You are on page 1of 6

Whats New in GRLWEAP 2010 July 2012

GRLWEAP Version 2010 comes in two versions, Standard and Offshore Wave. GRLWEAP Standard contains
all features of earlier GRLWEAP versions. The Offshore Wave Version includes all features of the Standard Version.

New Features of GRLWEAP 2010

For static geotechnical analysis, in addition to the existing Soil Type (ST) and the SPT N-value (SA) based
algorithms, two additional methods are available:

A Cone Penetration Test method (after Schmertmann) for which the data has to be provided in the form of
a three column text file comprising depth, cone tip resistance and sleeve friction
A method based on American Petroleum Institute (API) requirements.

The SA method was modified as follows:

In lieu of entering an SPT-N value, the routine now allows for an input of q, the unconfined compressive
strength, for clay and other cohesive soils, or for an input of , the internal friction angle, for sand and
other cohesionless soils.
The SPT-N value vs. depth input is now completed in the main SA window with automatic interpolation for
each soil layer. Whenever a soil layer depth or thickness value is changed by the user, its SPT-N value is
automatically interpolated, unless it has been manually modified. A manually modified SPT-N value for a soil
layer is maintained regardless of its geometry.
The graphic representation of the SA and ST input windows have been modified; they now allow for a range
expansion by scrolling.

Enhancement for the analysis of inclined (battered) pile driving:

A special input window has been created for specifying the pile inclination as a ratio or in degrees.
The batter window allows for direct stroke, hammer efficiency and hammer and pile weight (or gravity)
reduction factors and provides the associated help values
The graphic representation of the main input form shows the pile in the inclined manner.

Improvements related to Driveability analysis include:

Most importantly: the end bearing input for driveability analyses now has to be made as a unit
resistance in the S1 form. It is very important to remember this change when entering the soil
resistance data;
In the S1 input form, a new column, Toe Area, was added. This allows for a flexible and simplified
data entry in cases of soil plugging in certain soil layers;
An automatic feature was added for generating an improved Depth/Modifier table; this feature initializes the
D-table based on both the penetration entered in the main input form and the soil layer information of the S1
The reset button in D-table input form has been improved to allow users to reset depths considering both
depth increment and soil layers;
The D-Table graphic input representation now depicts default values rather than zeroes, as appropriate;
After the S1-table has been completed, Gain/Loss factors are initialized using the inverse of the maximum
setup factor unless they had been manually set before;
The S1-Table graphic input representation now shows defaults for zeroes as appropriate;
The final penetration depth can now be modified in the main input form (before it was inactive and showed
the last depth entered in the D-table). This penetration is now used to initialize the D-table.
For Inspector Chart analysis, the stroke increments are rounded off to either 0.5 ft or 1 ft (or 0.25 m or 0.5 m)
depending on the starting stroke value.

In the Numerical Output, the format for SI output has been changed for steel piles with a cross sectional area 1 m2
so that certain outputs will now be shown in MN and MN/mm rather than kN and kN/mm.

The bearing graph output now includes additional information such as pressure (diesel), coefficient of restitution of
pile cushions (concrete piles) or hammer cushions (steel piles), and capacity (Inspectors Charts).

It is now possible to copy hammer/pile/soil model plots to other applications such as MS Word.

The help tables for pile, hammer cushion and pile cushion material properties have been combined and updated.

A copy/paste feature has been added to the Pile Profile form (P1) to allow creation/modification of pile input from
other programs.

For Non-uniform Piles the pile strength/yield input has been changed to a Critical Section Index for a simple input
of 0 for non-critical and 1 for critical sections.

Features available for the Offshore Wave Version

A Pipe Pile Builder for simplified input of complex pipe pile sections and add-ons, allowing for consideration of cut-
offs and stabbing guides. In this case the graphical representation of the model shows the actual pipe pile/stabbing
guides instead of the solid area plot.

Alternate hammer location can be input for any point along the pile, including the pile toe. The related inputs are

hammer location as a distance below pile top,

hammer cushion stiffness,
helmet (element between hammer bottom and pile wall) stiffness.

Static bending analysis for inclined pile driving; related possible additional inputs are:

center of hammer gravity above pile top,

hammer total weight (should include the portion of leads that adds to bending),
jacket/template height above sea floor,
water depth.

The latter two inputs are also shown on the main screen graphics. The output replaces the tension stresses with the
combined static bending and dynamic compression stresses in the pile section above the jacket/template top.

Fatigue Analysis tables are now calculated and are made an output. They are set up as follows:

For each pile segment and for each depth value analyzed, the blow count and the maximum compressive
and tensile stresses.
For each pile segment and a user specified number of stress ranges, the number of occurrences (blows).

Optional consideration of the Soil Plug Weight in the static equilibrium analysis, which considers how much this
weight can help the pile driveability.
Updates implemented by GRLWEAP 2010-2:
XP compatibility issue: The menu items no longer disappear under Windows XP.
The Input Wizard when using menu "File->New" now works under English units.

Inclined pile plot in Bearing Graph (BG) output: Moved the plot left to give more room to plot an inclined pile.
Clarified the labels in BG output such as the shaft % for non-proportional analysis.
Clarified notes or warnings for API dialog, battered pile input, etc.
Changed default toe area to 1 square foot when converting total toe resistance to unit toe resistance for
driveability analysis when importing pre-2010 files without toe area.
Added a check on the total number of soil layer entries in S1 (Soil resistance Input Form for Pile 1); provided a
warning if maximum number of soil layers is exceeded. Large numbers of soil layers may happen when CPT
method is used. Reduced the number of CPT data points to avoid this problem.
Added a check on the total number of depth modifier entries in D (Depths, Modifiers Input Form); provided
warning if maximum number of entries is exceeded.
Displayed reduction factors for stroke and efficiency for inclined pile on main input form.
User is now allowed to change unit system in the Input Wizard after "File->New".
User is now allowed to change the last depth when using the Reset button in D (Depths, Modifiers Input Form)
for Driveability Analysis.

Offshore Wave related updates:

Updated the default modeling of the stabbing guide and the default entries of temporary lengths and depths. For
details, please read the topic, Offshore Wave Input, and the description of Example 22 on the On-Screen Help
(press F1 to start the On-Screen Help while running GRLWEAP 2010-3, click theContent tab and select GRLWEAP
Input Forms then Offshore Wave Input.)

How to Update:
Download the GRLWEAP 2010 Maintenance Upgrade. An installed GRLWEAP 2010 is required to download this
upgrade. You do not need to uninstall the previously installed GRLWEAP 2010.
Updates implemented by GRLWEAP 2010-3:

Corrected a problem with the critical index which did not work properly when multiple temporary pile lengths were
used in the D Input Form for the Driveability analysis.

Hammer database updates:

ID Make Model Type

458 Menck UW Modify
463 Menck MHU 500T Modify
422 BERMINGH B2005 Modify
559 ICE DKH-3U New
606 BSP CGL370 New
607 BSP CGL440 New
608 BSP CGL520 New
609 BSP CGL590 New
865 PILECO D280-22 New
866 PILECO D160-22 New ID
1340 H&M H150 New
1341 H&M H1700 New
1401 FAMBO HR250 New
1402 FAMBO HR500AKK New
1403 FAMBO HR500 New
1404 FAMBO HR1000 New
1405 FAMBO HR1500 New
1406 FAMBO HR2000 New
1407 FAMBO HR2750 New
1408 FAMBO HR3000 New
1409 FAMBO HR4000 New
1410 FAMBO HR5000 New
1411 FAMBO HR7000 New
1412 FAMBO HR8000 New
1413 FAMBO HR10000 New

Manufacturers recommended driving system help:

Updated PILECO and ICE
Added Fambo Hammers

Material properties help for cushion and pile:

Corrected, edited and/or added material properties

Help document:
Updated on-screen help and background report, primarily concerning vibratory hammer analyses and
Offshore Wave option
Updates implemented by GRLWEAP 2010 4

Static Geotechnical Analysis Methods (Refer to Background Report):

CPT Based Method:

Improved data smoothing: GRLWEAP smoothes CPT data before the resistance calculation. This is done for
two reasons: 1) there are more rows of CPT data than the program maximum and 2) CPT data often include
severe spikes which are not meaningful. The old method of smoothing may have excessively smoothed the data.
GRLWEAP 2010 Version 4 corrects this.
Added soil strength estimation: Using Robertsons ratio of qc/N (see Robertson et al., 1986) to estimate the soil
strength (N), the soil classification and default estimation of soil dynamic parameters such as quakes and setup
factor was improved.

SPT N-value Based Method (SA):

Internal Friction Angle () Input: When an internal friction angle () is used as input for cohesionless soil such as
sand, the relationship between N, the effective overburden stress and the friction angle as per Schmertmann,
1978 is now used to back calculate an equivalent N value which is then used in the standard SA calculation. The
previously used relationship between relative density, Dr, and the friction angle, , as per Schmertmann, 1975
and the relationship between N, Dr and vertical effective stress by Kulhawy, 1991 could have resulted in
unrealistically low Dr-values due for low inputs.
Unconfined Compressive Strength qu Input: When unconfined compressive strength qu is used for cohesive soil
such as clay, the D/b (depth/pile diameter) ratio is used in the total stress method to determine pile adhesion
factor. An error in the calculation of this ratio was fixed.

All Static Geotechnical Analysis Methods:

Improved toe resistance value calculation when switching between Bearing Graph (BG) and Driveability
analyses. The total toe resistance is used for BG analysis while the unit toe resistance is used for a Driveability
When switching back from non-uniform piles to uniform profile, the non-uniform pile profile was still used to
compute the total resistance after the static geotechnical analysis was completed. This will affect the total
resistance information displayed on the static geotechnical analysis input dialogs and the default percentage
ratio of shaft resistance for Bearing Graph analysis. The result of Driveability analysis was not affected. This
problem was fixed.

Other Updates:

Toe area conversion error when reading an input file generated by GRLWEAP 2003 was fixed.
Improvement to the reset functions for Depths, Modifiers Input Form: The 1 choice of the Reset button removes
all inputs and adds one input with a depth equal to Depth Inc, which is then the only depth contained in this
form. The final penetration depth was updated to the 1st depth, which is probably shorter than the actual final
penetration and is used by other reset functions. Now the final penetration depth will not be updated until the
form is completed and deactivated by switching to other input form.
Editorial corrections and improvements to the appearance of the material properties help dialog
Editorial corrections to Background Report
Enhanced clarity of screen display: The fonts of display and print of the output tables of Bearing Graphs and
Driveability analyses now match.
Hammer Database Updates:
ID Maker Model Type
1531 SPI D19-42 OED
1532 SPI D30-32 OED

Offshore Wave Related Updates

An improvement has been made to calculate the number of blows for each stress range in the Stress Range
Table output which may be useful for fatigue analyses. Due to round-off, the total number of blows required
certain adjustments to produce the correct total number blows in certain cases.
Additional description on the calculation and output of the static bending stresses was added to Background
Section 3.13.8 (static bending stresses) of Background Report: sin () was added to the 1 term of the
bending moment computation equation