You are on page 1of 66

UNCLASSIFIED

• •
I N D E X
'.
Page
INTRODUCTION 11
ANNOTATED MOSAICS 1

CONFIRMED PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION INFORMATION


DEFENSES
Mach1ne Guns 11
75nnn Guns 19
149 nnn Howitzers 23
Strong-points 24
R'oad Blocks 25
Pill-boxes 26
Barbed wire 29
Mine Fields 30

AIRFIELDS
Hangars 31
Ammunition Dumps 32
COVER AND CONCEALMENT
Vegetative-Types 34

MISCELLANEOUS
Landmarks 56
General Views of Beaches ,40

UNCONFIRMED PHOTOGRA,PHIC INTERPRETATION INFORMATION


DEFENSES ,
88nnn Guns 46
75mm Guns 47
strong-points 48
Road Blocks 50
Infrantry Mortars 51
Flak Towers 52
AIRFIELDS·
Aircraft Shelters 53
Ammun1 tlon Dumps 56
Bomb storage 57
Fuel Storage 58

MISCELLANEOUS'
MilttaryCamps 59
Supp.ly Depots 60

1
• •
D'lROlXJCTION

This book presents examples of typical naturala.nd :man-
:made features of the coast of southern Sicily as they appear
both from the air and from the ground. It is intended prim-
arily for the use of photo-interpreters wholDB.Y be engaged in
preparation for future amphibious operations. .

It is designed to serve the following purposes:

1. Presenting examples of beach, road and airport


defenses used by Ger.ma.ns and Italians.

2 •. .Ana.1yz1ngtypical features of beaches, vegetat-


ion and terrain in the Mediterranean Area.

:3 • Acquainting the reader with the scope and


accuracy of photographic intelligence.

The book is divided into three parts. tfueannotated


mosaics comprising the first section are copies of 20" x 24"
mosaics which were distributed toa:r.my and na.vycommande
prior to Ope:ration m:.JSKY • The second section of the book
is :made up of photographs on vhich are indicated the results
of both aerial and ground obsermtionB over the area. The
third section is a collection of vert.ica1 .photo~aphs of
instal.1ations which have not been 80 confirmed, but which are
particularly cl.ear eminp1es of Axis military practice.

Vertical photographs appearing in this book are copies


of operational pi~tures used for interpretation before and
during the operation. They were selected from sorties:f10wn
by the lb\F and AD.. Where photographs appear side by side
.on the same page they are intended for study by pocket ster-
eoscopes. Ground photographs used were taken byAJnphlblous
Force' staff photographers. '

CJ¥:!:--
Rear Admiral, u. S. Navy,
Commander :AmphiblouBForce, Atlantic. Fleet .

Rep.odu<:ed By
U. S. Novol Photographic Science laboratory P-30D-S06
4-44
11
• • •

ANNOTATED MOSAICS
SOUTHERN 81 CILY

Cent Area

Beaches and Adjacent Airfields

29 June 1943

Date of Latest Information Available


at, Time of Release; 14 June 1943

1
• • •
.. -. .' ~
• • •
• • •
• • .
'
• •• •
• • •

. ,
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •

CO NF I R M E DIN ~ 0 R MAT ION

INFORMATION CONFIRMED BY GROUND SHOTS OR BY


GROUND OBSERVATIONS 6
• • • •
CONFIDENTIAL DEFENSES

MACHINE GUNS: MG positions · along water-front at Scoglitti.


For ground shots see pages 12 a.nd 13. .

11
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
. D E F -E N S -E · S

MACHINE GUNS: Ex~ple Of a camouflaged trench and machine gun


position located in front of' roofless building on south side . of'
cove ·atScogllttl. For vertical view, see page 11.

12 .: .
• • •
CON FIDENTIAL
DEFENSES

MACHINE GUNS: Sllttrench .and a camouflaged machine gun position


located on beach at ·s outhwe.s tcorner of Scoglitti. For vertical
view and diagrams, see pages 11 and 16 respectively.

MACHINE GUNS: Utilization on an existing embrasure in a cellar


in Scogiitti. For location in sea-wall, see page 11.
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL '
DEFENSES

: ,-: '
'-:'. --

MACHINE GUNS: MG position south of Scogli tti. For


.
ground ' shots see page 15.
": , '

";- ',';'
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
DEFENSES

MACHINE GUNS: A camouflaged machine gun position with sIlt


trench. For vertical view see page 14.
• • •
CON FIDENTIAL

. PL AN·· ..OBLIQUE· "CROSS' SECTION"

'''TYPICAL DETAILS ...

"PLAN"

."-;:", -~.
.. CROSS' SEC.-THRU 'TRENCH 'S'
,M.G' PIT ..

'- AERIAL ' PERSPECTIVE··

TYPlCAL POSITIONS ON HILLOCKS IN SANDY AREAS


fOR PHOTOGRAPHS SEE PAGE t8

TRENCH CO:~E~LJs{OVEREO WHEN ···s c L AN···


TYPICAL POSITIONS W FLAT COASTAL HEADLANDS ··BEACH DEFENSE"
MACHINE SOH EMPI..ACfltENTS
16
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
DEFENSES

MACHINE GUNS: Two views of a camouflaged 20mm machine gun


po~ition with slit trench south of Scoglitti. For vertical
view see grid reference H385100 on page 4.

17.
• \
• •
CONADENTIAl D E FEN 9 E S

MACHINE GUNS: A ~amourlaged machine gun position on sand dune


overlooking the beach north of Scoglitti. For vertical view see
grid reference H320207 on page 7.

NOTE: This type of camouflage was particularly effective in the


sandy sc~b growth areas as machine gun positions matchedJPer-
fe~tly existing scrub covered hillocks. Prisoners-of-war stated
that no special allowances or materials were furnished for cam-
ouflage of coastal defenses, but that the technique of camouflage
was left to the, ingenuity of individual troops.
• .' •
CONFIDENTIAL

75.mm GUNS, 75mm Italian battery on the Scoglitti-Vtttorla


highway under constructIon as of 13 May 1943. For ground .' .
shots see pages 21 and 22.

19
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
DEFENSES
"1I'W"~•• ~~""Jft1l.1

75mmGUNS, 5-gun. 75nnn Italian battery onScoglitti;"V~ttoria


highway as of 10 July 1943. For ground shots see pages, 21
and 22.
• •
CON FIDENTIAL
DEFENSES

75mm GUNS: 75mm gun batterY on the Scog1itti-Vittoria highway.


For vertl.ca1 views of' battery deve10pment see pages 19 and 20.
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
DEFENSES

75mm GUNS: 75mm gun battery on the Scoglittl-Vlttorla highway.


For vertical views of battery development see pages 19 and 20.
• • •
CON FI DENTIAL _
DEFENSES .....__.

l49mm HOiITTZERS: 3-gun l49mm howitzer battery on pta. della


Camer1na. For vertical view see grid reference H396085 on
page 4.

___: 1'.
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
DEFENSES
• • •
CON FI D ENTIAL
D E FE N S E S

ROAD BLOCKS: 'l5nnn AfT gun destroyed by naval gun f'ire. The
f'ieldpiece is seen adjacent tO ,a roadblock on the Scoglitti-
Vittoriahighway. For v,ertlcal view, seepage 24.
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL DEFENSES

PILL-BOXES: A pill-box located on the outskirts of S. Croce Camerina.

PILL-BOXES: A typical pill-box found inland~ liote stone walls


which are estimated to be approximately 4 feet high. 26
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL D E FEN S E S

PILL-BOXES: A camouflaged pill-box adjacent to the road blocks


within the strong-point on the Scoglitti-Vittoria highway. For
vertical view see page 24, and for diagrams, see page 28.

27 .
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL

"CROSS SECTION·· "CROSS SECTION-·

··PLAN··

'. SMALL TYPE--

-LARGE TYPE"
.. TYPICAL PILLBOX··
FROM
P/W DOCUMENT

··CROSS SECTION··

. :rYPICAL PILLBOX OBSERVED· .


IN THE

THIS ,"FORMATION IS COMPILED FROM REPORTS AND


PHOTOGRAPHS
ENTRANCE TO PILLBOX VARIES (STEPS, TRENCH,ETGl 28 '
• • ••
CONFIDENTIAL .
DEFENSES

BARBED WIRE: A barbed wIre entanglement on beach south of Scoglitti.

BARBED WIRE: A barbed wire enclosure on street ~ Scoglitti. 29


• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
DEFENSES

MINE FIELDS: Mine field north of pta. Di Zafaglione. For vertical


vie~, see grid reference H358l5l on page 6.

30 .
. '

• •
I
, CONFIDENTIAL
AI RFI ELDS

HANGARS, Hangars and administration building, at the Comiso


Airport. For ground shot. see page 33.
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL AIRFIELDS

AMMONI TION DUMPS:.Ammunition stored a tbaseof orchard trees


at the Comiso Ai-rport.For ground shot. see page 33.

- '-
,:~\.. :.. .

32'
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
A I R FIE L D S

HANGARS: JIangars and control station at the Comiso Airport. For


vertlcal view,seepage '31.

AMMUNITION DUMPS: German bomb storage in .orchard at Comiso ' ,< '

Airport. ~or vertical view, see page 32.


• ."
CONFIDENTIAL
C 0 V E R AND CONCEALMENT

VEGETATIVE TYPES: Numbers correspond to the vegetative types


discussed on page 1. .
I----------Smooth sand.
2----------8and dunes--devold of vegetation.
3-----.,..----Sand--Scrub growth.

34
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL C 0 V E R AND CONCEALMENT

VEGETATIVE TYPES: Example of controlled sand,' vegetative type


;N o. 4 on page I,. Thlsgrass growth was found to measure 6 to
8 feet in height.

VEGETATIVE TYPES: Reclaimed sand, vegetative type No. 5 on page 1.


This is an example of an olive orchard showing small tree canopy
sizes and little or no ground cover.
• •• •
CONFIDENTIAL MISCELLANEOUS

..,.,', 'j

LANDMARKS: Church and Lighthouse in Scoglitti. For ground


shots~ see page .3 7, and .for obliques, see page 39.
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
MIS eEL LAN E 0 U 3

LANDMARKS: Views o:f church and lighthouse at Scoglitti. Por vertical


view see page 36.

37
• • •
CON FIDENTIAL
MISCELLANEOUS

. ~...

LAND:MARKS:Lighthouse on Cape Scale.mbri. For oblique


vi ew. see page 39.

. .- " ~

· 38
• • •
CON FI DENTIAL
MIS eEL LAN E 0 U S

LANDMARKS: Oblique view of Scoglitti. For vertical


view, see page 36.

LANDMARKS: Oblique view of -p ta. Sacca. For vertical


view, see page 38.

LANDMARKS: Oblique view of pta. Di'Zafaglione. For


vertical view see grid reference H365135 on page, 6. 39
• •
CONFIDENTIAL
M IS eEL L A N.E 0 U S

GENERAL VIEWS OF BEACHES: Beach north ofScoglitti. For


ground shots. see page 41.

40
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
ldISCELLANEOUS

GENERAL VJ:E'WS OF BEACHES: Views or beach north or Scoglitti.


Ledge height was estimated to be between 10 an4 15 feet. For
vertical view between houses A and B" see page 40.
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
MISCELLANEOUS

GENERAL VIEWS OF BEACHES: Typical low undu~atl.ng sand dunes


estimated to be between 10 and 20 feet high located north ~f
Scoglitti. For vertlcal view,see page 6.

42
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
MISCELLANEOUS
1

GENERAL VIm'iS OF BEACrcS: Partial views of beach in harbor at


Scoglitti. For vertLcal view, see page 36.

43
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
MISCELLANEOUS

GENERAL VIEWS OF BEACHES: , Partial views of' beach at Scoglittl.


For vertical vIew see page 36.

44
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
MISCELLANEOUS

~ . ," .

GENERAL VIEWS OF BEACHES: Partial view of'beach at Scoglitti.


For vertical view~see page 36.

45
• • •

UNCONFIRMED INFORMATION

INFORMATION BELIEVED AUTHENTIC, BUT NOT CONFIRMED

BY GROUND OBSERVATIONS.
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
DEFENSES

, ,'. ,

8Bmm GUNS: 4-gun 88linn battery at Comiso Airport. for


vertical view see grid ref'erence H525216. page 9.

. ::.(~'

.' ~ .:.: ,.

·.46
• • •
CON FI DENTIAL
DEFENSES

75mm GUNS:4-gun75nnn battery north of Coliliso on_road to


airport.

47
• • •
CON FI DENTIAL
DEFENSES

STRONG-POINTS: Barbed wire and machine gun positions on


be"ach east or Pozzallo.

48
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
D E F E oN S E S

'STRONG-POINTS: A strong-point nea.r Gela.

49
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL

ROAD-BLOCKSzDouble road-block on higbwayto Gela.

50
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
DE F E NS E S

INFANTRY I4ORTARS~ Two 2-gun infantry mortar batteries north


of Scog11tt1. Por vertical view see grid reference H382l24
on page 5.

. 51
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL
DEFENSES

FLAK TOWERS: Six flak towers protecting north boundary


91 Coml-so Al.rport. For vertical view see grio. reference
H531222 a.nd H 528228 on page 9 •

52
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL AIRFIELDS

AIRCRAF~TSHELTERS: Large, double aircra.ft shelters at the


Gerbini Airport.

53
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL AIRFIELDS

AI RCRAFT SHELTERS: Dispersal 'Of ;a ircra.ft and aircraft


shelters on theSciacoa Airfield. There are 8 shelters.

54
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL A I R FIE L D S

AIRCRAFT SHELTEf~: Fighter-type aircraft in double aircraft


shelters on thePachino Landing GroUnd.

55
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL AIRFIELDS

AMMUIITTION ~: Ammunition ,' storage and barracks area at the


Gerbini Airport.

56
• • •
,-:- ~ ... -..-

CONFIDENTIAL
AIRFIELDS

. " .
"

roMS SIDRAGE: Technique of bomb storage on perimeter-strip


atComl.so Al.rport. For vertical view see grid reference
H549223 .o n page 9.

57
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL . AIRFIELDS

FUEL STORAGE: suspected method ofstorirlg .individual cans or


barrels of l'uel. Similar trenches ares·een at Gela and Ca.tania
airports.

58
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL

MILITARY CAMPS: A camp near Gela.

59
• • •
CONFIDENTIAL

SUPPLY 'DEFOTSI Supply deopt near Gala•.