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Experiment-1

Object: Introduction of GUI of the software in the above mentioned areas realistic problems.

Introduction to ANSYS

Today computer technology helps solving most complex problems. It is effectively used not only

for structural analysis but also for a wide range of phenomenon such as static (structural, creep,

fatigue, fracture), dynamic (linear and non-linear), vibration and noise, heat transfer, fluid flow;

in addition to manufacturing processes such as injection molding and metal forming.. As

CAD/CAM/CAE technology is much advanced, Ansys, evolved as the most popular and

complete CAE package with its highly powerful capabilities to help us understand the real world

functionality of a design.

The finite element method is a numerical method that involves complicated physics, geometry,

boundary conditions. In finite element method, a given domain is viewed as a collection of sub-

domains and over each sub-domain the governing equation is approximated by any of the

traditional vibrational methods.

Discretization

The geometry is discretized into smaller elements.

Numbering of Nodes And Elements

The nodes and elements are given separate nos

Selection of Displacement Function

A governing equation is to be formed for the problem

Assembly of elemental Eqn

Applying Boundary Conditions

Interpret the Results

The ANSYS Graphical User Interface (GUI) is an easy way to interact with ANSYS. The GUI

mode is often referred to as interactive mode. Each GUI option activates one or more ANSYS

commands to perform the requested operation. The below picture shows an example for

cascading drop down menu pointing list.

Experiment-1 1-2

Now we will directly enter into the software. To perform perfect analysis one must know

modeling in ANSYS too. Now will learn how to model but before that we shall see some options

in the ANSYS MAIN MENU which we are going to need for modeling and analyzing. By

clicking the + symbol near the pre processor the following options like element type, real

constant, material properties are seen. We will detail look them individually.

Experiment-1 1-3

Element Type

For analysis the various types are Links, Beams, Shell, Solid. Generally selecting the following

element types for specific problems will give accurate results and easy method of solving.

Experiment-1 1-4

Link 2D Spar1

Beam 2D 2D elastic 3

Beam 3D 3D 2 node 188

Beam 3D 3D 2 node 189

Shell Elastic 4 node 63

Solid 2D Quad 4 node 42

Solid 3D Brick 8 node 45

Solid 3D Tet 10 node

(Note the above mentioned nodes should be known by the student clearly to perform required

analysis type)

Now we will see how to select the above mentioned element types. Do as mentioned below.

Ansys Main Menu -> Pre Processor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete

The following dialogue box will appear

Then click the Add button another dialogue box will open.

Experiment-1 1-5

You can visualize the type of analysis in the first column and element type in the second column.

Choose the desired analysis and element types according to the given problem.

The chosen element type will be displayed in the box pointed by the pointer. Now click Ok. If

you want to enter multiple element types for applying to different cross sections of a problem

then,

Select the first element type then click apply

Select the second element type then click apply

Select the third element type and then click ok.(note you have click ok after selecting the last

element type you require. For an example i need 3 element types so after selecting the third

element type i have clicked ok). After clicking ok the following dialogue box will open.

I have selected three different element types namely. Now Selecting is over click close.

Beam 2D 2D elastic 3

Solid 2D Quad 4 node 42

Shell Elastic 4 node 63

Experiment-1 1-6

Real Constant

Element real constants are properties that depend on the element type, such as cross-sectional

properties of a beam element. For example area (AREA), moment of inertia (IZZ), height

(HEIGHT), shears deflection constant (SHEARZ), initial strain (ISTRN), and added mass per

unit length (ADDMAS). Not all element types require real constants, and different elements of

the same type may have different real constant values.

To apply real constant you should select an element type first which is referred in the previous

topics. After selecting the element types now follow as guided below,

Ansys Main Menu -> Pre Processor -> Real Constant -> Add/Edit/Delete

Experiment-1 1-7

The already selected element types will be shown. Here I have selected Beam 2D elastic 3. Now

click ok another dialogue box will open.

Experiment-1 1-8

Enter the required properties in the various boxes provided and click ok if you are finished. If

you want to give the real constant values for another element u click Apply and then change the

element no from 1 to the number of the required element like 2 or 3.

Material Properties

Every model you create must be given a material for solving the problem. Ansys itself has some

pre-defined material database built in it. To apply a material one should do as follows,

Pre Processor -> Material Props -> Material Library -> Import Library

The following dialogue box will appear.

Experiment-1 1-9

This box will appear here you have the material no as 1 now click browse for picking the

material.

After clicking ok one dialogue box will appear

Experiment-1 1-10

My computer -> local disk -> installed folder ->Ansys11 -> v110 ->ANSYS -> matlib. Then

select the material and click OK.

Experiment-1 1-11

The above dialogue box will open indicating your material is selected now close this dialogue

box. We will see about modeling and meshing in the next unit and about loads we will see while

learning about analyzing. Now lets see an overview about the post processor. The preprocessor

contains all the variables that are essential for discretizing a problem and solving it. The post

processor is used to interpret the results that are solved.

Post Processor

Post processing means reviewing the results of an analysis. It is probably the most important step

in the analysis, because you are trying to understand how the applied loads affect your design,

how good your finite element mesh is, and so on.

Experiment-1 1-12

One can visualize this toolbar at the right of the main screen of the Ansys software.

Modelling

Now we will enter into the next step that is the modeling. Although ANSYS supports various

model types from softwares like Pro-e, CATIA, Solid Works it is important that one should

know modeling in Ansys too. We will see the various options available in ANSYS multi

physics.

Before entering into modeling one should keep in mind that in ANSYS one cannot undo (

ctrl+z) or redo ( ctrl+y) what they drew as in many softwares. So one must be cautious

while modeling.

Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create

This is where all the modeling options will be present. You can visualize from the below figure.

Experiment-1 1-13

Experiment-1 1-14

You can visualize the various modeling options such as key points, lines, areas, volumes, nodes,

elements.

Key Points

Experiment-1 1-15

First we will see about the on working plane option. When you click On Working Plane the

following dialog box will appear.

Experiment-1 1-16

You can visualize two options pick and unpick. As mentioned in the previous chapters in Ansys

one cannot undo so if u place a key point wrongly you can remove it by selecting the unpick

option and select the wrongly place key point. To place a key point jus select pick and then left

click on the work plane where ever you want to place the key point. After placing the desired

amount of key points click ok. The following figure is an example in which the key points or

placed randomly by clicking left mouse in various parts of the screen.

Experiment-1 1-17

The yellow squares denote the placed key points after you are finished click ok.

After clicking ok the key points are visualized by numbers so far we have learned to create new

features but we dont know to open a new page. Now u dont need the current key points for

learning the next option instead of deleting I will open a new working window without saving

this screen. Above the Ansys toolbar one can visualize the New Analysis option.

Experiment-1 1-18

Experiment-1 1-19

New window will open. One can use this procedure while learning the tutorial since deleting

everything drawn are selected takes a lot of time.

In Active CS

After selecting this option under the key point the following dialog box will appear.

Enter the key point number. For example am entering 1 and the x,y,z locations as 0,0,0 and click

apply

Experiment-1 1-20

Now enter 2 in key point number.(Note you should not enter same values for key point

numbers.) and enter the co ordinate of x, y, z as 10,0,0.

For me 2 key points is enough for demonstrating. U can place key points at your desired co-

ordinate locations by following this method. While modeling in Ansys one should follow this

method for creating models.

After clicking ok,

Experiment-1 1-21

For example I have placed four key points you can visualize the number.

Lines

There are three types of lines that we are going to learn they are

1. Lines

2. Arcs

3. Splines

Before drawing a line we need key points without key points we cant create any physical

element in modeling. If you try you will get this error dialog box.

So you can't draw a line click proceed and then create key points as mentioned in the above

chapter key points. Now we will see how to creat a straight line. Create 4 key points with co-

ordinates (0,0),(10,0),(10,10),(0,10).

Experiment-1 1-22

After creating the key points select straight line under lines. The following dialog box will

appear.

Pick the two key points through which you want the straight line. I need to draw lines between

key points 1, 2 and 2, 3 and 3, 4 and 4, 1. So I first pick the key points 1 and 2. You can visualize

in the below figure.

Experiment-1 1-23

Similarly, 3 and 4 and 4 and 1and click ok, So I can get a square.

Experiment-1 1-24

Arcs

Now we will see how to draw various arcs.

Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Lines -> Arcs

In that select through 3 key points to perform this one must have already created three key points

as shown below.

After placing three key points select through 3 key points under the arcs a dialog box will open.

Experiment-1 1-25

(Note the key points should not be randomly placed they should be placed with dimensions. Arcs

greater than or equal 180 degree cannot be drawn.)

I have created three arcs you can visualize them in the figure.

Areas

Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Area

Experiment-1 1-26

Arbitrary Area

This is just a arbitrary area it need not have any proper shape. It is enough to study how we can

create arbitrary area using key points. Just place the required key points on the screen.(Note

these key points must be the boundary of the defining area.)

Now click the arbitrary area under the area and select through key points.

Volumes

To create volumes create arbitrary area first. Then change the view settings to isometric view in

the active view settings tool bar.

Experiment-1 1-27

Now go to

Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Operate -> Extrude ->Areas -> Along Normal

The above dialog box will appear. Select the area to be extruded and click ok

Experiment-1 1-28

The above dialog box will appear give the length of extrusion and click ok. If the object is out of

the screen then click the zoom fit option in the view settings tool bar.

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