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FORM 3 SCIENCE CHAPTER 4 REPRODUCTION

1. Reproduction
- To produce a new individual.
- To ensure continuation of species or to increase population.
2. Reproduction
Sexual Asexual
- Involving fusion of male and female i. Carried out by lower organisms
gametes. ii. Involving one parent and without fusion of
Human gametes.
Male Female iii. It is a quick reproduction process.
(testes) (ovary) a. Binary fission – split into two
↓ ↓ - such as amoeba, paramecium, euglena,
Sperm Ovum chlamydomonas and bacteria.
(male gamete) (female gamete) b. Budding
fertilization - such as yeast and hydra and spirogyra.
c. Spore formation
- such as ferns, moss, mucour, fungi,
Zygote → sperm fuses
lichen, mushroom.
with ovum
d. Rejuvenation
(fertilization)
- such as starfish, fluke, flatworm,
Embryo → division of
tapeworm
Gestation zygote
e. Vegetative reproduction
period
- grow from specific vegetative part such
(38-40 Foetus (2-9 months)
as leave, stem or root.
weeks) - has complete body
shape

Baby (foetus that is born)

Plant
Male / Stamen Female / Pistil
(anther) (ovary)
↓ ↓
pollen grain Ovule
(male gamete) (female gamete)
fertilization

Zygote

Embryo

Seed

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Channel sperms from the testis to the urethra.To lower temperature for the testes ii. iv.Place of fertilisation . Cervix .Secrete slippery fluid to active the hormone. Ovaries take turns to release the ovum iv. Contain mitochondria which provide ii.Help to push the baby out during labour (widen during childbirth). Fallopian Tube / Oviduct ii. Contain a nucleus with DNA / male DNA. Male reproduction system b. v.Secretes a slippery fluid to nourish the iii.Help to push the baby out. Contain abundant cytoplasm to supply energy.Produce sperms and male testosterone . Unable to swim / spherical shape ii. 4.Activated the sperms and to store sperms. Female reproduction system i.Place where the foetus develops . Sperm (smallest cell in men body) b. Seminal Vesicle. Alive less than 72 hours in uterus every month (28 days). sperms ./ female genetic / iii. Ovum (biggest cell in female body) i. Reproduction a. Prostate gland .ANDREWCHOO. .Protect the testes. Able to swim / move / tadpole shape i.3. . food and a large nucleus.Control the flow of urine and sperms. . Ovaries produce ovum and female . Urethra . Die in 24 hours if it is not fertilize by sperm.Release urine / sperms out of the body. vi.EDU. Testes iv. Uterus sperms. iii. Scrotal i. Human Gamete (are produce after puberty) a. v. Vagina . hormones (estrogen and progesterone).Receive sperms iv. WWW.MY . genetic iii. . Sperm duct .

b. Protein -For formation of protoplasm/ e.Help the inability ovary to release ovum.EDU.Rubber cap fitted into cervix to prevent c. . Nutrition for foetal Development a. other hand are harmful to the foetus. . Natural method (Rythemic Method) 2. from implanting into uterus. . cartilage development iii. Rhythmic method (have sex during fertile to build tissues. ii. In vitro fertilization / artificial insemination.Iron to build heamoglobin red blood .ANDREWCHOO. b.The Important of Pre-natal Care .Inability to erect . Hormone treatment . Folic acid .Cutting and trying up both sperm duct ovulation) to prevent flow of sperm.Avoid having sex during fertile phase children. Birth Control Method – for family planning energy for growth. Smoking. vagina. In Man. Condom . .Blockage in fallopian tube. Vitamins -Strengthen mother’s immune . In Woman iii. .MY .To prevent sperms from entering . . a.Calcium and phosphate for bone and .Hormone imbalance.To prevent ovulation. Therefore. a. sperm duct.Help to clear blockage in fallopian tube / placenta.Low sperms count in the semen.Inability to release ovum. . WWW.Unreliable as the menstrual cycle is not .Disorder in uterus/ovary. Spermicides. phase day 11-17). Tubectomy . .Legition of both fallopian tubes vi. Surrogate mother i. Sterility/ Infertility – unable to have . IUD iv. In Woman. Vasectomy . Diaphragms nervous system.Introduce into vagina to kill sperms. The foetal obtains his source of nutrients c. i. Contraceptive pills.Retrieving ovum from the women and fertilizing them with sperms in a dish and then implanted into the woman uterus.Hormone imbalance.Inserted into uterus to prevent zygote system and health of foetus. Surgery from the mother through umbilical cord / . cells. ii.Disorder of testicle. In Man . . b. Minerals i. Carbohydrates and fats -Provide 4. which is day 11 to 17.To increase sperms count 1. Overcome Sterility / Infertility a. v. alcohol and drugs on the sperm from entering the uterus.for brain development and iv.Blockage in sperm duct. ii. constant. 3. (no . v. b. the mother diet must contains: d.

External . lotus. Zygote / embryo organs. Internal b. and a lot. high. Lot of gametes different time. Fertilization 2. Coconut. 1. smooth plants. The Sexual Reproductive of flowering grains sticky. reptile. More varieties b. flowers but in the same plant. and grass. medium of iii. Require specific c. b. Examples Hibiscus. not predators. Offspring which have good qualities in . a. Stigma Short and Long.Occur inside of the . paddy Self Cross orchid.MY . . . maize. The stamen and pistil mature on female’s body.Occur outside of c. Method to avoid self-pollination is protected in the . dull. d.occur in sunflower same flower. c. The anther is located below the stigma. Need water as on different trees. Insect ii. Pollination a. Small. Pollination f. b. Pollinating Agents. mammals.ANDREWCHOO.eg.occur in the in different different plants. . Type of fertilization in animals 4. The advantages of cross – pollination female’s body.Advantages: adapt to environmental changes. colourful colourful.Disadvantage: transport. The transfer of pollen grains from the c. reproduction chances is low as Characteristic Pollinated by organs. a. bird.Advantages: . the female’s body.occur in the . Pollen Large. The male flowers and female flowers fertilisation is b. or eaten by bright. Offspring which is healthier and can . More resistant to diseases. Wind are washed away a. . amphibian ii. Stamens Short Long anther (male flower) to the stigma d. lots of gametes of flowers i. Petals Large . Chances of are produced ii. Fertilisation a. produced reproduction iv. i.Disadvantage: i. Small.EDU. Produces Scented Unscented and with without nectar nectar. light. dry. sticky and feathery e. large (female flower). Less gametes are No specific iii. different flowers and rose.eg: fish and terms of size and taste. WWW.

The Germination of Seeds 3. Ways of storing seed and to prevent 1. groundnuts and kidney beans. During germination.MY . long germination such as like maize. 3. and suitable temperature / heat(except . Reproduction WWW. Plumule → become shoots Pollination ↓ ↓ v.Store in air tight container a.Store in refrigerator for photosynthesis. Sequences of germination i. the cotyledon is getting smaller because the food has been used up for growing / germination.Cotyledon is below the ground during during germination such as peanut.ANDREWCHOO. 5.Cotyledon is brought above the soil surface .Store in cool and dry place sunlight because they do not have any leaves . rubber tree.) . Absorb of water – the seed swells and increase in size 4. paddy and beans. . a. Cotyledon getting smaller Pollen tube (as food being used up for growing) ↓ Fertilisation 2a. Testa → soften and crack ↓ ↓ ↓ Anther Ovary iii. 6. air germination of seed. Type of Germination Epygeal Germination Hypogeal Germination. ↓ Zygote ↓ Seed ↓ Germination ↓ b. The germination of seeds need water. The plant will only make food / Seedling photosynthesis when the first foliage leaves appear. Stamen Pistil (Male flower) (Female flower) ii. Radical → become roots ↓ ↓ (grow first) Pollen grains Ovule ↓ iv.EDU.

Involving a single parent.spirogyra . Grow from specific vegetative parts of the i. changes. single parent.Ferns Regeneration .Paramecium . such as stems.New individual is produced from a of different genders.Stem cuttings Vegetative Reproduction In Flowering Plants 1. Sexual (produce variation) Asexual .Stem tubers . more resistant to ii. No variation More healthier.Amoeba . No variation. Vegetative Binary Fission Budding Spore formation Rejuvenation / .Runners . New individual is produced from two parents . -Via male and .tapeworm .Corms .Fluke .Hydra .Lichens .Leaves .Bacteria .EDU.Yeast .Via pistil and stamen ii.Euglena .flatworm . plant.MY . A quick reproduction process.ANDREWCHOO. ii.Moss . Less adaptable to environmental diseases and adaptable to environmental changes.Star fish . WWW.Disadvantage i.Advantages Animal Plant i. better qualities.Mucor . .Chlamydomonas .Mushroom .Rhizomes . female flowers . leaves and roots. Involving a single parent plant.

Corms . .EDU. Stem cutting − Growing from buds. like water chestnut and yam. c. like banana. Since vegetative reproduction is a form of . Rhizomes . f. are as follow: . a. short underground stem swollen with food reserves. sugar cane.ANDREWCHOO. like onion h. ii.Buds produce young shoots like a.Shoot growing from the stem. g. lilies. bamboo and pineapple plants. Stem Tubers . bryophyllum leaf and aloe vera.Plants growing from leaves like asexual reproduction.Food is stored in leaves. Runners .MY . A quick process. Leaves c. bougainvillea and hibiscus. found on the stem.Grow horizontal underground stems like lalang.With stems (runner / stolans) that grow horizontally above the ground like sweet potato and strawberry. like tapioca. Bulbs . b. d. . It takes a shorter time for new plants to potatoes and dahlias.Swollen underground stem with a 2. i. The good qualities of the parent plant can be directly passed down WWW. e. lotus and tumeric. ginger. The daughter plant will resemble the parent plant in every way. tulips. Suckers and garlic. Advantages of Vegetative Reproduction number of buds. rose. b. develop by vegetative reproduction than from seeds because no pollination or fertilization takes place as only one parent is needed.Thick.With fleshy scale leaves.iii. The new plants can survive better in harsh condition because they can still obtain food from the parent plant.

S Q. S Q: Potato Reproduce from leaves Reproduce from stem R: Yam P.EDU. 3. Disadvantages of Vegetative Reproduction b. reproduction are of lesser variety and c. Classification of vegetable reproduction P: Bryophyllum P. R. The lack of dispersal make the new plants are as follow : grow close together and have to complete a.ANDREWCHOO. changes in the environment. Q. R S: Aloe Vera WWW. to the daughter plant without any hence this makes them less adaptable to changes. those produced by vegetative plant. Compare to the new plants produced by for sunlight and nutrients with the parent seed.MY . No variation occur 4.