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Inch Millimeters

1/16 1.6
1/8 3.2
1/4 6.4
Test Position 1G (FIat) 1/2 12.7
(Plates Horizontal) 1 25.4

Side-bend Specimen
Side-bend Specimen
1 a



See Note 5
and Detail A 6 Min
7 Min

a = 45 Minimum
R = 1/4", + 1/4" 1/16"
f = 1/16" Maximum
R Detail A Joint Geometry with Backing
1. Administration of this performance qualification test in accordance with AWS QC7, Supplement G, supersedes AWS
QC11 and AWS EG3.0 requirements of Workmanship Qualification for GMAW (spray transfer) of carbon steel pipe.
2. 1" thickness carbon steel (M-1/P-1/S-1, Group 1 or 2), as detailed in AWS B2.1.
3. Performance Qualification #1 = 1G position.
4. All welding done in position according to applicable performance qualification requirement.
5. With backing, backing material 1/4" 3" 7" minimum (M-1/P-1/S-1, Group 1 or 2), as specified in AWS B2.1.
6. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine OFC.
7. Use WPS AWS2-3-GMAW.
8. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of AWS B2.1, Sections 3.5.1 and Bend test as detailed
and in accordance with the requirements of AWS B2.1, Sections,, and Figure 3.7.2A.

Fig. 22-32 Performance Qualification Test GMAW, Spray Transfer, Carbon Steel, 1G Position. Adapted from AWS SENSE Program

melting point during welding. The high thermal conduc- Aluminum is used by all industries, particularly the
tivity necessitates high heat input for fusion welding. automotive, aircraft, electrical, chemical, and food indus-
Aluminum and its alloys rapidly develop a tenacious, tries. Review Chapter 3 for a more detailed discussion of
refractory oxide film when exposed to air. The melting aluminum and its properties.
point for aluminum oxide is 3,600F or three times the MIG and TIG welding have all but replaced stick
melting temperature of aluminum. The oxide film must electrode welding for aluminum and its alloys. The gas
be removed or broken up during welding to permit the tungsten arc and GMAW processes are generally used in
base and filler material to flow together properly when welding the lighter gauges of aluminum. Heavier gauges
fusion welding or to permit flow in brazing or soldering. are welded with the gas metal arc process. The type of
The oxide may be removed by fluxes, by the action of the joint and the position of welding determine to a great
welding arc in an inert gas atmosphere, or by mechanical extent the process to be used on thicknesses 18inch and
and chemical means. under.

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate) Chapter 22 737
The following factors make gas metal arc welding a 25 percent argon and 75 percent helium may be used, de-
desirable joining process for aluminum: pending upon the job conditions. For aluminum thicker
than 3 inches, a mixture of 25percent argon and 75 percent
Cleaning time is reduced because there is no flux on
helium is preferred. This amount of helium provides a
the weld.
The absence of slag in the weld pool eliminates the high heat input for welding thick sections. High heat input
is necessary to minimize porosity.
possibility of entrapment.
The weld pool is highly visible due to the absence of You will recall the need to keep the welding area ad-
equately shielded with the shielding gas. An inadequate
smoke and fumes.
Welding can be done in all positions. shield causes a weld to be porous and appear dirty,
Fig. 22-33. Using too much shielding gas is wasteful and
Joint Preparation Generally, welded joints for aluminum may cause weld turbulence and porosity. Figure 22-34
are designed like those for steel. Because of the higher shows a smooth, porosity-free aluminum weld made with
fluidity of aluminum under the welding arc, narrower the proper amount of shielding gas.
joint spacing and lower welding currents are generally
Spray Arc Welding Weld metal is deposited continuously.
used. The joint spacing should never be so narrow as to
More arc energy and greater heat is provided for melt-
prevent complete penetration.
ing the filler wire and base material. Thus, thick sections
Foreign substances such as oil, grease, paints, and re-
are more easily welded. Helium, helium-argon mixtures,
fractory oxide film must be removed if quality welds are to
and argon may be used as shielding gases. The choice
be produced. Foreign substances are wiped off or removed
of gas is dependent upon the type of material, its thick-
by vapor degreasing with a suitable commercial solvent.
ness, and the welding position. Welding can be done in all
Whenever possible, plate surfaces should be degreased be-
positions with the spray-arc type of transfer. For out-of-
fore shearing or machining. In using any solvent, proper
position welding, a 75 percent helium and 25 percent argon
safety procedures must be followed.
The oxide film may be removed by both chemical and
mechanical cleaning methods. Cleaning by mechanical
means such as filing and scraping may not be uniform,
but it is usually satisfactory if properly done. When doing
multipass welding, clean each pass with a stainless-
steel wire brush. Once the parts have been cleaned, they
should be welded as soon as possible before the oxide
film has a chance to form again. Oxides also form on
the surface of aluminum welding wire, and it should be
checked often.
Sheared edges can also cause poor quality welds. Dur-
ing the shearing operation, dirt and oxide are rolled over
and trapped in the sheared edge. In many cases this re-
sults in weld inclusions and porosity. To eliminate this
problem, sheared edges should be thoroughly degreased
and, if possible, mechanically cleaned before welding.
Shielding Gas Argon is preferred for welding aluminum
plate thicknesses up to 1 inch. When compared to helium,
argon provides better metal transfer and better arc stabil-
ity, thus reducing spatter.
For the welding of plate thicknesses from 1 to 2 inches,
the following shielding may be used: pure argon, a mix-
ture of 50percent argon and 50 percent helium, or a mix-
ture of 75 percent argon and 25percent helium. Helium
provides a high heat input rate, and argon provides excel-
lent cleaning action.
For the welding of plate thicknesses from 2 to 3inches, Fig. 22-33 Aluminum weld made with insufficient shielding
a mixture of 50 percent argon and 50 percent helium or gas. Kaiser Aluminum

738 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)
Out-of-Position Welding Out-of-position welding of alu-
minum with the gas metal arc welding process is no more
difficult than when welding out of position with any one
of the other welding processes.
Horizontal Position Inwelding butt joints and T-joints in
the horizontal position, Figs. 22-35 and 22-36, care must
be taken to penetrate to the root of the joint. Overheat-
ing in any one area causes sagging, undercutting, or melt-
through to the back side of the joint. The weld metal should
be directed against the upper plate. In multipass welding
be sure that there is no incomplete fusion between passes.

Vertical PositionFillet and groove welds in the vertical

position must be welded with the travel-up technique,
Figs. 22-37 and 22-38, page 740. Do not use too high a
welding current nor deposit too large a weld bead. If the
molten pool is too large, the effect of gravity makes it
difficult to control. A slight side-to-side motion may be
helpful. In multipass welding make sure that there is no
incomplete fusion between passes.
Overhead Position Filletand groove welds are made in the
Fig. 22-34 Aluminum weld made with sufficient shielding overhead position without difficulty. Welding current and
gas. Kaiser Aluminum travel speed are lower than for the flat position. Because
the shielding gas has a tendency to leave the weld area,
mixture, straight helium, or straight argon is the shield- the gas flow rate is higher. Extreme care must be taken to
ing gas. The GMAW-P mode of transfer is very effective avoid sagging and poor penetration. Trying to deposit too
when welding aluminum. It gives excellent control over much metal and carrying too large a weld pool are direct
the heat input and makes welding thin sections and out- causes of such conditions. You may find overhead weld-
of-position welding much easier. ing with the MIG torch somewhat awkward. Assume as

Fig. 22-36 Position of the MIG gun

Fig. 22-35 Position of the MIG gun when welding a V-groove butt joint in Fig. 22-37 Position of the MIG gun when
when welding a T-joint in aluminum plate aluminum plate in the 2G position. welding a T-joint in aluminum plate in the 3F
in the 2F position. Kaiser Aluminum Kaiser Aluminum position, uphill. Kaiser Aluminum

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate) Chapter 22 739
Fig. 22-38 Position of the MIG gun when welding a V-groove butt
joint in aluminum plate in the 3G position, uphill. Kaiser Aluminum

comfortable and relaxed a position as possible, Figs. 22-39

and 22-40. This will help to keep the gun steady, which is
necessary for quality welding.
Butt Joints: Jobs 22-J11 and J12 Butt joints are easy to Fig. 22-39 Position of MIG gun when welding a T-joint in
design, require a minimum of base material, present good aluminum plate in the 4F position. Kaiser Aluminum
appearance, and perform better under fatigue loading than
other types of joints. They require accurate alignment and
edge preparation, and it is usually necessary to bevel the
edge on thicknesses of 14 inch or more to permit satis-
factory root pass penetration. On heavier plate, chipping
the back side and welding the back side with one pass are
recommended to ensure complete penetration and fusion.
Sections with different thicknesses should be beveled be-
fore welding.
Lap Joints: Job 22-J13 Lap joints are more widely used
on aluminum alloys than on most other materials. In
thicknesses of aluminum up to 12 inch, it is more eco-
nomical to use double-welded, single-lap joints than
double-welded butt joints. Lap joints require no edge
preparation, are easy to fit, and require less jigging than
butt joints do.
T-Joints: Jobs 22-J14J16 T-joints have several of the
advantages of lap joints. They seldom require edge prep-
aration on material 14 inch or less in thickness. This is
because the fillet welds on T-joints, as on lap joints, are
fully penetrated if the weld is fused into the root of the
joint. Edge preparation may be used on thick material to
reduce welding costs and minimize distortion. T-joints
are easily fitted and normally require no back chipping. Fig. 22-40 Position of MIG gun when welding a V-groove butt
Any necessary jigging is usually quite simple. Welding a joint in aluminum plate in the 4G position. Kaiser Aluminum

740 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)
T-joint on one side only is not ordinarily recommended. that it is important to have good appearance and uniform
Although this type of joint may have adequate shear and weld contour. These characteristics usually indicate that
tensile strength, a weld on one side acts as a hinge under the weld was made properly and that it is sound through-
load so that it is very weak. It is better to put a small, con- out. Remember that high quality welds in aluminum can
tinuous fillet weld on each side of the joint, rather than a be produced only if proper welding conditions and good
large weld on one side of intermittent welds on both sides. cleaning procedures have been established and main-
Continuous fillet welding is recommended over intermit- tained. Figures 22-41 through 22-43 show some accept-
tent welding for longer fatigue life. able and unacceptable aluminum weld beads.
The following weld defects are found most often in the
Edge and Corner JointsThese joints are economical welding of aluminum:
from the standpoint of preparation, base metal used, and
welding requirements. However, they are harder to fit up Cracking in the weld metal or in the heat-affected
and are prone to fatigue failure. The edges do not require zone. Weld metal cracks are generally in crater or lon-
preparation. gitudinal form. Crater cracks often occur when the arc
is broken sharply and leaves a crater. Manipulating the
Inspection and Testing After the weld has been com- gun properly eliminates this problem. Longitudinal
pleted, inspect it carefully for defects. Use the same cracks are caused by:
inspection and testing procedures that you learned in pre- Incorrect weld metal composition
vious practice. Look for surface defects. Keep in mind Improper welding procedure

Fig. 22-41 Aluminum weld bead Fig. 22-42 Aluminum weld bead Fig. 22-43 Aluminum weld bead
made with current that is too high. made with current that is too low. made with correct current. Note the
Note the flat or concave appearance Note the incomplete penetration and smooth, even ripples; smooth con-
and excessive penetration. Kaiser the excess reinforcement and narrow tour; and even penetration. Kaiser
Aluminum bead. Kaiser Aluminum Aluminum

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate) Chapter 22 741
High stresses imposed during welding by poor joint project has been completely welded, use visual inspection
design or poor jigging and cut specimens for bend testing. Use the following ac-
Porosity is a major concern. A small amount of porosity ceptance criteria to visually judge your welds. Look for
scattered uniformly throughout the weld has little or no surface defects. Keep in mind that it is important to have
influence on the strength of joints in aluminum. Clusters good appearance and uniform weld contour. These char-
or gross porosity can adversely affect the weld joint. The acteristics usually indicate that the weld was made prop-
main causes of porosity in aluminum welds are: erly and that the weld metal is sound throughout. Once
Hydrogen in the weld area visual inspection is completed to the following criteria,
Moisture, oil, grease, or heavy oxides in the weld you will perform side bend tests. Follow side bend test
area procedures as outlined in Chapter 28.
Improper voltage or arc length
There shall be no cracks or incomplete fusion.
Improper or erratic wire feed
There shall be no incomplete joint penetration in
Contaminated filler wire (Use as large a diameter as
groove welds except as permitted for partial joint pen-
possible and GMAW-P if lower heat is needed.)
etration groove welds.
Leaky gun
Your instructor shall examine the weld for acceptable
Contaminated or insufficient shielding gas
appearance and shall be satisfied that the welder is
Incomplete fusion of the weld metal with the base
skilled in using the process and procedure specified
metal. The major causes are:
for the test.
Incomplete removal of the oxide film before
Undercut shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of
the base metal thickness or 132 inch.
Unsatisfactory cleaning between passes
Where visual examination is the only criterion for ac-
Insufficient bevel or back chipping
ceptance, all weld passes are subject to visual exami-
Improper amperage (WFS) or voltage
nation, at the discretion of your instructor.
Inadequate penetration at the root of the weld and The frequency of porosity shall not exceed one in each
into the side walls of the joint. This is generally
4 inches of weld length and the maximum diameter
caused by:
shall not exceed 332 inch.
Low welding current (WFS)
Welds shall be free from overlap.
Improper filler metal size
Only minimal weld spatter shall be accepted, as
Improper joint preparation
viewed prior to cleaning.
Too fast travel speeds for the selected wire-feed
speed Side bend acceptance criteria are shown as measured on
Aluminum welds may have metallic and nonmetallic the convex surface of the bend specimen.
inclusions. These may be caused by: No single indication shall exceed 18inch measured in
Copper inclusions caused by burn-back of the elec-
any direction on the surface.
trode to the contact tube The sum of the greatest dimensions of all indications
Metallic inclusions from cleaning the weld with a
on the surface, which exceed 132 inch, but are less than
wire brush that leaves bristles in the weld or equal to 18 inch, shall not exceed 38inch.
The nonmetallic inclusions from poor cleaning of Cracks occurring at the corner of the specimens shall
the base metal not be considered unless there is definite evidence
Always use the push gun travel angle when welding
that they result form slag inclusions or other internal
aluminum. (The cleaning action is enhanced.) discontinuities.

Groove Weld Project: Job Qualification Test 4 This test

MAG Welding of Stainless Steel
project will allow you to demonstrate your ability to read
a drawing, fit components together, tack, and weld alu- You will recall that stainless steel is a heat- and
minum test plates. You will be using the techniques de- corrosion-resistant alloy that is made in a wide variety
veloped in Jobs 22-J11 through J16 using the spray arc of compositions. It always contains a high percentage of
mode of metal transfer. Follow the instructions found in chromium in addition to nickel and manganese. Stainless
the notes on Fig. 22-44. steel has excellent strength-to-weight ratios, and many of
the alloys possess a high degree of ductility. It is widely
Inspection and Testing After the project has been tacked, used in products such as tubing and piping, kitchen equip-
have it inspected for compliance to the drawing. After the ment, heating elements, ball bearings, and processing

742 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)
Inch Millimeters Notes:
1/16 1.6 1. Administration of this performance qualification
test in accordance with AWS QC7, Supplement G,
1/8 3.2 supersedes
1/4 6.4 2. AWS QC11 and AWS EG3.0 requirements of
Workmanship Qualification for GMAW (spray transfer)
1/2 12.7 of aluminum
1 25.4 3. 3/8 thickness aluminum (M-23/P-23/S-23 or (M-22/
Test Position 3G Test Position P-22/S-22 to M-22/P-22/S-22), as detailed in
(Vertical Up) 4G (Overhead) AWS B2.1.
(Plates Vertical; Axis (Plates Horizontal)
4. Performance Qualification #1 = 3G position.
of Weld Vertical)
Performance Qualification #2 = 4G position.
5. All welding done in position according to
11/2 Width applicable performance qualification requirement.
11/2 Width
Root-Bend Specimen
Face-Bend Specimen With backing. Backing material 1/4 3 7
11/2 minimum,
11/2 a 6. (M-23/P-23/S-23 to M-23/P-23/S-23) or (M-22/P-22/
7. S-22 to M-22/P-22/S-22), as specified in AWS B2.1.
L All parts may be mechanically cut or machine PAC.
8. Use WPS AWS2-1-GMAW for (M-23/P-23/S-23).
3/8 Use WPS AWS2-1.1-GMAW for (M-22/P-22/S-22).
L Visual examination in accordance with the
requirements of AWS B2.1, Sections 3.5.1 and
Bend test in accordance with the requirements of
See Note 5 AWS B2.1, Sections,, and
and Detail A 6 Min Figure 3.7.2A.
7 Min
a = 60 Flat Position
90 Horizontal or Vertical Position
110 Overhead Position
R = 3/32, +1/8 1/16
R f = 1/16 Minimum
Detail A Joint Geometry with Backing

Fig. 22-44 Performance Qualification Test GMAW Spray Transfer, Aluminum, 3G and 4G Positions.

equipment for a wide variety of industries. Stainless steel the single-U groove. Standard lap, corner, and T-joint de-
is supplied in sheets, strip, plate, structural shapes, tubing, signs are also employed.
pipe, and wire extrusions in a wide variety of alloys and Copper backing bars with fillet welds are necessary for
finishes. welding stainless-steel sections up to 116 inch thick. Back-
Because stainless steel has a lower rate of thermal con- ing is also needed when welding plate 14inch and thicker
ductivity than carbon steel, the heat is retained in the weld from only one side. No air must be permitted to reach the
zone much longer. On the other hand, its thermal expan- underside of the weld while the weld pool is soildifying.
sion is much greater than that of carbon steel, thus causing The oxygen and nitrogen in the air weaken molten stain-
greater shrinkage stresses and the possibility of warpage. less steel during cooling. If it is difficult to use a backing
These difficulties can be overcome by the proper use bar, argon should be used as a purge gas shield.
of jigs and fixtures. Stainless steel also has a tendency Although the shielded metal-arc process is still used
to undercut, which must be provided for in the welding for welding stainless steel, the MAG and TIG welding of
procedure. stainless is increasing. Light gauge materials are welded
All standard forms of joints are used in stainless- with TIG, and GMAW-S and P, and heavier materials
steel fabrication. Sheet up to 316 inch can be square-edge are welded with the GMAW spray mode. MAG welding
groove-welded from one side. Plates 316 inch and thicker stainless steel has the following advantages:
are beveled to provide access to the root of the joint. Butt
joint designs for stainless steel include the single-V groove The absence of slag-forming flux reduces cleaning
with 60 and 90 groove angles, the double-V groove, and time and makes it possible to observe the weld pool.

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate) Chapter 22 743