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is given by

= 2 (1 + ) bits per second(bps), where W is the channel

2

bandwidth, P is the average power received and 2 is the one-sided power

spectral density of the AWGN.

For a fixed = 1000, the channel capacity (in kbps) with infinite

2

bandwidth ( ) is approximately

(a) 1.44 (c) 0.72

(b) 1.08 (d) 0.36

[GATE 2014: 1 Mark]

Soln.

= ( + )

= ( + )

= ( + )

= [ ( + )] =

= .

= . = .

Option (a)

2. A fair is tossed repeatedly until a Head appears for the first time. Let L

be the number of tosses to get this first Head. The entropy H(L) in bits

is _________

[GATE 2014: 2 Marks]

Soln. If 1 toss is required to get first head, then probability =

If 2 tosses are required to get first head then = =

If 3 tosses are required to get first head then = =

Entropy

=

=

= + + +

= + + +

probability 0.5 is ________

[GATE 2014: 1 Mark]

Soln.

p

(0) (0)

X (1 p) Y

(1 p)

(1) p (1)

( ) =

( ) =

() = [ ( ) ( )]

=

+ + ( ) ( )

= + (/) + (/)

= =

=

=

through a noisy channel are assumed to be independent events with error

probability p. The probability of at most one error in the transmission of

an 8-bit sequence is

(a) 7(1 )/+/8 (c) (1 )8 + (1 )7

(b) (1 )8 + 8(1 )7 (d) (1 )8 + (1 )7

[GATE 1988: 2 Marks]

Soln. Getting almost one error be success

Probability of at most one error = p

Say, success

Failure =1p

P (X = at most 1 error)

= ( = ) + ( = )

Note that probability that event A occurs r times is given by

bionomical probability man function defined as

( = ) nCr ( )

= 8C0 () ( ) + 8C1 () ( )

= ( ) + ( )

Option (b)

being p. To transmit a bit say 1, we transmit a sequence of three sequence

to represent 1 if at least two bits bit will be represent in error is

(a) 3 + 32 (1 ) (c) (1 )3

(b) 3 (d) 3 + 2 (1 )

[GATE 2008: 2 Marks]

Soln. () = () =

() = () =

P(reception with error)

= ( = ) + ( = )

Using the relation of Binomial probability man function

( = ) = nCr ( )

For r = 0, 1, 2, -------- n

= 3C0 ( ) + 3C1 ( )

= + ( )

Option (a)

6. During transmission over a certain binary communication channel, bit

errors occur independently with probability p. The probability of at most

one bit in error in a block of n bits is given by

(a) (c) (1 )1 + (1 )

(b) 1 (d) 1 (1 )

[GATE 2007: 2 Marks]

Soln. Probability of at most one bit is error

P = P (non error)+P(one bit error)

Using the relation of Binomial probability man function

= nC0 () ( ) + nC1 () ( )

= ( ) + ( )

Note, nC0 = 1 and nC1 = n

Option (c)

1

distributed random variables such that ( = +1) = ( = 1) = .

2

The entropy H(U+V) in bits is

(a) 3/4 (c) 3/2

(b) 1 (d) log2 3

[GATE 2013: 2 Marks]

Soln. U and V are two independent and identically distributed random

variables

( = +) = ( = ) =

( = +) = ( = ) =

= +, ; = +,

= =

+ { = , = = , = ,

= =

+ = ( + ) = = =

+= ( + ) = = + =

+= ( + ) = = =

Entropy of ( + ) = ( + )

= ( + )

(+)

= + +

= + + =

Option (c)

two symbols being the same. A source encoder increases the probability

of the first symbol by a small amount e. After encoding, the entropy of

the source

(a) increases (c) increases only if N = 2

(b) remains the same (d) decreases

[GATE 2012: 1 Mark]

Soln. Entropy is maximum, when symbols are equally probable, when

probability changes from equal to non-equal, entropy decreases

Option (d)

noise ratio SNR >>1 and bandwidth B has capacity C1. If the SNR is

doubled keeping B constant, the resulting capacity C2 is given by

(a) 2 21 (c) 2 1 + 2

(b) 2 1 + (d) 2 1 + 0.3

[GATE 2009: 2 Marks]

Soln. When SNR >>1, channel capacity C

= ( + )

( )

( ) = + ( )

= ( ) +

= +

Option (b)

entropy of the source as a function of n

(a) increases (c) increases as n

(b) decreases as log n (d) increases as n log n

[GATE 2008: 2 Marks]

Soln. Entropy H(m) for the memoryless source

() =

=

= = =

() =

=

=

Entropy H(m) increases as a function of

Option (a)

11. A source generates three symbols with probability 0.25, 0.25, 0.50 at a

rate of 3000 symbols per second. Assuming independent generation of

symbols, the most efficient source encoder would have average bit rate of

(a) 6000 bits/sec (c) 3000 bits/sec

(b) 4500 bits/sec (d) 1500 bits/sec

[GATE 2006: 2 Marks]

Soln. Three symbols with probability of 0.25, 0.25 and 0.50 at the rate of

3000 symbols per second.

= . + . + .

. . .

= . + . + .

= .

Rate of information R = r.H

R = 3000 symbol/sec

= .

= /

Option (b)

12.An image uses 512 512 picture elements. Each of the picture elements

can take any of the 8 distinguishable intensity levels. The maximum

entropy in the above image will be

(a) 2097152 bits (c) 648 bits

(b) 786432 bits (d) 144 bits

[GATE 1990: 2 Marks]

Soln. For 8 distinguishable intensity levels

=

= =

Maximum entropy =

=

=

1 1 1 1

13. A source produces 4 symbols with probability , , . For this

2 4 8 8

source, a practical coding scheme has an average codeword length of 2

bits/symbols. The efficiency the code is

(a) 1 (c) 1/2

(b) 7/8 (d) 1/4

[GATE 1989: 2 Marks]

Soln. Four symbol with probability , ,

= = ( )

=

= [ ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( )]

= + + +

=+ =

Code efficiency

=

Option (b)

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