, b e i n g f r o s t e d and p i t t e d , a l l o w t h e f i n e r


a n g u la r g r a i n s t o use th e s e i n d e n t a t i o n s as f o o t h o le s i n

which t o h e lp keep th e g r a i n s i n t e r l o c k e d . T herefore, i t

c a n be assum ed t h a t t h e s e e f f e c t s s u b s t a n t i a l l y k e e p t h e m a

t e r i a l to g eth er. The p h o t o m i c r o g r a p h ( F i g u r e 7 ) w i l l h e l p


emphasize t h i s t h e o r y . Perhaps th e h ig h e r p e rc e n t of the

r o u n d e d g r a i n s i n t h e s a n d s t o n e would c a u s e t h e m a t e r i a l t o

be more f r i a b l e and c o n v e r s e l y , t h e h i g h e r p e r c e n t o f s m a l l e r
a n g u l a r g r a i n s would c a u s e t h e s a n d s t o n e t o be l e s s f r i a b l e .

The f o r c e t h a t c a u s e d t h e i n t e r l o c k i n g o f g r a i n s was p r o b a b l y
due t o t h e c o m p a ctio n o f th e f o r m a t io n a f t e r s e d i m e n t a t i o n .

The s a n d s t o n e g e n e r a l l y becomes h a r d e r arid more

dense w ith depth in th e fo rm a tio n . However, e x p o s e d s a n d

s t o n e , e v e n t h o u g h more f r i a b l e i n t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e
fo rm atio n , w ith stan d s the e f f e c t of w eathering w e ll. Where
the m a t e r i a l sta n d s unsupported in high r i v e r b l u f f s o r e x

cavations, th e s t r e n g t h needed to s u p p o rt th e s a n d s to n e i s

m o s t l y t h e r e s u l t o f c o m p a c t i o n and t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p r o

t e c t i v e lim esto n e cap. W ith t h e c a p r o c k rem o v ed , the


y *

FIGURE 7. Photomicrograph showing grain relationships in the St.


Peter sandstone. The indistinguishable fine matrix is
composed of interlocking fine sand grains. Only the
coarser grains show any degree of rounding.

3 5 0 microns

SCALE
16

s a n d s t o n e i s v e r y s o f t and f r i a b l e O ccasio n ally , the sa n d

s t o n e may be f o u n d t o be q u i t e f r i a b l e i n a n e x p o s u r e e v en
w ith th e cap rock i n p la c e . T h i s phenomenon i s p o s s i b l y due

t o an e x c e s s i v e amount o f w a t e r w h i c h o n c e f l o w e d t h r o u g h

the m a te ria l causing i t to lo se i t s s t r e n g t h by g r a i n r e a r


rangement (S chw artz, 1965), Ca se h a r d e n i n g on some s a n d

s t o n e o u t c r o p s has g iv e n added p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t w e a t h e r

ing.

M i n e r a l o g y and L i t h o l o g y

The m o st o u t s t a n d i n g l i t h o l o g i c f e a t u r e o f t h e S t .

P e te r sandstone is i t s p u r i t y and w h i t e c o l o r on f r e s h l y e x

posed s u r f a c e s . For a l l p r a c tic a l purposes, th e form ation

c a n be c o n s i d e r e d m o n o m i n e r a l i c . A chem ical a n a l y s i s of th e

sandstone a t th e type l o c a l i t y . F o r t S m e l l i n g , showed t h e


fo llo w in g r e s u l t s : SiOg - 9 7 . 6^ , Al^Og - 1 . 3 $ , Fe^Og -

0 .-55 $ , CaO - 0 . 4 1 $ , Wa2 0 - 0 , 1 5 $ , and Kg - 0 . 0 2 $ ( W i n c h e l l ,


1884). I n t h e Twin C i t y a r e a t h e s e f i g u r e s c a n be c o n s i d e r

ed a v e r a g e . P e r c e n t a g e s w i l l n o t v a r y o v e r a few t e n t h s o f

a p e r c e n t from l o c a t i o n t o l o c a t i o n .

Numerous h e a v y m i n e r a l a n a l y s e s h a v e b e e n made on

the S t. P e te r sandstone. These, show an a v e r a g e c o m p o s i t i o n


of th e heavy m in e ra l f r a c t i o n o f th e sa n d sto n e a s : zirco n -

48$, to u r m a li n e - 35$ j r u t i l e - 8$ , l e u c o x e n e - 6$ , and a

tr a c e of g a rn e t ( S t a u f f e r and T h i e l , 1 9 4 1 ) , and c o n s t i t u t e

approxim ately 1 p e rc e n t of the t o t a l m in e ral com position.


17

T h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n c o n t e n t jan d a n o b v i o u s t e x
t u r a l change i n th e heavy m in e r a ls n e a r th e to p o f th e f o r
m ation. N o r m a l l y , t h e g a r n e t c o n t e n t i n c r e a s e s , and t h e

g r a i n s become l a r g e r and more a n g u l a r a s t h e t r a n s i t i o n zo n e

i s a p p r o a c h e d and c r o s s e d i n t o t h e Glenwood s h a l e . This i s


due t o an e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e i n t h e s e d i m e n t a t i o n h i s t o r y

of the a r e a .

The h e a v y m i n e r a l c o n t e n t o f t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e

i s one o f t h e m a i n c r i t e r i a u s e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e tw e e n
t h e S t . P e t e r and J o r d a n s a n d s t o n e s . Thd J o r d a n s a n d s t o n e ,

w h ic h u n d e r l i e s t h e P r a i r i e du O h ie n f o r m a t i o n , i s v e r y s i m

i l a r to the S t. P e t e r , and o f t e n t h e two a r e c o n f u s e d w i t h

each o t h e r in the stu d y of w e ll c u tt i n g s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g

sand i n t r u s i o n problems o f w a te r w e l l s . The h e a v y m i n e r a l s


a r e e a s i l y s e p a r a t e d from t h e s a n d s to n e s w ith h ig h d e n s i t y
liq u id s. S i n c e t h e r e i s u s u a l l y an o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e i n

h e a v y m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n b e tw e e n t h e two f o r m a t i o n s , th is

c o m p a r i s o n i s u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e two s a n d s t o n e s

in q uestion. Heavy m i n e r a l c o n t e n t i n t h e , J o r d a n s a n d s t o n e
i s as follow s 5 g a r n e t - 6l $ , tourm aline - 16$ , zircon -

180, r u t i l e - 20, and l e u c o x e n e - 10 ( S t a u f f e r and T h i e l ,


1941).

Iro n in the S t. P e t e r san d sto n e u s u a lly occurs as a

c o a t i n g on t h e i n d i v i d u a l g r a i n s and r e s u l t s i n a y e l l o w o r

r e d d i s h brown s t a i n on t h e g r a i n s . Occurrence o f i r o n in

t h e f o r m a t i o n i s v e r y e r r a t i c and h a s l o c a l l y fo r m e d s t a i n e d
18

b a n d s w h ic h t e n d t o f o l l o w b e d d i n g p l a n e s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n .
The b a n d s may be an i n c h t o a few f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s and may

r e p r e s e n t old, s t a t i c w a te r t a b l e s , o r p r e f e r r e d bedding

p l a n e s f o r t h e l a t e r a l movement o f w a t e r .

I r r e g u l a r shaped i r o n s t a i n e d b o d ies o f a l l s i z e s
and s h a p e s a r e a l s o common. The i r o n i s p r o b a b l y o f s e c o n d

a r y o r i g i n d e p o s i t e d by downward p e r c o l a t i n g i r o n c h a r g e d

w a t e r s 5 w h ic h f o l l o w e d i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s t h r o u g h t h e s a n d
stone. The i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s may h a v e b e e n c a u s e d by d i f

fe re n c e s in p e rm e a b ility in th e form ation.

P y r i t e and m a r c a s i t e g r a i n s h a v e a l s o b e e n r e c o g

nized n e a r th e top o f the f o r m a tio n . C r y s t a l f a c e s on t h e s e

p a r t i c l e s a r e w e l l d e v e l o p e d and show no s i g n s o f b e i n g
t r a n s p o r t e d , which i n d i c a t e s t h a t th e m i n e r a l s a r e o f s e c
ondary o r i g i n . Nodules o f p y r i t e w ith d i s s e m in a t e d q u a r t z

g r a i n s a r e n o t uncommon, and a r e f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o r m a

tio n . The n o d u l e s a l s o a r e o b v i o u s l y o f s e c o n d a r y o r i g i n

b e c a u s e o f w e l l f o rm ed c r y s t a l f a c e s on t h e p y r i t e g r a i n s .

A u t h i g e n i c and d e t r i t a l g r a i n s o f f e l d s p a r were r e c

o g n i z e d i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n n e a r N e w p o rt,

M i n n e s o t a ( T h i e l , 1935* p. 5 9 0 ) - The a n g u l a r f e l d s p a r
g r a i n s a r e l a r g e l y due t o a u t h i g e n i c g r o w t h o r s e c o n d a r y e n

largem ent of d e t r i t a l g ra in s . T h ie l recorded 3 to 5 p e rc e n t

f e l d s p a r c o n t e n t i n s a m p l e s f r o m t h e Newport a r e a j h o w e v e r ,

no f e l d s p a r g r a i n s c o u l d be i s o l a t e d i n t h e t h e s i s s t u d y
19

area. T herefore, t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f e l d s p a r g r a i n s may o n l y

be a l o c a l phenomenon.
Due t o t h e homogeneous c h a r a c t e r o f t h e S t . P eter

s a n d s to n e , bedding i s n o t c o n s p ic u o u s . Upon c l o s e e x a m i n a
tio n , t h e b e d d i n g p l a n e s c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d and r a n g e fro m
a few i n c h e s t o a few f e e t a p a r t . Iro n s ta in e d exposures of
t h e r o c k seem t o b e t h e b e s t l o c a t i o n . t o s t u d y t h e b e d d i n g

planes. T e x t u r a l s t u d i e s among b e d s show no o b v i o u s d i f f e r -


\
ences.

Some c r o s s b e d d i n g has b e e n r e p o r t e d i n t h e S t .

P eter. I t i s t h o u g h t t o be m o s t l y o f f l u v i a l o r i g i n w i t h
o n ly m inor e v id e n ce o f e o l i a n d e p o s i t i o n .

T e x t u r a l and G r a i n S i z e A n a l y s e s
G rain s i z e a n a ly s e s of th e S t . P e t e r sa n d sto n e i n d i

c a t e t h e m a t e r i a l t o be e x t r e m e l y w e l l s o r t e d and r e s t r i c t e d

to a lim ite d s iz e range. N inety p e r c e n t o f th e sand g r a in s

f a l l b e t w e e n t h e r a n g e o f 125 a n d 250 m i c r o n s o r t h e 140 and


60 mesh s i e v e s i z e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s a n d s t o n e s h o u l d f a l l
i n t o m o st s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a s a f i n e s a n d .

Numerous s e d i m e n t a t i o n a n a l y s e s w e re made o f t h e

sandstone w ith a v i s u a l accum ulation tube. The v i s u a l t u b e

m eth o d i s u s e d f o r s i z e a n a l y s i s o f s u s p e n d e d s e d i m e n t sa m
p l e s o f s a n d f r a c t i o n s l e s s t h a n one m i l l i m e t e r i n d i a m e t e r .

The t h e o r y o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n t u b e i s b a s e d on S t o k e s Law

and was d e v e l o p e d f o r s e d i m e n t s s i m i l a r t o t h e S t . P eter


2

sand. P e rc e n ta g e s of each g r a i n s i z e r e t a i n e d a r e g r a p h i

c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d on a c h a r t . T h i s method o f g r a i n s i z e a n -,
a l y s i s was c h o s e n b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s a n d s t o n e ,

and t h e t e s t i s s i m p l e , r a p i d , and a c c u r a t e .
F i g u r e 8 shows t e n h i s t o g r a m s (frequency d i s t r i b u

t i o n c u r v e s ) made w i t h t h e v i s u a l a c c u m u l a t i o n t u b e . The

specim ens t e s t e d r e p r e s e n t a v e r t i c a l s e c t i o n o f an o u tc ro p
o f S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e t a k e n on t h e e a s t - a b u t m e n t o f t h e new

F o r t S n e l l i n g B r i d g e on t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r . C h a n n e l sa m

p l e s were ta k e n a t f i v e f o o t i n t e r v a l s f o r th e t o p f i f t y

f e e t of the fo rm atio n . The s i t e was c h o s e n t o t a k e s a m p l e s


b e c a u s e t h e r o c k was f r e s h l y e x p o s e d , and t h e l o c a t i o n was

n e a r th e type s e c t i o n of th e sa n d sto n e .
I n exam ining t h e h i s t o g r a m s , t h e r e a r e no g r e a t v a r

i a t i o n s i n g ra in s iz e s v e r t i c a l l y in the s e c tio n except i n

the upper ten f e e t ( t r a n s i t i o n z o n e ) w here t h e m a t e r i a l b e

comes s l i g h t l y c o a r s e r . E x c e lle n t s o r t i n g , i s a ls o very con


spicuous in the s e c tio n .

Sa m p le s f r o m s e v e r a l h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n s a l s o w ere

taken to determ ine t h e i r c o n s is te n c y i n g r a d a tio n of g ra in


size. A s e r i e s o f e i g h t c h a n n e l s a m p l e s , one h u n d r e d f e e t

a p a r t and a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y f e e t belo w t h e t r a n s i t i o n
zone i n t h e S t . P e t e r , were c o l l e c t e d i n t h e M in n e a p o lis

S t o r m Sew er T u n n e l b e t w e e n W a s h i n g t o n Avenue. N o r t h and F i r s t

S t r e e t North. S a m p le s w e re c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c

tio n of the tu n n e l.
F e e t "below G r a i n s i z e P e r c e n t H istogram
G-lenwood i n m icrons R e ta in e d
contact
500
350
m
83
2.5
4
62.5 3.5
500 3
350

125
s
5
TPHTT^TT liimmiirnTTiiiiiiimimiiiirtiu
88
62.5
4
3 F
500
350
250 it I i liill III|1010
tr^
175
125
ii 1 l !m11
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88
62.5 3 0
350 hm: i .m|III 1illlillliliflll
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175
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125 30 11jiT] li
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118
175
.ILLL.. 1 1 i I_ _ _
.1111.. i.lm Illl M l nimmimm
125 E IT

GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS VERTICAL SECTION

FIGURE 8
22
The v i s u a l a c c u m u l a t i o n t u b e was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e
\

t h e s i z e g r a d a t i o n , and t h e d a t a a r e t a b u l a t e d i n F i g u r e 9

An e v e n more r e m a r k a b l e c o n s i s t e n c y c a n be o b s e r v e d i n s i z e
g r a d a t i o n a s co m p ared t o t h e v e r t i c a l s e c t i o n .

S i m i l a r s e r i e s o f g r a i n s i z e a n a l y s e s w e r e made a t
the fo llo w in g l o c a t i o n s : M i n n e s o t a S i l i c a Company i n N o r t h
M i n n e a p o l i s , S t e v e n s Avenue S t o r m S e w e r i n M i n n e a p o l i s , F o r t

S n e l l i n g , and H o l i d a y H a r b o r i n S t . Paul. G radation r e s u l ts

f r o m v e r t i c a l o r h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n s w e re v e r y s i m i l a r t o

those afo rem en tio n ed . T herefore, th e S t. P e te r sandstone


c a n be c o n s i d e r e d n e a r l y hom ogeneous w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s .

grain siz e d is trib u tio n .

L a c a b a n n e (1 9 6 4 ) n o t i c e d a d e f i n i t e b i m o d a l and p o s

s i b l e t r i m o d a l e f f e c t i n t h e s a n d s t o n e a s shown i n F i g u r e

10 . H i s s p e c i m e n s w e re c o l l e c t e d f r o m a r i v e r b l u f f below
th e U n i v e r s i ty of M innesota i n M in n eap o lis. They w e r e o b

t a i n e d f i f t e e n f e e t b elo w t h e Glenwood - S t . P e ter co n tact.

H o l d e r ( 1 9 6 3 , p. 5) a l s o r e c o g n i z e d a s i m i l a r b i m o d a l d i s

t r i b u t i o n o f s a n d g r a i n s a f o o t b e lo w t h e Glenwood c o n t a c t

at several lo catio n s. The s t u d y w i t h t h e v i s u a l a c c u m u l a

t i o n t u b e showed o n l y one i n s t a n c e o f t h i s b i m o d a l e f f e c t .

E v i d e n t l y , t h e e n t i r e f o r m a t i o n d o e s n o t show t h i s b i m o d a l
d istrib u tio n .

A summary o f t e x t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of th e S t.

P e t e r s a n d s t o n e a r e g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e b e lo w f o r s e v e r a l
23

S t a ti o n G rain s iz e P ercent His t o g r a m


l o c a t i o n i n m icrons r e t a i n e d

9+00 350 3 m
250 35 11 In
175 31 ' 11 n illh I nn
125 20 HIL in
10+00 350 6 niln
jj_
250 36 i m
175 35 n i l ilk ! ittrr
125 31 j! Ilk n"
88 4 rij
11+00 350 6 r ]______________
250 37 11 n n hi III! nn ii i i n i
34 il mi IN nn i n n
11 Ji ill nil
175
125 17
88 6 !lll
12+00 350 8 III I L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
m
125
39
31
16
!
!
i
i nn imiiiii
j
nn
r _ L _ .

88 6 til I
13+00 350 7 nn H _________
250 37 i n i n n 1 1 l l | w n llli111
175 34 !li || | I till
125 19 ill llli ml
88 5
14+00 5
118 33 nn n in i ni
175 30 i in
125 25 i l
88 7 II
15+00 350 4 etl

m
125
28
31
27
llli
j Mill
in i 11TT
Ml

88 10
16+00 350 5
250 27 iiil m l ill ! III i il
175 i l k k k Ill n Im i n
125 11 kii n nil In ill 1 n r
88 7 mi il

GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS HORIZONTAL SECTION

FIGURE 9
PERCENT RETAINED

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
28
32
35
42
48
lu 60
% 65
uj 80
y io o
cn
115
150
170
200
PAN

HISTOGRAM SHOWING THE BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION OF GRAIN SIZES

IN THE ST PETER SANDSTONE


rv
FIGURE 10 -t=r
25

l o c a t i o n s i n th e g r e a t e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ( T h e i l a 1935* P
584).
Table 1. T extural C h a ra c te ris tic s
Medium C oeff. C oeff. E f f e c t i v e Uniformity
L ocation D iam eter o f of Size C oeff.
(mm) S orting Skewne ss (mm)
Mendota 0.235 " 1.41 1.09 0 . 1 4 2 .. 1.99
North M pls. 0.235 1.48 0.96 0.107 2.65
St.- P a u l P a r k 0.178 1.32 1.20 0.119 2.28
Zumbrota 0.201 1.32 1.06 0.114 2.00
S o u t h M pls. 0.219 1.55 0.94 0.086 3.02
Mounds P a r k 1.970 1.37 1.07 0.121 1 . 9 2
W a s h i n g t o n Co. 0.281 1.27 1.11 0.175 . 3 .66

R oundness , F r o s t i n g , and P i t t i n g

G r a i n s h a p e s i n t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e v a r y fr o m

a n g u l a r t o s u b r o u n d w i t h v e r y few g r a i n s d i s p l a y i n g a s p h e r i

c a l form. G e n era lly 5 th e c o a rs e r f r a c t i o n d is p la y s the

h ig h e r degree o f rounding. T h e i l (1935* p . 586) f o u n d t h a t


t h e g r a i n s r e t a i n e d on a y m i l l i m e t e r s c r e e n show a n a v e r a g e

c i r c u l a r i t y in d ex of 0.956, l / 8 m i l l i m e t e r s c r e e n had a
0 . 9 2 5 i n d e x , and t h e l / l 6 m i l l i m e t e r s c r e e n f r a c t i o n was

0.917. The i n d e x i s b a s e d on a c i r c l e w h i c h h a s a v a l u e o f

1 . 0 0 and a s q u a r e w i t h a n i n d e x o f 0 . 7 8 4 .

A c t u a l g r a i n s h a p e s may be e l o n g a t e , equidim ension-

a l, o r even c o n i c a l . V a r i a t i o n i n s h a p e i s m a i n l y due t o

the d iffe re n c e in o r ig in of the o r i g in a l g ra in s (T hiel,

1935* p . 587 )* o r t h e s h a p e s may be due t o c o r r a s i o n d u r i n g


tran sp o rtatio n .

The c o a r s e r g r a i n s show a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f f r o s t i n g ,
which i s i n ag re em e n t w i t h th e ro u n d in g o f t h e c o a r s e r
26

grain s The w h i t e c o l o r d i s p l a y e d by t h e s a n d s t o n e i n f r e s h
e x p o s u r e s i s c a u s e d by t h e f r o s t i n g o f t h e g r a i n s .

In c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e f r o s t i n g , p i tt i n g is also


c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i s p l a y e d on t h e g r a i n s . The p i t s a r e
g e n e r a l l y s h a l l o w and b r o a d and may r e a c h d e p t h s o f 0 . 1 m i l

l i m e t e r on t h e l a r g e r g r a i n s . O c c a sio n a lly , th e p i t s a c t as

" f o o t h o l e s " , f o r g r a i n s t o i n t e r l o c k w i t h one a n o t h e r . The


O r i g i n o f t h e f r o s t i n g and p i t t i n g i s p r o b a b l y due t o g r a i n

i m p a c t by wind a c t i o n . -

S i l t H orizon

A s ilts to n e layer, l o c a t e d b elo w t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

S t. P e te r form ation, occurs alm ost c o n tin u o u s ly th ro u g h o u t

th e M etro p o litan a re a . The l a y e r v a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s f r o m a


few i n c h e s t o a s much a s s i x f e e t . T extural p ro p e rtie s of

t h e s i l t s t o n e a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t l a t e r a l l y ; h o w e v e r , t h e ma

t e r i a l i s f i n e e n ough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a s a n a q u i c l u d e .

The l a y e r r e p r e s e n t s a p e r i o d o f q u i e t s e d i m e n t a t i o n d u r i n g

the d e p o s itio n a l h i s t o r y of the form ation.

The Army C o r p s o f E n g i n e e r s s e c u r e d a c o r e d s a m p le of

t h e l a y e r d u r i n g t h e s i t e e x a m i n a t i o n o f Lock a n d Dam Number


1 on t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r , ; i n M i n n e a p o l i s . The h o r i z o n was

r e p o r t e d a s t h r e e f e e t o f s o f t l a m i n a t e d s h a l e and s i l t s t o n e ,

d ark gray i n c o lo r . An X - r a y d e f r a c t o m e t e r a n a l y s i s was

made o f t h e m a t e r i a l t o d e t e r m i n e t h e m i n e r a l o g y o f t h e c l a y

f r a c t i o n i n th e sam ple. A high c o n te n t o f i l l i t e was f o u n d


27

w i t h m i n o r a m o u n ts o f k a o l i n ! t e and o n l y a t r a c e o f q u a r t z .
A p e t r o g r a p h i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o a r s e r f r a c t i o n showed
t h e m a t e r i a l t o be composed o f q u a r t z , o r t h o c l a s e , m i c r o -
c l i n e , and s e r i c i t e g r a i n s .
i
G re en Sand H o r i z o n

F i v e t o f i f t e e n f e e t b elo w t h e Glenwood - S t . ' P e t e r

c o n t a c t , a c o n sp icu o u s e ig h t' in c h t h i c k l a y e r o f g re e n sand

c a n n o r m a l l y be o b s e r v e d i n f r e s h e x p o s u r e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e
Twin C i t y a r e a . Close ex am in atio n o f th e m a t e r i a l r e v e a ls a

m ottled t e x t u r e , c o n s i s t in g of sm a ll, i r r e g u l a r patches of

c l e a n q u a r t z o s e s a n d and q u a r t z o s e s a n d w i t h i t s in te rstice s

f i l l e d w ith a pale green c la y . The m a t e r i a l i s v e r y h a r d

when d r y and h a s t o be b r o k e n w i t h a hammer, when w e t t h e


m a t e r i a l s o f t e n s and shows p l a s t i c tendencies. An X - r a y

a n a l y s i s o f th e g re e n c l a y gave w e l l d e fin e d peaks f o r th e

m ineral i l l i t e .

The o r i g i n o f t h e m a t e r i a l - m a y be f r o m t h e o v e r l y i n g
Glenwood s h a l e . The c l a y p a r t i c l e s may h a v e b e e n t r a n s p o r t

ed down and a c c u m u l a t e d a t a p r e f e r r e d l e v e l b e c a u s e o f a
t e x t u r a l change i n th e s a n d s to n e . S in c e.stra tifica tio n

w i t h i n t h e l a y e r c a n n o t be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , t h i s a l s o m i g h t

i n d i c a t e t h a t th e c l a y i s a w e ath e re d p ro d u c t from d e t r i t a l

f e l d s p a r g r a i n s d e p o s i t e d n e a r t h e end o f t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f

the sandstone.
28

For e n g in e e rin g p u rp o se s5 t h i s m a t e r i a l should a t


l e a s t be c o n s i d e r e d , a v o i d e d , o r removed f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o r
t u n n e l i n g p r o j e c t s when e n c o u n t e r e d n e a r a s i t e . Even

though th e l a y e r i s th in , i t s hig h c la y c o n te n t can cause

s e ttle m e n t or sh e ar f a i l u r e problem s.

Shakonee D olom ite - S t . P e t e r S an d sto n e C o n ta c t

Only one l o c a l i t y i n t h e S t a t e o f M i n n e s o t a i s known

w h e re t h e S h a k o p e e - S t . P e t e r c o n t a c t i s e x p o s e d ( A u s t i n ,

1964). The o u t c r o p i s l o c a t e d o n e - t e n t h o f a m i l e n o r t h o f

t h e s o u t h b o r d e r o f S e c t i o n 25 i n S t a n t o n T ownship (112

N orth, 18 W est) and 200 f e e t n o r t h w e s t - o f t h e t o w n s h i p r o a d


i n Goodhue C o u n t y . The c o n t a c t i s e x p o s e d i n a r i v e r b l u f f ,

t h r e e f e e t a b o v e t h e p r e s e n t Cannon R i v e r .

The c o n t a c t i s s h a r p and c o n s p i c u o u s a n d c a n be c o n

sidered a disconform ity. The b r e a k i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a

generally h o riz o n ta l, but u n d u la tin g s u r f a c e , presum ably .

r i p p l e marked. The r i p p l e marks a r e composed o f a w e a t h e r

e d , s o f t s i l t y d o l o m i t e , and a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y two i n c h e s .
h i g h and o n e - h a l f t o two f e e t b e t w e e n c r e s t s . Im m ediately

above th e c o n t a c t a r e l e n s e s o f c o a r s e a n g u l a r q u a r t z sands

i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h b l a c k and r e d c l a y l e n s e s . P yrite c ry stals

are f i n e l y d issem inated throughout these le n s e s . Twelve

i n c h e s a b o v e t h e c o n t a c t a -t w e n t y ?-four i n c h h o r i z o n o f g r a y

s i l t y sand p r e d o m in a te s . Above t h i s z o n e , a n d e x p o s e d f o r
29

f o r t y f e e t upward i n t h e o u t c r o p , i s ty p ic a l clean S t. P eter

sandstone.

Glenwood S h a l e - S t . P e t e r S a n d s t o n e C o n t a c t

The Glenwood - S t . P e t e r c o n t a c t i s t r a n s i t i o n a l and


conform able. .The t r a n s i t i o n zone i s u s u a l l y t h r e e t o f o u r
f e e t t h i c k and g r a d e s upward f r o m a p u r e q u a r t 2rose s a n d s t o n e

t o a sandy s h a l e .
The Glenwood s h a l e , w h i c h i s n o r m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a s

b e i n g c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e P l a t t e v i l l e l i m e s t o n e , do es

c o n t a i n a low p e r c e n t o f o a l c i t e . An X - r a y a n a l y s i s showed

t h e s h a l e t o c o n t a i n m o s t l y q u a r t z w i t h m i n o r a m o u n ts o f i l -
\

lite , f e l d s p a r , and c a l c i t e

The s h a l e h a s b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e v e r a l s e t t l e

ment p r o b l e m s i n t h e C i t y o f S t . P aul, su g g e stin g t h a t the

s h a l e i s c o m p r e s s i b l e upon l o a d i n g . E x p erien ce has a ls o

shown t h e s h a l e i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o c a v i n g when e n c o u n t e r e d i n
tu n n els. T herefore, t h i s m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be a v o i d e d f o r

fo u n d a tio n use or tu n n e lin g u n le s s adequate su p p o rt i s


planned.

J o i n t i n g and F r a c t u r i n g

J o i n t i n g o f r o c k i n t h e Twin C i t y area, i s c o n s p i c u

o u sly displayed in th e P l a t t e v i l l e lim estone. The e x p o s e d

j o i n t s a r e p r o n o u n c e d , s y s t e m a t i c , and a r e t r a c e a b l e o v e r

ten s of y a r d s . They a r e n o r m a l l y v e r t i c a l , open f r a c t u r e s

which p e n e t r a t e t h e e n t i r e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e f o r m a t i o n b u t
30

a re term in ated a t the u n d erly in g s h a le . J o i n t w idths v a ry


f r o m l / l 6 o f a n i n c h t o t h r e e i n c h e s and a r e u s u a l l y f i l l e d

w ith g l a c i a l d e b r i s
J o in tin g in the S t. P e te r , though u n r e l a t e d t o

jo in t i n g in the P l a t t e v i l l e , is severe. In c o n tra s t, the

f r a c t u r e s i n t h e s a n d s t o n e show no p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n o r

spacing. The o n l y c o n s i s t e n t p r o p e r t y o f t h e j o i n t s i s t h a t

t h e i r p lan es dip v e r t i c a l l y o r n e ar v e r t i c a l ( 7 0 t o 90 d e

grees). When o b s e r v e d on t h e s u r f a c e , the j o i n t p lanes a re

t i g h t and f o l l o w i r r e g u l a r p a t h s . F i g u r e 11 r e p r e s e n t s

t h r e e l o c a t i o n s w h e r e j o i n t d i r e c t i o n s w ere m e a s u r e d . The
r o s e d i a g r a m s g r a p h i c a l l y show t h e number o f j o i n t s s t r i k i n g

in a p a rtic u la r d ire c tio n a t a s i t e . Ho c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n

s t r i k e d i r e c t i o n s c a n be made a t a n y o f t h e l o c a t i o n s .
The f i r s t two d i a g r a m s show j o i n t d i r e c t i o n s mea

s u r e d a t t h e M i n n e s o t a S i l i c a Company Q u a r r y . D i a g r a m one
rep re se n ts the P l a t t e v i l l e l i m e s t o n e , and t h e s e c o n d i s o f

the S t. P eter. V e ry l i t t l e s im ila r ity of jo in t d ire c tio n s

c a n be o b s e r v e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t j o i n t

ing in the S t. P e te r i s u n re la te d to j o in tin g in the P l a t t e

v i l l e except f o r the p o s s ib le causes f o r j o i n t i n g . I t can

f u r t h e r be s a i d t h a t e x i s t i n g o r b u r i e d d r a i n a g e s i n t h e r e

g i o n a r e n o t c o n t r o l l e d by j o i n t i n g i n t h e r o c k s .

The m a j o r i t y o f j o i n t s observed i n tu n n e ls u n d e r

ground a r e t i g h t , have r e g u l a r p l a n e s , dip a t high a n g le s,

and a r e r a n d o m l y o r i e n t a t e d . S p a c i n g o f t h e l a r g e r and more


N

20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20
Number of Joints Number of Joints
MINNESOTA SILICA CO. QUARRY MINNESOTA SILICA CO. QUARRY
(Plotteville limestone)

Number of Joints
RONDO ST. STORM SEWER, ST PAUL LEXINGTON AVE., NO. RIVER BLUFF, ST. PAUL
u>
ROSE DIAGRAMS SHOWING JOINT DIRECTIONS H
IN THE ST. PETER SANDSTONE
FIGURE II
32

p r o m i n e n t j o i n t s v a r i e s f r o m a few f e e t t o s e v e r a l h u n d r e d
feet. O ccasionally, two o r more h a v e b e e n known t o i n t e r
s e c t each o t h e r a t h ig h a n g le s c a u sin g a k e y sto n e e f f e c t i n

th e rook.
J o i n t s e n c o u n te re d underground a r e n o t alw ays r e c o g

n i z a b l e a f t e r th e y have been exposed u n le s s s lo u g h in g alo n g

th e planes a p p ears. The o b v i o u s j o i n t s a r e t h o s e w h ic h a r e

open and y i e l d w a t e r o r t i g h t j o i n t s whose p l a n e s h a v e b e e n

iro n s ta in e d or f i l l e d w ith a c la y m a te r ia l.
Gore d r i l l i n g t h e s a n d s t o n e t o l o c a t e j o i n t s i s u n

s a t i s f a c t o r y u n l e s s th e m a t e r i a l i s cemented enough t o a llo w


,i - ""
f o r good c o r e r e c o v e r y . G e o p h y s i c a l m eth o d s o f f i n d i n g

p la n e s o f weakness i s e q u a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y b ecau se th e
j o i n t s a re norm ally t i g h t . U n d o u b t e d l y , t h e m o st e f f e c t i v e

way t o p r e v e n t s t r u c t u r a l f a i l u r e , due t o j o i n t i n g , i s t o

ta k e p r e c a u tio n a r y measures d u rin g e x c a v a tio n . -

O c c a s i o n a l l y , some j o i n t s n e a r t h e t o p o f t h e f o r m a
t i o n a r e f o u n d t o be f i l l e d w i t h a brown c l a y m a t e r i a l An

X - r a y a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h e c l a y s t o be i l l i t e and m o n t -

m o rillo n ite. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e c l a y was d e r i v e d fr o m

t h e o v e r l y i n g Glenwood s h a l e , f o r t h e main c l a y m i n e r a l i n

the sh ale is i l l i t e . I f clay f i l l e d j o i n t s a re encountered


during e x c a v a tio n o f the sa n d sto n e , f a i l u r e o f te n occurs

a l o n g t h e s e p l a n e s o f w e a k n e s s due t o t h e low i n t e r n a l f r i c
tio n .
33

J o i n t s i n t h e s a n d s to n e were c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t o f
p r o b a b l y b o t h t e n s i l and s h e a r i n g s t r e s s e s . The t y p e o f

j o i n t i n g s u g g e s t s many s m a l l s c a l e r e p e a t e d s t r e s s e s , s u c h
a s e a r t h t i d e s ' , e a r t h q u a k e s h o c k s , a t m o s p h e r i c m ovem ents,

i s o s t a t i c a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e b a s i n , and l o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g

of g lacial ice.
V e ry few o f t h e j o i n t s h a v e b e e n bonded by a c e m e n t

ing a g e n t. T h e r e f o r e , t h e f r i c t i o n betw een g r a i n s a lo n g th e


p l a n e s and t h e l a t e r a l c o n f i n e m e n t o f t h e j o i n t s a r e t h e

f o r c e s t h a t r e s t r i c t any s h e a r i n g a c t i o n a lo n g t h e p l a n e s .

Once a j o i n t i s e x p o s e d , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t i t may

have l o s t i t s c o n f i n i n g p r e s s u r e and i s t h e r e f o r e s u s c e p t i
b le to f a i l u r e .

Lamar (19 2 8 ) d e s c r i b e s s h e e t i n g i n t h e S t . P e t e r

s a n d s t o n e a s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d on b o t h w e a t h e r e d and f r e s h l y

exposed s u r f a c e s . The s h e e t i n g p l a n e s a r e i n c l i n e d a t s t e e p

a n g l e s and s t r i k e p a r a l l e l t o t h e f a c e o f a n e x p o s u r e .

Lamar s t a t e d t h a t t h e phenomenon i s p r o b a b l y due t o i r r e g u

la ritie s i n t h e b e d d i n g o r j u s t t y p i c a l w e a t h e r i n g e f f e c t s of
a homogeneous r o c k . However, p e r h a p s a n e v en more i m p o r t a n t

cause of s h e e tin g i n th e sand sto n e i s p re s s u re r e le a s e in

t h e r o c k a d j a c e n t t o an e x p o s u r e . Assuming t h e r o c k a t a n

o u tcro p has l o s t i t s t r i a x i a l confinem ent, then e l a s t i c r e

l e a s e t o a r e a s o f l o w e r p r e s s u r e , w h ic h would be t h e e x p o s e d

f a c e , may c a u s e t e n s i o n a l f o r c e s b a c k o f t h e f a c e . T h ese

s t r e s s e s would r e s u l t i n d e v e l o p m e n t o f f r a c t u r e s , strik in g
34

FIGURE 12. Unprotected river bluff below Soldier's Home, Minnea


polis (1932). Exposure of Platteville limestone, Glen -
wood shale, and St. Peter sandstone.
35

FIGURE 13. Concrete crib retaining wall built a g a i n s t river bluff


below Soldier's Home to prevent s p a l li n g of the
sandstone.
36

p a r a l l e l t o t h e omtorop* F r o s t wedging* g r a v i t y * and f l o w -


a g e o f w a t e r would c a u s e e n l a r g m e n t o f t h e f r a c t u r e s * and
e v e n t u a l l y l a r g e b l o c k s o f s a n d s t o n e would be f r e e d f ro m t h e

outcrop.

S a n d s t o n e Caves .

D uring c o n s t r u c t i o n of u t i l i t y tu n n els i n the S t.

P e t e r san dstone* s e v e r a l n a t u r a l caves have been e n c o u n t e r

ed. The c a v e s a r e i r r e g u l a r i n s h a p e and v a r y i n s i z e . In


e v ery i n s t a n c e th e y have been found n e a r th e to p of t h e f o r

m atio n * and t h e P l a t t e v i l l e l i m e s t o n e was a c t i n g a s a r o o f

rock f o r th e openings. The c a v e w a l l s a r e n o r m a l l y v e r t i

c a l * and t h e f l o o r s a r e l a d e n w i t h r u b b l e . No n a t u r a l e n

t r a n c e s have been found t o th e caves w ith th e e x c e p t i o n o f

one i n S t . . P a u l ; however* a l l t h e c a v e s l o c a t e d t h u s ' f a r a r e

l o c a t e d n e a r one o f t h e p r e s e n t r i v e r c h a n n e l s .

Poor c e m e n ta tio n o r m ec h an ica l bonding o f th e s a n d

s to n e i n th e u p p er p o r t i o n of th e fo rm a tio n has been th e


cause f o r th e o ccurrence of the cav es. W a t e r e v i d e n t l y had

th e o p p o r tu n ity t o flow alo n g j o i n t s w ith s u f f i c i e n t h y


d r a u l i c g r a d i e n t t o remove l a r g e vo lu m es o f s a n d . O utlets

t o a r i v e r m ust h a v e e x i s t e d and l a t e r b a c k f i l l e d (S c h w a r tz *
1936* p . 4 6 ) .

The l a r g e cave* l o c a t e d i n downtown M i n n e a p o l i s * r e

q u i r e d r e i n f o r c i n g due t o h e a v y s t r u c t u r e s b u i l d d i r e c t l y

over the cave. C o n c r e t e and b r i c k p i e r s and b e a r i n g w a l l


37

were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p l a c e d i n t h e o p e n in g to h e l p d i s t r i b u t e

th e o v e rly in g w eight ev en ly . F i g u r e 1% shows t h e c o n f i g u r a


t i o n and l o c a t i o n o f t h e c a v e . The c a v e h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d

f o r u s e a s a p a r k i n g , ramp o r f a l l - o u t s h e l t e r .

O rig in of th e S t, P e t e r Sandstone

P r o b a b l y t h e most d i s p u t e d p r o b l e m o f t h e S t . P e t e r

is i ts o rig in . The p r e s e n t , accepted th eo ry i s t h a t the

s a n d s t o n e was d e p o s i t e d i n a m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t . Mew e v i
d e n c e o f t h e b i m o d a l g r a i n d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e S t . P e t e r may

g iv e a b e t t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g to t h e f o r m a t i o n s d e p o s i t i o n a l

h isto ry .
H older (1963, p. 3) s t a t e d t h a t th e sand g r a in s e x

h i b i t f a r too high a degree of rounding, s o r t i n g , and p i t


t i n g t o be c r e a t e d by n o r m a l a c t i o n o f w a t e r . T herefore,

one m i g h t c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e s a n d was w in d b l o w n , a t l e a s t i n

its i n i t i a l phase o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I f a l a n d mass o f c o n

s i d e r a b l e s i z e w e re t o u n d e r g o wind e r o s i o n , t h e g r a i n s f r o m

which, a f t e r bein g s h i f t e d a bout f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e tim e,


would h a v e become w e l l r o u n d e d o r would h a v e d i s i n t e g r a t e d

to a very f i n e m a t e r i a l. Assuming a g r a d u a l l y t r a n s g r e s s i n g

s e a , t h e g r a i n s would h a v e b e e n d e p o s i t e d i n t h e w a t e r a d j a

cen t to the c o a s t. T h u s , t h e m a r i n e d e p o s i t i o n a l t h e o r y and

th e e o lia n g r a in rounding th e o ry a re both s a t i s f i e d . Today

a s i m i l a r type o f d e p o s i t i o n a l environm ent e x i s t s a lo n g th e

n o r t h e r n c o a s t o f th e Libyan D e s e r t .
NATURAL SANDSTONE CAVE, MINNEAPOLIS

/--> x

CAVE LOCATION

Brick or Concrete
Piers
Broken off old
r artesianwell

Bearing
8 vi
Retaining Si
Walls

'Entrance

Scale l"=80'

CAVE CONFIGURATION
FIGURE 14
39

A f t e r d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e Sh a k o p e e d o l o m i t e i n O r d o

v i c i a n t i m e , t h e r e was a p e r i o d o f u p l i f t f o l l o w e d by e x t e n
s i v e e r o s i o n on t h e d o l o m i t e s u r f a c e . A tra n s g re ss in g sea

a d v a n c e d o v e r t h e l a n d mass and d e p o s i t e d t h e S t . P e t e r .
T h i s s e a must h a v e drowned t h e s o u r c e a r e a o f t h e s a n d s t o n e
before re g re ss in g . E r o s i o n , o f p r e s u m a b l y t h e same l a n d

mass t h a t s u p p l i e d t h e s a n d , now b e g a n s u p p l y i n g t h e m a t e r i
a l f o r t h e Glenwood s h a l e , P l a t t e v i l l e l i m e s t o n e , and

D e c o r a h s h a l e b e f o r e the. s e a c o m p l e t e l y r e g r e s s e d .
The s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e S t . P e t e r h a s n o t b e e n

d e f i n i t e l y recognized. Many f e e l t h a t t h e s a n d g r a i n s , due

t o t h e i r c h a r a c t e r , w e r e d e r i v e d t h r o u g h a. m u l t i c y c l e p r o

cess. T h i s would mean t h a t t h e g r a i n s o r i g i n a t e d f r o m a

q u a rtz r ic h rook. The g r a i n s w e re e r o d e d , t r a n s p o r t e d , and

d e p o s i t e d a s a s e d i m e n t , t h e n e r o d e d . a g a i n and r e d e p o s i t e d ,
perhaps s e v e r a l t im e s . I t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h e sa n d
c o u l d ha v e b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m o l d e r f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e s e c -

tio n , s u c h a s t h e J o r d a n , Mt. Sim on, o r H i n c k l e y s a n d s t o n e s ,

a l l o f w h ic h a r e somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d -

stone.

L o c a t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e a r e a f o r t h e s a n d was p r o b

a b ly to th e n o r t h , i n th e Canadian S h ie ld a r e a . T h i s was
o b v i o u s l y a l a n d mass o f e x t e n s i v e s i z e i n p a s t g e o l o g i c
i
tim e. E n v i r o n m e n t a l and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g d e p o s i

tio n of th e S t. P e te r a re a ls o not thoroughly understood b e

cause of th e n e a r absence o f f o s s i l s in the fo rm atio n . Only


#0

a few f o s s i l fo r m s o f p e l e c y p o d s , g a s t r o p o d s , and c e p h a l o

poda h a v e b e e n f o u n d n e a r D a y t o n ' s B l u f f i n S t P a u l The

S t P e t e r was n o t a s a t i s f a c t o r y m edia f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n

of fo ssilsc
HYDROLOGIC ASPECTS OF THE S T , PETER SANDSTONE

The S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e h a s a h i g h p o r o s i t y a s a r e
s u l t o f i t s . h i g h d e g r e e o f s o r t i n g and t h e a b s e n c e o f a c e

m e n t i n g a g e n t t o f i l l t h e i n t e r s t i t i a l s p a c e s b e tw e e n

g rain s. Kamb (1 9 3 2 ) r a n t e n p o r o s i t y t e s t s from specim ens

c o l l e c t e d f ro m s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .

P o r o s i t i e s r a n g e d f r o m 27 t o 3 1 ; p e r c e n t w i t h a n a v e r a g e p o r

o s i t y o f 28.3 p e r c e n t . The t e s t s w e re made by t h e i m m e r s i o n


method u s i n g a c e t y l e n e t e t r a c h l o r i d e . The c o n s i s t e n c y o f
t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s t h e p o r o s i t y o f t h e s a n d s t o n e t o be

f a i r l y , uniform .

The s a n d s t o n e h a s low p e r m e a b i l i t y , w h i c h i s e x p e c t

ed f o r a f i n e s a n d s t o n e h a v i n g a n a v e r a g e e f f e c t i v e s i z e o f

0.122 m i l l i m e t e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o B u c h an a n ( l 9 3 7 ) a v e r y
f i n e sand t o a s i l t s i z e m a t e r i a l sh ould have a p e r m e a b i l i t y
^r7
r a n g i n g f r o m 10 t o 10 ' c e n t i m e t e r s p e r s e c o n d . Perm eabil

i t y t e s t r e s u l t s r u n on t h e S t , " P e t e r , by v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a
t i o n s , have n o t been c o n s i s t e n t L aboratory t e s t s i n d ic a te
-3
a n a v e r a g e p e r m e a b i l i t y o f 3 . 5 x 10 c e n t i m e t e r s p e r second.

F o r t h e d i s t u r b e d s a n d a v a l u e o f 1 . 0 x 10 c a n be c o n s i d e r
ed a v e r a g e (C o rp s o f E n g i n e e r s , 1938).

Much d i s c r e t i o n s h o u l d be u s e d when a p p l y i n g t h e c o

e f f i c i e n t o f p e r m e a b i l i t y , d e te rm in e d from l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s ,

to a c tu a l f i e l d problem s. Many v a r i a b l e s e x i s t i n t h e f i e l d
4l
%2

t h a t c a n n o t be d u p l i c a t e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . F o r example.
J o i n t i n g i n th e sa n d sto n e w i l l g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e th e flow o f
su b su rfac e w ater; t h i s f a c t o r i s d i f f i c u l t to reproduce in

lab o rato ry t e s ts .
L e i s c h ( 1 9 6 4 ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e most e f f e c t i v e method

f o r d e te rm in in g th e r a t e o f flow of w a te r th ro u g h an a q u i f e r
i s c o n t r o l l e d pumping t e s t s i n t h e f i e l d . In t e s ts p e r
f o rm ed by L e i s c h ( 1 9 6 2 , p p . 9 - 1 0 ) , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f t r a n s -
1
m issib ility f o r t h e s a n d s t o n e was d e t e r m i n e d by means o f

pumping t e s t s . I n c a l c u l a t i n g the c o e f f i c i e n t o f p e rm e a b il

ity , L eisc h found t h a t th e p e r m e a b i l i t y o f th e S t . P e t e r

s a n d s t o n e i s h i g h e r t h a n p r e v i o u s l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s have

shown. R e s u l t s o f t h r e e t e s t l o c a t i o n s a r e g i v e n b e lo w .

Table 2. C o efficien t of T ran sm issib ility

C o e ffic ie n t of C o efficien t of
Test L ocation T ran sm issib ility P erm eab ility
5 t h Ave. b e t w e e n 1 8 t h 20.800 g p d / f t 9 . gxlO"^ c m / s e c .
& 1 9 t h A v e s . , M pls.
9 th S t . betw een 13th 20.800 g p d / f t . 5 .5x10 ^ o m /sec.
& l 4 t h A v e s . , M pls.
L o rin g Park betw een 22,400 g p d / f t . 6 . 6 x 1 0 cm /sec.
1 4 t h & 1 5 t h S t s . . M-ols.

The r e s u l t s o f t h e pumping t e s t s g i v e n a b o v e . a r e

^The c o e f f i c i e n t o f t r a n s m i s s i b i l i t y i s d e f i n e d a s :
The q u a n t i t y o f w a t e r , i n g a l l o n s p e r d a y , t h a t i s t r a n s m i t
te d under a u n i t h y d ra u lic g r a d i e n t , through a v e r t i c a l
s t r i p o f a q u i f e r t h a t i s one f o o t w id e and e x t e n d s t h e f u l l '
th ic k n e s s of the a q u i f e r . The u n i t s o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t a r e
g iv e n i n g a l l o n s p e r day p e r f o o t .

The c o e f f i c i e n t o f p e r m e a b i l i t y i s e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e d
by d i v i d i n g t h e t r a n s m i s s i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t by t h e s a t u r a t
ed t h i c k n e s s o f t h e a q u i f e r .
43

very c o n s i s t e n t , L eisch concludes t h a t the o v e r a l l t r a n s -


m i s s i b i l i t y of the S t. P e te r sandstone is rem arkably u n i

form .
GENERAL GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS IN THE.
ST, PETER SANDSTONE.

The n o r m a l l y s a t u r a t e d S t P e t e r s a n d s t o n e i n c l u d e s

b o t h c o n f i n e d and u n c o n f i n e d w a t e r . As p r e v i o u s l y men
t i o n e d , t h e Twin C i t y a r e a i slo cated in a s t r u c t u r a l basin
1
which has c r e a t e d a n a t u r a l g r a d i e n t i n th e f o r m a t i o n . Ar

t e s ia n w ater i s l o c a l l y f o u n d w h e re t h e S t . P e t e r i s c a p p e d
w i t h t h e i m p e r v i o u s Glenwood s h a l e . However, u n c o n f i n e d

w a t e r n o r m a l l y e x i s t s due t o t h e l a c k o f a n a d e q u a t e h e ad i n

the form ation. T h i s l a c k i s due t o h e a v y pumpage f ro m w e l l s


i n t h e s a n d s t o n e , d i s c h a r g e i n t o u n l i n e d s e w e r t u n n e l s , and

d i s c h a r g e from s p r i n g s a lo n g th e r i v e r s A l t h o u g h most o f

t h e drawdown i n t h e f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n c a u s e d a s a r e s u l t o f

l e a k a g e i n t o the. b u r i e d c h a n n e l s t h a t h a v e c u t t h e s a n d s t o n e
and t o e x c e s s i v e pumping o f t h e P r a i r i e du C h i e n and J o r d a n

Form ations, b o t h o f w h ic h r e c e i v e t h e i r w a t e r f r o m t h e S t .

P eter.
Over t h e p a s t few y e a r s d i s c h a r g e f r o m t h e s a n d

s t o n e has exceeded i t s recharge r a t e . T his has r e s u l t e d i n

a s l o w l y d e c l i n i n g w a t e r t a b l e and a d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f c o n

fin ed w ater a t the top of th e form ation.

S l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n l i t h o l o g y o f th e sa n d sto n e such

as g r a i n s i z e , bedding, c em en tatio n , or grain o rie n ta tio n


has c r e a t e d l o c a l a r t e s i a n c o n d it i o n s a t v a rio u s l e v e l s
44
45

w ith in the fo rm atio n . The a f o r e m e n t i o n e d s i l t s t o n e h o r i z o n ,

f o r e x a m p l e , c a n be c o n s i d e r e d an a q u i c l u d e and h a s c r e a t e d

lo c a liz e d a r t e s i a n w ater.

In the m e tro p o lita n a re a w ater i s fed to a l l the


a q u i f e r s above th e S t . L aw rence F o r m a t i o n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e
g lacial d rift. The d r i f t i s c h a r g e d f r o m p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n

th e l o c a l upland a r e a s . W a t e r n o t o n l y moves l a t e r a l l y i n t o
the S t. P e t e r F o rm a tio n from t h e d r i f t , b u t a l s o downward

through j o i n t s in th e P l a t t e v i l l e lim e s to n e . M in o r am ounts

of w ater i n f i l t r a t e th e s a n d s to n e d i r e c t l y from o u t c r o p s .

Movement o f w a t e r t h r o u g h t h e s a n d s t o n e i s lam inar

and m o s t l y downward. S m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s o f w a t e r move

l a t e r a l l y toward t h e m ajor d r a i n a g e s . The d r a i n a g e s , i n

some a r e a s , w h i c h c u t t h e s a n d s t o n e a r e low e n ough t o c a u s e


a h y d r a u l i c g r a d i e n t toward th e r i v e r s . Where t h e S t .

P e t e r s a n d s to n e i s exposed a lo n g th e r i v e r b l u f f s , the s a n d
sto n e i s u s u a lly dew atered. This c o n d i t i o n n o rm a lly e x i s t s

f o r s e v e r a l hundred y a rd s back i n t o th e b l u f f s .

Abundant w a t e r i s a v a i l a b l e from t h e s a n d s t o n e p r o

vid in g w ells a re p ro p e rly developed. F or high y ie ld w ells

a s much h o l e i s l e f t open i n t h e s a n d s t o n e a s p o s s i b l e . If

th e sa n d sto n e i s found to d i s i n t e g r a t e e a s i l y u n d e r normal


pum ping , w e l l s c r e e n s and g r a v e l p a c k i n g a r e e m p l o y e d . Sand

i n t r u s i o n i n t o w e l l s i n t h e S t . P e t e r i s a common o c c u r

rence . N o r m a l l y , w e l l s t h a t c a n n o t be c l e a n e d o u t and t h e
sandstone s t a b i l i z e d , h a v e t o be d r i v e n i n t o t h e P r a i r i e dm

C h i e n o r J o r d a n F o r m a t i o n and t h e S t . P e t e r c a s e d o f f .

The M i n n e s o t a S t a t e B o a r d o f H e a l t h r e s t r i c t s the

u se o f w a te r e x t r a c t e d from th e S t . P e te r to i n d u s t r i a l use,
due t o c o n t a m i n a t i o n . The c o n t a m i n a t i o n i s c a u s e d by l e a k
a g e f r o m s a n i t a r y s e w e r t u n n e l s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n and i n f i l

t r a t i o n o f sewa ge f r o m o u t d o o r s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s in areas

o u tsid e the m etro p o litan a re a . W ater from th e S t . P eter is


used m ostly f o r a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g pu rp o ses f o r l a r g e b u i l d

i n g s b e c a u s e o f t h e w a t e r ' s low t e m p e r a t u r e . ' D u r i n g t h e h o t


summer mon ths h e a v y pumpage f r o m t h e a q u i f e r h a s c a u s e d a s

much a s t h i r t e e n f e e t o f f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e w a t e r t a b l e .

U n fo rtu n a te ly , the w ater used f o r a i r c o n d itio n i s not r e

c l a i m e d and i s t h e r e f o r e w asted. Summer drawdown o f t h e

w a t e r t a b l e h a s c a u s e d w e l l s t o go d r y t o p r i v a t e owners i n

t h e o u t l y i n g a r e a s o f t h e Twin C i t y . However, t h e drawdown

has been b e n e f i c i a l i n a l l e v i a t i n g d e w a te r in g o p e r a t i o n s f o r

c o n s t r u c t i o n o f u t i l i t y and s e w e r t u n n e l s i n t h e s a n d s t o n e .

L e is c h (1962, p. 1 7 ) has s t a t e d t h a t s i n c e th e S t .

P e t e r i s a homogeneous a q u i f e r , w e l l s u s e d f o r d e w a t e r i n g

a r e a s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c a n be p r o p e r l y a r r a n g e d t o o b t a i n d e

s i r e d drawdown w i t h maximum e f f i c i e n c y . T h e o r e t i c a l draw


down c u r v e s f o r a n y number o f w e l l s pumping a t a g i v e n r a t e

c a n be e s t i m a t e d by means o f pumping t e s t s . C a lc u la tio n of

t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f t r a n s m i s s i b i l i t y and s t o r a g e , at a
H-7

p articu lar s ite , c a n i n d i c a t e optimum s p a c i n g and y i e l d o f


dew atering w e l l s
O t h e r m eth o d s o f d e t e r m i n i n g b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s i n
the S t. P e t e r s a n d s t o n e c a n be e m p l o y e d . M athem atical a n a l

yses a re f e a s i b l e but a re only b e n e f i c i a l f o r sim ple boun

dary c a s e s . G r a p h ic a l m ethods, such as e l e c t r i c a n a l o g ie s

and image w e l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , ha v e g i v e n r e a s o n a b l e two

dim ensional r e s u l t s . However, t o a c c u r a t e l y l o c a t e d e w a t e r


ing w e lls , w ell p o in ts , drainage g a l l e r i e s , and u n d e r d r a i n s

w i t h two d i m e n s i o n a l s o l u t i o n s , i s d i f f i c u l t . L e isc h 's


method o f u s i n g pumping t e s t s i n t h e f i e l d i s a t r u e t h r e e

d i m e n s i o n a l p r o c e d u r e and w i l l g i v e t h e most r e l i a b l e r e

s u l t s f o r h y d r a u lic flow c o n d itio n s i n th e S t . P eter sand

stone.

I f t u r b u l e n t w a t e r i s a l l o w e d t o come i n c o n t a c t
w ith a f r e s h s u rfa c e of the sa n d sto n e , d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of th e

sandstone i s u s u a lly ra p id . T h e r e f o r e , w a t e r s h o u l d be c u t

o ff before i t re a c h e s th e boundary w ith th e use of w e ll -

p o i n t s , deep w e l l s , u n d e r d r a i n s , o r by g r o u t i n g i f p o s s i b l e .

E x p erien ce has i n d i c a t e d t h a t i f w a ter i n th e s a n d


s t o n e c a n be removed w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g t h e g r a n u l a r s t r u c

t u r e o f t h e s a n d , a h i g h e r s t a b i l i t y o f the. m a t e r i a l w i l l be

obtained than i f i t i s l e f t s a tu ra te d . I f w a t e r i s removed

t o o r a p i d l y f r o m t h e zone o f d e w a t e r i n g , s l i g h t a g i t a t i o n

and r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s a n d g r a i n s may r e s u l t . This


48'

c o n d i t i o n may c a u s e a l o s s i n p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h t o t h e s u r
rounding sandstone ( S c h w a r t z , 196 4 )
The g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g c o n s t r u c
tio n a c tiv itie s below t h e w a t e r t a b l e i s h e a v y d i s c h a r g e o f

w a t e r f ro m f i s s u r e s The f i s s u r e s c a n be v i s u a l i z e d a s an

i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g s y s t e m , w h i c h d raw s w a t e r f r o m a l a r g e a r e a

i n . t h e s a n d s t o n e and t u r b u l e n t l y d i s c h a r g e s t h e w a t e r i n t o a

tu n n el o r excavation. I f w a te r c o n tin u e s to flow t u r b u l e n t -

l y f o r any l e n g t h o f tim e , e n la rg e m e n t o f th e f i s s u r e s w i l l
resu lt, f o l l o w e d by t h e d a n g e r o f c a v e - i n s . N orm ally, the
d i s c h a r g e from f i s s u r e s i s heavy a t f i r s t as a cone o f d e

pression is c reated . I n tim e t h e flow d e c r e a s e s c o n s i d e r

a b l y and may e v e n s t o p . The f i s s u r e s t h a t show no d e c r e a s e

i n flow w ith tim e p resu m ab ly a r e o b t a i n i n g t h e i r w a t e r from

a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e f ro m t h e e x p o s u r e . I t is p o ssible

t h a t t h e f i s s u r e s may i n t e r s e c t a s u r f a c e s o u r c e o f w a t e r o r

a perched w a ter t a b l e . I f d isch arg in g f is s u r e s a re encount

e r e d d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n and e r o s i o n c a n be k e p t t o a minimum

a t th e opening, t h i s may p r o v e t o b e an e x c e l l e n t means t o


r a p i d l y lower th e w a te r t a b l e i n th e v i c i n i t y . A close ob

s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g w a t e r t a b l e s h o u l d be made d u r

ing t h i s o p e r a t i o n t o make s u r e t h e a r e a i s a c t u a l l y being .


dew atered.

D ew atering o p e ra tio n s f o r tu n n e l c o n s t r u c t i o n vary

f r o m l o c a t i o n t o l o c a t i o n and d epend on t h e w a t e r t a b l e l e v

e l , p e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e s a n d s t o n e , and t h e number o f j o i n t s
49

bearing w ater. S a tu r a te d sandstone u s u a lly w a rran ts the use


o f h i g h y i e l d w e l l s d r i l l e d from t h e s u r f a c e p r i o r t o t u n n e l
co n stru ctio n . When a t u n n e l i s d r i v e n n e a r t h e w a t e r t a b l e

surface, p e rf o r a te d pipe d ra in s b u ried beneath th e in v e r t

a r e employ ed t o remove u n w a n te d w a t e r .

L e i s c h ( 1 9 6 2 , p . 12) made s e v e r a l pumping t e s t s t o

d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o p e r s p a c i n g and y i e l d o f d e w a t e r i n g w e l l s .

An i n v e r t o f a p r o p o s e d t u n n e l i n t h e S t . P e t e r was t o be
l o c a t e d t w e n t y t o t h i r t y - f i v e f e e t b elo w t h e p i e z o m e t r i c o r
w ater p ressu re s u rfa c e . The t e s t s i n v o l v e d a g r o u p o f f o u r

pumping w e l l s , d i s c h a r g i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a minimum o f 600

g a llo n s p e r m inute. The w e l l s w e re s p a c e d a l o n g t h e t u n n e l

a l i g n m e n t a t 1 , 0 0 0 and 1 , 2 0 0 f o o t i n t e r v a l s and a p p r o x i m a t e

l y 75 f e e t b elo w t h e t u n n e l i n v e r t . A t r o u g h was c r e a t e d on

t h e p i e z o m e t r i c s u r f a c e t h a t p r o d u c e d t h e r e q u i r e d drawdown.

When f e w e r t h a n f o u r w e l l s w e r e o p e r a t i n g , th e d e s ir e d draw

down was n o t o b t a i n e d . More t h a n f o u r w e l l s o p e r a t i n g c r e

a t e d a l o n g e r t r o u g h b u t d i d n o t i n c r e a s e t h e drawdown

w ith in the sp read . The drawdown e s t i m a t e s w e r e b a s e d on t h e

a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s a n d s t o n e i s homogeneous and r e c e i v e s no

recharge. To c o m p e n s a t e f o r r e c h a r g e , e a c h w e l l was d e

s i g n e d t o y i e l d 900 g a l l o n s p e r m i n u t e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r
spread.

D u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Twin C i t y L ock and Dam,

c e m e n t g r o u t was u s e d t o s e a l d i s c h a r g i n g f i s s u r e s

( S c h w a r t z , 1938 , p . 58). The g r o u t i n g was done i n s t a g e s .


50

a l l o w i n g t h e g r o u t t o s e t b e f o r e more was f o r c e d i n t o t h e
o p e n i n g s 5 o t h e r w i s e t o o l a r g e a q u a n t i t y o f s l u r r y would be

req u ired The method p r o v e d e f f e c t i v e , b u t a c o m p l e t e s e a l

was n o t o b t a i n e d
The C i t y o f M i n n e a p o l i s was a l s o s u c c e s s f u l i n s e a l

in g f i s s u r e s behind sewer tu n n e l l i n i n g s w ith th e use o f c e

ment and b e n t o n i t e g r o u t s
The J o o s t e n p r o c e s s o f c h e m i c a l g r o u t i n g was u s e d t o

c o n s t r u c t a g r o u t c u r t a i n f o r t h e l o w e r S t . An th o n y F a l l s

Lock and Dam. Pip es, were j e t t e d down t o a d e s i r e d d e p t h ,

and t h e c h e m i c a l s w e r e i n j e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e p i p e s a s t h e y

w e re j a c k e d up o u t o f t h e h o l e s . The p u r p o s e o f s o l i d i f y i n g

t h e s a n d s t o n e was t o p r e v e n t s e e p a g e o f w a t e r u n d e r t h e c o f

f e r d a m and t o s e a l j o i n t s and b e d d i n g p l a n e s .
P r e s s u r e g r o u t i n g t e s t s i n t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d s to n e
and u s in g AM-955 ( n i t r i l o t r i s p i o n a m i d ) chem ical g r o u t , have
been conducted. The t e s t s were made to d eterm in e t h e p o t e n - .
t i a l o f che m ic al g r o u t t o be used i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e
Upper Locks a t S t . Anthony F a l l s (Corps of E n g i n e e r s , 1957)
A one s h o t p r o c e s s was used w ith i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e s r a n g in g
from t h i r t y - f i v e t o f o r t y - f i v e pounds p e r s q u a r e i n c h . Pres
s u r e s above f o r t y - f i v e pounds caused a te m p e r a tu r e r i s e and
a q u ic k p o l y m e r i z a t i o n of t h e c h e m ic a ls .
D e n s i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e i n j e c

t i o n o f AM-955^ i n d i c a t e d v e r y l i t t l e change. Only a s m a l l


q u a n tity o f g ro u t p e n e tra te d th e pore spaces of the
51

sandstone. I t was o r i g i n a l l y t h o u g h t t h a t t h e c h e m i c a l

g r o u t would p e n e t r a t e t h e s a n d s t o n e i n a u n i f o r m , s p h e r i c a l

p a t t e r n away f r o m t h e i n j e c t i o n p o i n t . In stead , the grout

f l o w e d l a t e r a l l y a l o n g u n c e m e n t e d f i s s u r e s and s o f t l a y e r s

of sandstone. The s e a l i n g o f t h e b e d d i n g p l a n e s and j o i n t s


was t h e main o b j e c t i v e o f t h e g r o u t i n g work n e e d e d f o r t h e
c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t , and t h e r e s u l t s w e re c o n s i d e r e d f a v o r

ab le. However, t h e g r o u t was n o t u s e d b e c a u s e i t was b e


l i e v e d t h a t i t would become i n e f f e c t i v e i f i t w e r e t o d r y

out under a f lu c t u a t i n g w ater s u rfa c e . On a c o s t e s t i m a t e


t h e g r o u t i n g metho d would h a v e s a v e d $ 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 o v e r t h e u s e

of sheet p ilin g fo r th is p ro je c t i f th e g r o u t had been e f


fectiv e. The c o s t o f c h e m i c a l s o l i d i f i c a t i o n i s a b o u t 0 . 6
a s much a s t h e c o s t o f a s h e e t p i l i n g c u t o f f .

F o r deep v e r t i c a l s h a f t s where a h ig h i n f lo w of

w ater is a n tic ip a te d , f r e e z i n g m eth o d s may p r o v e s a t i s f a c

to ry to tem p o rarily se a l o ff the w ater. The method i n v o l v e s


c i r c u l a t i n g a cold b rin e s o l u t i o n through c l o s e l y spaced

p i p e s a r o u n d t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e p r o p o s e d e x c a v a t i o n and t o

a depth of th e proposed s h a f t d e p th . D u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n and

c o n s t r u c t i o n th e w a te r i n . t h e s a n d sto n e w i l l rem ain f r o z e n .

A f t e r t h e s h a f t h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d and l i n e d , the process


c a n be d i s c o n t i n u e d and t h e i c e a l l o w e d t o thaw ( L e g g e t ,

1962). Due t o t h e e x p a n s i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f w a t e r upo n f r e e z

i n g , s t r u c t u r a l r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s a n d g r a i n s may r e s u l t

and c a u s e l o s s o f s t r e n g t h t o t h e s a n d s t o n e i n t h e i m m e d i a t e
. . 52
v i c i n i t y of the ex ca v atio n . In a d d itio n , as soon as th e i c e
t h a w s , a h e ad o f w a t e r w i l l e x i s t on t h e l i n i n g and must be

c o n sid ered i n the desig n of th e l i n i n g . T h e r e a r e no r e


p o r t s o f t h i s method h a v i n g b e e n u s e d t-o c o n t r o l w a t e r i n
the fo rm ation. This i s p r o b a b ly b e ca u se t h e p r o c e s s i s
c o s t l y and c a n n o t be u s e d w h e re s u b s u r f a c e w a t e r i s c o n t i n u

a l l y flow ing.
W a t e r i n t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e i s one o f t h e main

f a c t o r s t h a t h a s and w i l l c a u s e many e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s .

A thorough stu d y o f th e e x i s t i n g h y d ro lo g ic c o n d itio n s a t a


s i t e m u s t be c o n d u c t e d i n a d v a n c e o f a n y e x c a v a t i o n o r c o n

s t r u c ti o n p r o je c t in t h is form ation.
ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF THE ST..PETER SANDSTONE

P re v io u s Engineering; S t u d i e s

Numerous p r i v a t e and c i v i l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e c o n

t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o n a r r o w i n g down t h e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o p e r

tie s of the sandstone. Perhaps th e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t should

r e c e i v e t h e m o st r e c o g n i t i o n i s t h e U. 3., C orps o f E n g i

neers. P r e v i o u s t o c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Upper Locks a t S t .

An th o n y F a l l s 5 an e x t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t i o n and t e s t i n g p r o g r a m
was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g t h e S t .

P e t e r as a s u i t a b l e fo u n d a tio n m a te r ia l f o r th e lo c k s . Many

o f t h e t e s t r e s u l t s f r o m t h e r e p o r t a r e i n c l u d e d on t h e f o l

lowing p a g e s.

R e c e n t e x p l o r a t i o n and t e s t i n g h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d ,

and c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e s e l a t e r w o rk s a r e r e m a r k a b l y s i m i

lar. In p a r t , t h i s may be due t o s i m i l a r t e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s


or s i m i l a r stu d y approaches.

A ctual e x p erien c e d u rin g c o n s t r u c t io n p r o j e c t s prove


r e s u l t s f r o m t e s t s and s t u d i e s c a n be u s e d w i t h c o n f i d e n c e

and s a f e t y . In the p a s t, e x p e r i e n c e h a s b e e n t h e main c r i

t e r i a f o r sa fe c o n s tr u c tio n techniques in the S t. Peter

sandstone. I t is d i f f i c u l t t o c o r r e l a t e betw een e x p e r ie n c e

and t h e number o f f a i l u r e s t h a t h a v e o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e o f

poor judgm ent. The c a u s e o f a f a i l u r e i s n o t e a s i l y i s o l a t

ed o r a s s i g n a b l e t o a s i n g l e g e o l o g i c phenomenon . C o n c l u s i o n s

53
5%
draw n f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a r e m o s t l y a m a t t e r o f j u d g m e n t and
t h e r e f o r e d e b a ta b le as to th e degree o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y
Previous e n g in e e rin g s tu d ie s of th e S t. P e t e r have
been conducted u s in g t e c h n iq u e s o f s o i l m e c h a n ic s . Due t o

p o ssib le e la s tic b e h a v i o r i n t h e s a n d s t o n e , m e t h o d s u s e d in.

t h e f i e l d o f r o o k m e c h a n i c s s h o u l d d e f i n i t e l y be c o n s i d e r e d

fo r future s tu d ie s .
To t h e g e o l o g i s t t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e i s c l a s s i

f i e d as a m assiv e s a n d s t o n e , which i s homogeneous, i s o t r o p

ic, and c o m p e t e n t . The e n g i n e e r would c o n s i d e r t h e S t .


P e t e r as an u ncem ented, f r i a b l e , fin e q u a rtz sand. To p r o

p e rly study the S t. P e te r sandstone, b o t h t h e e n g i n e e r and


g e o l o g i s t have to r e a l i z e t h a t th e m a t e r i a l l i e s i n a t r a n s

i t i o n zone b e t w e e n a s o i l and r o c k m a t e r i a l .

Sam pling T echniques

S u i t a b l e u n d i s t u r b e d sam ples of t h e s a n d s to n e f o r

la b o r a to r y t e s t i n g a re extrem ely d i f f i c u l t to o b ta in . S p lit

t u b e and S h e l b y t u b e s a m p l i n g d e v i c e s h a v e n o t b e e n s u c c e s s

f u l l y u s e d b e c a u s e t h e t u b e s h a v e t o be h y d r a u l i c a l l y p u s h e d

or driv en in to the sandstone. P e n e tra tio n r e s i s t a n c e values

a re too high to allow f o r t h i s type of sam pling. The D e n n i

son c o r e b a r r e l s a m p le r , which i s a r o t a r y s a m p le r , has a l s o

p r o v e n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y due t o d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f .t h e s a m p l e by
the co rin g f l u i d , w ater.
55

The o n l y u n d i s t u r b e d s a n d s t o n e s a m p l e s t h a t h a v e
b e e n o b t a i n e d I n t a c t f r o m c o r i n g methods were f r o m t h e s i t e

e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e new D a y t o n ' s D e p a r t m e n t S t o r e I n S t .
Paul. A M diamon d c o r e b a r r e l was u s e d w i t h a m o d e r a t e l y

d e n s e d r i l l i n g mud. S p e c im e n s w e re o b t a i n e d a t d e p t h s up t o

f o r ty f e e t in the san d stone.


Sh aved t e s t s p e c i m e n s f r o m c h u n k s o f s a n d s t o n e , o b

t a i n e d from t e s t p i t s , have been a tt e m p t e d . The M i n n e s o t a


S t a t e Highway D e p a r t m e n t h a s e n d e a v o r e d t o c a r e f u l l y s h a p e
b lo ck s o f u n d i s t u r b e d s a n d s to n e 1 from s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s , by

s h a v i n g t h e b l o c k s down t o t e s t s p e c i m e n s i z e . They h a v e

also trie d t o p u s h , by h a n d , c y l i n d e r s i n t o a n u n d i s t u r b e d

chunk o f s a n d s t o n e . B o t h means f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e u s a b l e

t e s t specim ens. The Corps o f E n g i n e e r s (1958, p. 6) was


s u c c e s s f u l i n hand t r i m m i n g t r l a x i a l t e s t s p e c i m e n s f ro m
chunk sam ples o b t a i n e d from t e s t p i t s i n th e m id d le o f th e

f o r m a t i o n b e lo w t h e F o r d M o to r Company i n S t . Paul. Because

t h e s a n d s t o n e becomes h a r d e r w i t h d e p t h i n t h e f o r m a t i o n ,

hand trim m ed o r c o r e d s p e c i m e n s s h o u l d be e a s i e r t o o b t a i n

i n t h e , m i d d l e o r b e lo w t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . Most
s t r u c t u r e s and t u n n e l s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d n e a r th e t o p of t h e

f o r m a t i o n , which does o f f e r problem s i n o b t a i n i n g s u i t a b l e

t e s t specim ens. I f u s a b l e s p e c i m e n s c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d f o r

lab o ra to ry use, th e n i t i s q u i t e obvious t h a t f i e l d testin g


m ethods a r e i n e v i t a b l e .
56

U n i t W eig h t

To s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e S t P e t e r h a s b e e n
highly d e n s ifie d , s e v e r a l i n p l a c e d e n s i t y t e s t s and l a b o r a

t o r y c o m p a c t i o n t e s t s ' w e r e made o f t h e s a n d s t o n e f r o m t h e
M i n n e s o t a S i l i c a Company 's q u a r r y i n n o r t h M i n n e a p o l i s The
f i e l d d e n s i t y t e s t s w e r e made w i t h a s a n d f u n n e l a p p a r a t u s

The M o d i f i e d P r o c t e r t e s t , w i t h a c o m p a c t i v e f o r c e o f

5 1 5 j>625 f o o t p o u n d s , was u s e d f o r t h e c o m p a c t i o n t e s t s The


field dry d e n s i ty , f r o m a n a v e r a g e o f f o u r t e s t s , was 126.4-
po unds p e r c u b i c f o o t . The r e c o m p a c t e d d r y d e n s i t y was

1 1 . 3 7 p o unds p e r c u b i c f o o t w i t h a n optimum m o s i t u r e c o n t e n t
o f 4-. 6 p e r c e n t . F i g u r e 15 shows t h e t y p i c a l m o i s t u r e - d e n s i

t y r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r th e recom pacted d i s t u r b e d s a n d s to n e .

The a b o v e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t e v e n w i t h a g r e a t

d e a l of com pactive f o r c e , t h e d i s t u r b e d s a n d s t o n e c a n n o t be

ra is e d to i t s o rig in a l fie ld d en sity . The d e n s i t y o f t h e

S t. P e t e r , h o w e v e r , i s low when compared t o many s a n d s t o n e s .

T h i s c a n be e x p l a i n e d when one c o n s i d e r s t h e h i g h p o r o s i t y

of the m a te ria l (2 5 p e r c e n t ) . The a p p a r e n t s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y


o f t h e s a n d s t o n e , when u s i n g a b u l k d e n s i t y o f 126.4- pounds

p e r Cub ic f o o t , i s 2.02. The t r u e s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f t h e

sandstone i t s e l f i s th a t of quartz, 2.66.

U nconfined Com pression T e s ts

The f i r s t s t r e n g t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n t e s t s of the S t.

P e t e r s a n d s t o n e w e r e made by S c h w a r t z (1939* p . 4-0). Three


57
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6>
107
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PERCENT MOISTURE

M O IS T U R E -D E N S IT Y RELATIONSHIP
FIGURE 15
58

two i n c h c u b e s w e r e s h a v e d f r o m a n o u t c r o p o f s a n d s t o n e and
t e s t e d , u n c o n f i n e d , by l o a d i n g t h e b l o c k s u n t i l f a i l u r e o c
curred The f i r s t two c u b e s w e re t e s t e d w e t and f a i l e d a t

0 . 5 4 7 and 1 . 0 6 p o u n d s p e r s q u a r e i n c h . The t h i r d c u b e was


t e s t e d d r y and f a i l e d a t 144 p o u n d s p e r s q u a r e i n c h , w h ic h

was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e w e t s p e c i m e n s b u t low a s

f a r a s a c r u s h i n g s t r e n g t h o f any r o c k m a t e r i a l . T h ese com

p r e s s i o n t e s t s i n d i c a t e th e p o t e n t i a l weakness o f th e s a n d

s t o n e and n o t i t s bearing s tre n g th . When t h e s a n d s t o n e i s


i n p l a c e and c o n f i n e d , i t i s not f r e e to y i e l d i n any d i r e c

tio n j therefore, unconfined com pression t e s t s on t h e S t .

P e t e r s a n d s t o n e mean v e r y l i t t l e .

The Twin C i t y S a n i t a r y D i s t r i c t made one c o m p r e s s i o n

t e s t on t h e s a n d s t o n e d u r i n g t h e s i t e e x a m i n a t i o n o f a g r i t

c h am b er on P i g s Eye Lake s i t e . The s p e c i m e n was o b t a i n e d

f r o m a l o w e r p o r t i o n o f t h e f o r m a t i o n and w i t h s t o o d s i x t e e n

tons p e r square fo o t c ru sh in g s t r e n g th . E v i d e n t l y , t h e ma

t e r i a l was f a i r l y w e l l c e m e n t e d a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e h i g h
com pressive s t r e n g t h .

E le v en u n c o n fin e d c o m p re ssio n t e s t s were conducted

by t h e Corps o f E n g i n e e r s f o r t h e s i t e e x a m i n a t i o n a t S t .

Anthony F a l l s Lower Lock and Dam (C o rp s o f E n g i n e e r s , 1 9 5 8 ) .


The s t r e s s s t r a i n c u r v e s f o r t h e t e s t s a r e shown i n F i g u r e

1 6 , and t h e t e s t d a t a i s t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e 3 . The t e s t s

w e re made i n a n u n i v e r s a l h y d r a u l i c t e s t i n g m a c h in e and

l o a d e d a t a r a t e o f 200 p ounds p e r s q u a r e i n c h p e r m i n u t e .
1000 L!-L 1400 41 1000
itS # /i -
# Ui: iJxr: /
' Xft
1200 , /
M
800
| z 1
1 1 #

600
S; A-1 / s
zprq:
1000
1
i ': ! W:
600
s/
/
/ # |
.i;u
/ #

t 400
o/ s Iy :cp:i:
rd+tf
# ! /
tn
/ f ^ 800
'
r

200 t
/ /
1.b
2
600 T01 : /
m ;eee: xirx ;d: cn :b:q:
/
:Ltr :cctc f/
0 r __ -hZ /1
0.0 01 02 03 04 05
400 \ i
j 0.2 03
Percent Strain y Percent Strain

(I) 200 1 / (3)


1 f

0t .
0 0.5 1.0 1.5
Percent Strain

(2 )
2500
1000
| , /

2000 800
11

1!
// C:1

600
:ru"r
xGi /
/
il

400
3
i r xZ
/
/
-Hdi-
200
i ,z
g y
Q
0 l/ B B Z:',- F!
0.2 0 .3 0.2 0.4 0 o.l 02 03 0.4
Percent Strain Percent Strain Percent Strain
(4) (5) ( 6)

3000

2500
p i f p
2500 fix .ml:;
#
J+ht
s b; #
2500

2000
/ 2000
# :

fz | tfH
/y
y
y
>/

:s
2000

3 15 0 0
i_
1
SR / # ^ 1500
:x d 4XX
#

y
4g vf
i
-fen
* Z
c-
z
1
V) 1000 p A V
55 1000
fc > V
/ # z i S '
:q Z
4
/
j-U-'-E
*oy

: x .:.x .
1000

500
T# -f /
r
s 500
d
.--if

1
i / f
| jg
i #
:adt
Bti
xZ
if :
o fe . 0
D 0.2 04 0.6 0.8 0 o.l 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Percent Strain 0 2 0 .4
P ercent Strain
18) Percent Strain
(7)
19)
2500
#
-fH-r 1000
Ex # xffi rxxi -UJJ-
dti:
IW Z4 m yr
m \/
m
xg -.
: :J $ # E - s # 1:
2000
J
I
:ibj:
::;z
difb
/
/ gi XL
A~rr~ S
800

i1
}
:-pFf
uJ E
1500 600 1

i
l
1
buE ; i
P
'Zjx

xdf it
k
If
Ett b e .xix
:cE:
.%
//
( .te: E
E
S TR E SS -S TR A IN CURVES
FOR
UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TESTS
to *000

" X:
> / tttj:
400
tr 'XX -dx | |
ii: # i S FIGURE 16
500 i f 7
E

E
ZE
r 200
jI >
y
4
Ittf xpx
eGx E
EEi:
x:pb. A ,
0 w m E 'r - . # 0
D 02 04 0 6 0.8 10 D 02 04 06 08 10
Percent Strain Percent Strain
d o ) (II)
TABLE 3

TEST RESULTS - UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TESTS

L ateral (psi)*
S tren g th (p si)
Sample Number

D eform ation

D eform ation
Com pressive
Dry D e n s i t y

A xial ( p s i)
Modulus o f

Modulus o f

P o i s so n * s
M oisture

(psf)

Remarks
Percent

R atio
1 14.6 115.2 850 3 3 6 , 0 0 0 7 1 4 , 0 0 0 0 . 4 6 Medium t o low d r y s t r e n g t h , f a i r l y
w e l l cemented.
2 1 0 . 4 1 2 5 . 1 1370 1 5 1 , 0 0 0 2 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0 0 .05 High d ry s t r e n g t h , h a r d a t f i e l d
m oisture.
3 1 3 .2 114.6 990 2 4 7 , 0 0 0 1 , 2 8 0 , 0 0 0 0 . 1 9 Medium t o low d r y s t r e n g t h , f a i r l y
w e l l cemented.
4 9 . 4 1 2 2 . 9 2100 5 1 8 , 0 0 0 1 ,3 7 0 ,0 0 0 0 .3 8 High d ry s t r e n g t h , h a rd a t f i e l d
m oisture.
5 3 .8 113.4 677 1 7 3 , 0 0 0 2 , 2 2 0 , 0 0 0 0 . 0 8 Medium t o low d r y s t r e n g t h , h a r d
a t f i e l d m oisture.
6 5 .0 135.0 990 4 2 4 , 0 0 0 4 , 5 5 0 , 0 0 0 0 . 0 9 Medium t o h i g h d r y s t r e n g t h , h a r d
a t f i e l d m oisture.
7 5 . 3 1 3 4 . 0 2370 5 4 2 , 0 0 0 4 ,5 5 0 ,0 0 0 0 .1 2 High dry s t r e n g t h , h a r d a t f i e l d
m oisture.
8 1 0 . 1 1 2 3 . 1 2010 6 9 5 , 0 0 0 2 ,4 8 0 ,0 0 0 0 .2 8 High dry s t r e n g t h , h a r d a t f i e l d
m o isture.
9 1 0 . 1 1 1 8 . 7 2820 7 4 1 , 0 0 0 2 , 4 8 0 , 0 0 0 0 . 3 0 H ig h d r y s t r e n g t h , h a r d a t f i e l d
m oisture.
10 6 . 4 1 2 7 . 3 2070 4 2 6 , 0 0 0 5 , 4 4 0 , 0 0 0 0 . 0 8 H ig h d r y s t r e n g t h , h a r d a t f i e l d
m oisture.
11 3 .5 141.1 940 1 8 5 , 0 0 0 9 , 1 9 0 , 0 0 0 0 . 0 2 H ig h d r y s t r e n g t h , h a r d a t f i e l d
m oisture
-x-The l a t e r a l modu lus o f d e f o r m a t i o m i s t h e a x i a l s t r e s s d i v i d e d b y o\
o
the l a t e r a l s t r a i n .
61

The s p e c i m e n s w e r e c y l i n d r i c a l i n s h a p e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e

as long as t h e i r d i a m e t e r s The a x i a l s t r a i n was m e a s u r e d

b e tw e e n t h e ends o f t h e s p e c i m e n w h i l e t h e l a t e r a l s t r a i n

was m e a s u r e d w i t h f o u r d i a l g a g e s , g r a d u a t e d t o 0 , 0 0 0 1

i n c h e s , and p l a c e d 90 d e g r e e s a p a r t a t t h e mid p o i n t o f t h e

specim ens

The m od ulus o f d e f o r m a t i o n (m odulu s o f c o m p r e s s i o n )

was c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e a x i a l s t r e s s by t h e l a t e r a l

strain . The s p e c i m e n s w e re o n l y l o a d e d on c e and t a k e n t o

failu re. T h i s l o a d i n g makes i t o n l y p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n t h e


m odulus o f d e f o r m a t i o n and i n c l u d e s b o t h e l a s t i c and p l a s t i c

deform ation.
I n p r a c t i c e , where a heavy s t r u c t u r e i s t o have a

h i g h d e a d l o a d and a s m a l l l i v e l o a d , s u c h a s a p o w e r h o u s e ,

t h e modu lus o f d e f o r m a t i o n i s u s e d i n d e s i g n i n g a p r o p e r

foundation. When h i g h l i v e l o a d s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d , f o r exam

p l e a b r i d g e , t h e m od ulus o f e l a s t i c i t y s h o u l d be u s e d i n
d e s i g n work.

As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 3 , t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e
v a r i a t i o n i n t h e c o m p re s s iv e s t r e n g t h s , m oduli o f d e fo rm a

t i o n , m o i s t u r e s , and d r y d e n s i t i e s i n t h e t e s t s . Only one

c o n c l u s i o n c a n be made when a n a l y z i n g t h e r e s u l t s - there

was a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e a x i a l modulus o f d e f o r m a t i o n w i t h a n
>

in c r e a s e i n com pressive s t r e n g t h ,

P o i s s o n s r a t i o s , a l s o t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e 3 s w e re

com puted by d i v i d i n g t h e a x i a l m o d u lu s o f d e f o r m a t i o n by t h e
62

l a t e r a l m odulus This r e l a t i o n s h i p i s th e r a t i o o f l a t e r a l

s t r a i n t o the., l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r a i n o f t h e s p e c i m e n . Normal
l y , m o st r o c k m a t e r i a l s h a v e a P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o t h a t f a l l i n

a ran g e betw een 0 . 1 1 , f o r a t u f f , and 0 . 3 8 f o r a d e n s e m a r


ble. A r a t i o o f 0 . 5 i s a l i m i t i n g v a l u e and i n d i c a t e s h y
d ro s ta tic co n d itio n s. A t y p i c a l s a n d s to n e sh o u ld have a

v a l u e n e a r 0 . 1 7 ; h o w e v e r , a s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 3 , a w id e

range of r a t i o s f r o m 0 . 0 2 t o 0.4-6 w e re c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e

St., P e te r san d sto n e. T h i s v a r i a t i o n i s due t o t h e amount o f

b o n d i n g b e t w e e n g r a i n s and t h e w a t e r c o n t e n t o f t h e t e s t

specim ens. The P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o s g i v e n , i f c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d ,

in d ic a te a n -a n iso tro p ic co n d itio n in the sandstone.

C o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h s -of t h e s a n d s t o n e a r e e x t r e m e l y

low f o r a c o m p e t e n t r o c k m a t e r i a l . The s t r e n g t h s o b t a i n e d

from th e t e s t s r a n g e d f r o m 677 t o 2 , 8 2 0 p o unds p e r s q u a r e


inch. An a v e r a g e s a n d s t o n e h a s a r a n g e b e t w e e n 6 , 1 0 0 t o

1 2 , 0 0 0 p o unds p e r s q u a r e i n c h ( K r y n i n e , 1957) The


s t r e n g t h s o b t a i n e d a r e n o t u n u s u a l when one c o n s i d e r s t h e

la c k of cohesion in the rock.

T r i a x i a l Com pression T e s ts

T r i a x i a l c o m p r e s s i o n t e s t s h a v e b e e n a im ed a t d e t e r
m ining th e b e a r in g c a p a c i t y o f th e s a n d s t o n e . The r e s u l t s

o f t h e t r i a x i a l t e s t s a r e t a b u l a t e d on Mohr e n v e l o p e s i n P i-'

g u r e s 17, 18, and 19. In g e n e r a l , th e s t r e n g t h envelopes

r e v e a l e d v e r y h i g h a n g l e s o f i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n and a l a c k o f
63

cohesion. T h e r e f o r e 5 t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h s d i s p l a y e d by t h e
t e s t s a r e m o s t l y due t o ' f r i c t i o n , and o n l y m i n o r a m o u n t s , i f

a n y , due t o c o h e s i o n .
The s h e a r i n g r e s i s t a n c e i s the p ro p e rty of a m a te r i

a l to w ith stan d loading w ithout o b je c tio n a b le l a t e r a l d e

fo rm atio n , In th e case of the S t. P eter sandstone, a force

a p p l i e d t o t h e g r a n u l a r mass i s t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e
mass' by c o n t a c t p r e s s u r e b e t w e e n . i n d i v i d u a l g r a i n s . The

loading w i l l cause th e p a r t i c l e s t o r e a r r a n g e and t e n d t o


s l i d e w ith re s p e c t to each o th e r. The s l i d i n g i s o p p o se d by
f r i c t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i c l e s u r f a c e s and t h e

p r e s s u r e b e tw e e n t h e s u r f a c e s . In a d d itio n , the s lid in g is

a l s o r e s t r i c t e d by m e c h a n i c a l i n t e r l o c k i n g o f t h e p a r t i c l e s

and by a s m a l l , c o h e s i v e f a c t o r w h ic h t h e s a n d s t o n e l o c a l l y
possesses.

F i g u r e 17 shows e i g h t t r i a x i a l c o m p r e s s i o n . t e s t s run

on ha nd t r i m m e d , u n d i s t u r b e d s a n d s t o n e s p e c i m e n s (C or ps o f

E ngineers, 1958). The s p e c i m e n s w e re trim m ed t o 2 3/4- i n c h e s


i n d i a m e t e r and inches long, encased i n t o a t h in rubber

membrane, and s e a l e d i n t o t h e t r i a x i a l m a c h i n e , A vacuum

was a p p l i e d t o t h e s p e c i m e n s f o r f i v e m i n u t e s j t h e n w i t h o u t
r e l e a s i n g t h e vacuum, w a t e r . w a s a l l o w e d t o f l o w i n t o t h e

s p e c i m e n f ro m t h e b o t t o m o f t h e s a m p le u n d e r a t h r e e f o o t

h e a d u n t i l t h e s p e c i m e n was s a t u r a t e d . A p r e s s u r e ch am b er

was p u t a r o u n d t h e s a m p l e s , f i l l e d w i t h g l y c e r i n and p r e s
su re a p p lied to the f l u i d to a d e sire d l e v e l. A fte r the
36 48
NORMAL STRESS K G /c m 2

, UNDISTURBED TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION TESTS


65

c h am b er p r e s s u r e was a p p l i e d , t h e vacuum was r e l e a s e d , and


t h e v e r t i c a l l o a d was i n c r e a s e d p r o g r e s s i v e l y . The l o a d ,

d e f o r m a t i o n , and volume c h a n g e f o r e a c h i n c r e m e n t was r e

corded u n t i l th e specim en f a i l e d .
A t e s t i n g m a c h in e w i t h a 3 , 0 0 0 pound c a p a c i t y was

u s e d on t h e f i r s t two s p e c i m e n s ( F ig u re 17) The. m ac h in e


was u n a b l e t o c a u s e f a i l u r e u n t i l t h e l a t e r a l p r e s s u r e was

re d u c e d t o tw e n ty pounds p e r s q u a r e i n c h . T e s t s number 3

t h r o u g h 8 w e r e t e s t e d on a 2 0 , 0 0 0 pound c a p a c i t y m ac h in e i n

o r d e r t h a t h i g h e r l a t e r a l p r e s s u r e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d .

The s t r e s s - s t r a i n c u r v e s o b t a i n e d f o r a l l t e s t s had

a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a p e w h i c h i s shown i n T a b l e 4. In a l l

i n s t a n c e s t h e s p e c i m e n s were a l l o w e d t o r e b o u n d one o r more


tim es b e f o r e r u p t u r e . To o b t a i n t h e modulus o f d e f o r m a t i o n ,

t h e c u r v e s w e re m e a s u r e d a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s : 0A,
AB, and CD ( T a b l e 4 ) , and w e re d e s i g n a t e d : F i r s t , Second,

and T h i r d S t a g e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e 4 g i v e s t h e m odulus o f

deform ation f o r th e th r e e s ta g e s , a s w e l l a s t h e maximum

p r in c ip a l s t r e s s , angle of i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n , m inor p r i n c i

pal stre ss, maximum p e r c e n t s t r a i n , and t h e i n i t i a l v o i d r a

t i o s f o r each t e s t . As would be e x p e c t e d , t h e modulus o f

d e fo r m a tio n i n c r e a s e s as th e chamber p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s . A
s h e a r f a i l u r e was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r a l l t h e s p e c i m e n s t e s t

ed.

The a n g l e o f s h e a r i n g r e s i s t a n c e (in tern al fric tio n )

is r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e M o h r 's d i a g r a m s . I f a s tr a ig h t lin e
66

TABLE 4

-TTIAXIAL COMPRESSION TEST CONDITIONS-


UNDISTURBED ST. PETER SANDSTONE

S t r e s s ( K g . cmr2 )
M a jo r P r i n c i p a l

Minor P r i n c i p a l
Modulus o f

Maximum P e r c e n t
D eform ation

I n i t i a l Void
T e s t Number

(K g.cm .- 2 ) i n Kg.cm.- 2
Angle o f
Internal
F rictio n

S tress

Second

S train

R atio
Stage
F irst

Stage

T hird
Stage
1 690251 43.29 1.40 6600 15,000 24,000 0.46 0.445
2 67o5 0 l 35.07 1.27 5000 8000 13,000 0.40 0.414
3 6 0 o4 0 1 40.90 2.81 2000 5000 12,000 1.24 0.461
4 60551 98.35 6.67 4700 9000 13,000 0.85 0.408
5 6325' 12.50 0.70 2500 5000 8000 0.35 0.447
6 6445' 14.06 0.70 3000 6000 10,000 0.29 0.453
7 60151 29.96 2.11 4000 7500 12,000 0.36 0.431
8 58050* 134.10 10.50 5500 11,000 22,500 i.ii 0.445

CHARACTERISTIC SHAPE OF
TRIAXIAL STRESS-STRAIN CURVES

M AJOR P R IN C IP A L STRESS

First S t a g e

Second S tage

Third S t a g e
67
I s drawn t a n g e n t t o 'the c i r c l e s a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e s t r e s s

c o n d itio n s caused f a i l u r e , t h e a n g l e t h i s l i n e makes w i t h

the a b s c is s a i s th e angle of i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n . In p ra c tic e


when s e v e r a l t e s t s a r e c o n d u c t e d , a c u r v e d e n v e l o p e r e s u l t s ,

w h ic h i s an a v e r a g e o f a l l t h e s t r a i g h t e n v e l o p e s , The
s t r a i g h t l i n e e n v e l o p e does n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e t r u e a n g l e o f

i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n e x c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l t e s t .

The c u r v e d l i n e i s t h o u g h t t o be t h e r e s u l t o f d u c t i l e and

b r i t t l e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e m a t e r i a l , w h ic h i s t y p i c a l f o r a

rock su b stan ce. T h i s may be a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e t o c o n c l u d e

t h a t the S t. P e te r sandstone p o ssesses e l a s t i c p r o p e r tie s .

The u n d i s t u r b e d s a n d s t o n e s p e c i m e n s , when t e s t e d ,

rev e ale d a high angle of i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n . An a v e r a g e v a l

ue f o r t h e c u r v e d e n v e l o p e and r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e e i g h t
t e s t s , was s i x t y d e g r e e s . Individual te s ts r a n g e d f ro m f i f

ty -n in e to s ix ty -n in e degrees. Mo c o h e s i o n was r e c o r d e d f o r

t h i s s e t of specim ens. The h i g h a n g l e o f s h e a r i n g r e s i s

t a n c e a n s w e r s t h e q u e s t i o n o f why t h e S t . P e t e r c a n f o r m

h ig h v e r t i c a l fa c e s such as i s e x h ib ite d i n th e r i v e r
b lu ffs.

V i c t o r Gruen A s s o c i a t e s ( 1 961) a l s o ran. s e v e r a l t r i -

ax ial te s ts on u n d i s t u r b e d s a n d s t o n e ^ h o w e v e r , no i n f o r m a

t i o n w a s . a v a i l a b l e on t h e t e s t methods u s e d . Presum ably,

t h e i r methods were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e C o r p s o f E n g i

n e e rs, sin c e they obtain ed s i m il a r t e s t r e s u l t s .


68

T h r e e s e t s o f t e s t s p e c i m e n s w e r e o b t a i n e d by c o r i n g
m eth o d s f o r t h e s i t e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e new D a y t o n ' s D e p a r t
ment S t o r e i n S t . Paul. I n a l l i n s t a n c e s t h e t e s t s were r u n
on u n d i s t u r b e d and u n d r a i n e d s p e c i m e n s . P o r e p r e s s u r e s w e re

m e a s u r e d on o n l y one s p e c i m e n ; h o w e v e r , t h e s e t e s t d a t a w ere

not a v a ila b le .
The s t r e n g t h e n v e l o p e s f o r t h e t h r e e s e t s o f t e s t s

a ls o rev ealed high angles of i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n , r a n g in g from


f o r ty -e ig h t to s ix ty degrees. T h es e v a l u e s w e r e l o w e r t h a n

t h o s e o b t a i n e d by t h e C orps o f E n g i n e e r s , b u t t h e y a r e s t i l l
h i g h e r t h a n f o r an a v e r a g e s a n d s t o n e . A sm all cohesion f a c

t o r was r e c o r d e d f o r one s p e c i m e n (800 p o u n d s p e r s q u a r e


inch). R esu lts of th e se t r i a x i a l t e s t s are given i n F ig u re

18,

T r i a x i a l com pression t e s t s r u n on d i s t u r b e d S t .

P e t e r s a n d w e r e p r e p a r e d by d i s a g g r e g a t i n g c h u n k s o f s a n d

s t o n e by w a s h i n g t h e m a t e r i a l t h r o u g h a 35 mesh s i e v e . The
s a n d was t h e n d r i e d and p a c k e d i n t o r u b b e r - c y l i n d e r s . . A f t e r

packing th e sand as d e n s e ly as p o s s i b l e , t h e c y l i n d e r s w ere

s e a l e d and e x p o s e d t o a vacuum o f one a t m o s p h e r e . A void

r a t i o o f 0.4% was o b t a i n e d , and t h e f i r s t s e t o f t e s t s was

conducted a t t h i s v a lu e . A s e c o n d s e t o f t e s t s was r u n a t a

l o o s e r s t a t e , w ith a void r a t i o o f O .69, T hiel (1 9 3 5 , P,

589) r e p o r t e d a n a v e r a g e v o i d r a t i o o f 0 . 3 9 4 f o r t e n s a m p l e s

o f u n d i s t u r b e d S t . P e t e r s a n d s to n e from M in n e so ta .
KG/cm2 Strength -[Strength
Envelope [[Envelope
SHEAR STRESS

0 8 16 . . . . 24 8 16 24
NORMAL STRESS KG/cm2 NORMAL STRESS KG/cmZ

DEPTH 65ft. DEPTH 70 ft.

Strength
Envelope

0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56
NORMAL STRESS KG/cm2 ;

DEPTH 75 ft.

C ircle N atural N atural Chamber Maximum Maximum Degree Remarks


Mo* W ater Dry Pressure D eviator % S train of
C ontent D ensity KG/cm2 S tress S atu ratio n
% PCF KG/cm2 %

1 16.0 115 0 3.07 1.0 100 U nconfined


Com pression

2 17.9 117 2.11 12.75 2.6 100 S am p le s f a i l e d


by V e r t , s p l i t
it
3 17.9 117 3.51 19.60 1.2 100

4 12.6 114 1.41 16.60 2.1 79 Brown s a n d s t o n e '


it
5 12.6 114 2.82 28.00 2.3 79

6 17.0 113 0 14.80 0.9 94 Gray S a n d s t o n e


,
7 17.0 113 2.81 57.30 2.3 94

N o t e : Sp eed o f S t r a i n - 0 . 5 / o / m i n u t e . . 1

TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION TESTS - DISTURBED


FIGURE 18
70

T h e re fo re s a tte m p ts t o recom pact th e sand to th e v o id r a t i o


o f u n d i s t u r b e d s a n d s t o n e w e re n o t a t t a i n e d .

The modulus o f d e f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e d e n s e l y c o m p a c t e d

s a n d was a s h i g h a s t h e modulus f o r t h e u n d i s t u r b e d s a n d

stone. T h i s was f o u n d t o be t r u e when t h e m a j o r p r i n c i p a l


s t r e s s did n o t exceed tw ice th e l a t e r a l s t r e s s f o r th e re -
compacted s a n d s t o n e . A r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n s t r a i n made i t i m
p o s s i b l e t o m e a s u r e t h e modulus o f d e f o r m a t i o n e x c e p t i n t h e

i n i t i a l sta g e o f the t e s t . The a c t u a l f a i l u r e o f t h e s p e c i

mens was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b u l g i n g a r o u n d t h e p e r i p h e r y i n

stead of a tru e shear f a ilu r e .

The a n g l e o f i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n f o r t h e d i s t u r b e d
s a n d was t h i r t y - t w o d e g r e e s i n t h e l o o s e s t a t e a n d f o r t y - o n e
degrees f o r th e dense s t a t e . R esults of these t e s t s are

shown on M o h r 's d i a g r a m s i n F i g u r e 1 9 , a l o n g w i t h t h e c o n d i

t i o n s u n d e r w hich th e specim ens were r u n .

P la te B earing T ests

F i e l d p l a t e b e a r i n g t e s t s ha v e been, c o n d u c t e d on t h e
s a n d s to n e i n an a t t e m p t t o d e te r m in e th e u l t i m a t e b e a r i n g

s tr e n g th o f the m a te r ia l. Nine t e s t s were c o n d u c t e d by t h e

Cor ps o f E n g i n e e r s (19583 p . 6 ) 5 b u t none w e re c a r r i e d t o


f a i l u r e b e ca u se o f th e e x c e s s i v e l e a d s needed t o in d u ce

failu re. The maximum l o a d o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t e s t i n g was 200

pounds p e r s q u a r e i n c h ( l 4 . 4 to n s p e r s q u a r e f o o t ) . As i n

d i c a t e d from t h e lo a d d e f l e c t i o n c u rv e s i n F i g u r e 20s th e

Z
Shearing Stress

12 16 20
Normal Stress KG/cm2
RECOMPACTED DENSE SAND (Void R atio-0.47)
Shearing Stress KG/cm2

TRI AXIAL COMPRESSION TESTS


(DISTURBED SANDSTONE)'

FIGURE 19

8 12 16
Normal Stress KG/cm2 H
RECOMPACTED LOOSE SAND (Void R atio-0.69)
PRESSURE IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH
000
010

SECON D 6 TH IRD RUNS

REBO
030
00'

FIRST RUN
OfrO'

T e st Elev, L a b o ra to ry M echanical A n a ly sis S p e c if ic


G la ss F in e s G ra v ity D e n sity

(SP) L ig h t
Y ellow f in e
san d .
090"

(SP) W hite
f in e san d .

30 in c h d ia m e te r b e a rin g p l a t e was used w ith a maximum lo ad o f lU.U


090'

to n s p e r sq u a re f o o t.
=r o
0 /0

mo

lu ;
080'

SECON
060

FIELD PLATE BEARING TESTS


73

d e f l e c t i o n a t t h e maximum l o a d v a r i e d b e t w e e n .0 2 and . 1 0

i n c h e s 5 and w i t h a l m o s t c o m p l e t e r e b o u n d a f t e r r e m o v a l o f
the lo a d . The t e s t s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n p l a c e on u n d i s t u r b e d

s a n d s t o n e a t t h e S t . Anthon y F a l l s Lower Lock.


T h e r e was n o . i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e

loading r a te s of the p l a t e b earin g t e s t s . The d e f l e c t i o n


was i n s t a n t a n e o u s a s t h e s a n d s t o n e was b e i n g l o a d e d . Bend

i n g o f t h e p l a t e s was n o t i c e d d u r i n g t e s t i n g , a n d r e s u l t s

may c o n t a i n e r r o r s .
R esu lts of th ese t e s t s i n d ic a te e l a s t i c settlem ent

w i l l r e s u l t upon l o a d i n g t h e s a n d s t o n e . The s e t t l e m e n t
s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e e n t i r e l y d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n i t i a l

lo a d in g of a s t r u c t u r e u n le s s a high l i v e load i s a n t i c i p a t

ed. S a f e a l l o w a b l e b e a r i n g v a l u e s s h o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d f o r

any s t r u c t u r e t o e l i m i n a t e e x c e s s i v e d is p la c e m e n t o r d e t r i

m ental s e t tl e m e n t.

C o n s o l i d a t i o n and S e t t l e m e n t
Approximate s e t t l e m e n t e s t i m a t e s , f o r any s t r u c t u r e ,
a r e n o r m a l l y b a s e d on c o n s o l i d a t i o n t e s t s . S ettlem ent is

c a u s e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f l o a d s t o a f o u n d a t i o n m a t e r i a l ,

removal of l a t e r a l s u p p o r t , f lu c t u a t i o n of the w ater ta b le ,

c ru sh in g of g r a i n s , or shear fa ilu re . As suming t h e S t .

P e t e r s a n d s to n e has been exposed t o extrem e c o m p a ctiv e

forces, t h e m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n c o m p r e s s i b l e f o r

a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes except f o r i t s e la stic p ro p erties.


74

U n l e s s r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s a n d g r a i n s was t o o c c u r , f o r

exam ple by v i b r a t o r y a c t i o n , - d e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l
would n o t r e s u l t . T his i s because w eight added to th e s a n d
stone is t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m g r a i n t o g r a i n , and t h e g r a i n s a r e

i n t e r l o c k e d t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t t h e y w i l l n o t become d i s

a g g re g a te d u nder normal lo a d in g .

Un d er u n c o n f i n e d w a t e r t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , s e t t l e m e n t

o f a s t r u c t u r e l o c a t e d on t h e s a n d s t o n e and c a u s e d by a
f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e w a t e r t a b l e s h o u l d be n e g l i g i b l e . T his

i s p r o v i d i n g t h e s a n d g r a i n s r e m a i n u n d i s t u r b e d , and t h e a p
p l i e d s t r e s s e s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d from g r a i n t o g r a i n . If

w a t e r comes i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a s t r u c t u r e ,

h y d r o s ta tic p re s s u re beneath th e s t r u c t u r e w i l l cause a

buoyant e f f e c t . T h i s e f f e c t e x i s t s when .the p o r e w a t e r

pressure ( n e u t r a l p r e s s u r e ) i s h i g h enough t o p a r t i a l l y c a r

ry th e a p p lie d lo a d . I f t h e h y d r o s t a t i c p r e s s u r e w e re t o
drop, e i t h e r n a t u r a l l y o r by a r t i f i c i a l m ean s, t h e b u o y a n cy

i n t h e d e w a t e r e d a r e a would d i s a p p e a r . The l o a d , a f t e r d e

w a t e r i n g , w i l l be s u p p o r t e d by t h e s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e

s a n d s to n e . ' In such c a se s a fo u n d a tio n in c o n ta c t w ith a

f l u c t u a t i n g w a t e r t a b l e may e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s e t t l e

ment .

Only two known c o n s o l i d a t i o n t e s t s h a v e b e e n c o n

d u c t e d on t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e (Gruen, I 96I , p . 9) The

tests p e r f o r m e d w e re made on u n d i s t u r b e d s a m p l e s and were

t r u e one d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n t e s t s , in t h a t the
75

s a m p l e s w e re a d e q u a t e l y c o n f i n e d l a t e r a l l y . One o f t h e two

t e s t s was p a r t i a l l y c o n f i n e d a t t h e s u r f a c e and t h e r e f o r e
r e p r e s e n t s a c o m b i n a t i o n c o n s o l i d a t i o n and p l a t e b e a r i n g

test (Figure 21).

The p r e s s u r e - v o i d r a t i o c u r v e s a r e f a i r l y l i n e a r ,

w h i c h s u g g e s t s a v e r y s m a l l b u t u n i f o r m d e n s i f i c a t i o n o f thee

sandstone during lo ad in g . A p p a ren tly , changes i n th e void


ratio s o f t h e s p e c i m e n s were i n s t a n t a n e o u s upon l o a d i n g .

I n computing th e s e t t l e m e n t from th e t e s t s , loads

v a ry in g from f i f t e e n t o t w e n t y - f i v e to n s p e r s q u a r e f o o t

p r o d u c e d t h e same t o t a l d i s p l a c e m e n t . The s e t t l e m e n t a n a l y

s i s o f t h e two t e s t s r e v e a l e d a t o t a l computed s e t t l e m e n t o f

l / l O of a f o o t w ith a lo ad of tw e n ty - f iv e tons p e r square

foot. The r e b o u n d p o r t i o n o f t h e c u r v e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t most

o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t i s p e r m a n e n t , and o n l y m in o r a m o u n ts a r e

e lastic. The c o n s o l i d a t i o n t e s t s a r e n o t i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h
th e f i e l d p l a t e b e a r in g t e s t s i n r e g a r d to perm anent s e t t l e

ment o r t h e amount o f s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s may be c a u s e d by t h e


c o n s o l i d a t i o n t e s t specim ens n o t b e in g a d e q u a te ly c o n fin e d

and t h e r e b y c a u s i n g some g r a i n r e a r r a n g e m e n t upon l o a d i n g .


T h i s would e f f e c t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n v o i d r a t i o s and i n c r e a s e

th e t o t a l s e ttle m e n t o f the c o n s o lid a tio n t e s t specim ens.

P e n e tr a tio n R e sista n c e T ests

The s t a n d a r d p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t i s b a s i c a l l y a s h e a r

t e s t and c a n g i v e a q u i c k , i n e x p e n s i v e e s t i m a t e o f t h e
Legend N atural N atural In itial , Remarks ,
Water Dry Void
C o n t e n t fo D ensity R atio CONSOLIDATION TESTS
16 114 p c f .4 2 0 T o ta ll y C onfined.
O- FIGURE 21
5 124 p c f .3 7 7 C o n f i n e d a t s i d e s and Oi
-A- b o t t o m , 80/o C o n f i n e d
a t top.
77

sta b ility of a foundation m a te ria l. Blow c o u n t s 5 m e a su r e d

from p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t s 5 a c c o r d i n g t o T e rz a g h i ( 1 9 4 8 ) , c a n be
used t o d e te rm in e th e p e r m i s s i b l e s o i l p r e s s u r e s f o r f o o t

i n g s on s a n d . A h i g h blow c o u n t w i l l g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e

good f o u n d a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s .
The M i n n e s o t a Highway D e p a r t m e n t h a s c o n d u c t e d num

erous p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t s on t h e S t . P e t e r ( F o r d , 1964). The

t e s t s w e re made by d r i v i n g a s p l i t t u b e s a m p l e r i n t o t h e

s a n d s t o n e w i t h a 140 poun d w e i g h t , d r o p p e d 30 i n c h e s . W it h

100 blows p e n e t r a t i o n was n o w h e r e g r e a t e r t h a n 0 . 2 f e e t ,

w h i c h was f o u n d t o be t y p i c a l f o r t h e s a n d s t o n e t h r o u g h o u t

th e M etro p o litan a re a . R a t e o f p e n e t r a t i o n was a l s o f o u n d

t o be t h e same f o r a l l h a r d n e s s e s o f s a n d s t o n e . For th is

r e a s o n t h e t e s t c a n n o t be u s e d a s a m e a s u r e f o r h a r d n e s s o r
degree of f r i a b i l i t y of th e sa n d sto n e .

The v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t s a r e

r e l a t i v e , and, norm ally, r e s i s t a n c e s in c re a s e w ith d epth.

As suming p e n e t r a t i o n r a t e s f o r t h e s a n d s t o n e t o be 0 . 2 w i t h
1 00 b l o w s , t h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s a n d s t o n e i s a n e x

c e l l e n t fo u n d atio n m a te r ia l w ith a high b e a rin g c a p a c ity .

F o r d (1 9 6 4 ) h a s d e v i s e d a m o d i f i e d p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t

f o r w h ic h he f e e l s w i l l be u s e f u l i n m e a s u r i n g t h e h a r d n e s s

of the sandstone. F r i a b i l i t y d e te rm in a tio n s a re very im por

t a n t when e s t i m a t i n g c o s t s o f e x c a v a t i o n s . In stead of a

s p l i t , t u b e s a m p l e r , w h ic h i s n o r m a l l y u s e d f o r t h e t e s t .

F o r d h a s u s e d a t o o l s t e e l p r o b e a t t a c h e d t o t h e end o f t h e
78

d rillin g to o ls The p r o b e i s one f o o t l o n g , o n e - h a l f i n c h


i n d i a m e t e r , and h a s a b l u n t w o r k i n g e n d . The s t a n d a r d 100
blow s a r e made w i t h a 1%0 pound w e i g h t and d r o p p e d 30 i n c h e s .
The t e s t h a s o n l y b e e n u s e d on h a r d s a n d s t o n e , and t h e r e

s u l t s a re s i m i l a r to th e s ta n d a rd p e n e tr a tio n t e s t s .

Bearing C a p a c itie s

In review ing th e e n g in e e rin g p r o p e r tie s of the S t.

P e te r sa n d sto n e, a high b earin g c a p a c ity of th e m a te r ia l i s

obvious. S i n c e s o few s h e a r s t r e n g t h t e s t s h a v e b e e n c o n

d u c t e d on t h e s a n d s t o n e , no c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be made a s t o

the co n sisten c y of th e rock in i t s l o a d c a r r y i n g p o w e r.

A d e q u a t e s u p p o r t c a n be s a f e l y e s t i m a t e d f o r a n y p r o p o s e d
s t r u c t u r e b y a s i t e e x a m i n a t i o n , a c c o m p a n ie d by a n a c c e p t a
b le t e s t i n g program. B e a r i n g c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s a r e only-

v a l i d i f th e m a t e r i a l rem ains u n d i s t u r b e d , c o n fin e d l a t e r

a lly , and t h e g r o u n d w a t e r c o n d i t i o n s c a n be c o n t r o l l e d a t

the s i t e .

The C i t y o f S t . P a u l ' s B u i l d i n g Code recommends a

sa fe b e a rin g v alu e of f i f t e e n tons p e r square fo o t f o r

s t r u c t u r e s b e i n g b u i l t on t h e S t . P e te r sandstone. The M in

n e a p o l i s Code h a s no s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; h o w e v e r , t h e same v a l u e

o f f i f t e e n t o n s i s u s e d when a p r o b l e m a r i s e s i n t h e C i t y .

The v a l u e o f f i f t e e n t o n s p e r s q u a r e f o o t was e s t a b l i s h e d b e

c a u s e a t t h e t i m e no methods had b e e n d e v e l o p e d t o m e a s u r e

t h e u l t i m a t e o r s a f e b e a r i n g power o f t h e s a n d s t o n e . The
79
e x i s t i n g f i g u r e i n t h e c o d e i s a n t i q u a t e d and s h o u l d be c o n
s i d e r e d a c o n s e r v a t i v e v a l u e f o r m ost c o n d i t i o n s
- P l a t e b e a r i n g t e s t s u s e d by t h e C o r p s o f E n g i n e e r s

(1958S p. 6 )5 revealed b e arin g c a p a c itie s f o r the sandstone


t o be l 4 4 t o n s p e r s q u a r e f o o t , w i t h no s i g n s o f f a i l u r e

I n d e s i g n o f t h e i r l o c k s an a l l o w a b l e s a f e b e a r i n g p r e s s u r e

o f t e n t o n s p e r s q u a r e f o o t was u s e d This v e ry c o n s e r v a

t i v e e s t i m a t e was b a s e d on t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a a t t h e t i m e .

V i c t o r Gru en A s s o c i a t e s (1 9 6 2 , p . 11.) computed a l


low able b e a r in g p r e s s u r e s o f t w e n t y - f i v e to n s p e r sq u a re

foot, d e te rm in e d from t r i a x i a l c o m p re ssio n t e s t r e s u l t s .

T his f i g u r e i s a l s o c o n s e r v a t i v e b u t i s p r o b a b ly th e h i g h e s t

v a l u e t h a t c a n be o b t a i n e d w i t h o u t t h e u s e o f a n u l t r a - h i g h

l o a d t e s t i n g m a c h in e and s p e c i a l made t r i a x i a l l o a d i n g

cells. W it h t h e p r o p e r t e s t i n g e q u i p m e n t 5 u l t i m a t e b e a r i n g

c a p a c i t i e s i n e x c e s s o f 100 t o n s p e r s q u a r e f o o t c a n be e x

pected. The s a f e b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y o f a m a t e r i a l i s t h e u l

t i m a t e b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y d i v i d e d by a s a f e t y f a c t o r o f two o r

th ree. In the f i e l d the b e arin g c a p a c i ti e s w i l l in c re a s e

w i t h d e p t h below t h e u n d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e , w h i c h i s due t o

in creasin g confining p re s s u re s . In p la c in g extrem ely high


static l o a d s on t h e s a n d s t o n e , i t may be a d v a n t a g e o u s t o u s e

deep f o o t i n g s to i n s u r e f o r a sound f o u n d a t i o n .
FOUNDATION USE OF THE ST. PETER SANDSTONE

P o t e n t i a l Problems

The S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e h a s b e e n u s e d a s a f o u n d a
t i o n m a t e r i a l f o r b r i d g e s 5 dams, l o c k s , and b u i l d i n g s . The

h ig h b e a r in g c a p a c i t y o f th e ro c k has a llow ed f o r e x c e l l e n t
foundation c o n d itio n s. D e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e ma

t e r i a l a t a b u ilding s i t e , lo c a l v a r ia tio n s in the b earing

po wer c a n be e x p e c t e d . T h e r e f o r e , a s much g e o l o g i c i n f o r m a

t i o n a s p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be c o l l e c t e d f r o m l o c a l s o u r c e s

p r io r to c o n stru ctio n . The M i n n e s o t a G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y h a s

c o m p i l e d b o r i n g s and w e l l l o g s f o r t h e e n t i r e Twin C i t y

a r e a , and t h e r e c o r d s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . T h ese
r e c o r d s w i l l h e lp an i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s of

e x p lo ra tio n but w i l l not provide s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to e lim

i n a t e the n e c e s s i t y of a s i t e exam ination.

P r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n o f a f o u n d a t i o n t y p e t o be

u s e d on t h e S t . P e t e r c a n be i n t e l l i g e n t l y d e t e r m i n e d when

t h e p r o p e r t i e s , o f t h e s a n d s t o n e a r e known a t a p a r t i c u l a r

site. The h i g h a n g l e o f i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n and t h e l i m i t e d

se ttle m e n t of the sandstone su g g est spread fo o tin g s f o r the

foundation. From e x p e r i e n c e , a d v e r s e and v a r i a b l e c o n d i


t i o n s i n t h e s a n d s t o n e may w a r r a n t t h e u s e c f o t h e r t y p e s .

The a d v e r s e c o n d i t i o n s most commonly f o u n d a r e s u m m arize d

below :
80
81

1) The s a n d s t o n e c a n be e x p e c t e d t o be s o f t a n d u n c o n s o l i
d a t e d w here t h e P l a t t e v i l l e lim e s to n e cap has been n a t

u r a l l y removed

2) Freeze-thaw c o n d itio n s in s a tu r a te d sandstone n ear the


s u r f a c e may c a u s e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s t o a f o u n d a t i o n .

3) When e n c o u n t e r e d , open f i s s u r e s i n t h e r o c k may a l l o w

l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f g ro u n d w a te r t o flow t h r o u g h th e

openings, thus weakening a f o u n d a t i o n .

4) V ibratory a c tio n , such as d r i v i n g p i l e s , may c a u s e r e a r

r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s a n d g r a i n s and r e s u l t i n a l o s s o f

. s tr e n g th to the m a te ria l.

5) Submerged and i r r e g u l a r s u r f a c e s o f t h e s a n d s t o n e i n t h e

r i v e r c h a n n e l s a r e common. T h i s i s due t o t h e numerous


p lu n g e p o o ls and p o t h o l e s . D i f f i c u l t i e s may a r i s e i n

l o c a t i n g b r i d g e . p i e r s on so u n d r o c k .

6) B uried r i v e r ch an n els i n th e san d sto n e b e n e a th a p r o

posed b u i l d i n g s i t e w i l l c au se d i f f i c u l t i e s in lo catin g

so u n d r o c k f o r a f o u n d a t i o n . W a t e r p r o b l e m s c a n a l s o be

expected i n th e c h a n n e ls .

7) The s a n d s t o n e may be f o u n d t o be s a t u r a t e d d u r i n g e x c a

v a tio n a t a b u ild in g s i t e . Thus, a d e q u a te d e w a te rin g

p r o c e s s e s h a v e t o be made t o p r e v e n t damage by e r o s i o n
when f l o w i n g w a t e r i s e n c o u n t e r e d .

8) N e a r r i v e r c h a n n e l s t h e s a n d s t o n e may h a v e l o s t i t s con

fin in g pressure. Thus, heavy a p p lie d lo ad s i n such

a r e a s may r e s u l t i n s h e a r f a i l u r e t o t h e s a n d s t o n e .
82

9) N a t u r a l c a v e s I n t h e s a n d s t o n e a r e uncommonj h o w e v e r ,
s i t e s w h e r e h e a v y s t r u c t u r e s a r e t o be b u i l t s h o u l d be

th o ro u g h ly exp lo red a t dep th t o a s s u re t h a t such hazards

do n o t e x i s t .
10) J o i n t s a r e p o t e n t i a l p l a n e s o f w e a k n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y

th o se t h a t a re f i l l e d w ith c la y m a t e r i a l s Su ch s t r u c

t u r e s s h o u l d be a v o i d e d o r p r o p e r l y s e c u r e d i n a d v a n c e

of. c o n s t r u c t i o n .
11) Once t h e s a n d s t o n e h a s b e e n d i s t u r b e d , t h e s a n d w i l l n o t

. r e b i n d by n o r m a l c o m p a c t i o n m eth o d s t o f o r m a h a r d w o r k

ing s u rfa c e f o r th e placem ent of a fo u n d a tio n . T here

fore, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to p r o t e c t a f r e s h l y exposed

ex ca v atio n u n t i l th e fo u n d atio n i s poured.

12) G r o u t i n g t h e s a n d s t o n e t o g i v e a d d e d s t r e n g t h h a s n o t

b e e n s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e o f t h e low p e r m e a b i l i t y i n t h e

rock.
13) Hig h p e n e t r a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e r e s t r i c t s th e use of f r i c

t i o n p i l e s t h a t would h a v e t o be d r i v e n i n t o t h e s a n d

stone.

V a r i o u s t y p e s o f f o u n d a t i o n s ha v e b e e n u s e d on t h e

S t. P e te r sandstone in the m e tro p o lita n a r e a . The t y p e o f

f o u n d a t i o n t o be u s e d v a r i e s w i t h t h e t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e , the
s t r u c t u r e s u s e , and t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s a n d

sto n e a t the s i t e . The t y p e s o f s t r u c t u r e s and t h e i r f o u n

d a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y b e lo w .
83

Bridges

The m a j o r i t y o f b r i d g e s c r o s s i n g t h e M i s s i s s i p p i

R i v e r i n t h e s t u d y a r e a a r e i n p a r t s u p p o r t e d by t h e S t .
P e ter sandstone. N orm ally , where p o s s i b l e , a c o n c r e t e p i e r
i s p o u r e d d i r e c t l y on a h a r d , f r e s h su rfa c e o f the sa n d
stone. The p i e r s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d by f i r s t p l a c i n g c a i s s o n s .

T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by f i r s t d r i v i n g s h e e t p i l i n g i n t o t h e

r i v e r g r a v e l s and s a n d s b e n e a t h t h e r i v e r and a r o u n d t h e

p ier a re a . The e n c l o s e d a r e a i s d e w a t e r e d , and t h e n t h e .

r i v e r a l l u v i u m i s e x c a v a t e d t o a d e p t h w h e re u n d i s t u r b e d

sandstone i s encountered. A rein fo rced concrete p ie r is

th e n p o u re d , a f t e r which th e base o f t h e p i e r i s p ro tected

f ro m s c o u r w i t h r i p r a p .
A second type o f f o u n d a tio n used f o r b r id g e s i s a

spread fo o t foundation. The s p r e a d f o o t f o u n d a t i o n i s


p l a c e d on t h e u n c o n s o l i d a t e d f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s and i s u s u a l

l y s u p p o r t e d by p i l i n g s d r i v e n t o t h e s o l i d r o c k b e lo w .
The m ain p r o b l e m e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e p l a c e m e n t o f

bridge p ie rs i s the la c k of a s u i t a b l e sandstone o r th e a b

sence o f san d sto n e a t a re a so n a b le depth. The r i v e r c h a n

n el, e s p e c i a l l y b e t w e e n S t . A n th o n y F a l l s and F o r t S m e l l i n g ,

i s known f o r i t s many p l u n g e p o o l s and p o t h o l e s , c r e a t e d by


th e r e t r e a t of S t."A nthony F a l l s . F o r exam ple, d u r in g th e

s i t e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e new T e n t h Avenue B r i d g e , the S ta te

Highway D e p a r t m e n t ( F o r d , 1964) f o u n d a f o r t y f o o t d i f f e r

ence i n e l e v a t i o n o f th e s a n d s to n e s u r f a c e a c r o s s t h e
84

M iss issip p i R iver. B o r i n g s p r o v e d t h a t two l a r g e p l u n g e


p o p l s e x i s t e d on t h e c e n t e r l i n e o f t h e b r i d g e , a n d , t h e r e

fore, t h e p i e r s had t o be l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . In an o th er

i n s t a n c e d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C e d a r Avenue B r i d g e ,

t h e n o r t h e a s t p i e r had t o be p l a c e d f o r t y - f i v e f e e t below

th e r i v e r bed, because s o f t ( u n c o n s o l i d a t e d ) s a n d s t o n e was


encountered. The s o u t h e a s t p i e r o f t h e same b r i d g e . w a s

p l a c e d on wooden p i l e s d r i v e n t w e n t y f e e t b elo w t h e w a t e r
lev el, b e c a u s e no u n d i s t u r b e d s a n d s t o n e was e n c o u n t e r e d

w h i l e d r i v i n g s h e e t p i l i n g t o a d e p t h o f 105 f e e t . A sim i

l a r s i t u a t i o n occurred during c o n s tr u c tio n o f th e Great

N o r t h e r n S t o n e Arch B r i d g e . The p i e r s f o r t h e b r i d g e have

had t o be r e i n f o r c e d s e v e r a l t i m e s due t o s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e
stru ctu re. The s i t u a t i o n was n o t r e a l i z e d when t h e b r i d g e '

was b u i l t , and s u i t a b l e p i l i n g s w e r e n o t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e
u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l s on w h i c h t h e p i e r s w e r e b u i l t

(S c h w a rtz , 1939, pp. 2 3 - 2 4 ) .


The t o t a l v e r t i c a l l o a d on t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a

bridge i s t h e sum o f t h e v e r t i c a l l i v e l o a d p l u s t h e d ead

load. Live lo a d s su c h a s f lo w in g w a t e r , d r i f t i n g i c e , wind,


and t r a f f i c on t h e b r i d g e w i l l n o t c a u s e s e t t l e m e n t . This- -

i s p r o v i d i n g t h e b r i d g e p i e r s a r e s e a t e d on s o u n d s a n d s t o n e
o r a r e w e l l s e a t e d on t h e r i v e r a l l u v i u m . M oderate e l a s t i c

and p l a s t i c s e t t l e m e n t c a n be e x p e c t e d d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c

tio n of the b rid g e. . :


85

Locks and Dams

Mat o r r a f t t y p e f o u n d a t i o n s w ere u s e d i n t h e c o n

s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t h r e e l o c k s and two dams i n t h e Twin C i t y

area. F o r a l l t h e s t r u c t u r e s a r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e mono

lith ic s l a b was p o u r e d on a f r e s h , e x c a v a t e d s u r f a c e o f u n

d istu rb e d sandstone.
D u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e l o w e r l o c k and dam a t S t ,

Anthony F a l l s , t h e p l a c i n g o f fo r m s and s t e e l d i s t u r b e d s e v
e r a l i n c h e s o f m a t e r i a l on t h e e x c a v a t e d s u r f a c e . C onsider

a b l e d i f f i c u l t y was e n c o u n t e r e d i n re m o v i n g t h e l o o s e s a n d
b en eath th e heavy s t e e l m a ts Because o f t h i s , recom menda

t i o n s were made by t h e C orps o f E n g i n e e r s ( 1 9 5 8 , p , 8) f o r


t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e u p p e r l o c k a t S t , An th o n y F a l l s , It

was s u g g e s t e d t h a t e x c a v a t i o n be c a r r i e d t o g r a d e d u r i n g t h e

in itia l o p e r a t i o n , and a s i x i n c h t h i c k c o n s t r u c t i o n s l a b be

placed over the e n t i r e a re a im m ediately. T h i s would p r o v i d e

a f i r m w o r k i n g s u r f a c e , w h i c h would n o t be s u b j e c t t o e r o
s i o n by t r a f f i c during c o n s tru c tio n o p e ra tio n s ,

D ew atering th e sa n d sto n e I n th e v i c i n i t y o f t h e
locks o ffe re d a d d i t i o n a l problem s. I t was f e l t th a t because

o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f uncemented b ed d in g p la n e s i n th e s a n d

s t o n e , t h e y wou ld blow and become open f i s s u r e s i f d e w a t e r

i n g were a t t e m p t e d by open sump m e t h o d s . Therefore, fo r

c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e u p p e r l o c k s i t was recommended t h a t w e l l

p o i n t s be u s e d and s p a c e d a t t h r e e f o o t c e n t e r s . Deep w e l l s
86

wou ld n o t be s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u s e most o f t h e w a t e r i n t h e

s a n d s t o n e was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r i v e r .
F o u n d a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s w e re e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g t h e

c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S econd Twin C i t y Lock ( S c h w a r t z , 1 9 3 9 a

p. 2 9 ) o D uring e x c a v a tio n , a l e a k developed i n th e s a n d


s t o n e n e a r t h e l o w e r end o f t h e m i d d l e w a l l and a s h o r t d i s

ta n c e above th e low er g a te . P ro v isio n s to p rev e n t e ro sio n ,

u n d e r t h e m i d d l e w a l l , w e re made by s e a l i n g b o t h s i d e s o f

th e w a ll w ith a s t e e l diaphram . A fte r com pletion of the

lo c k , , two months l a t e r , w a t e r a g a i n was n o t i c e d l e a k i n g u n


d e r t h e same w a l l . The l e a k was f i n a l l y s e c u r e d a f t e r r e i n

fo rcem en t o f th e s t e e l diaphram .

C o f f e r dams had t o be c o n s t r u c t e d t o p e r m i t e x c a v a - .

tio n f o r the lo ck s. Because- a l l u v i a l f i l l mixed w i t h l i m e

s t o n e s l a b s and g l a c i a l b o u l d e r s u n d e r l i e t h e l o c a t i o n o f

t h e dams, s h e e t p i l i n g c o u l d n o t be d r i v e n t o a s u f f i c i e n t

depth to se c u re c u t o f f o f s u b s u rfa c e flow . At t h e Twin


C i t y Locks no d i f f i c u l t y was e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h l e a k a g e b e

cause of a ten to f i f t e e n fo o t t h ic k b lan k e t of r i v e r s i l t

w h ic h a c c u m u l a t e d on t h e u p s t r e a m s i d e o f t h e c o f f e r dam.

The s i l t e f f e c t i v e l y s e a l e d t h e a r e a . For c o n stru ctio n of

t h e S t . Anthony L o c k s , w e l l p o i n t s a l o n g t h e c e n t e r l i n e o f
t h e dam w e r e recommended t o e l i m i n a t e s e e p a g e i n t o t h e c o n

s tru c tio n area.

B e a r i n g v a l u e s o f t e n t o n s p e r s q u a r e f o o t w e re u s e d

i n design of the lo ck s, e n ough t o i n s u r e s a f e t y o f l o a d i n g


87

failu re. A stress zone ( p r e s s u r e b u l b ) o f up t o 300 f e e t


below t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e l o c k s was c a l c u l a t e d . T h is zone

would p r o j e c t t h r o u g h t h e S t . P eter, P r a i r i e du C h i e n f o r m a

t i o n s , and w e l l i n t o t h e J o r d a n s a n d s t o n e .

C o n s o l i d a t i o n and p l a t e b e a r i n g t e s t s may g i v e an

e s t i m a t e o f t h e amount o f s e t t l e m e n t t o a n t i c i p a t e t o t h e

stru ctu res. Heavy s t r u c t u r e s , s u c h a s l o c k s and dams, w i l l

n o t n o r m a l l y e x p e r i e n c e h i g h l i v e l o a d s , and most o f t h e

s e t t l e m e n t w i l l be e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n .

B uildings

Whenever p o s s i b l e , the S t. P e t e r s a n d s t o n e i s u se d
as a fo u n d a tio n b a se, because o f i t s high b e arin g s t r e n g t h

and s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t . R einforced c o n c re te spread founda

t i o n s a r e n o r m a l l y u s e d wh e re t h e s a n d s t o n e i s u n d i s t u r b e d

a nd i s f r e e f r o m r u n n i n g w a t e r . Where t h e s a n d s t o n e i s n o t

s a t u r a t e d , t h e r o c k a c t s a s an e x c e l l e n t u n d e r d r a i n a g e f o r a
foundation. In a d d itio n , t h e s a n d s t o n e c a n be c h e a p l y e x c a

v a t e d a t c o s t s no h i g h e r t h a n t o remove u n c o n s o l i d a t e d s o i l
m aterials.

C o ncrete p i e r o r c a i s s o n f o u n d a t i o n s a l s o have been


used to g iv e adequate su p p o rt to m u l t i l e v e l b u i l d i n g s . Oc

c a s i o n a l l y , wh e re s t r u c t u r e s a r e t o be b u i l t on t h e s a n d

s t o n e , c o n s i d e r a b l e a m ounts o f d i s t u r b e d s a n d o r a l l u v i u m

o v e r l i e the u n d istu rb e d m a t e r i a l. Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i t

h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o d r i l l and p l a c e c a i s s o n s a t a
O

88
s u f f i c i e n t depth i n th e sandstone to in s u r e ad eq u ate c o n

finem ent f o r th e fo u n d atio n .


S e v e r a l f o u n d a t i o n s h a v e b e e n b u i l t on s t e e p l y d i p
ping s u r f a c e s of th e fo rm a tio n . Uneven s u r f a c e s o f t h e

s a n d s t o n e c a n u s u a l l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o a s s i d e s o f b u r i e d

chan n els. This o f f e r s a d d i t i o n a l problems of n o t o n ly r e

moving s o f t s a n d and a l l u v i u m , b u t w a t e r i n t r u s i o n may be

considerable. The b u r i e d c h a n n e l s a r e w e l l known w a t e r


courses. Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , c a i s s o n c a s i n g h a s t o be

e x t e n d e d t h r o u g h t h e s a t u r a t e d z o n e s and i n t o h a r d s a n d

stone. The c a s i n g w i l l r e l i e v e t h e i n f l o w o f w a t e r f ro m t h e

u n c o n s o l id a te d m a t e r i a l s j however, i f th e s a n d s to n e i s a l s o

s a t u r a t e d , d e w a t e r i n g o p e r a t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y be n e e d e d b e

f o r e c o n c r e t e c a n be p l a c e d .

P i l e fo u n d a tio n s i n th e san d sto n e have been c o n s i d

e re d b u t have n e v e r been u s e d . The s a n d s t o n e h a s t o o h i g h a

p e n e t r a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e f o r p i l e s t o be d r i v e n . If stru c

t u r e s a r e n o t t o be b u i l t d i r e c t l y on t h e s a n d s t o n e , p i l e s

c a n s o m e ti m e s be d r i v e n t h r o u g h u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l s t o
re fu s a l in the S t. P eter. T h i s may o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l p r o b

l e m s , b e c a u s e t h e u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l s - i n . t h e Twin C i t y

a r e a a r e w e l l known f o r t h e l a r g e b l o c k o f l i m e s t o n e and

g la c ia l boulders. Many h e a v y s t r u c t u r e s , e s p e c ia lly in the

downtown p o r t i o n o f S t . P a u l , a r e s u p p o r t e d on f o o t i n g s o v e r

com pressible s o i l s . V i b r a t i o n from t r y i n g to d r i v e p i l e s t o


89

t h e s a n d s t o n e and o v e r a n e x t e n d e d l e n g t h o f t i m e may c a u s e

d i f f e r e n t i a l s e ttle m e n t to nearby s t r u c t u r e s

J e t t i n g p i l e s i n t o p l a c e has n o t been a t t e m p t e d , b e

c a u s e t h e j e t t i n g a c t i o n may c a u s e e x c e s s i v e e r o s i o n by o v e r
enlargem ent o r lo s s of th e h o le . The s u c c e s s o f j e t t i n g
p i l e s i n t o t h e s a n d s t o n e d e p e n d s on t h e h a r d n e s s and f r i a

b i l i t y of the rock a t the s i t e .

I n th e C ity o f S t.' P a u l, where b u ild i n g s a r e to be


c o n s tr u c te d on a t h i n l a y e r of P l a t t e v i l l e lim e s to n e o r
Glenw.ood s h a l e , a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t to th e f o u n d a tio n i s r e
q u ir e d by the- C ity B u ild in g D epartm ent. ' This i s b ecause th e
Glenwood s h a le i s n o t c a p a b le of s u p p o r tin g heavy a p p l ie d
lo a d s w ith o u t e x c e s s iv e s e t t l e m e n t . Ford (1964) s t a t e d t h a t
a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t to such s t r u c t u r e s i s o b ta in e d by d r iv in g
p i l e s th ro u g h th e s h a le to r e f u s a l i n th e s a n d s to n e below.
The a r e a o f s h e a r i n f l u e n c e b elo w a s t r u c t u r e , b u ilt

on t h e s a n d s t o n e , c a n be s a f e l y e s t i m a t e d a t one and o n e -

h a l f tim es th e w id th of th e s t r u c t u r e . T h i s r u l e o f thumb

c a n be u s e d i f t h e m a t e r i a l i s c o n s i d e r e d h o m o g en e o u s, c o n

f i n e d , and t h e a p p l i e d l o a d i s a d e a d l o a d . H ig h l i v e l o a d s

w i l l vary th e depth of sh e a r i n f lu e n c e . I f the depth i s

c a l c u l a t e d t o be d e e p e r t h a n t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e S t . P e t e r ,

t h e n t h e P r a i r i e du C h i e n and J o r d a n f o r m a t i o n s w i l l a b s o r b

a p a r t of the s h e a rin g fo rc e o f th e o v e rly in g s t r u c t u r e .

S h e a r s t r e n g t h s - o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g f o r m a t i o n s s h o u l d be a s

g reat, i f not g re a te r, than the S t. P e te r .


90

FIGURE 22 Excavation in the St. Peter sand


stone for the Dayton's Deport
ment Store in St. Paul. Numer
ous tunnels are exposed
near the Glenwood- St. Paul
contact.
91

The F i r s t N a t i o n a l Bank B u i l d i n g i n S t . Paul is a


t y p i c a l e x am p le o f a b u i l d i n g b u i l t u s i n g t h e S t . P e t e r as a

fo u n d a tio n (Schw artz, 193 6 , p. 9 7 ) The d e p t h t o s a n d s t o n e


was n o t o v e r t h i r t y f e e t , and t h e d e s i g n e r s p l a n n e d t o p l a c e

t h e s t r u c t u r e on e i g h t y - f o u r p i e r s p l a c e d on t h e s a n d s t o n e .

To l o c a t e a s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n t o p l a c e t h e p i e r s , some o f

them had t o be s u n k t h r o u g h f i f t y f e e t o f s o f t s a n d s t o n e t o
a depth o f e ig h ty f e e t , w h e re h a r d s a n d s t o n e , was f o u n d and

was s u i t a b l e t o p l a c e t h e p i e r s . This p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g

s i t e was l o c a t e d on a b u r i e d r i v e r c h a n n e l , w h i c h i s t h e

reason fo r the s o f t sandstone.

Roads

The S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e , when p r o p e r l y d r a i n e d , i s ,

a n e x c e l l e n t s u b - b a s e f o r r o a d s and h i g h w a y s . According to

F o r d ( 1 9 6 4 ) , a f t e r t h e s a n d s t o n e h a s b e e n removed t o r o a d
g r a d e , an a d d i t i o n a l f o o t i s removed and r e p l a c e d w i t h a

p r o p e r ly graded subgrade m a t e r i a l . No r o a d f a i l u r e s i n t h e

p a s t h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d 'due t o s e t t l e m e n t , shear fa ilu re s,


or f r e e z e - th a w c o n d itio n s i n th e 'san d sto n e .

The s a n d s t o n e i t s e l f i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a good c o n

s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l due t o i t s w e l l s o r t e d c h a r a c t e r and l a c k

of fin e s. W ithout a f i n e f r a c t i o n I n th e sa n d , the m a te ria l

w i l l n o t b i n d o r c o m p a ct t o g i v e a s u i t a b l e b u i l d i n g

m aterial.
TUNNELING IN THE S T PETER SANDSTONE

P r o b l e m s i n Tunn eling;

T h e ' r e a d e r , a t t h i s , p o i n t , s h o u l d be w e l l a w a r e o f
t h e g e o l o g i c and e n g i n e e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e S t .

P eter sandstone O bviously, because of th e s e c h a r a c t e r i s

t i c s and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f o r m a t i o n , th e sandstone i s

a n e x c e l l e n t medium i n w h ic h t o c o n s t r u c t s e w e r and u t i l i t y

tu n n els.
C o s t o f t u n n e l e x c a v a t i o n i s t h e m ain r e a s o n f o r

p lac in g tu n n els in the S t. P e te r sandstone r a t h e r than th e


overlying g la c ia l d r i f t . D riving tu n n els in the d r i f t c o sts

o ver $600.00 p e r f o o t j tu n n e lin g i n the S t. P e t e r F orm ation

a v e r a g e s a r o u n d $2 5 0 . 0 0 p e r f o o t .

The S t . P e t e r s a n d s to n e i s f a r from b e in g t r o u b l e
f r e e in regard to tu n n el c o n s tru c tio n . However, t h e o n l y

e x p l o r a t i o n o r t e s t i n g perform ed p r i o r to c o n s t r u c t i o n i s
th e d r i l l i n g of alignm ent h o les along the proposed ro u te s of

the t u n n e l s .

The b e s t t u n n e l i n g , c o n d i t i o n s a r e f o u n d w h e re t h e

f o r m a t i o n i s f r e e f r o m w a t e r and w h e r e t h e s a n d s t o n e i s com

p e t e n t and c a p p e d w i t h t h e P l a t t e v i l l e l i m e s t o n e . To some
degree, t h i s i s n o r m a l l y t h e c a s e ; h o w e v e r , p r o b l e m s do e x

i s t and a r e su m m arize d b e l o w :

1) High j o i n t e d , f r i a b l e , o r s a t u r a t e d s a n d s t o n e may c r e a t e

92
93

heavy ground c o n d i t i o n s . The t y p e o f t u n n e l l i n i n g i s

d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e competency of th e ro o k . S teel
arch s u p p o rts 5 l i n e r p la te s , o r s k i n t i g h t l i n i n g may be

req u ire d in caving ground. Where t h e s a n d s t o n e i s com

p eten t, no l i n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y .

2) J o i n t i n g p r o b l e m s c a n be p l a c e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s :

w a t e r b e a r i n g j o i n t s w h ic h may be e n l a r g e d when e n c o u n t

e r e d u n l e s s w a t e r f l o w i s i m m e d i a t e l y a r r e s t e d , and

j o i n t s t h a t d i p a t h i g h a n g l e s and a r e o b s c u r e d f ro m

sig h t. Clay f i l l e d j o i n t s can a l s o o f f e r h a za rd s b e

c au se of a l a c k o f f r i c t i o n betw een s u r f a c e s .

3) A h i g h w a t e r t a b l e may n e c e s s i t a t e t h e u s e o f d e w a t e r i n g
w e lls , underdrains or w ell p o in ts . Heavy pumping may

c a u s e g r a i n r e a r r a n g e m e n t i n t h e r o c k s t r u c t u r e and r e

duce th e competency of t h e s a n d s t o n e .

4) S o f t , and c a v i n g g r o u n d i s u s u a l l y e n c o u n t e r e d n e a r b u r

ied c h a n n e ls. The s a n d s t o n e c a n a l s o be e x p e c t e d t o be

s a t u r a t e d i n t h e s e l o c a t i o n s , w h ic h w i l l r e q u i r e d e w a t e r
ing. When t h e s e - c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t , c o s t l y m i n i n g m ethods

a r e r e q u i r e d and w i l l d e p e n d on t h e t y p e o f c h a n n e l

f i l l i n g and t h e y i e l d o f w a t e r .

5) The e a s e o f e x c a v a t i o n i n t h e s a n d s t o n e i s a d a y t o d a y

p r o b l e m , and r a t e o f t u n n e l a d v a n c e m e n t d e p e n d s on t h e

f r i a b i l i t y and d e g r e e o f c e m e n t i n g o f t h e s a n d s t o n e .

U nder i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s a t u n n e l f a c e c a n be a d v a n c e d

f r o m f o u r t o s i x f e e t i n a n h o u r by h y d r a u l i c m in i n g
94

m e t h o d s j h o w e v e r , when c e m e n t e d o r h a r d s a n d s t o n e i s e n
countered, j a c k hammers and b l a s t i n g a r e e m p l o y e d , w h i c h

i s t i m e c o n su m in g and c o s t l y .

6) E x c e s s i v e a r c h i n g o r o v e r b r e a k , c a u s e d by t h e n a t u r a l

b a l a n c i n g o f s h e a r s t r e s s e s a r o u n d a t u n n e l o p e n i n g , may
r e q u i r e c o s t l y and e l a b o r a t e t u n n e l s u p p o r t s .

7) Near t h e banks o f b u r ie d o r exposed r i v e r c h a n n e l s , n a t


u r a l s a n d s t o n e c a v e s may e x i s t . T h es e may be a h i n

drance, o r t h e y may be b e n e f i c i a l i n w h ic h t o d i s p o s e o f
t u n n e l muck.

8) A sudden r i s e of th e w a te r t a b l e over th e i n v e r t l e v e l

w i l l cause f lo o d in g o f th e pore spaces i n th e sa n d sto n e .

The a d d e d w e i g h t o f t h e w a t e r may overcom e t h e s h e a r


s t r e n g t h o f t h e r o c k and r e s u l t i n f a i l u r e . This s i t u

a t i o n i s most common when t h e s a n d s t o n e i s b e i n g a r t i

f i c i a l l y d e w a t e r e d and t h e n f o r n a t u r a l o r u n n a t u r a l

reasons the area i s rew atered.

9) B u r i e d c h a n n e l s t h a t h a v e c u t and removed l a r g e p o r t i o n s
o f s a n d s t o n e a r e f o u n d i n many l o c a l i t i e s . U nless th e

c h a n n e l s a r e l o c a t e d p r i o r t o t h e i r e n c o u n t e r by a t u n

n e l , a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s p e c i a l
m i n i n g m ethods n e e d e d .

10) Due t o t h e d e p t h o f t h e S t . P e t e r F o r m a t i o n b elo w gro u n d ,

it i s m o st d e s i r a b l e t o l o c a t e t h e i n v e r t a s c l o s e t o

the G lenw ood-St.' P e te r c o n ta c t as p o s s ib l e . The


95
s a n d s t o n e i s known t o be s o f t n e a r t h e t o p o f t h e f o r m a -
tion* and t h e r e f o r e , c a v i n g p r o b l e m s a r e n o t uncommon.

Tunnel D e s c r ip t i o n

Tunnels d r i v e n i n th e S t . P e te r sandstone a re u s u a l

l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n a few f e e t b elo w t h e Glenwood s h a l e j how

e v e r , i n v e r t s h a v e v a r i e d f r o m 20 t o 200 f e e t b e lo w t h e

ground s u r f a c e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e s u r f a c e t o p o g r a p h y . Most
of the o ld e r tu n n els a re r e c ta n g u la r in shape, w ith t h e i r

backs being o n e - t h i r d to o n e - h a l f h ig h e r th a n t h e i r w id th s .

The more r e c e n t s t o r m s e w e r s h a v e a c i r c u l a r c r o s s s e c t i o n

w i t h d i a m e t e r s up t o f o u r t e e n f e e t . The s e w e r t u n n e l s a r e

u s u a l l y lined" w ith r e i n f o r c e d c a s t - i n - p l a c e c o n c r e te f o r

m a i n t a i n i n g p r o p e r t u n n e l g r a d e (one f o o t p e r 1 , 0 0 0 f e e t ) ,

and t o i n s u r e t u n n e l s t a b i l i t y . I n c o n t r a s t , many o f t h e

o ld e r tu n n e ls b e n eath S t. Paul have stood f o r over f i f t y

y e a r s u n l i n e d and w i t h no s u p p o r t .

I n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o v e r 145 m i l e s o f s e w e r

tu n n e ls a lo n e have been e x c a v a te d . The C i t y o f M i n n e a p o l i s

h a s 65 m i l e s o f t u n n e l s , o f w h ic h 33 m i l e s a r e s a n i t a r y s e w

e r s , a v e r a g i n g f o u r by s i x f e e t j 1 7 .6 m iles o f i n t e r c e p t o r

s e w e r s up t o t h i r t e e n f e e t i n d i a m e t e r ; and 1 5 - 4 m i l e s o f

s t o r m s e w e r s , a v e r a g i n g f o u r by e i g h t f e e t . The U n i v e r s i t y

o f M innesota i n M in n e ap o lis has f i v e m ile s o f t u n n e l s u n d e r

t h e c a m p u s , w h ic h a r e u se d f o r h e a t i n g and sew age d i s p o s a l .


v
The t u n n e l s u n d e r t h e campus a v e r a g e f o u r by s i x f e e t and
96

100 f e e t below t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e . The C i t y o f S t , Paul has

a t o t a l of s e v e n t y - f i v e m iles of t u n n e l s , f i v e m iles of

w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o t h e s t r e e t c a r company b u t h a v e b e e n a b a n

doned.
The d e e p e s t t u n n e l i n t h e Twin C i t y a r e a , located a t

G r i g g s and Rondo S t r e e t s i n S t . P a u l , i s 12 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r
and 205 f e e t b e lo w t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e . B u i l t i n 1935-1936,

i t i s t h e main t r u n k s e w e r f o r t h e M i n n e a p o l i s - S t . P a u l S a n

ita ry D istrict.
Tunnels a r e e i t h e r d r i v e n i n from an e x i s t i n g r i v e r

b l u f f w h e re t h e s a n d s t o n e o u t c r o p s , or v e r t i c a l sh a fts are

d r i v e n down f r o m t h e s u r f a c e t o i n t e r s e c t t h e t u n n e l The

V e r t i c a l s h a f t s a r e u s e d t o remove t u n n e l muck, g i v e a c c e s s

and v e n t i l a t i o n t o t h e t u n n e l s , and b r i n g i n t h e - n e e d e d

u tilitie s. S m a l l d i a m e t e r a l i g n m e n t h o l e s a r e s p a c e d 500 t o
2 , 0 0 0 f e e t a p a r t a l o n g t h e c e n t e r l i n e o f t h e t u n n e l and a r e

s o m e ti m e s u s e d t o b r i n g i n u t i l i t i e s and., p i p e s t o pump i n

c o n c re te f o r the tu n n e l l i n i n g .

A r c h in g , and S t r e s s D i s t r i b u t i o n

Rib s u p p o r t s and l a g g i n g i n t h e t u n n e l s a r e m a i n l y

used t o l i m i t e x c e s s iv e o v e rb re a k i n th e tu n n e l back. When


a n o p e n i n g i s made i n t h e s a n d s t o n e , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r

t h e a d j a c e n t r o c k t o move i n t o t h e t u n n e l . The d i s p l a c e m e n t

o f r o c k i s c a u s e d by t h e i n c o m p e t e n c y o f t h e s a n d s t o n e t o

w ith s ta n d th e o v e r ly in g w eight above th e o p e n in g . Shear


97

s t r e s s e s a r e b u i l t up i n t h e r o c k i n a n a t t e m p t t o r e d i s t r i

b u te th e overburden w eight to th e s id e s o f th e tu n n e l. Re
s i s t a n c e t o t h i s a r c h i n g e f f e c t i s p r o v i d e d by t h e f r i c t i o n

and t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f t h e s a n d s t o n e . The t u n n e l s u p
p o r t s n e e d o n l y be d e s i g n e d t o w i t h s t a n d t h e w e i g h t o f t h e

c a l c u l a t e d o v e r b r e a k and n o t t h e e n t i r e r o c k l o a d (thickness

of overburden).

The m a g n i t u d e o f a r c h i n g s t r e s s e s t h a t w i l l e x i s t

a r o u n d a n o p e n i n g i n t h e s a n d s t o n e i s one o f t h e main p r o b

lems i n d e s i g n i n g a t u n n e l . I t i s in a d v is a b le to determ ine

t h e a c t u a l s t r e s s e s by a s s u m i n g d a t a w i t h o u t t h e v e r i f i c a
tio n of f ie ld data. However, l a r g e sums o f money c a n be

s a v e d i n l i n i n g t h e t u n n e l i f t h e s t r e s s e s c a n be c a l c u l a t e d
q u an titativ ely . " R u l e s o f thumb" f o r l i n i n g t u n n e l s , for

e x a m p l e , one i n c h o f c o n c r e t e l i n i n g p e r f o o t o f t u n n e l d i

a m e t e r , c a n be a c o s t l y o v e r d e s i g n a s p e c t . To i l l u s t r a t e

how s t r e s s e s and r o c k l o a d s c a n be computed f o r a n u n d e r

ground o p en in g , the fo llo w in g d is c u s s io n is offered.

Using T e r z a g h i 's fo rm u las ( P r o c to r and W hite, 1958 ) 3


th e fo llo w in g e x e rte d p r e s s u r e s can be c a l c u l a t e d f o r a
dense san d :
Hp ( max) = K(B * Hfc)
TT

Where: p(max) ~ Load t h i c k n e s s c a r r i e d by r o o f


supports
K = C o n s t a n t , d e p e n d s on t h e d e g r e e o f
com pactness. The S t . P e t e r h a s a
v a lu e o f .60
98

(B + Kj.) - W id th p l u s h e i g h t f t u n n e l r two
t i m e s t h e d i a m e t e r f o r a . c i r c u l a r
, cross s e c tio n . F o r t h i s e a s e a.
d i a m e t e r o f 13 f e e t i s u s e d .

T herefore: ^pfm ax) = 0 . 0 6 ( 2 x 13 ft,)


Hp(max) = 1 5 . 6 f e e t o f s a n d s t o n e l o a d

And t h e w e i g h t o f t h e o v e r b r e a k =
V e r t i c a l load = (san d sto n e d e n s ity ) x (load
th ick n ess)

V V e r t i c a l load = 1 5 0 p s f x 15.6 f t .

V e r t i c a l load & 2,340 p s f

And t h e s a n d p r e s s u r e on t h e s i d e s o f t h e t u n n e l
(h o rizontal t h r u s t ) =
p h = 0 . 3 0 w ( 0 . 5 H t + Hp )

W here: p^ = H o r i z o n t a l t h r u s t
0.30 = C onstant
w = p s f o f s a n d s t o n e (150 p s f )
= H eight o f tu n n e l (l2 f e e t )
Hp s Load T h i c k n e s s c a r r i e d , by s u p p o r t s

T herefore: '
Ph = 0 . 3 0 x (1 5 0 p s f ) X (12/2 + 15.6 f t . )

P'n = 1 , 0 8 0 p s f
F o r a d d e d p r o t e c t i o n a s a f e t y f a c t o r o f two s h o u l d
be c a l c u l a t e d :
Thus s V e r t i c a l Load = 4 , 6 0 0 p s f o r 32 p s i

H o rizo n ta l Thrust = " 2 , 1 0 0 p s f o r 15 p s i

For th is p a r tic u la r case, th e tu n n e l l i n i n g should

be d e s i g n e d t o w i t h s t a n d t h e a b o v e g i v e n v e r t i c a l l o a d and

h o r i z o n t a l t h r u s t u n le s s th e -tunnel i s to have i n t e r n a l

pressures. The s a f e t y f a c t o r w i l l a l l o w f o r a n y i n c r e a s e o f

^p (m ax ) ^ w a t e r l e v e l r i s e s and s a t u r a t e s t h e l o a d sup-*
p o r t e d by t h e t u n n e l l i n i n g . T h es e v a l u e s a r e r o u g h
99
\

e s tim a te s and can n o t be c o n s id e re d v a l i d i f th e sa n d sto n e is.


n o t c o n s id e re d m a ssiv e , i s o t r o p i c , and homogeneous w ith r e s
p e c t to i t s e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s O ther c r i t e r i a t h a t have to
be assumed a r e : l ) s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s u n ifo rm ; 2) th e r e
a r e no r e s i d u a l s t r e s s e s i n th e s a n d s to n e ; 3) v e r t i c a l p r e s
s u r e on th e tu n n e l back i s in d e p e n d e n t o f th e tu n n e l depth
below ground; 4) th e tu n n e l l i n i n g has to only s u p p o r t th e
mass o f th e o v e rb re a k ; and 5) th e sa n d sto n e has n o t been
d is t u r b e d o r i s h ig h ly j o i n t e d .

Tunnel S u p p o rts

The f i n a l s u p p o r t s y s t e m s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o s u p

p o rt the t o t a l load of the c a lc u la te d o v erb reak . This i s

t h e m ost a d v e r s e l o a d t h e t u n n e l s u p p o r t s w i l l be s u b j e c t e d

to , unless la rg e , j o i n t derived blocks of sand sto n e a re e n

co u n tered . T h e r e f o r e , d i m e n s i o n s and s p a c i n g o f t h e s u p
p o r t s d e p e n d on t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r o c k l o a d s .

I f th e s a n d s t o n e i s v e r y co m p e te n t and w i l l s ta n d

w ithout sloughing, t h e t u n n e l s c a n be l e f t u n s u p p o r t e d .

Norm ally, s t e e l a rc h s u p p o r ts a r e used i f t h e r e i s any s i g n

of overbreak. The s u p p o r t s t h a t h a v e b e e n u s e d a r e f i v e

i n c h w id e s t e e l c h a n n e l s t h a t a r e f o rm ed i n t o a s e m i - c i r c l e

w ith a radium eq u al to t h a t o f th e t u n n e l . Foot p la te s ,


w e ld ed t o t h e end o f t h e c h a n n e l s , a r e p l a c e d i n n o t c h e s c u t

in the tu n n el w a l l s . W eig h t f r o m t h e b a c k s o l i d l y s e a t s t h e

f o o t i n g s o f t h e a r c h a g a i n s t t h e s a n d s t o n e w a l l s and
100

d istrib u te s t h e w e i g h t i n t o and away from t h e t u n n e l o p e n


ing, As a g e n e r a l r u l e , t h e s u p p o r t s a r e s p a c e d on s i x f o o t
c e n t e r s , and l a g g i n g i s p l a c e d b e t w e e n t h e r i b s .
S t e e l l i n e r p l a t e s have been used i n t h e tu n n e l s

when e x c e s s i v e a r c h i n g i s a n t i c i p a t e d o r w h e re t h e s a n d s t o n e

is h ig h ly jo in te d . The p l a t e s u s e d ha v e b e e n made o f f o u r

t e e n gauge c o r r u g a t e d s t e e l . The p l a t e s a r e b o l t e d t o g e t h e r

t o f o rm a s o l i d s e m i - c i r c l e , th e s iz e of h a lf the diam eter

of the tu n n e l. A s i l l cut in the w a ll of the tu n n el su p

p o rts the p l a t e s

"Skin t i g h t " l i n i n g a l s o i s used u n d er heavy ground

co n d itio n s. T h i s t y p e o f l i n i n g i s w here t h e u p p e r h a l f o f

the tunnel i s lin e d w ith tim b er. The t i m b e r s a r e u s u a l l y

p l a n k s , t h r e e i n c h e s t h i c k and e i g h t i n c h e s w i d e . T heir
l e n g t h s d e p en d on t h e t u n n e l ' s d i m e n s i o n s . The p l a n k s a r e

j o i n e d t o g e t h e r t o f o r m a h a l f d e c a g o n , and t h e e n d s r e s t on
a s i l l cut in to the tunnel w all.

The m ost e x p e n s i v e t y p e o f l i n i n g , b u t t h e s t r o n g

est, t h a t has been used t o s u p p o rt th e s a n d s to n e i s s t e e l

r i n g b e am s. The r i n g beams a r e s i x i n c h w id e " l " beams t h a t

c o m p lete ly c ir c u m s c rib e th e tu n n e l opening. Spacing of the

beams h a s v a r i e d f r o m t h r e e t o t e n f e e t d e p e n d i n g on t h e

c o m p e te n c y o f t h e r o c k . Hard wood l a g g i n g o r s p i l i n g i s

p l a c e d b e t w e e n t h e . beam s. I f th e tu n n e l i s h o r s e shoe

s h a p e d , s t e e l r i b s and i n v e r t s t r u t s a r e n o r m a l l y employ ed
i n heavy ground.
101

FIGURE 2 3. Placing lagging on the back of a sandstone tunnel be


tween steel arch supports. Nozzle in foreground is
used to cut the sandstone.
102

FIGURE 2 4 . Unsupported tunnel driven in competent sand


stone. (Rondo St. storm sewer, St. Paul)

FIGURE 25. Full ring beam supports used to support heavy


ground. (Rondo St. storm sewer, St. Paul)
103

When t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f a t u n n e l h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d ,
a c o n c r e te l i n i n g i s poured i n p la c e over th e tem porary
s t e e l o r wood l i n i n g . I n t h e l a r g e r and more r e c e n t t u n
n els, 100 f o o t l e n g t h s a r e p o u r e d a t one t i m e w i t h t h e u s e
o f a t r a c k mounted f o r m . The c o n c r e t e i s mixed on t h e

g r o u n d s u r f a c e and pumped t h r o u g h p i p e s p l a c e d on a l i g n m e n t

h o le s o r v e r t i c a l s h a f t s t h a t i n t e r s e c t th e t u n n e l a t approx-
' ,

im ate 1,600 f o o t i n t e r v a l s . When a t u n n e l i s b e i n g d r i v e n

t h r o u g h h e a v y g r o u n d , c o n c r e t e i s u s u a l l y p o u r e d a s s o o n a s

p o s s i b l e a f t e r e x c a v a t i o n . - Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , o n ly t e n

t o t w e n t y f o o t s p a n s a r e p o u r e d a t one t i m e .

T u n n e l s u p p o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d b y . a

ro c k mechanics i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n program . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n


should in c lu d e th e t i m e - s t r a i n lo a d in g p r o p e r t i e s of th e

r o c k and a n e v a l u a t i o n -of t h e mode o f l o a d i n g . The mode i s

t h e p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h ic h r o c k s t r a i n i s tra n s la te d in to
l o a d on t h e s u p p o r t s y s t e m .

D e fo rm a tio n m easurements a r e h e l p f u l i n d e t e c t i n g
c o n v e r g e n c e , c o m p r e s s i o n , f l o o r h e a v e , and o t h e r u nw anted

in d ic a tio n s of tunnel f a i l u r e . R ecording t h i s d a ta over a

p e r i o d o f t i m e would f o r e w a r n a g a i n s t f a i l u r e l o n g b e f o r e

v i s u a l evidence i s obvious. Advance w a r n i n g wo u ld p e r m i t


the p la c in g of adequate support in tim e. I n s t r u m e n t s , used

in the tu n n e ls, by no means s h o u l d r e p l a c e t h e m i n e r ' s i n

s i g h t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r o c k c o n d i t i o n s b u t s i i o u l d s u p
plem ent h is s k i l l s .
io4
V arious ty p es of load c e l l s , e x t e n s i o n o m e t e r s , and
s t r a i n g a g e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d t o g i v e v e r y good s t r a i n

i n f o r m a t i o n i n t u n n e l s and e l i m i n a t e t h e e d u c a t e d g u e s s e s ,
now u s e d i n m i n i n g . In s i t u te s tin g a lso elim in ates o b ta in

i n g u n d i s t u r b e d s a m p l e s and l a b o r a t o r y t e s t i n g w h i c h t a k e s
t i m e , and r e s u l t s f r o m t h e t e s t may be t o o l a t e t o be o f a n y

good i n t h e f i e l d . Such i n s i t u l o a d m e a s u r e m e n t s w i l l d e
term ines 1 ) how t h e l o a d v a r i e s w i t h t i m e and f a c e a d v a n c e

ments 2 ) q u a l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s 3 ) c h a n g e s i n l o a d on

i n s t a l l e d s u p p o r t s as t h e f a c e a p p ro a c h e s zones o f w eakness.

P e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t w a s t e o f t o d a y s c o n s t r u c t i o n

d o l l a r i s o v e r d e s i g n o f u n d e r g r o u n d s t r u c t u r e s and s u p
po rts. U n d e r d e s i g n c a n be e q u a l l y a s bad b e c a u s e o f p e r s o n

a l i n j u r y and c o s t l y d e l a y s .

M in in g Methods

U n t i l 1934, c o n v e n t i o n a l m i n i n g m eth o d s w e r e u s e d t o
excavate tu n n els in th e S t. P e ter sandstone. I n 1934, h y -

d r a u l i c m i n i n g was a d o p t e d i n o r d e r t o e x p e d i t e and c u t c o s t

of m ining. T h i s method a d v a n c e s t u n n e l s by u n d e r c u t t i n g t h e

S a n d s t o n e w i t h a s t r e a m o f w a t e r u n d e r a p r e s s u r e o f 300

p o unds p e r s q u a r e i n c h , f o r c e d t h r o u g h a 3/ l 6 i n c h n o z z e l .

The s a n d s t o n e i s b r o k e n i n t o s m a l l p a r t i c l e s , p a r t l y by d i

r e c t i m p a c t o f t h e j e t and p a r t l y by u n d e r c u t t i n g , w h i c h
fo rc e s the tu n n e l fac e to cave.
105

FIGURE 26. Hydraulic mining the St. Peter sandstone. Operator


is undercutting the face which will cause it to cave
into the tunnel.
106

When t h e j e t i s moved s l o w l y a c r o s s t h e f a c e o f t h e

t u n n e l , a two t o s i x i n c h w id e and t h r e e t o f o u r f o o t d e ep

c u t i s made i n t h e r o o k , u n l e s s t h e m a t e r i a l i s q u i t e h a r d

The f a c e o f t h e t u n n e l i s f i r s t c u t i n t o s e v e r a l r e c t a n g l e s

w ith the w ater j e t U n d e rc u ttin g th e low er s e c t i o n of th e


f a c e causes' th e hanging b lo c k t o c a v e . Once c a v e d , t h e
b l o c k s a r e b r o k e n up i n t o a f i n e u n i f o r m s a n d by t h e same

high p r e s s u r e j e t s . W a t e r s u p p l i e d t h r o u g h a two i n c h wash


hose f l u s h e s th e l o o s e sand from t h e f a c e to a s m a ll s l u r r y

pump, m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e t u n n e l f l o o r a few f e e t b a c k fr o m

the f a c e From t h e sump t h e s l u r r y i s pumped o u t o f t h e

tu n n el, ,
A c re w o f f o u r men i s c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g t h e m i n i n g

o peration. Two men d i r e c t h i g h p r e s s u r e j e t s , a. t h i r d man

d i r e c t s t h e two i n c h wash h o s e , and t h e f o u r t h man t e n d s t h e

p u m p s U n d e r good c o n d i t i o n s a. crew c a n a d v a n c e a f a c e f r o m

f o u r to s i x f e e t i n an hour.

An a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e h y d r a u l i c m i n i n g method i s t h e
h y d r a u l i c i n g m a c h in e c a l l e d t h e " j e t " or " j e t jum bo," The

m a c h in e i s t r a c k mounted and a d v a n c e s a t u n n e l by t h e r o t a

tio n of a c u ttin g bar, r o t a t in g p a r a l l e l to the fa c e . The

b a r i s a b o u t t h e same l e n g t h a s t h e t u n n e l d i a m e t e r and r o
t a t e s a t two r e v o l u t i o n s p e r m i n u t e by a two h o r s e power

compressed a i r m otor. W ater i s d is c h a r g e d a t p r e s s u r e s b e

tw e e n 3 00 and 350 p o u n d s p e r s q u a r e i n c h t h r o u g h h o l e s i n

the c u ttin g bar a t th re e inch i n t e r v a l s . The r o t a t i n g b a r


107

c o n t i n u a l l y c u t s and d i s i n t e g r a t e s the sandstone as the fa c e

is advanced The m a c h in e c a n u s u a l l y a d v a n c e a f a c e f a s t e r
t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l h y d r a u l i c m eth o d .
T h e " m o l e o r t u n n e l b o r i n g m ac h in e a l s o h a s b e en

u s e d t o e x c a v a t e t u n n e l s i n t h e Twin C i t y a r e a . The b o r i n g

m a c h in e s t h a t ha v e b e e n u s e d w e re h y d r a u l i c a l l y o p e r a t e d f a n

type c u t t e r s w ith r o t a t i n g b l a d e s . The m a c h i n e s a r e u s u a l l y

mounted on f o u r j a c k s s e c u r e d t o t h e f l o o r and b a c k o f t h e

tu n n el. Four blades w ith f i f t y c u ttin g te e th , on e a c h


blade, r o t a t e a t a p p ro x im a te ly tw e n ty r e v o l u t i o n s p e r m inute

and ha v e c u t t u n n e l s up t o f o u r t e e n f e e t i n d i a m e t e r . The

c o s t o f o p e r a t i n g t h e " m o le i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f t h e

h y d r a u l i c m ining m eth o d . The mole" i s n o t a d a p t a b l e t o a l l


m ining c o n d i t i o n s j s o f t s a n d s to n e caves e a s i l y , and i t i s
v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o p l a c e l a g g i n g a b o v e . t h e m a c h in e i n t h e

arching sandstone. N o r m a l l y , t h e "m ole " c a n a d v a n c e a f a c e


f a s t e r t h a n a n y o t h e r method i f t h e r o c k c o n d i t i o n s a r e f a

vorable. As much a s 40 f e e t p e r s h i f t h a s b e e n e x c a v a t e d

w i t h a t o t a l o f 120 f e e t p e r d a y . E xcavated m a t e r i a l from

t h e m a c h in e i s removed f r o m t h e t u n n e l by a n a r r o w gau g e

railro ad .

Com pressed a i r , u n d e r h i g h p r e s s u r e and r e l e a s e d


th ro u g h hose l i n e s , has been used t o c u t th e s a n d s t o n e .

T h i s method was employed t o mine g l a s s s a n d f o r t h e F o r d

M o to r company b e n e a t h t h e i r p l a n t i n S t . P a u l .
108

When h e a v y g r o u n d o r b u r l e d r i v e r c h a n n e l s a r e e n
c o u n te r e d 5 h y d r a u l i c s h i e l d s have been used to t e m p o r a r i l y
su p p o rt the sandstone w hile m in in g . The s h i e l d s u s e d c o n

s i s t e d o f a c i r c u l a r b u l k h e a d w i t h t h e w o r k i n g end h a v i n g

sev eral large c u ttin g te e th . The b a c k o f t h e r i g i s s e c u r e d ,


to the tunnel lin in g w ith h ydraulic ja c k s . The j a c k s p u s h

th e s h i e l d i n t o th e tu n n e l fa c e s e v e r a l in c h e s o r f e e t so

t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l c a n be mined w i t h s a f e t y . A fte r the


s h i e l d h as been pushed f o rw a rd , th e j a c k s a r e r e t r a c t e d so

more s u p p o r t s c a n be i n s t a l l e d . T his p ro c e ss i s repeated

u n t i l th e tu n n e l h a s -b e e n d riv e n thro u g h th e problem a r e a .

A p r e s s u r e c a i s s o n has been used o n ly once f o r t u n


n e l c o n s tr u c tio n i n the S t. P e te r . The c a i s s o n was u s e d

w hile d riv in g a tu n n e l a c ro ss th e b u ried channel beneath

L e x i n g t o n Avenue i n S t . P a u l . A h i g h i n f l o w o f w a t e r fr o m
g la c ia l debris n e c e ssita te d th is op eratio n .

Case H i s t o r i e s o f T u n n e l i n g i n t h e S t . P e t e r S a n d s t o n e

C o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n t u n n e l i n g m eth o d s i n t h e

s a n d s t o n e h a s b e e n g a i n e d o v e r t h e l a s t 100 y e a r s . The c o l

le c tio n of case h i s t o r ie s t h a t f o l l o w b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s some


o f t h e e n g i n e e r i n g and g e o l o g i c p r o b l e m s t h a t w e r e e n c o u n t

ered w hile d r iv in g tu n n e ls in th e M e tro p o litan a r e a .

E a s tm a n T u n n e l ( S c h w a r t z , 1933, p p . 2 5 - 2 6 )

The f i r s t a t t e m p t t o c o n s t r u c t a t u n n e l i n t h e S t .

P e t e r s a n d s t o n e was t o d r i v e a s h a f t f r o m t h e f o o t o f S t .
lo g
Anthony F a l l s a t H e n n e p i n I s l a n d up t o and u n d e r N i c o l l e t

Islan d The t u n n e l was t o be u s e d t o I n c r e a s e t h e a v a i l a

b i l i t y o f w a te r power. When t h e t u n n e l was o n e - t h i r d com

p l e t e d <, w a t e r b r o k e i n t o t h e t u n n e l f r o m t h e r i v e r ab o v e and

e r o d e d away l a r g e a m ounts o f f r i a b l e s a n d s t o n e and u n d e r


mined t h e a b o v e l y i n g P l a t t e v i l l e l i m e s t o n e . This caused a
c a v e - i n and a b r e a k i n t h e c r e s t o f S t , Anthony F a l l s w h ic h
r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e t r e a t o f t h e f a l l s 300 f e e t up s t r e a m on

th e e a s t bank o f th e M i s s i s s i p p i l i v e r .

The c a v e - i n was a t t r i b u t e d t o a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f

w a ter p e r c o l a t i n g through j o i n t s i n th e P l a t t e v i l l e lim e

s t o n e and i n t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g s a n d s t o n e . A d d i t i o n a l am ounts

o f w a t e r w e re e n c o u n t e r e d d i s c h a r g i n g i n t o t h e t u n n e l a l o n g
- ~ 7 -1
h o r i z o n t a l f i s s u r e s , presum ably bedding p l a n e s . The ad d ed
w e i g h t o f t h e w a t e r and t h e r a p i d e r o s i o n o f t h e s a n d s t o n e

c a u s e d a l o s s o f s t r e n g t h t o t h e m a t e r i a l .'""The c o l l a p s e o f

t h e t u n n e l c a u s e d t h e ab an d o n m en t o f t h e p r o j e c t on O c t o b e r

4, 1869.

Wabasha S t r e e t I n t e r c e p t o r S e w e r (Ackermann, 1938)

The Wabasha S t r e e t t u n n e l was d r i v e n u n d e r downtown

S t . P a u l a t a d e p t h below t h e w a t e r t a b l e . A w a te r inflow

o f 4,00 g a l l o n s p e r m i n u t e was e n c o u n t e r e d f r o m numerous


seams and f i s s u r e s , c a u s i n g e x t r e m e e r o s i o n p r o b l e m s . The

c o n c r e t e l i n i n g o f t h e t u n n e l was n o t p o u r e d u n t i l p r a c t i c -

a l l y t h e e n t i r e 3 , 0 0 0 f e e t o f t u n n e l was c o m p l e t e d . By t h e
110

t i m e t h e l i n i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d , th e sid e w alls of the s h a f t

had become d r y . The e n t i r e i n f l o w by t h a t t i m e was b e i n g

i n t e r c e p t e d by a n a n d e r d r a i n .
The e a r l i e r i n f l o w i n t o t h e t u n n e l was w a t e r d r a i n
in g from th e s u r r o u n d i n g s a n d s t o n e a b o u t th e o p e n in g . As
t h e s a t u r a t e d zone a b o v e t h e i n v e r t was b e i n g d e w a t e r e d t o

t h e u n d e r d r a i n l e v e l , a co n e o f d e p r e s s i o n was b e i n g c r e

ated A f t e r t h e c o n e was e s t a b l i s h e d , the in flo w decreased

t o th e n a t u r a l flow v e l o c i t y of w a te r th ro u g h th e s a n d sto n e

in th at lo c a lity .

R o b ly n Avenue I n t e r c e p t o r S e w e r , S t . P a u l
S a n d s t o n e e n c o u n t e r e d w e s t o f t h e P a i r v i e w Avenue

s h a f t was f o u n d t o be h a r d and s e l f s u s t a i n i n g . The h y

d r a u l i c method o f m i n i n g was i n a d e q u a t e , and b l a s t i n g t e c h

n i q u e s had t o be u s e d t o l o o s e n t h e s a n d s t o n e .

An a v e r a g e o f 0 .6 9 p o unds o f 30 p e r c e n t g e l a t i n d y

n a m i t e was r e q u i r e d t o l o o s e n one y a r d o f s a n d s t o n e . The

d e p t h o f h e a d i n g p u l l e d by a s i n g l e ro u n d was 8 . 4 f e e t and
r e q u i r e d 33<.12 p o unds o f e x p l o s i v e s . A round c o n s i s t e d of

t h r e e c u t h o l e s , n i n e r e l i e v e r h o l e s , and s e v e n t r i m m i n g
h o les.

A f t e r t h e r o o k was l o o s e n e d f r o m t h e f a c e , i t was

wa shed down t o a d r e d g e pump w i t h a s i x i n c h h o s e . A second

b r e a k i n g o f t h e r o c k was r e q u i r e d b e f o r e t h e pumps c o u l d
Ill

handle the m a t e r i a l The b l a s t i n g o p e r a t i o n c a u s e d a d e l a y

I n t i m e and a d d i t i o n a l c o s t t o t h e p r o j e c t

D a y t o n ' s B l u f f I n t e r c e p t o r Sewer,, S t P a u l
(Ackermannj, 1938)
W ater b e a r i n g f i s s u r e s were e n c o u n te re d d u r i n g c o n

s t r u c t i o n o f th e sew er u n d e r D a y to n s B l u f f i n S t . P a u l.

In itially , th e f i s s u r e s i n th e tu n n e l back y ie ld e d l a r g e
q u a n t i t i e s o f w a t e r , b u t t h e i n f l o w r a p i d l y d e c r e a s e d , and

th e w a ll of th e tu n n e l d rie d up. In t h i s case th e f i s s u r e s

w e re b e n e f i c i a l f o r d e w a t e r i n g t h e s a n d s t o n e . E r o s i o n was

n eg lig ib le, t h u s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s a n d s t o n e was compe

ten t.

Rondo S t r e e t T u n n e l G a v e - i n ( S c h w a r t z , 1962)

As t h e Rondo S t r e e t r e l i e f s e w e r t u n n e l was b e i n g

a d v a n c e d up f r o m t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r i n S t . P a u l , a c a v e -

i n o c c u r r e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 * 0 6 5 f e e t f r o m t h e p o r t a l and
on a P I i n t h e t u n n e l . The c a u s e o f t h e r o c k f a l l was due

t o t h e c o n v e r g e n c e o f two h i g h a n g l e i n t e r s e c t i n g j o i n t s
a b o v e t h e crown o f t h e t u n n e l . Only one o f t h e j o i n t s was

v i s i b l e d u r in g th e m ining o p e r a t i o n . The s e c o n d j o i n t a p

p e a r e d a s a h o r i z o n t a l l i n e a l o n g t h e t u n n e l w a l l and was

m is ta k e n ly i n t e r p r e t e d as a bedding p la n e i n th e s a n d s to n e .
In a d d itio n , the sandstone in the c a v e -in a re a of th e tu n n e l

was r e p o r t e d t o be f r i a b l e , and w a t e r c o u r s e s w e r e n o t e d i n
the rock.
112

S c h w a r t z ( 1 9 6 2 , pp 1 - 7 ) made t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a
tio n s a f t e r the cave-In o ccu rred ; f ro m t h e p o r t a l t o 1 , 7 2 5
f e e t t h e r o c k was c o m p e t e n t and s t o o d w i t h o u t s u p p o r t Be

yond t h i s p o i n t t h e s a n d s t o n e became s o f t , and a r c h i n g i n t h e

crown was e v i d e n t At 1 , 7 8 0 f e e t f r o m t h e p o r t a l , s ix inch

wide s t e e l r i n g beams w e re p l a c e d f r o m t h r e e t o t e n f e e t

ap art, d e p e n d i n g on t h e s o f t n e s s o f t h e s a n d s t o n e . Lagging

was p l a c e d b e t w e e n t h e beam s. At 1 , 8 8 5 f e e t , fla tte n in g of


t h e r i n g beams was n o t i c e d a t t h e t u n n e l c ro w n . T his l o c a
t i o n was t h e f i r s t e v i d e n c e o f v e r t i c a l p r e s s u r e on t h e beam

supports. An a r c h i n g e f f e c t a t t h e 2 , 1 0 0 f o o t mark r e l i e v e d

a mass o f s a n d s t o n e t o a h e i g h t o f f i v e f e e t a b o v e t h e b a c k ,

t w e n t y f e e t l o n g and s i x f e e t w i d e . T h i s c a u s e d two s e t s o f

r i n g beams t o c o l l a p s e . The h o l e a b o v e t h e crow n was

c r i b b e d o v e r , and f r o m 2 , 2 7 5 f e e t o n , s p i l i n g r e p l a c e d t h e

l a g g i n g method p r e v i o u s l y u s e d . As t h e t u n n e l a d v a n c e d and
t h e g r o u n d became h e a v i e r , d o u b l e s t e e l r i n g beams were em

p l o y e d , and t h e s p i l i n g was w id e n e d t o c a t c h t h e c a v i n g r o c k
on t h e s h o u l d e r s o f t h e t u n n e l .

Numerous j o i n t s a l o n g t h e f i r s t 3 , 0 0 0 f e e t o f t u n n e l

w ere n o t i c e d j h o w e v e r , n o n e c a u s e d a n y c a v e - i n p r o b l e m s o r

inflow of w ater. The j o i n t s t h a t c a u s e d t h e l a r g e c a v e - i n


were t i g h t and d i d n o t a r o u s e s u s p i c i o n a n y more t h a n t h o s e

i n from th e p o r t a l . No way t o p r e d i c t t h e t r o u b l e was

found.
113

F i g u r e 27 shows t h e main c a v e - I n a r e a . The w a l l s on


t h e r i g h t and l e f t , A and B r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e t h e p l a n e s u r

f a c e s o f t h e two m a j o r j o i n t s re s p o n sib le f o r the c a v e -in .

The a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p l a n e s a r e shown by t h e d i p and s t r i k e

sy m b o ls i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h . The b l a c k t r i a n g u l a r p a t c h a t
l o c a t i o n C i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h , and t h e l i n e e x t e n d i n g down
from th e p a t c h , show a j o i n t f i l l e d w i t h two i n c h e s o f c l a y .

T h i s s u r f a c e i n t e r s e c t s s u r f a c e s A and B r o u g h l y a t r i g h t
angles. The l e t t e r D marks t h e u p p e r s u r f a c e o f t h e c a v e - i n

and i s i n c l i n e d downward t o w a r d t h e t u n n e l f a c e .

S t e v e n s Avenue S e w e r T u n n e l C a v e - i n ,
M inneapolis

D u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t e v e n s Avenu e, f o u r t e e n
f o o t d i a m e t e r s e w e r t u n n e l b e t w e e n 3 9 t h and 3 5 t h S t r e e t s i n

M inneapolis, t h e s a n d s t o n e i n w h i c h t h e t u n n e l was b e i n g

d r i v e n u n e x p e c te d ly changed to g l a c i a l d r i f t . P rio r to con

s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t u n n e l , a l i g n m e n t h o l e s were p l a c e d 900

f e e t a p a r t and i n a d v e r t e n t l y on e i t h e r s i d e o f a b u r i e d

channel. A n o r m a l s e q u e n c e o f m a t e r i a l was l o g g e d i n b o t h

holes, t h u s i n f e r r i n g t h e r o c k s t r a t a was c o n t i n u o u s b e tw e e n

them. When t h e b u r i e d c h a n n e l was e n c o u n t e r e d u n d e r g r o u n d ,

a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 00 f e e t s o u t h o f 3 8 t h S t r e e t , m i n i n g o p e r a

t i o n s w e re s t o p p e d , f o r . i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e d e s i g n t h e

tu n n el to c ro s s th e buried c h a n n e l.

Over f o r t y a u g e r and c o r e b o r i n g s w e re d r i l l e d f r o m

t h e s u r f a c e t o d e l i n e a t e t h e s i z e and s h a p e o f t h e c h a n n e l
rH
iI

rQ-Q

Joint
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LONGITUDINAL SECTION Scole-I =12

Photograph
of Caved Zone

CROSS SECTION Scale"!"36'

ST PETER-RONDO STREET TUNNEL


CAVE-IN
FIGURE 27
115

and t o l o g t h e t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t . F i g u r e 28 I s a

c ro ss s e c tio n o f the c hannel.


W h il e e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e b u r l e d c h a n n e l and r e d e s i g n

o f t h e t u n n e l was I n p r o g r e s s , a n o t h e r s e g m e n t o f t h e t u n n e l

was b e i n g a d v a n c e d s o u t h w a r d t o i n t e r s e c t t h e n o r t h b o u n d a r y

of the chan n el. The s a n d s t o n e i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e t u n n e l

was s a t u r a t e d and was b e i n g d e w a t e r e d by h i g h y i e l d pum ps.

E ig h t hundred f e e t n o r th o f th e b u rie d channel e x

c e s s i v e a r c h i n g i n t h e crow n o f t h e t u n n e l o c c u r r e d . The

s a n d s t o n e was c a v i n g upward t o w i t h i n a few f e e t o f t h e b a s e

of the P l a t t e v i l l e lim e sto n e, l o c a t e d tw e n ty -tw o f e e t above

the i n v e r t . At t h e f i r s t s i g n o f c a v i n g , men. and e q u i p m e n t

w e r e removed f r o m t h e t u n n e l . At a b o u t t h e same t i m e a

s h i f t i n t h e c a s i n g o f one o f t h e d e w a t e r i n g w e l l s made i t

n e c e s s a r y t o s h u t t h e pump down. This c au sed th e w a te r t a b

l e t o r i s e and c a u s e u n s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s a n d s t o n e .

The u n l o a d i n g e f f e c t , when t h e w a t e r t a b l e r o s e ,

e v id e n tly caused a lo s s of c o n fin in g p re s s u re to th e sa n d


stone, th e re b y cau sin g th e back to cave. In a d d itio n , rapid
i n f l o w o f w a t e r p r o b a b l y c a u s e d some d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e
s a n d s t o n e i n t h e o p e n i n g , d e s t r o y i n g some o f t h e n a t u r a l

support' f o r the t u n n e l . I t was l a t e r f o u n d t h a t s i x t y f e e t

o f t h e t u n n e l b a c k had c a v e d , b u r y i n g i n v e r t f o r m s t h a t w ere

being re a d ie d f o r pouring th e c o n c re te l i n i n g . Im m ediately

n o rth of the caved-In a re a , f o r a d ista n c e o f s i x t y f e e t .


116

d i s p l a c e m e n t had bowed l a g g i n g and t w i s t e d some o f t h e s t e e l ,


su p p o rts.
Recom mendations w e re made t o p u t t h e d e w a t e r i n g w e l l

b a c k i n o p e r a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y and d r a i n t h e t u n n e l w i t h

d itch es The a r e a o f t h e t u n n e l t h a t s t i l l th r e a te n e d to

c a v e was t o be r e i n f o r c e d and c o n c r e t e d b e f o r e t h e c a v e d - i n

a r e a was c l e a n e d o u t
To r e c o v e r t h e c a v e d a r e a o f t h e t u n n e l , the loose

s a n d s t o n e was f i r s t r em o v e d , fo rm s w e re p l a c e d , and t h e n a

c o n c r e t e l i n i n g was p o u r e d The e x c a v a t e d s a n d s t o n e was


t h e n pumped b a c k i n t o t h e c a v i t y a r o u n d t h e l i n i n g A fter

t h e d a n g e r a r e a had b e e n s e c u r e d , a h y d r a u l i c s h i e l d was

used t o c o n ti n u e th e t u n n e l southw ard to th e s o u th bank o f

the buried c h a n n e l C o n v e n t i o n a l m eth o d s w ere u s e d t o e x c a

v a t e t h e m a t e r i a l w h i l e t h e s h i e l d was i n s e r v i c e .
r9 0 0
Access Shaft
Alignment Alignment
Hole 37th Street 36th Street
Hole 35th Street

ELEVATION ABOVE SEA LEVEL IN FEET


Ground Surface

Glacial Drift

Static Water Level


-Platteville limestone
-Glenwood shale
Sewer Tunnel x Cave-in

Buried Channel
Approximate Bedrock Surface

St. Peter sandstone

5 221 219 217 215


TUNNEL S T A T IO N S -S c a le lin.= 2 0 0 f t

GEOLOGIC SECTION - STEVENS AVE. SEWER TUNNEL,


MINNEAPOLIS
FIGURE 2 8
118

FIGURE 29. Stevens Ave. tunnel cave-in. The sandstone caved up


to the base of the Platteville limestone. Iron stained
bedding planes in the sandstone are exposed.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

1) L i t h o l o g i c a l l y and h y d r o l o g i c a l l y t h e s a n d s t o n e i s homo

g e n e o u s and l o c a l l y i s o t r o p i c Iso tro p ic co nditions e x

i s t o n l y when t h e f r i a b i l i t y o f c e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e

sandstone i s c o n s is te n t w ith in a p re s c rib e d a r e a

2) The f o r m a t i o n i s w e a k l y c e m e n t e d o r more commonly, l a c k s

cem entation a lt o g e t h e r . The o n l y o b v i o u s c e m e n t i n g

a g e n t i s i r o n o x i d e , and t h i s o c c u r s l o c a l l y i n t h e

sandstone, I n t e r l o c k i n g g r a i n s a r e t h e m ain b o n d i n g

a g e n t k e ep in g th e sand g r a i n s t o g e t h e r as a u n i t

3) F r i a b i l i t y o r hardness of the sandstone v a rie s l a t e r a l l y

and v e r t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e f o r m a t i o n . T h i s e f f e c t i s due
to th e d e g re e of i n t e r l o c k i n g o r com paction o f th e sand

grains.,

4) High n a t u r a l c o m p a c t i v e f o r c e s h a v e d e n s i f i e d t h e s a n d

s t o n e t o a d e g r e e t h a t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e p r o d u c e by

n o r m a l c o m p a c t i o n m eth o d s i n t h e .l a b o r a t o r y . An e x c e p

t i o n t o t h i s o c c u r s when a l o a d g r e a t enough t o c a u s e
c ru s h in g o f th e sand g r a i n s o c c u r s ,

5) The u p p e r p o r t i o n o f t h e s a n d s t o n e , i n t h e Twin C i t y
area, is discontinuously sa tu ra te d . L o cally , the s a t u r

a t e d s a n d s t o n e may p o s s e s s a r t e s i a n w a t e r .

6) The a v e r a g e p o r o s i t y o f t h e s a n d s t o n e h a s a h i g h a v e r a g e

v a lu e o f 28.3 p e r c e n t . In c o n t r a s t , the p e rm e a b ility i s

119
120

low w i t h a v a l u e o f 1 x l O - ^ c e n t i m e t e r p e r s e c o n d
7) G rain s i z e a n a ly s e s i n d i c a t e a hig h degree o f s o r t i n g

and u n i f o r m i t y , w i t h g r a i n s i z e s f a l l i n g i n t h e f i n e

s a n d r a n g e ( 0 . 1 5 t o 0.4-0 m i l l i m e t e r s ) . E ffectiv e size

in m illim e te rs i s 0.122.
8) U ndisturbed S t. P e t e r s a n d s t o n e was f o u n d t o h a v e a h i g h
angle of i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n ( f i f t y - f i v e d e g r e e s ) b ut has

a low s h e a r i n g s t r e n g t h . T his hig h v a lu e i s a f u n c t i o n


o f t h e s i z e and s h a p e o f g r a i n s , a s w e l l a s t h e d e g r e e

o f com paction th e fo rm a tio n has u n d erg o n e.


9) The u l t i m a t e b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e s a n d s t o n e i s i n e x

cess of tw e n ty -fiv e tons p e r square f o o t . The maximum

l o a d c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y w i l l be f o u n d t o be much h i g h e r

when a d e q u a t e m eth o d s a r e d e v e l o p e d f o r t e s t i n g s h e a r i n g
s tre n g th s of g ra n u la r m a te ria ls w ith high angles of i n

ternal fric tio n . .B e a r i n g v a l u e s up t o 100 t o n s p e r

s q u a r e f o o t may n o t be uncommon.
10) F i e l d p l a t e b e a r i n g t e s t s i n d i c a t e s e t t l e m e n t t o h e a v y

s t r u c t u r e s t o be l e s s t h a n 0 . 1 o f a f o o t w i t h a p p l i e d

loads of tw e n ty -fiv e tons p e r square f o o t . The same

t e s t s h a v e shown a l m o s t c o m p l e t e r e b o u n d o f t h e c o n s o l i

d a te d m a t e r i a l a f t e r removal o f th e l o a d . T his i n d i

c a te s th e sandstone to possess e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s .

11) U n c o n f i n e d c o m p r e s s i o n t e s t s i n d i c a t e a w id e b u t low

v a r i a t i o n i n c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h s and m o d u l i o f d e f o r

m ation. A x ia l m oduli o f d e f o r m a tio n ranged from 151,000


121

po unds p e r s q u a r e i n c h w i t h a c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h o f
1 , 3 7 0 p o u n d s , t o 7^1 j>000 p o u n d s p e r s q u a r e i n c h w i t h a

c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h o f 2 , 8 1 0 p o unds p e r s q u a r e i n c h

The m o d u l i f o r t h e t e s t s made t o d a t e i n d i c a t e b o t h

e l a s t i c and p l a s t i c d e f o r m a t i o n , b e c a u s e t h e y w e re o n l y

l o a d e d once and t a k e n t o f a i l u r e . When f u t u r e c o m p r e s

s i o n t e s t s a r e made, t h e y s h o u l d be l o a d e d and u n l o a d e d

s e v e r a l tim es u n t i l a s t r a i g h t , l i n e i s o b t a i n e d on t h e
s t r e s s s t r a i n curve. A stra ig h t lin e, i f p o s s ib l e to

o b t a i n , i n d i c a t e s t h e modulus o f e l a s t i c i t y and i s a

v e r y i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c when d e s i g n i n g h e a v y l i v e

l o a d s on t h e s a n d s t o n e .
12) P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o s , c a l c u l a t e d from u n c o n fin e d c o m p re ssio n

tests, showed a w id e v a r i a t i o n f r o m .0 2 t o .46. This

i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n c o n s i s t e n t r a t i o s b e t w e e n l a t e r a l and

v e r t i c a l s t r e s s e s w i l l r e s u l t betw een l o c a t i o n s .

13) T e s t d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m p l a t e b e a r i n g t e s t s show t h e

modu lous o f e l a s t i c i t y t o be v e r y l o w . A v a l u e o f 383

p o u n d s p e r s q u a r e i n c h was c o m p u t e d . A normal s a n d sto n e

w i l l average 1,000 kip s p e r sq u are in c h .

14 ) G e o p h y s i c a l m ethods may p r o v e b e n e f i c i a l t o l o c a t e b u r

ied channels o r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s in the sandstone s u r f a c e .

The g r a v i t y method w i l l p r o v e t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y . It

i s a r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d and i n e x p e n s i v e s u r v e y t o o l .

E l e c t r i c a l and s e i s m i c m eth o d s w i l l o n l y be o f v a l u e i f
th ere is a th in cover.
122

15) I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n o f t u n n e l s to o b t a i n s t r e s s - t i m e r e l a

t i o n s h i p s i s h i g h l y recommended. This i n f o r m a t i o n can


be u s e d t o d e s i g n f o r t h e p r o p e r s u p p o r t s n e e d e d i n a
t u n n e l . Down h o l e , i n s i t u t e s t i n g w i t h s e i s m i c , ele c

tric al, o r a u d i b l e d e v i c e s may r e v e a l t h e d e g r e e o f f r i

a b i l i t y o r jo in t i n g in the sand sto n e. Down h o l e

p r e s s u r e m eters w i l l give im p o rta n t d e sig n d a ta (modulus

of deform ation). Pump t e s t s w i l l d i s c l o s e t h e t y p e o f

g r o u n d w a t e r p r o b l e m s t h a t ' c a n be a n t i c i p a t e d a l o n g a

tu n n e l r o u te o r in an e x c a v a tio n .

16) Low p e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e s a n d s t o n e h a s r e s t r i c t e d p r e s
sure g ro u tin g techniques f o r s o l i d if y i n g th e rock or

c re atin g grout c u r ta in s .

17) F r i c t i o n p i l e s c a n n o t be d r i v e n i n t o t h e s a n d s t o n e , b e
c a u s e o f t h e h i g h p e n e t r a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e rock..

P o in t bearing p i le s d riv en to r e f u s a l in th e sandstone

a r e commonly u s e d i n t h e Twin C i t y a r e a .

18) E x tr e m e c a u t i o n s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d when c l a y f i l l e d
j o i n t s , c l o s e l y spaced t i g h t s y s te m a tic j_ o in ts, o r

j o in t s b e arin g w ater a re encountered du rin g e x ca v atio n .


T h e s e a r e z o n e s o f p o t e n t i a l w e a k n e s s due t o l a c k o f

f r i c t i o n betw een s u r f a c e s .

19) U n d i s t u r b e d t e s t s p e c i m e n s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n o f

the S t. P eter san dstone. In s i t u t e s t i n g techniques

s h o u l d be employed w h e re p o s s i b l e .
123

In g en eral, the S t. P e t e r sandstone,, b e in g unique i n


its g e o l o g i c and e n g i n e e r i n g p r o p e r t i e s s i s a n e x c e l l e n t me
d i a i n which to c o n s t r u c t t u n n e l s o r f o r th e u se as a f o u n

d atio n b a se . Problems w i l l c o n ti n u e t o a r i s e , b u t w ith th e


p r o p e r u s e o f d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m s i t e e x a m i n a t i o n s and t e s t

i n g p r o g r a m s , t h e s e p e r p l e x i t i e s w i l l be r e d u c e d .
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C i v i l E n g in e e rin g , pp. 568-572.

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s p e c i m e n s : Lab R e p o r t No. 3 5 , Corps o f E n g r s . , Iowa
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___________ 1 9 5 7 , C h e m i c a l s o l i d i f i c a t i o n o f S t . P e t e r s a n d
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R i v e r C o n t r o l , Corps o f E n g i n e e r s , S t . P a u l , Minn.

19 5 8 , S t . Anth o n y F a l l s Up p er Lock and Dam: Report


UL-3, C o rp s o f E n g r s . , S t . P a u l , Minn.
F o r d , G. R . , J u l y 1 9 6 4 , P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : Minn. S t a t e
D e p t , o f H i g h w a y s , S t . P a u l , Minn.

G ru e n , V i c t o r , 1961, S o i l s r e p o r t f o r D a y t o n s D e p t . S t o r e ,
S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a : V i c t o r Gruen A s s o c i a t e s , E d i n a ,
Minn.

Kamb, H. R . , Aug. 1932, P o r o s i t y t e s t s o f t h e S t . P e t e r


sandstone: R e p o r t t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l o f M p l s . , Minn.
K r y n i n e , D. P. & J u d d , M. R . , 1 9 5 7 , P r i n c i p l e s o f e n g i n e e r
i n g g e o l o g y and g e o t e c h n i q u e s : M c G r a w - H ill Book C o . ,
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L a c a b a n n e , . D . , Aug. 1 964, P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : Univ.


o f M i n n . , M p l s , , Minn. ,

Lamar, J . E . , 1 9 2 8 , G e o lo g y and e co n o m ic r e s o u r c e s o f t h e
S t . P e t e r s a n d s t o n e o f I l l i n o i s , 111. G e o l. S u r v . ,
. B u l l . . 53, p . 33

L e g g e t , R, F . , 1 9 6 2 , G e o lo g y and e n g i n e e r i n g : M c G ra w -H ill
Book C o . , I n c . , p . 3 3 6 ,
124
125

L e l s c h , Bo A.j, 1 9 6 2 5 Ground w a t e r h y d r o l o g y and h y d r a u l i c s


o f t h e S t . P e t e r s a n d s to n e I n M in n e a p o l is 3 Hennepin
C o u n t y , M i n n e s o t a : Minn. S t a t e D i v . o f W a t e r s , R e p o r t
on S t a t e P r o J . 2 7 8 1 - 5 1 and 2 7 8 1 - 5 2 .
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o f G e o l . a t t h e U n i v . o f M i n n . , f o r G e o l . C o u r s e 1 -H,
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G e o l . S u r v . B u l l . No. 2 7 .
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s i t e o f t h e p r o p o s e d S t . Anthony F a l l s l o c k s , M p l s . ,
M i n n . : R e p o r t t o t h e Corps o f E n g r s . , U. S . Army, S t .
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' 1 9 6 2 , Summary o f o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e S t . P e t e r -
Rondo r e l i e f s e w e r : R e p o r t t o F o l e y , H u r l e y , and
W i n s t o n , S t . P a u l , Minn.

Aug. 1 9 6 4 , P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : Univ. o f M inn.,


M p l s . , Minn.

F eb. 1965, P e r s o n a l com m unication: Univ. o f M in n .,


M p l s . , Minn.

S i m s , P. K . A p r . 1 9 6 2 , P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : Univ. of
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S t a u f f e r , C. R . , . and T h e i l , G . . A , , 1941, The P a l e o z o i c and


r e l a t e d rocks o f s o u t h e a s te r n M innesota: U n iv ersity
P r e s s , M p l s . , M i n n . , Minn. G e o l . S u r v . B u l l . No. 29,.
P- 7 5 .
T e r z a g h i , K, and P e c k , R. B . , 1 9 4 8 , S o i l m e c h a n i c s i n e n g i
neering p r a c tic e : J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , I n c . , New
York.

T h e i l , C. A . , 1 9 3 5 , S e d i m e n t a r y p e t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e
S t. P e te r sandstone: G e o l . S o c . o f Amer. B u l l . , V o l .
4 6 , No. 4 .
126

W l n c h e l l , N H, 1 8 8 4 , G e o lo g y o f M i n n e s o t a - f i n a l r e p o r t ,
g e o l o g y and n a t u r a l h i s t o r y s u r v e y o f M i n n e s o t a ; V o l ,
1 , p . 202=

)
-4 3 5 0

-4 0 0 0

-3 6 5 0

-L -3 3 0 0
Datum sea level
RKReed A'

CROSS SECTION
HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL S C A LE = 1:8,450

PLATE 17
f? /f/
10 00- Rice Creek

900-

300
NORTH SOUTH
I Mile
NORTH-SOUTH CROSS SECTION OF THE MINNEAPOLIS-ST PAUL AREA
VIEW LOOKING EAST
S CAL E
FIGURE 31
Z ff7 f/
By-C. M. PAYNE AUG. 1 96 4
r $: Xv "r-zm xwmzsmii

FIGURE 32
B y - C M. PAYNE AUG. 1964

ew eie
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STATE OF MINNESOTA MISCELLANEOUS MAP
Paul K. Sims, Director UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA M-l
ANOKA 10 Ml . F O R E S T L A K E 2 0 Ml A N O K A 14 Ml . F O R E S T L A K E 14 Ml . EXPLANATION

55
DECORAH FORMATION
*21 Green, fissile to blocky argillaceous shale. Contains many ir
regularly distributed coquina lenses and thin limestone beds
that increase in abundance upwards. Thickness ranges from
0 to 90 feet.

Op

PLATTEVILLE FORMATION
Gray to brown dolomite and limestone; average thickness 25
feet. Consists of following members, from youngest to oldest
(not distinguished separately on map):
Carimona Member; brown, medium-bedded, fine-grained
limestone with some interbedded shale; average thick
ness 3.5 feet.
Magnolia Member; massive micragranular, dolomitic lime
stone. Weathers to yellowish-gray; average thickness 8
feet.
Hidden Falls Member ; greenish-gray, microgranular, argill
aceous dolomic limestone; average thickness 6 feet.
Mifflin Member; very thin, crinkly-bedded limestone and do
lomite-mottled limestone; weathers very light-gray w ith
grayish-orange dolomitic patches; average thickness 6
feet.
Pecatonica Member; buff-weathering dolomite or dolomitic
limestone; average thickness 1 foot.

Osp

ST. PETER SANDSTONE


(Includes Glen wood Formation a t top)
White, fine- to medium-grained, well-sorted, friable sand
stone; locally is iron-stained and well-cemented; rounding
and frosting of the grains are common. Except for a thin
gray argillaceous siltstone bed below the middle of the forma
tion, the sandstone is 99 percent quartz; average thickness 150
feet. The formation discomformably overlies the Shakopee
Dolomite.
Glen wood Formation; Greenish-gray, arenaceous to argill
aceous shale; average thickness 5 feet. Formation represents
a transition from sandy shale to overlying carbonate rocks.

S Opc

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN FORMATION


Dominantly dolomitic limestone and dolomite. Consists of
following members, from youngest to oldest (not distinguish
ed separately on map):
Shakopee Dolomite; buff, massive-to thin-bedded, dolomitic
limestone; commonly cherty, sandy, and oolitic. Thin
beds of fine- to medium-grained sandstone and greenish-
gray shale are irregularly distributed through the mem
ber; average thickness LOfeet.
New Richmond Sandstone; fine- to medium-grained quart-
zose sandstone, locally absent; thickness ranges from 0
to 10 feet.
Oneota Dolomite; brownish-gray or buff, fine- to medium
grained, locally vuggy, thin- to thick-bedded dolomite;
average thickness 80 feet.

JORDAN SANDSTONE
Generally white and friable but locally cemented and iron-
stained, massive- to well-bedded, fine- to coarse-grained sand
stone. Conformably overlies the St. Lawrence Formation. Gen
erally consists of very clean, well-rounded and frosted quartz
grains that grade upward from fine sand at the base to
coarse sand at the top; average thickness 90 feet.

Note: Formations below the Jordon Sandstone have been


penetrated by drilling, and are important sources of ground
water.

Geologic contact

--------------------- -------------------
45
------------------------------------------
Topographic contours
(Drawn on top of bedrock surface; contour interval 20 feet)

Water well or drill hole

U.$
till

Z
00

>CN
Ul - j I

II
oz *^
25

57'
30"

O)
CXI

h-

k 1

52'
\ F A R M I N G T O N 2 3 Ml 5 ML TO M I N N 218
4.1 Ml . T O U . 9 . 6 5 R M I N G T O N 18 M l
Williams & Heintz Map Corporation, Washington 27, D.C. Geology compiled 1962-63
Base from U.S. Geological Survey
Topographic map, 1952
B E D R O C K G EO LO G IC M A P, M IN N E A P O L IS , ST. P A U L A N D V IC IN IT Y
by
C. Marshall Payne

SCALE 1 :2 4 0 0 0
o 1 MILE

1000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 FEET


APPROXIMATE MEAN MAP LOCATION
DECLINATION, 1952 CONTOUR INTERVAL 10 FEET FIGURE NO. 30
Ip 7 DATUM IS MEAN SEA LEVEL

A 1 Qfig;