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The Six Days of Creation
Which account is correct The Biblical account or the science account?
By Dennis Murphy
10 August 2010
Copyright © 2010 Dennis Murphy
Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 3 A summary of the scientific view of the appearance of life on earth......................... 4 The Genesis account of creation ................................................................................... 7 The mystery of Genesis chapter two ............................................................................ 7 Adam and Eve and the Doctrine of Man ...................................................................... 9 The appearance of Eve........................................................................................ 10 The Doctrine of Man and the question of Cain’s wife ....................................... 10 The question of how Jesus can be both fully God and fully man ....................... 11 Genesis chapter one compared to the scientific view ................................................ 12 “Day” one – Creation of the universe and the solid, liquid and gaseous matter needed for the planets ......................................................................................... 12 “Day” two – The earth forms and the atmosphere is created ............................. 14 “Day” three – The dry land appears and the sea and plants created ................... 17 “Day” four – The sun and the moon start shining – and other stars in the sky .. 18 “Day” five – Sea creatures and birds appear ...................................................... 20 “Day” six – Appearance of life on land and the entrance of mankind ............... 20 The total agreement between the Biblical account and the science account.............. 21 A challenge................................................................................................................. 22 Strong’s Concordance definitions for Genesis chapters one and two ........................ 22 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Very few subjects provoke more controversy that the question of the origins of the universe and the appearance of life. It is not the intention of this small book to deal with the question in great detail. This is done in the free book in the link below. This short book only lays out the Biblical description of the creation and compares it to a quick summary of the scientific view. http://www.scribd.com/doc/30830593/Creationism-Versus-Genesis
A summary of the scientific view of the appearance of life on earth
The definition of “life” itself is even controversial. It depends on the class of organisms that are being considered e.g. human, the lower animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, viruses etc. Leaving aside humans for a moment, “life” can be defined at one level by the structure of the cells that make up the life form. But this still does not really answer what “life” is as opposed to non-life (dead) or that strange in-between world that viruses inhabit. In the case of humans the definition becomes really difficult as we have an animal body – but we have a conscious being that inhabits that biological body. This takes us into both theological considerations which are explored in the expanded version of this book called, “From Creationism to the Creation” and some of the deeper aspects of theoretical physics (quantum mechanics) that probe the nature of consciousness. http://www.scribd.com/doc/17052583/From-Creationism-to-the-Creation In this chapter we have no interest in pursuing these definitions of life (interesting as they may be). We will simply accept that “life” exists and then look at a summary of how the science world sees the start and progression of life. The reason for this summary is to compare it to the Biblical account in Genesis to see how they compare. If a good match is obtained with the Genesis account, then it would be very strong evidence that Genesis is actually describing the evolutionary account that science has since come along and discovered the facts quite independently from the Bible. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_evolution The Big Bang – Observations suggest that the universe as we know it began around 13.7 billion years ago The basic timeline is a 4.6 billion year old Earth, with (very approximate) dates: NOTE – Mya = millions of years ago Hadean eon – 3800 Mya and earlier. • 4567.17 Mya – The planet Earth forms from the accretion disc revolving around the young Sun. • 4100 Mya – The surface of the Earth cools enough for the crust to solidify. The atmosphere and the oceans form First appearance of life on the now cooled planet Archean eon - 3800 Mya to 2500 Mya • 3500 Mya – Lifetime of the last universal ancestor; the split between the bacteria and the neomura occurs. Bacteria develop primitive forms of photosynthesis which at first do not produce oxygen.. • 3000 Mya – Photosynthesizing cyanobacteria evolve The oxygen concentration in the atmosphere subsequently rises3.8 billion years of simple cells (prokaryotes), Proterozoic eon 2500 Mya to 542 Mya • By 2100 Mya – Eukaryotic cells appear. Eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles with diverse functions 4
5 • 1200 Mya –Simple multicellular organisms evolve, mostly consisting of cell colonies of limited complexity. • 580–500 Mya – Most modern phyla of animals begin to appear in the fossil record during the Cambrian explosion. • Around 540 Mya – The accumulation of atmospheric oxygen allows the formation of an ozone layer. This blocks ultraviolet radiation, permitting the colonisation of the land. Phanerozoic eon –542 Mya to present time The Phanerozoic eon, literally the "period of well-displayed life", marks the appearance in the fossil record of abundant, shell-forming and/or trace-making organisms. It is subdivided into three eras, the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which are divided by major mass extinctions. Paleozoic era – 542 Mya to 251.0 Mya • 530 Mya – The first known footprints on land date to 530 Mya, indicating that early animal explorations may have predated the development of terrestrial plants. • 475 Mya – The first primitive plants move onto land, having evolved from green algae living along the edges of lakes. They are accompanied by fungi, which may have aided the colonisation of land through symbiosis. • 363 Mya – By the start of the Carboniferous period, the Earth begins to be recognisable. Insects roamed the land and would soon take to the skies; sharks swam the oceans as top predators, and vegetation covered the land, with seedbearing plants and forests soon to flourish. Four-limbed tetrapods gradually gain adaptations which will help them occupy a terrestrial life-habit. • 251.4 Mya – The Permian-Triassic extinction event eliminates over 95% of species. This "clearing of the slate" may have led to an ensuing diversification. Mesozoic era – 251.0 Mya to 65.5 Mya • From 251.4 Mya – The Mesozoic Marine Revolution begins: increasingly welladapted and diverse predators pressurise sessile marine groups; the "balance of power" in the oceans shifts dramatically as some groups of prey adapt more rapidly and effectively than others. • 220 Mya – Gymnosperm forests dominate the land; herbivores grow to huge sizes in order to accommodate the large guts necessary to digest the nutrient-poor plants. • 200 Mya – The first accepted evidence for viruses (at least, the group Geminiviridae) exists. Viruses are still poorly understood and may have arisen before "life" itself, or may be a more recent phenomenon. • 130 Mya – The rise of the Angiosperms: These flowering plants boast structures that attract insects and other animals to spread pollen. This innovation causes a major burst of animal evolution through co-evolution. Cenozoic era – 65.5 Mya to present time • 65.5 Mya – The Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event eradicates about half of all animal species, including all dinosaurs except the ancestors of modern birds • 35 Mya – Grasses evolve from among the angiosperms; grassland dominates many terrestrial ecosystems. • 200 kya (200,000 years ago) – Anatomically modern humans appear in Africa. Around 50,000 years before present they start colonising the other continents, replacing the Neanderthals in Europe and other hominins in Asia. The Holocene 5
6 epoch starts 10,000 years ago after the Last Glacial Maximum, with continuing impact from human activity. • Present day – With a human population approaching 6.76 billion the impact of humanity is felt in all corners of the globe. Overfishing, anthropogenic climate change, industrialization, intensive agriculture, clearance of rain forests and other activities contribute to a dramatically rising extinction rate. If current rates continue, humanity will have seen the eradication of one-half of Earth's biodiversity over the next hundred years. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
The Genesis account of creation
Or The Biblical account of creation compared to the scientific view only to discover that there is no difference The mystery of Genesis chapter two Before we can look at Genesis chapter one, we need to examine the apparent contradiction in chapter two as this gives some of the keys to the information in chapter one. Genesis 2:4-7 (NKJV) 4 This is the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day (OT:3117) that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, 5 before any plant (OT:7880) of the field was in the earth and before any herb (OT:6212) of the field had grown. For the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man (OT:120) to till the ground; 6 but a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground. 7 And the LORD God formed man (OT:120) of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (OT:5397); and man became a living (OT:2416) being (OT:5315). Much controversy is attached to Chapters one (1) and two (2) in the Book of Genesis. Creationists believe that the Bible teaches a literal six (6) twenty four (24) hour day creation about 6000 years ago that took place according to the account in Genesis 1:131. In this account man was made on the sixth day after everything else had been created. However when a literal interpretation is taken of the first seven verses of chapter two, a problem immediately becomes apparent. In Genesis chapter two, we have man being created after the heavens and the earth were created – but before any plants appeared on dry land which happened on the third day according to Genesis chapter one. The apparent contradictions between chapters one and two are well known and many people have tried in various ways to explain the differences. Some explanations are more likely than others. Some people have tried to say that we should just ignore the first seven verses of chapter two and simply concentrate on the creation account in chapter one. We can’t do that. Chapter two is there and we must deal with it. The whole of chapter two is focussed not on the original creation – but rather it deals with the events in the Garden of Eden. The first seven verses are simply a recapitulation of the history that led up to the establishment of the garden and what followed from there on. It says this in Genesis 2:1, “Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array.” The Garden of Eden is concerned with “life” in the form of the visible bodies of Adam and Eve and the plants and animals that were in the garden However we cannot just ignore the first seven verses as they say some important things that we need to examine so that we don’t miss something in all this discussion. As background to this statement, consider the “small problem” that was discovered by scientists as they studied the Solar System. It was found that the orbit of the planet Mercury around the sun did not behave exactly as predicted by Newton's laws of gravity and motion. The deviation in the orbit was truly miniscule – but nonetheless it 7
8 existed. People could have said that it was too small to even worry about. But being “real” scientists they did worry about it – it had to be explained. History records that they were right to worry about this “insignificant discrepancy” The matter of the deviation was resolved in 1915 when Albert Einstein showed in his new General Theory of Relativity that Newton’s laws were incomplete and that the deviation was explained by the fuller explanation of gravity and motion in the General Theory of Relativity. In fact, explaining the problem of Mercury’s orbit was one of the first “proofs” of the General Theory of Relativity. The point here is simple. Very small discrepancies between accounts of some things, can often point to a significant fact that explains the discrepancy – which then points the way forward to new facts and discoveries. So it is with the first seven verses of chapter two. Let’s begin by looking at the word “day” as used in both chapters one and two of Genesis. The underlying word itself is the Strong’s Number OT:3117 – “yowm” (see listing of Strong’s Concordance words at the end of this chapter). It can mean a literal twenty four hour day. It can also be used to speak of an undefined period of time that ranges from one day to eternity itself. The actual meaning in any given situation is set by the context in which it is used. The question that we are considering at this time is what does a “day” mean in the context of chapters one and two of Genesis? The meaning of “day” in the context of creation is fairly clearly laid out in Genesis 2:46 (above). In these two verses God says that there was no man to till the ground and also that at that time it didn’t rain but He had arranged for a mist to rise up from the earth to keep the face of the planet watered. Two questions arise. First, if the period in Genesis 1:9-27 that covers the third to the sixth days were three literal 24 hour days, then why was it important to mention that there was no man to till the ground? Let’s face it, nothing much happens to the plants growing in your own garden in three days – it slowly runs itself. So why was it so important to mention that nobody was present to tend the garden if it was only for three 24 hour days? As in all interpretation, you have to find the one and only explanation that fits all the descriptions of a given event. In this case, the only explanation is that the “days” were simply periods of time that were “considerably longer” than twenty four hours. This interpretation is reinforced by the answer to the second question below. The second question that must be asked is why the whole face of the earth needed watering if there were no plants in the ground? Well you could answer that the ground needed to be moistened ready for plants to grow. But the underlying text specifically states that it was a “mist” or fog that rose up from the ground. This means that the ground was already wet in order to be able to supply the vapour for the mist. This means that whatever was being watered didn’t have its roots in the ground – but rather sat on top of the ground and needed a wet atmosphere to water it. This is entirely consistent with what science says is the sequence of the first type of plants to appear on the earth – e.g. about 475 million years ago saw the first primitive plants move onto land e.g. algae, fungus and lichens (ref the last section of the chapter The Scientific view of the Universe and Life). Now we know why the Bible made the point about there being “no man to till the ground”. It was simply that what was growing didn’t need to be tilled or tended. The Bible is simply describing a long period of time where the atmospheric and soil conditions needed for “in the ground” types of plants to grow were being established in the creation of the earth. 8
9 Having dealt with the question of the length of the “days” in the creation account, the next question is why Genesis 2:4-7 appears to be saying that God created man before any plant was formed? If this is taken at face value, then we have two immediate problems. First, this directly contradicts the sequence in chapter one. The second problem is that Adam was human. This means that he needed to eat (Genesis 1:29 and 2:16). If there were no plants (or animals) to eat – then what did he eat? But there is an even more difficult question. Genesis 2:5 states that “there was no man to till the ground” But in verse seven we find that God created “man of the dust of the ground “. The question immediately arises as to how we can have the situation where “there was no man to till the ground” – but the “man” has nonetheless already been created? Here again, we have to find an interpretation that is consistent with all that the Bible says There can be only one interpretation of the appearance of the plant life that was not rooted in the soil and that only needed a mist in the air to water it – and how despite there being a “man” present, there was no “man” to till the ground. This could only have occurred if we accept the scientific view of the creation. Namely, that the plant life on the land came from the early seas – and that these early land plant forms (algae, lichens etc.) were the forerunners of the subsequent much larger and more varied plants and trees in later periods of history. Likewise, the ancient living ancestors of “man” were present in the sea – and that over huge periods of time these early life forms transformed into the natural body of man. And that it was into this naturally formed (evolved) body of man that the act of special creation described in Genesis 1:26-27 took place. This idea is expanded in the next section. Adam and Eve and the Doctrine of Man When God implanted the “spirit of man” into the naturally formed body of man in Genesis 1:26-27 you had a transformation from the “human animal” body of “Adam” that had a limited animal type of intelligence into the creative human being of mankind. This has its counterpart concept in the NT where the Spirit of God comes to live in the bodies of believers (Romans 8:9-11, 1 Corinthians 3:16) as an act of regeneration. In Genesis we first see the “spirit of man” take up its abode in the body of man – then in the NT we see God regenerate Christian mankind by joining him in the body of humans. The wording of Genesis 2:7 clearly states that the original creation of man was a twopart process. First came the forming of the body from the naturally occurring chemical elements that make up any living body – then the special act of human creation, namely the fusing of the “spirit of man” into the body of man occurred at Genesis 1,:26-27 Genesis 2:7 (NIV) (Genesis 1:1- 25) the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground (i.e. the chemical elements) and (Genesis 1:26-27) breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. In the NT we then see a third phase in the life of mankind where The Spirit of God joins the spirit of man in the natural body of believing mankind. In some sense this mirrors the Triune nature of God in the natural world which is spoken about in Romans 1:19-20.
10 This is the concept that is covered in the chapter called the Doctrine of Man in the expanded version of this book called, “From Creationism to the Creation” http://www.scribd.com/doc/17052583/From-Creationism-to-the-Creation . It’s not our bodies that separate us from the animals. We have a natural body just like any other animal and that comes into existence the same as say, a horse, or a chimpanzee does. It has the same organs, nutritional needs and excretory functions as any other animal body does. It has much the same DNA genetic makeup as any other animal body. It suffers the same sorts of diseases and it dies just like any other animal body. Where we differ is that mankind is a spirit being that is fused into a natural – but mortal – body. This is the definition of a human being according to the Bible The difference between humans and animals becomes very clear at the moment of death. The Bible states, and the experience of those who die and return, makes very clear, that at death the soul and spirit of the person leaves the body. Or as Paul describes it, the person leaves the “tent” (2 Corinthians 5:1-4 and 2 Peter 1:13-14) and takes on their eternal form in the presence of God. With animals, they die and are no more! The appearance of Eve In the Genesis 1:26-27 description of the creation of man, the Biblical account clearly appears to speak of only a single literal Adam and Eve. This would come about because God appears to have only implanted the “spirit of man” into one only (Adam) of the humanoids that apparently were on the on the earth at that time. It would appear that Eve was made later as shown below Genesis 2:20-22 (NIV) But for Adam no suitable helper was found. 21 So the LORD God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, he took one of the man's ribs (OT:6763) and closed up the place with flesh. 22 Then the LORD God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man. The word that is translated as ”rib” (OT:6763 – tsela`) literally means “curved” (see Strong’s Numbers below). Bear in mind that when the original text was written and later when the translations were done into English the idea of DNA had not even been conceived in the mind of man. If you were the translator, “a rib” may have been the natural choice for an internal part of the body that was “curved” Today of course we know that the genetic material that controls the formation and shape of the human is DNA and that the characteristic of DNA that sticks in everybody’s mind is that it is shaped as a double helix – e.g. it is curved. A schematic picture of DNA is shown in the chapter Self-organising systems? – Or do we need a Special Creation? at the start of the section “The original DNA molecules – an example of self assembly” It would appear that Genesis 2:20-22 actually describes God using some of the DNA from Adam’s body to create Eve’s body by a process that we can speculate about, but not prove at this time. The Doctrine of Man and the question of Cain’s wife Consider the appearance of Adam’s “human animal” body just prior to Genesis 1:26-27 and then again immediately after God’s special act of creation where he fused the “spirit of man” into Adam’s body and Adam became a human being. It was – in 10
11 Pauls words ((2 Corinthians 5:1-4 and 2 Peter 1:13-14) – simply the “spirit of man” entering the “tent” (e.g. the natural body). You would not notice any outward difference in the body (“tent”). But what you would immediately notice is that the “body” now has a very considerably greater intellectual capacity than immediately prior to the person “entering the tent’. This has come about because of the nature of the “spirit being” (e.g. the person) who now lives in the body (the tent) Even though Adam – and later Eve – had a much greater intellectual capacity than the humanoid animals that lived in the Stone Age, they did not have much in the way of actual knowledge at that time. The end result of that would be that although they would have been clearly intellectually superior to the humanoid animals around them when you spoke to them – they would not, at least in the early stages, have been that much more knowledgeable than those around them. The difference between a real human and a humanoid animal at that time would be similar to the difference between an intelligent, but totally uneducated and illiterate person and a chimpanzee. The person is obviously much smarter and can reason and rapidly learn – but really does not know too much more than the chimpanzee at that point in time. Now take Cain, as he was cast out after he killed Able and went to the Land of Nod to the east of Eden. There he took a wife. Where did the woman come from? Well clearly, she was part of the very large population of “humanoid animals” on the earth at that time. While intellectually she would no doubt not have been Cain’s first choice, at the physical appearance level she was no doubt “acceptable” given his circumstances. Now we return to the account of when God made Eve. God took a part of Adam to create Eve. This was almost certainly some of his genetic material. Using that “material” from Cain, God made an equal intellectual partner for Adam – namely, Eve. Given that the account in Genesis appears to indicate that God only imbued those people with a human “spirit” who carried the genetic makeup directly from Adam himself, then it seems likely that the same conditions applied with Cain as well. In this situation, Enoch, who was Cain and his wife’s first child, would have likewise inherited Cain’s true human attributes as a result of Cain’s genetic seed. Over time as more true humans – as opposed to humanoid animals increased on the earth there would have been a natural selection process that would have favoured the real humans. They were more intelligent, hence they would be better adapted to the environment. The other real selection pressure would have been sexual. Given a choice, people will always select those who are closest to them. Higher intelligence would very rapidly lead to differences in knowledge, physical grooming and appearance, hygiene and lifestyle. Very few people would willingly choose a partner that had the IQ and habits of a chimpanzee if there was an alternative. This alone would ensure that the old humanoid animal section of Homo sapiens would rapidly die out. The question of how Jesus can be both fully God and fully man Many people have great difficulty in understanding how Jesus was (and is) both fully God – but at the same time, fully man. The answer lies in the question of what it means to be a member of mankind. In other words, we are talking about the definition of a human being. (The Doctrine of Man) 11
12 This definition is simply that a human being is a compound being that is composed of a “spirit being” (the actual person who will leave the body at death and then live on eternally) that God has somehow fused into the natural human body. This is what it means that Jesus is fully man. Jesus the man is composed of the Spirit Being of Jesus that was fused into a natural body that was exactly the same as every other human body. By Jesus living in that body he experienced exactly the same things that every other human that ever lived has. His body showed that it was a natural body when he was crucified. He bled, He thirsted – then He died. He rose again three days later – but in a different transformed eternal body that could appear in closed rooms and with many other attributes of which we as yet don’t understand. He was also fully God as the Spirit that inhabited the natural body of the “man Jesus” was none other than the WORD – God himself (Mathew 1:23 and John 1:1). This is exactly the same as saying that we are fully human because we are a spirit being that lives in a “natural body”. But we are human spirits – not the Spirit of God as was Jesus. Although we are “made in God’s image” and have certain attributes of God, (consciousness, creativity etc.) we are not the same as God. There are great mysteries about how God fuses a human spirit into a natural body, and there are huge unfathomable mysteries about who God is. However there is no mystery about how the man Jesus was – and now is – both fully God and fully human. The man Jesus was simply the Spirit – the WORD of God Himself – who was fused into the natural body of the man Jesus. Genesis chapter one compared to the scientific view We will look very briefly in this section at the scientific evidence and compare it to the Biblical description of the creation sequence and see that there is no difference in the two descriptions. “Day” one – Creation of the universe and the solid, liquid and gaseous matter needed for the planets Genesis 1:1-2 (NKJV) 1 In the beginning God created the heavens (OT:8064 – the universe) and the earth.( OT:776 - from an unused root probably meaning to be firm) 2 The earth was without form (OT:8414 – empty place, without form, nothing), and void;( OT:922 – emptiness) and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters (OT:4325 – water). . This is a general statement that God created not only the earth – but the entire universe as well. The universe is estimated to be around 14 billion years old. The event that started the universe has become known as the Big Bang. This was an explosion of space and time – not an explosion in space and time. The universe has expanded from a primordial hot “soup” of pure energy and sub-atomic particles at some finite time in the past, and it continues to expand to this day. Within a few minutes after the expansion of the universe began, the very high temperature and thick primordial soup of sub-atomic particles, “condensed” as protons and then later into hydrogen along with some “heavy hydrogen” (Deuterium) and small
13 traces of other light elements. In the early universe, mainly all that existed were vast clouds of hydrogen gas. The earth is only around 4.6 billion years old. There is a good reason for this. Stating the obvious, the earth and all other objects are made from many different elements. Initially the only elements that existed were hydrogen and much smaller quantities of its heavier cousin, Deuterium. Some process had to create all the heavy elements. This took time – hence the earth and all other solid material have to be younger than the universe itself. It must be noted that there are multiple measurements of both the age of the universe and the age of the earth. In all cases the different methods of measurement all converge to the same general figures as given here. Universe = about 14 billion years and the earth = about 4.6 billion years old. These figures are reliable. Genesis 1:3-5 (NKJV) 3 Then God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light. 4 And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. So the evening and the morning were the first day. Now God created light. This is a very significant statement as it now gets into the specifics of how He created the “earth” after the universe had come into existence. You will notice that this light was not the sun and moon as spoken about in verses 14 to 19 on the fourth day. Clearly this light was related to the universe at large. Scientists believe that the first stars probably formed about 100 million years after the “Big Bang” that started the expansion of space and time that formed our universe. These stars were much bigger, brighter and much hotter than stars today. Because they were much hotter than current stars, they would have generated huge amounts of ultraviolet radiation that would kill any form of life such as we know today unless it was shielded in the deep sea or in dark caves. There is a far more important point here though. The visible natural light in the universe comes from those “nuclear furnaces” known as the stars. The sun is our star. Stars form when local gravitational forces cause huge clouds of hydrogen gas to coalesce into massive balls. The heat and pressure in these huge balls of gas then “ignites” a fusion reaction where four hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium, giving off huge amounts of energy and light during this process. By a complicated set of nuclear reactions all of the elements that make up matter are then formed later within the star. Any stars that start off under a certain mass (weight) end up collapsing into incredibly dense stars known as “white dwarfs” when they have used up all their fuel and ‘burn out”. Of more interest to us are the stars over a certain critical mass. As they age and “burn” up all their fuel (initially hydrogen – then later helium) they expand catastrophically and explode (supernova). During this stupendous supernova explosion all the heavy elements that were made in the stars and that make up solid and other matter are ejected out into space. The elements that are ejected from the dying stars include not only the solid elements such as iron, carbon, calcium, sulphur, copper etc. but also the many different gasses such as nitrogen and oxygen. 13
14 Normal water is simply Hydrogen Oxide. (H2O) This consists of two hydrogen atoms combined with one oxygen atom. We know the original hydrogen came from the Big Bang itself. There are still vast clouds of hydrogen throughout space from which new stars are still forming. After a few hundreds of millions of years some of the original stars would have exploded (supernova) at the end of their life cycle and spewed out huge quantities of elemental oxygen that formed in the stars during their life cycle. This oxygen then would have reacted with the vast hydrogen clouds in space to form water floating around in space. The oxygen would also have reacted with the heavy hydrogen (deuterium) to form “heavy water” This process of water formation would have occurred throughout the universe. So what we have are huge clouds of atoms and small clumps of the many different solid elements as well as great quantities of water just floating around in “deep” and dark space waiting for the next phase of creation to begin. Now an important point arises here. Genesis 1:2 says: “The earth (OT:776 - from an unused root probably meaning to be firm) was without form (OT:8414 – empty place, without form, nothing), and void;( OT:922 – emptiness) and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters (OT:4325 – water). What Genesis 1:2 is saying is that initially, the “earth” consisted of “firm” material that was “without form”. This is the exact situation described by science where we have all the atoms of the various solid elements, gases and water all floating around in space – but they have no specific form because they have not yet formed into solid bodies such as asteroids, comets (rocks & ice) and planets etc. Gravity eventually caused all this solid material to coalesce and solar systems are then formed out of this stellar debris. That is why all the solid bodies in the universe must be younger than the universe itself. The elements that make up our bodies – along with all other matter – was originally formed in the “light” (the stars) that God created on the first “day”
“Day” two – The earth forms and the atmosphere is created Genesis 1:6-8 (NKJV) 6 Then God said, "Let there be a firmament (OT:7549 – an expanse, i.e. the firmament or (apparently) visible arch of the sky) in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters." 7 Thus God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. 8 And God called the firmament Heaven (OT:8064 – sky). So the evening and the morning were the second day. It is clear that by “day” two gravity had caused the earth itself to have been created and that the Genesis account is describing the formation of the atmosphere around the earth e.g. a firmament that divided the water on the earth from the water in space e.g. the comets that are found in the Oort Cloud which is described below and many other icy asteroids. 14
15 The formation of an atmosphere was a critical step in allowing the earth to accumulate and keep a significant body of water. Because this step was critical, it is almost certainly the reason that the Bible makes specific mention of this stage of the earth’s development. A very brief description of the process (as it is understood up until now) is given below. It is worth noting here that the firmament (sky) (OT:7549 above) is what you see when you look at the sky exactly as described in verse six – e.g. a visible dome above you that – on a clear day – varies in colour as you look from the horizon to directly overhead. On days with clouds you see all sorts of cloud patterns. If there was no atmosphere all, you would see a uniformly black sky with only stars showing in it. The current scientific ideas of the formation of our solar system, and the others that go to make up a galaxy are fairly well supported with observational data. It goes like this. A small area within a gigantic cloud of gases and dust (a nebula) was disturbed, probably by a nearby star exploding. This squeezed the cloud causing the particles in it to come closer together. This increased the gravitational attraction between all the particles and started the gravitational collapse of the cloud. Eventually, the cloud became very hot and dense near its center and was surrounded by a cooler disk of gas and dust. For reasons of physics (conservation of angular momentum) the cloud began to spin. As it sped up the cloud became thinner in the plane at 90 degrees to the spin axis and became like a large plate of spinning gas. Particles began to stick together and form clumps. Some clumps grew bigger as small particles and smaller clumps stuck to them. These eventually formed planets and smaller bodies such as moons and large asteroids. The moons were later captured by the gravitational fields of the planets. Close to the center of the cloud, small rocky planets such as Mercury, Earth and Mars formed as only rocky material could stand the great heat in this region. Complex forces in the disc led to the giant gas planets such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune forming in the outer regions of the spinning cloud. In the very cold outermost sections of the spinning cloud, ice formed from the water molecules in the cloud. Today we see that these outer regions are the home of the frozen planet of Pluto and the Oort Cloud which is mainly composed of various ices, such as water, ammonia, and methane and is the source of the comets that occasionally pass by the earth. At the time the earth first formed it was a very hot rocky ball with a molten core – which we still have today. As it cooled, huge quantities of gas were released by many volcanoes over the entire surface of the earth. The early atmosphere of the earth was composed essentially of all these volcanic gases. The gas composition of the atmosphere in those days was probably mainly methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia. There would have been very little free oxygen in the mixture. This thin atmosphere was held around the earth by its gravitational field. However this situation would not have lasted long without the existence of the earth’s magnetic field. This magnetic field originates from within the molten core of the earth and extends for several thousand kilometers out into space, where it is known as the magnetosphere. This magnetic field is a major part of the earth’s protection from the solar wind. This is a stream of very energetic particles that are generated in the sun and sweep outwards across the solar system. Without the protection of the magnetosphere, the gases that make up the atmosphere would simply be swept away into space and all the atmosphere
16 of the earth – including any water vapour – would be lost. Life would never be able to develop on the earth. Now that an atmosphere had developed, the conditions were right for free water to start accumulating on the surface of the earth. It is believed to have come from two different sources. The first water source was likely to have been from the huge quantities of super heated steam (e.g. in the form of invisible water vapour) released by the many volcanoes over the earth. In time this (invisible) water vapour condensed into minutes droplets of visible steam as the earth continued to cool. It was vitally important that both an atmosphere and the magnetosphere existed in the very early stage of the formation of water on the earth. Without any atmospheric pressure the (invisible) water vapour would have never been able to condense into “heavy” visible clouds of steam. Without the magnetosphere, the water vapour would have simply been swept away into space by the solar wind and most of this source of water would have been lost forever. However, it is believed that the earth gained most of its water from the many icy bodies such as the water-rich meteoroids that burn up in the atmosphere or the meteorites (a portion of a meteoroid that actually reaches the ground) that bombarded the earth in its early stages of formation and development. This belief is reinforced because the ratio of normal “light” to “heavy” water in these meteoroids is close to that of the sea. Because the ratio of heavy water to normal (light) water in some comets that have been analysed is about twice as high as the ratio of heavy to light water in the sea it is not believed that comets were the principal source of water on the earth. However, the existence of an atmosphere (or firmament) was still a critical requirement in the earth’s ability to retain this water. The atmosphere slowed down the incoming “icy bodies” and so minimised the impact energy. This slowing down of the incoming bodies helped prevent the impact explosions from blasting the superheated steam back out into space. The main point in all this discussion is the statement that the formation of water on the earth was only possible because the “firmament” (atmosphere) had been created – and that this firmament separated the water on the earth from the water that is spread throughout space in the rest of the universe. This was a significant step in the development of the earth. For more details, explore the links below. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Earth#Origin_of_the_oceans_and_atmosp here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_water_on_Earth Science tells us that this is the sequence of the creation – first the universe came into being – then stars formed from the condensed hydrogen gas – the stars manufactured all the chemical elements (including oxygen) – then the stars exploded spewing all the chemical elements out into space – then the oxygen and hydrogen combined to form water – there were also all the other solid matter elements floating around in space. The scene is now set to create galaxies, planets and solar systems. This all took a minimum of many hundreds of millions of years before the first solar system began to take form
17 So far the account of “days” one and two in Genesis follow exactly what science tells us were the steps in the creation. “Day” three – The dry land appears and the sea and plants created Genesis 1:9-10 (NKJV) 9 Then God said, "Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear"; and it was so. 10 And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters He called Seas. And God saw that it was good. The next very significant step that science tells us was necessary for the world to continue on in its development was the formation of the seas. Unsurprisingly – we see that this is exactly what the Bible states as the next step in the sequence of creation of the earth. The temperature at which water boils depends on the atmospheric pressure. For easy reference, I have reproduced the chart below from the chapter, “Just what is a scientific theory?” in the expanded version of this book called, “From Creationism to the Creation” http://www.scribd.com/doc/17052583/From-Creationism-to-the-Creation that shows how the temperature varies with pressure.
London, England Dead Sea Denver, Colorado Quito, Ecuador Lhasa, Tibet Top of Mt. Everest
Sea level minus 1,296 ft below sea 5,280 ft 9,350 ft 12,087 ft 29,002 ft
212.0ºF or 100ºC 213.8ºF or 101ºC 203ºF or 95ºC 194ºF or 90ºC 188.6ºF or 87ºC 159.8ºF or 71ºC
Because free water boils at low temperatures with low atmospheric pressure, then there could not have been any free water present on the earth until an atmosphere had first formed as described in “day” two. However, because the earth and the atmosphere was still very hot in the early stages of its development, the water that did exist in this early atmosphere (from volcanic steam and asteroids hitting the earth) was in the form of water vapour in the atmosphere. As the earth and atmosphere cooled and the atmospheric pressure increased, the invisible water vapour in the air began to condense into small visible droplets that formed the clouds in the sky. At a certain point, the clouds began to rain. Because of the huge quantities of water vapour in the air, there would have been a very significant amount of rain. In the same way that rivers today drain the rainfall from the land and flow into the low lying areas and depressions in the earth’s crust and form the seas, so the same mechanism operated to form the original seas. Truly, “the waters under the heavens were gathered together into one place, and the dry land appeared” We now have the situation where the earth and the other rocky planets, including earth, formed. The atmosphere on the earth had formed making it possible to accumulate water vapour in the earth’s atmosphere and this had all proceeded to the point where the water vapour could condense out as rain and form the seas. This explanation from science coincides exactly with Genesis 1:9-10. 17
18 The conditions on the earth were now set for the appearance of life on the earth to proceed and we can now look at the next stage in the development of life on the planet. Genesis 1:11-13(NKJV) Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb that yields seed, and the fruit tree that yields fruit according to its kind, whose seed is in itself, on the earth"; and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, the herb that yields seed according to its kind, and the tree that yields fruit, whose seed is in itself according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 13 So the evening and the morning were the third day. All life that we know of on the earth requires water to exist. Although the Bible doesn’t specifically state this, it none-the-less implicitly makes the point by stating that the seas were formed before we saw the emergence of any form of life on the planet. As covered in the beginning of this chapter, science believes that life first started in the oceans and then spread to the land about 475 million years ago. This period saw the first primitive plants such as algae, fungus and lichen start to colonize the rocky surface of the planet. Initially there was no soil on the planet – it was all rock. Plants that have roots simply could not grow in that environment. The only things that could grow were plants that sat on the hard rocky surface. It was the gradual build-up over many millions of years of the dead material from these early plants that led to the development of the soils needed for the plants that have roots to grow in. Initially there was no breathable atmosphere as the original atmospheric composition was poisonous to most life forms that exist today. The later plants and animals all needed a different atmosphere to survive. Plants need carbon dioxide, and animals need oxygen to survive. For these organisms to appear, it all relied on the original primitive surface types of plants to start off the complex process that led to the changes in the original atmospheric composition, to the composition that was needed for the later more complex life forms to survive. Although a dim protostar existed at the center of the solar system, it did not give out huge amounts of light and heat as it had not yet fully ignited. However the seas would have been warm because of heat in the earth and also the greenhouse effect from the composition of the early atmosphere. The cellular life in the sea would also have been adapted to the very low-light conditions in much the same way that we find life forms that live today exclusively in pitch blackness in caves and at the bottom of the sea, It is no accident that the Bible records the existence first of the formation of the earth – then the sea – then the emergence of the first primitive plants. This is the exact same sequence that science lays out. The simple fact is that an ordered sequence had to be followed in order to establish the conditions necessary for the emergence of life on the planet. It is not coincidence that science and the Bible agree on the exact sequence of events. “Day” four – The sun and the moon start shining – and other stars in the sky Genesis 1:14-19 (NKJV) 14 Then God said, "Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth"; and it was so. 16 Then God made two great lights: the greater light 18
19 to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made the stars also. 17 God set them in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 So the evening and the morning were the fourth day. In Genesis 14 it says, “Then God said, "Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth"; and it was so.” Note the sequence here, before we see the sun and the moon in our own solar system the Bible says that there are already, “lights in the firmament” that would be used as, “and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years”. It also says, “to give light on the earth” – in other words these lights in the sky are clearly visible on earth. The “lights” may have been other stars in our own galaxy or they may also have been other galaxies – or a mixture of both. However, and more to the point, mankind has historically used these distant stars for exactly the reason that the Bible stated. Here again, this is exactly what science says about the formation of the universe – that the formation of our star (sun) and our solar system is a relative latecomer and is only about 4.6 billion years old compared to about 14 billion years for the universe and its early stars. Once more we have a one hundred percent agreement between the Bible and science. The Bible clearly records that the “two lights in the sky” appear after the earth has formed and life started appearing on the earth. This is exactly the sequence that science gives as well. Initially when the solar system formed we have the early planets, moons and assorted debris such as asteroids all orbiting around a central protostar. All this occurs by “about” ten million or more years after the start of the process of solar system formation. A protostar consists of a ball of very hot glowing gas. However it has not reached the internal pressures and temperatures that are needed to “ignite” the nuclear reactions that start the process of fusing four hydrogen atoms together to form helium. This can take up to about fifty million years to occur. As the temperate and pressure rise the brightness of the star increases – hence its light and heat output goes up. Once fusion starts in the star it becomes what is known as a “main sequence” star. It remains in this form until nearly all of its hydrogen has been converted to helium. In the case of our sun (star) this will take about another five billion years or so. The important point in this is simply that when the earth started brewing life in its oceans and when the first plant life appeared on the surface, there was no “bright light” in the sky. Only a dim protostar existed. This means that “daylight” was very dim. Even if the earth had actually gravitationally captured its moon at that time, there was no bright light to reflect from the moon’s surface as “moonlight” and shine on the earth at night time. It was only many millions of years later that the sun (our star) fully ignited as the fusion reactor that we see today that the “two lights” appeared in the sky. Genesis 1:16 also says that He made the stars also. This is consistent with how a galaxy forms. The event that started the gravitational collapse of the portion of the giant nebula of gas and dust that led to the formation of our solar system, would almost certainly also have started the gravitational collapse of other parts of the nebula
20 as well. This would have led to the formation of other solar systems, which we see as stars (suns) in the “Milky Way” galaxy that we live in. Here again, there is an exact one-to-one correspondence between the Biblical account of the events and the actual sequence of those events and what science reports as having occurred. “Day” five – Sea creatures and birds appear Genesis1:20-23 (NKJV) 0 Then God said, "Let the waters abound with an abundance of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens." 21 So God created great sea creatures and every living thing that moves, with which the waters abounded, according to their kind, and every winged (OT:3671) bird (OT:5775) according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth." 23 So the evening and the morning were the fifth day. The Bible records that the sea began to abound with an abundance of many different types of life as the next step towards the world that we know today. This is consistent with the scientific record of fossils. The fossil record also shows that some of the first major life forms outside of the sea were the winged birds – just as the Bible says. The fossil record shows that the earliest known bird was Archaeopteryx It lived in the late Jurassic Period around 150 –145 million years ago. It shows distinct features that appear to be feathers. It is believed that it either flew as a bird does today, or it was a glider. It had jaws with sharp teeth and appears to be a transitional form between more ancient dinosaurs and modern birds. More modern examples are contained in the fossils from Cretaceous sediments in China. These sediments are believed to be the remains of ancient lakes which covered the Liaoning Province in north-eastern China, during the Cretaceous period (145 to 65.5million years ago). This area has many fossils of plants, insects, shellfish, fish, frogs and other amphibians, turtles and lizards, some early mammals and birds that appeared to have either feathers or proto-feathers (forerunners) Whether these “birds” truly flew is open to some debate still. But what is not in debate is whether they had feathers or at least proto-feathers. It is conspicuous that these fossils are found in sediments that contain large numbers of water living animals. This would appear to corroborate the Biblical account that “birds” are the next significant life form to appear on the scene. There is debate as to whether birds are directly related to dinosaurs – or whether they actually predate them. It doesn’t matter in this debate as birds – with feathers – appear “directly” after the appearance of major life forms in the sea – exactly as the Bible says. “Day” six – Appearance of life on land and the entrance of mankind Genesis 1:24-25 (NKJV) 4 Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind: cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth, each according to its kind"; and it was so. 25 And God made the beast of the earth according to its kind, cattle 20
21 according to its kind, and everything that creeps on the earth according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. On the beginning of the sixth “day” God made the animals that live on the face of the earth. In other words these animals are those who didn’t directly live in the water – although their ancestors did. This would include all the vertebrates such as mammals as well as marsupials and any other classification such invertebrates (insects, slugs, snails, worms etc). In the mammals we would find the predecessors of the body of man such as the line stretching back from Homo sapiens (man) Here again we see a direct correspondence between the Biblical account of creation and the view put forward by science. The sea was the original incubator of life that led to the development of the sea plants that adapted to the land – this built up soil and made the atmosphere – sea animals developed and some of then moved onto the land (e.g. we currently find about 120 species of marine mammals, seals, whales etc. – and some mammals moved onto the land) – then all the land animals developed, including the animal bodies that led to modern man.
Genesis 1:26-28 (NKJV) 26 Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." 27 So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. The final crowning step of the creation according to the Bible is that God created man in the image of God. The Doctrine of Man has already been covered at great length in the chapter called, The Doctrine of Man in the expanded version of this book called, “From Creationism to the Creation” and again in the earlier section in this chapter called “Adam and Eve and the Doctrine of Man” Here we find yet again that the Bible is in complete agreement with science and history. History and the fossil record show a long line of ancestors to the body of man. Despite the existence of these man-like early animal ancestors to man, we only find evidence stretching back for about 6000 to 10,000 years of the sort of intellectual activity that characterises man as representing the “image of God”. These include such things as the rise of civilization and those other activities that clearly separate mankind from the animal world. Such things as complex language, music, literature, advanced mathematics, science, architecture and large scale political and organizational activities. The other principal trait that defines man is that he alone has a spiritual dimension that leads him to “worship” a higher order of being. These activities are restricted to the last few thousand years of the history of the world – just as the Bible says. The total agreement between the Biblical account and the science account The scientific view of the world has been put together by many people who for the most part are not Christian and hence don’t regard the Bible as a credible account of the origins of the universe. Even so, you would be hard pressed to find a more complete and concise scientific account of the history of the universe than that found in the first chapter of Genesis. The first twenty seven verses in the NKJ version of the Bible
22 only have 680 words. Yet that summarizes – and exactly agrees with – the scientific view of the origins of the universe, from the Big Bang right up until today. It is an easily demonstrated fact that the natural laws that govern all aspects of the origin and operation of the universe are structured in such a way as to bring into existence plant and animal life without any external assistance. This will lead to all the forms of life throughout the universe in any domains that allow life (as we know it) to exist. It is inconceivable that all the literally billions of inhabitable planets in the universe are just barren rocky balls in space. They are there for the future expansion of the human race under the everlasting Kingdom of God. Is it reasonable to presume that mankind will eventually travel out into the vastness of this everlasting Kingdom only to find barren rocky deserts? Of course the answer is no – we will find nicely greened and grassed planets with large animal populations waiting for us. Although it almost certain that plant and animal life abounds throughout the universe, it is almost certain that mankind exists only here on earth. The Bible would lead us to believe that only once did God “make man in His own image” This makes sense. We are destined to live forever in the coming Kingdom of God – which will in turn expand forever. This requires a very large universe in which to expand into. This is what we see when we look up at the night sky. A challenge I am certain of the facts presented in this chapter. In the true scientific approach, I lay out a challenge at this point for anyone to show that there is any difference in the two accounts of creation – science and Biblical. If anyone can show where they differ, then I am willing to reconsider my current beliefs. Strong’s Concordance definitions for Genesis chapters one and two Below is a listing of the Strong’s Concordance entries for each the Strong’s Numbers shown in this chapter. It should be noted by studying the Strong’s Concordance entries that the Genesis chapter two account does not necessarily describe the formation of the creation of man in the “image of God” (Genesis 1:26-27) e.g. as a creative being. It may – but it clearly describes the creation of a “living being”. In particular take note of the OT word neshamah (OT:5397). This describes the signs of “life” in the living body of man and animals. While it can, it does not necessarily include the meaning of “soul” For example an ant is alive – but it seems to stretch the imagination to say that an individual ant has a personality, let alone an immortal soul. OT:6763 – tsela` (tsay-law'); or (feminine) tsal` ah (tsal-aw'); from OT:6760; a rib (as curved), literally (of the body) or figuratively (of a door, i.e. leaf); hence, a side, literally (of a person) or figuratively (of an object or the sky, i.e. quarter); architecturally, a (especially floor or ceiling) timber or plank (single or collective, i.e. a flooring): KJV-beam, board, chamber, corner, leaf, plank, rib, side (chamber). OT:6760 –tsala` (tsaw-lah'); a primitive root: probably to curve; used only as denominative from OT:6763, to limp (as if one-sided): KJV-halt.
23 OT:3117 – yowm (yome); NOTE – this word is used 2304 times in the OT with many different meanings – depending on the context – as shown with the many translations of the word in the King James Version of bible. from an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literal (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figurative (a space of time defined by an associated term), [often used adverb]: KJV- age, + always, + chronicals, continually (-ance), daily, ([birth-], each, to) day, (now a, two) days (agone), + elder, X end, + evening, + (for) ever (-lasting, -more), X full, life, as (so) long as (... live), (even) now, + old, + outlived, + perpetually, presently, + remaineth, X required, season, X since, space, then, (process of) time, + as at other times, + in trouble, weather, (as) when, (a, the, within a) while (that), X whole (+age), (full) year (-ly), + younger. OT:7880 – siyach (see'-akh); from OT:7878; a shoot (as if uttered or put forth), i.e. (generally) shrubbery: KJV-bush, plant, shrub. OT:6212 – `eseb (eh'seb); from an unused root meaning to glisten (or be green); grass (or any tender shoot): KJV-grass, herb. OT:120 – adam (aw-dawm'); from OT:119; ruddy i.e. a human being (an individual or the species, mankind, etc.): KJV-X another, + hypocrite, + common sort, X low, man (mean, of low degree), person. OT:5397 neshamah (nesh-aw-maw'); from OT:5395; a puff, i.e. wind, angry or vital breath, divine inspiration, intellect. or (concretely) an animal: KJV-blast, (that) breath (-eth), inspiration, soul, spirit. OT:2416 chay (khah'-ee); from OT:2421; alive; hence, raw (flesh); fresh (plant, water, year), strong; also (as noun, especially in the feminine singular and masculine plural) life (or living thing), whether literally or figuratively: KJV-+ age, alive, appetite, (wild) beast, company, congregation, life (-time), live (-ly), living (creature, thing), maintenance, + merry, multitude, + (be) old, quick, raw, running, springing, troop. OT:5315 nephesh (neh'-fesh); from OT:5314; properly, a breathing creature, i.e. animal of (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental): KJV-any, appetite, beast, body, breath, creature, X dead (-ly), desire, X [dis-] contented, X fish, ghost, + greedy, he, heart (-y), (hath, X jeopardy of) life (X in jeopardy), lust, man, me, mind, mortally, one, own, person, pleasure, (her-, him-, my-, thyself-), them (your)- selves, + slay, soul, + tablet, they, thing, (X she) will NT:5590 psuche (psoo-khay'); from NT:5594; breath, i.e. (by implication) spirit, abstractly or concretely (the animal sentient principle only; thus distinguished on the one hand from NT:4151, which is the rational and immortal soul; and on the other from NT:2222, which is mere vitality, even of plants: these terms thus exactly correspond respectively to the Hebrew OT:5315, OT:7307 and OT:2416): KJV-heart (+-ily), life, mind, soul, + us, + you.
24 OT:8064 – shamayim (shaw-mah'-yim); dual of an unused singular shameh (shawmeh'); from an unused root meaning to be lofty; the sky (as aloft; the dual perhaps alluding to the visible arch in which the clouds move, as well as to the higher ether where the celestial bodies revolve): KJV-air, X astrologer, heaven (-s OT:776 - erets (eh'-rets); from an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land): KJV-X common, country, earth, field, ground, land, X natins, way, + wilderness, world. OT:8414 - tohuw (to'-hoo); from an unused root meaning to lie waste; a desolation (of surface), i.e. desert; figuratively, a worthless thing; adverbially, in vain: KJV-confusion, empty place, without form, nothing, (thing of) nought, vain, vanity, waste, wilderness. OT:922 – bohuw (bo'-hoo); from an unused root (meaning to be empty); a vacuity, i.e. (superficially) an undistinguishable ruin: KJV-emptiness, void. OT:7549 – raqiya` (raw-kee'-ah); from OT:7554; properly, an expanse, i.e. the firmament or (apparently) visible arch of the sky: KJV-firmament. OT:3671 – kanaph (kaw-nawf'); from OT:3670; an edge or extremity; specifically (of a bird or army) a wing, (of a garment or bed-clothing) a flap, (of the earth) a quarter, (of a building) a pinnacle: KJV-+ bird, border, corner, end, feather [-ed], X flying, + (one an-) other, overspreading, X quarters, skirt, X sort, uttermost part, wing ([-ed]). OT:5775 – `owph (ofe); from OT:5774; a bird (as covered with feathers, or rather as covering with wings), often collectively: KJV-bird, that flieth, flying, fowl.
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