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# 7ME8A: FINITE ELEMENT LAB

Experiment-1

Object: Introduction of GUI of the software in the above mentioned areas realistic problems.

Introduction to ANSYS
Today computer technology helps solving most complex problems. It is effectively used not only
for structural analysis but also for a wide range of phenomenon such as static (structural, creep,
fatigue, fracture), dynamic (linear and non-linear), vibration and noise, heat transfer, fluid flow;
in addition to manufacturing processes such as injection molding and metal forming.. As
CAD/CAM/CAE technology is much advanced, Ansys, evolved as the most popular and
complete CAE package with its highly powerful capabilities to help us understand the real world
functionality of a design.

## Finite Element Method

The finite element method is a numerical method that involves complicated physics, geometry,
boundary conditions. In finite element method, a given domain is viewed as a collection of sub-
domains and over each sub-domain the governing equation is approximated by any of the

## Basic Steps in FEM

Discretization
The geometry is discretized into smaller elements.
Numbering of Nodes And Elements
The nodes and elements are given separate nos
Selection of Displacement Function
A governing equation is to be formed for the problem
Assembly of elemental Eqn
Applying Boundary Conditions
Interpret the Results

## ANSYS GUI (Graphical User Interface)

The ANSYS Graphical User Interface (GUI) is an easy way to interact with ANSYS. The GUI
mode is often referred to as interactive mode. Each GUI option activates one or more ANSYS
commands to perform the requested operation. The below picture shows an example for
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Now we will directly enter into the software. To perform perfect analysis one must know
modeling in ANSYS too. Now will learn how to model but before that we shall see some options
in the ANSYS MAIN MENU which we are going to need for modeling and analyzing. By
clicking the + symbol near the pre processor the following options like element type, real
constant, material properties are seen. We will detail look them individually.
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Element Type

For analysis the various types are Links, Beams, Shell, Solid. Generally selecting the following
element types for specific problems will give accurate results and easy method of solving.
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## Type of analysis Element type

Beam 2D 2D elastic 3
Beam 3D 3D 2 node 188
Beam 3D 3D 2 node 189
Shell Elastic 4 node 63
Solid 2D Quad 4 node 42
Solid 3D Brick 8 node 45
Solid 3D Tet 10 node

(Note the above mentioned nodes should be known by the student clearly to perform required
analysis type)

Now we will see how to select the above mentioned element types. Do as mentioned below.
The following dialogue box will appear

Then click the Add button another dialogue box will open.
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You can visualize the type of analysis in the first column and element type in the second column.
Choose the desired analysis and element types according to the given problem.

## For example as shown in figure click Beam and then 2D elastic 3.

The chosen element type will be displayed in the box pointed by the pointer. Now click Ok. If
you want to enter multiple element types for applying to different cross sections of a problem
then,
Select the first element type then click apply
Select the second element type then click apply
Select the third element type and then click ok.(note you have click ok after selecting the last
element type you require. For an example i need 3 element types so after selecting the third
element type i have clicked ok). After clicking ok the following dialogue box will open.

I have selected three different element types namely. Now Selecting is over click close.
Beam 2D 2D elastic 3
Solid 2D Quad 4 node 42
Shell Elastic 4 node 63
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Real Constant
Element real constants are properties that depend on the element type, such as cross-sectional
properties of a beam element. For example area (AREA), moment of inertia (IZZ), height
(HEIGHT), shears deflection constant (SHEARZ), initial strain (ISTRN), and added mass per
unit length (ADDMAS). Not all element types require real constants, and different elements of
the same type may have different real constant values.

To apply real constant you should select an element type first which is referred in the previous
topics. After selecting the element types now follow as guided below,

## The following Dialogue box will appear.

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The already selected element types will be shown. Here I have selected Beam 2D elastic 3. Now
click ok another dialogue box will open.
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Enter the required properties in the various boxes provided and click ok if you are finished. If
you want to give the real constant values for another element u click Apply and then change the
element no from 1 to the number of the required element like 2 or 3.

Material Properties
Every model you create must be given a material for solving the problem. Ansys itself has some
pre-defined material database built in it. To apply a material one should do as follows,

Pre Processor -> Material Props -> Material Library -> Import Library
The following dialogue box will appear.
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## Now click ok.

This box will appear here you have the material no as 1 now click browse for picking the
material.
After clicking ok one dialogue box will appear
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## Generally the material database will be in the following location.

My computer -> local disk -> installed folder ->Ansys11 -> v110 ->ANSYS -> matlib. Then
select the material and click OK.
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## The above dialogue box will come. Now click ok.

The above dialogue box will open indicating your material is selected now close this dialogue
box. We will see about modeling and meshing in the next unit and about loads we will see while
learning about analyzing. Now lets see an overview about the post processor. The preprocessor
contains all the variables that are essential for discretizing a problem and solving it. The post
processor is used to interpret the results that are solved.

Post Processor
Post processing means reviewing the results of an analysis. It is probably the most important step
in the analysis, because you are trying to understand how the applied loads affect your design,
how good your finite element mesh is, and so on.

## Changing Workplane/Active Screen Visual Settings

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One can visualize this toolbar at the right of the main screen of the Ansys software.

Modelling

Now we will enter into the next step that is the modeling. Although ANSYS supports various
model types from softwares like Pro-e, CATIA, Solid Works it is important that one should
know modeling in Ansys too. We will see the various options available in ANSYS multi
physics.

Before entering into modeling one should keep in mind that in ANSYS one cannot undo (
ctrl+z) or redo ( ctrl+y) what they drew as in many softwares. So one must be cautious
while modeling.
Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create
This is where all the modeling options will be present. You can visualize from the below figure.
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You can visualize the various modeling options such as key points, lines, areas, volumes, nodes,
elements.

Key Points
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## Pre Processor -> Modeling -> Create -> Key points

First we will see about the on working plane option. When you click On Working Plane the
following dialog box will appear.
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You can visualize two options pick and unpick. As mentioned in the previous chapters in Ansys
one cannot undo so if u place a key point wrongly you can remove it by selecting the unpick
option and select the wrongly place key point. To place a key point jus select pick and then left
click on the work plane where ever you want to place the key point. After placing the desired
amount of key points click ok. The following figure is an example in which the key points or
placed randomly by clicking left mouse in various parts of the screen.

## To switch between pick and unpick click right mouse

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The yellow squares denote the placed key points after you are finished click ok.

After clicking ok the key points are visualized by numbers so far we have learned to create new
features but we dont know to open a new page. Now u dont need the current key points for
learning the next option instead of deleting I will open a new working window without saving
this screen. Above the Ansys toolbar one can visualize the New Analysis option.
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## Select the save no information pointed by the arrow and click ok

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New window will open. One can use this procedure while learning the tutorial since deleting
everything drawn are selected takes a lot of time.

In Active CS

After selecting this option under the key point the following dialog box will appear.

Enter the key point number. For example am entering 1 and the x,y,z locations as 0,0,0 and click
apply
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## After clicking apply again the previous image will appear.

Now enter 2 in key point number.(Note you should not enter same values for key point
numbers.) and enter the co ordinate of x, y, z as 10,0,0.

For me 2 key points is enough for demonstrating. U can place key points at your desired co-
ordinate locations by following this method. While modeling in Ansys one should follow this
method for creating models.
After clicking ok,
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For example I have placed four key points you can visualize the number.
Lines

## Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Lines

There are three types of lines that we are going to learn they are
1. Lines
2. Arcs
3. Splines

## This can be visualized from the following figure.

Before drawing a line we need key points without key points we cant create any physical
element in modeling. If you try you will get this error dialog box.

So you can't draw a line click proceed and then create key points as mentioned in the above
chapter key points. Now we will see how to creat a straight line. Create 4 key points with co-
ordinates (0,0),(10,0),(10,10),(0,10).
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After creating the key points select straight line under lines. The following dialog box will
appear.

Pick the two key points through which you want the straight line. I need to draw lines between
key points 1, 2 and 2, 3 and 3, 4 and 4, 1. So I first pick the key points 1 and 2. You can visualize
in the below figure.
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## Then select 2 and 3

Similarly, 3 and 4 and 4 and 1and click ok, So I can get a square.
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Arcs
Now we will see how to draw various arcs.
Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Lines -> Arcs
In that select through 3 key points to perform this one must have already created three key points
as shown below.

After placing three key points select through 3 key points under the arcs a dialog box will open.
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## Pick the starting end and the middle

(Note the key points should not be randomly placed they should be placed with dimensions. Arcs
greater than or equal 180 degree cannot be drawn.)

I have created three arcs you can visualize them in the figure.

Areas
Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Area
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## Now we will see one by one the various options.

Arbitrary Area

This is just a arbitrary area it need not have any proper shape. It is enough to study how we can
create arbitrary area using key points. Just place the required key points on the screen.(Note
these key points must be the boundary of the defining area.)
Now click the arbitrary area under the area and select through key points.

## Pick the key points and click ok.

Volumes
To create volumes create arbitrary area first. Then change the view settings to isometric view in
the active view settings tool bar.
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Now go to
Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Operate -> Extrude ->Areas -> Along Normal

The above dialog box will appear. Select the area to be extruded and click ok
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The above dialog box will appear give the length of extrusion and click ok. If the object is out of
the screen then click the zoom fit option in the view settings tool bar.