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Thermostat - Wikipedia hAps://en.wikipedia.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a

system so that the system's temperature is maintained near a
desired setpoint.

A thermostat can o en be the main control unit for a hea ng or

cooling system, in applica ons ranging from ambient air control, to
such as automo ve coolant control, but is also used in many other
applica ons, such as an electric clothes iron.

It is a "closed loop" control device, as it seeks to reduce the error Honeywell's iconic "The Round" model
between the desired and measured temperatures. Some mes a T87 thermostat, one of which is in the
thermostat combines both the sensing and control ac on elements Smithsonian.
of a controlled system, such as in an automo ve thermostat.

1 Overview
2 Construc on
3 Sensor types
4 History
5 Mechanical thermostats Next Genera on Lux Products
5.1 Bimetal TX9600TS Universal 7-Day
5.2 Wax pellet Programmable Touch Screen
5.2.1 Automo ve Thermostat.
5.2.2 Shower and other hot water controls
5.3 Analysis
5.4 Gas expansion
5.5 Pneuma c thermostats
6 Electrical and analog electronic thermostats
6.1 Bimetallic switching thermostats
6.2 Simple two wire thermostats
6.2.1 Millivolt thermostats
6.2.2 24 volt thermostats
6.2.3 Line voltage thermostats
7 Digital electronic thermostats
A Honeywell electronic thermostat in
8 Thermostats and HVAC opera on
a retail store
8.1 Igni on sequences in modern conven onal
8.2 Combina on hea ng/cooling regula on
8.3 Heat pump regula on
8.4 Thermostat loca on
8.5 Dummy thermostats
9 See also
10 Notes and references
11 External links

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A thermostat exerts control by switching hea ng or cooling devices on or o, or by regula ng the ow of a
heat transfer uid as needed, to maintain the correct temperature. Thermostats are used in any device or
system that heats or cools to a set-point temperature, examples include building hea ng, central hea ng,
air condi oners, HVAC systems, as well as kitchen equipment including ovens and refrigerators and
medical and scien c incubators.

Construc on
Thermostats can be constructed in many ways and may use a variety of sensors to measure the
temperature, commonly a thermistor or bimetallic strip. The output of the sensor then controls the
hea ng or cooling apparatus. A thermostat is most o en an instance of a "bang-bang controller" as the
hea ng or cooling equipment interface is not typically controlled in a propor onal manner to the
dierence between actual temperature and the temperature setpoint. Instead, the hea ng or cooling
equipment runs at full capacity un l the set temperature is reached, then shuts o. Increasing the
dierence between the thermostat seFng and the desired temperature therefore does not shorten the
me to achieve the desired temperature. A thermostat may have a maximum switching frequency, or
switch hea ng and cooling equipment on and o at temperatures either side of the setpoint. This reduces
the risk of equipment damage from frequent switching.

The term thermostat is derived from the Greek words thermos, "hot" and statos, "standing,
sta onary".

Sensor types
Early technologies included mercury thermometers with electrodes inserted directly through the glass, so
that when a certain (xed) temperature was reached the contacts would be closed by the mercury. These
were accurate to within a degree of temperature.

Common sensor technologies in use today include:

Bimetallic mechanical or electrical sensors.

Expanding wax pellets
Electronic thermistors and semiconductor devices
Electrical thermocouples

These may then control the hea ng or cooling apparatus using:

Direct mechanical control

Electrical signals
Pneuma c signals

Possibly the earliest recorded examples of thermostat control were built by the Dutch innovator Cornelis
Drebbel (15721633) around 1620 in England. He invented a mercury thermostat to regulate the
temperature of a chicken incubator.[1] This is one of the rst recorded feedback-controlled devices.

Modern thermostat control was developed in the 1830s by Andrew Ure (17781857), a ScoFsh chemist,
who invented the bi-metallic thermostat. The tex le mills of the me needed a constant and steady
temperature to operate op mally, so to achieve this Ure designed the bimetallic thermostat, which would

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bend as one of the metals expanded in response to the increased temperature and cut o the energy

Warren S. Johnson (18471911) of Wisconsin patented a bi-metal room thermostat in 1883, and two years
later led a patent for the rst mul -zone thermosta c control system.[3][4] Albert Butz (18491905)
invented the electric thermostat and patented it in 1886.

One of the rst industrial uses of the thermostat was in the regula on of the temperature in poultry
incubators. Charles Hearson, a Bri sh engineer, designed the rst modern incubator for eggs that was
taken up for use on poultry farms in 1879. The incubators incorporated an accurate thermostat to regulate
the temperature so as to precisely simulate the experience of an egg being hatched naturally.[5]

Mechanical thermostats
This covers only devices which both sense and control using purely mechanical means.


Domes c water and steam based central hea ng systems have tradi onally been controlled by bi-metallic
strip thermostats, and this is dealt with later in this ar cle. Purely mechanical control has been localised
steam or hot-water radiator bi-metallic thermostats which regulated the individual ow. However,
Thermosta c Radiator Valves (TRV) are now being widely used.

Purely mechanical thermostats are used to regulate dampers in some roo op turbine vents, reducing
building heat loss in cool or cold periods.

Some automobile passenger hea ng systems have a thermosta cally controlled valve to regulate the water
ow and temperature to an adjustable level. In older vehicles the thermostat controls the applica on of
engine vacuum to actuators that control water valves and appers to direct the ow of air. In modern
vehicles, the vacuum actuators may be operated by small solenoids under the control of a central

Wax pellet

Automo ve

Perhaps the most common example of purely mechanical thermostat technology in use today is the
internal combus on engine cooling system thermostat, used to maintain the engine near its op mum
opera ng temperature by regula ng the ow of coolant to an air-cooled radiator. This type of thermostat
operates using a sealed chamber containing a wax pellet that melts and expands at a set temperature. The
expansion of the chamber operates a rod which opens a valve when the opera ng temperature is
exceeded. The opera ng temperature is determined by the composi on of the wax. Once the opera ng
temperature is reached, the thermostat progressively increases or decreases its opening in response to
temperature changes, dynamically balancing the coolant recircula on ow and coolant ow to the
radiator to maintain the engine temperature in the op mum range.

On many automobile engines, including all Chrysler Group and General Motors products, the thermostat
does not restrict ow to the heater core. The passenger side tank of the radiator is used as a bypass to the
thermostat, owing through the heater core. This prevents forma on of steam pockets before the
thermostat opens, and allows the heater to func on before the thermostat opens. Another benet is that
there is s ll some ow through the radiator if the thermostat fails.

Shower and other hot water controls

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A thermosta c mixing valve uses a wax pellet to control the mixing

of hot and cold water. A common applica on is to permit opera on
of an electric water heater at a temperature hot enough to kill
Legionella bacteria (above 60 C (140 F)), while the output of the
valve produces water that is cool enough to not immediately scald
(49 C (120 F)).


A wax pellet driven valve can be analyzed through graphing the wax
pellet's hysteresis which consists of two thermal expansion curves;
extension (mo on) vs. temperature increase, and contrac on
(mo on) vs. temperature decrease. The spread between the up and
down curves visually illustrate the valve's hysteresis; there is always
hysteresis within wax driven valves due to the phase change
between solids and liquids. Hysteresis can be controlled with
specialized blended mixes of hydrocarbons; ght hysteresis is what
most desire, however some applica ons require broader ranges.
Wax pellet driven valves are used in an scald, freeze protec on,
over-temp purge, solar thermal, automo ve, and aerospace
applica ons among many others.
Car engine thermostat
Gas expansion

Thermostats are some mes used to regulate gas ovens. It consists of a gas-lled bulb connected to the
control unit by a slender copper tube. The bulb is normally located at the top of the oven. The tube ends
in a chamber sealed by a diaphragm. As the thermostat heats up, the gas expands applying pressure to the
diaphragm which reduces the ow of gas to the burner.

Pneuma c thermostats

A pneuma c thermostat is a thermostat that controls a hea ng or cooling system via a series of air-lled
control tubes. This "control air" system responds to the pressure changes (due to temperature) in the
control tube to ac vate hea ng or cooling when required. The control air typically is maintained on
"mains" at 15-18psi (although usually operable up to 20 psi). Pneuma c thermostats typically provide
output/ branch/ post-restrictor(for single-pipe opera on) pressures of 3-15psi which is piped to the end
device (valve/ damper actuator/ Pneuma c-Electric switch, etc.).[6]

The pneuma c thermostat was invented by Warren Johnson in 1895[7] soon a er he invented the electric
thermostat. In 2009, Harry Sim was awarded a patent for a pneuma c-to-digital interface[8] that allows
pneuma cally controlled buildings to be integrated with building automa on systems to provide similar
benets as DDC.

A wax pellet driven valve can be analyzed by graphing the wax pellet's hysteresis which consists of two
thermal expansion curves; extension (mo on) vs. temperature increase, and contrac on (mo on) vs.
temperature decrease. The spread between the up and down curves visually illustrate the valve's
hysteresis; there is always hysteresis within wax driven technology due to the phase change between solids
and liquids. Hysteresis can be controlled with specialized blended mixes of hydrocarbons; ght hysteresis is
what most desire, however specialized engineering applica ons require broader ranges. Wax pellet driven
valves are used in an scald, freeze protec on, over-temp purge, solar thermal, automo ve, and aerospace
applica ons among many others.

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Electrical and analog electronic thermostats

Bimetallic switching thermostats

Water and steam based central hea ng systems have tradi onally
had overall control by wall-mounted bi-metallic strip thermostats.
These sense the air temperature using the dieren al expansion of
two metals to actuate an on/o switch. Typically the central system
would be switched on when the temperature drops below the set
point on the thermostat, and switched o when it rises above, with
a few degrees of hysteresis to prevent excessive switching.
Bi-metallic sensing is now being superseded by electronic sensors. A
principal use of the bi-metallic thermostat today is in individual
Bimetallic thermostat for buildings.
electric convec on heaters, where control is on/o, based on the
local air temperature and the set point desired by the user. These
are also used on air-condi oners, where local control is required.

Simple two wire thermostats

The illustra on is the interior of a common two wire heat-only

household thermostat, used to regulate a gas-red heater via an
electric gas valve. Similar mechanisms may also be used to control
oil furnaces, boilers, boiler zone valves, electric aFc fans, electric
furnaces, electric baseboard heaters, and household appliances
such as refrigerators, coee pots and hair dryers. The power
through the thermostat is provided by the hea ng device and may
range from millivolts to 240 volts in common North American
construc on, and is used to control the hea ng system either
directly (electric baseboard heaters and some electric furnaces) or
indirectly (all gas, oil and forced hot water systems). Due to the
variety of possible voltages and currents available at the thermostat,
cau on must be taken when selec ng a replacement device. Millivolt thermostat mechanism

1. Set point control lever. This is moved to the right for a higher
temperature. The round indicator pin in the center of the second slot shows through a numbered
slot in the outer case.
2. Bimetallic strip wound into a coil. The center of the coil is aAached to a rota ng post aAached to
lever (1). As the coil gets colder the moving end carrying (4) moves clockwise.
3. Flexible wire. The le side is connected via one wire of a pair to the heater control valve.
4. Moving contact aAached to the bimetal coil. Thence, to the heater's controller.
5. Magnet. This ensures a good contact when the contact closes. It also provides hysteresis to prevent
short hea ng cycles, as the temperature must be raised several degrees before the contacts will
open. As an alterna ve, some thermostats instead use a mercury switch on the end of the bimetal
coil. The weight of the mercury on the end of the coil tends to keep it there, also preven ng short
hea ng cycles. However, this type of thermostat is banned in many countries due to its highly and
permanently toxic nature if broken. When replacing these thermostats they must be regarded as
chemical waste.
6. Fixed contact screw. This is adjusted by the manufacturer. It is connected electrically by a second
wire of the pair to the thermocouple and the heater's electrically operated gas valve.

Not shown in the illustra on is a separate bimetal thermometer on the outer case to show the actual
temperature at the thermostat.

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Millivolt thermostats

As illustrated in the use of the thermostat above, all of the power for the control system is provided by a
thermopile which is a combina on of many stacked thermocouples, heated by the pilot light. The
thermopile produces sucient electrical power to drive a low-power gas valve, which under control of one
or more thermostat switches, in turn controls the input of fuel to the burner.

This type of device is generally considered obsolete as pilot lights can waste a surprising amount of gas (in
the same way a dripping faucet can waste a large amount of water over an extended period), and are also
no longer used on stoves, but are s ll to be found in many gas water heaters and gas replaces. Their poor
eciency is acceptable in water heaters, since most of the energy "wasted" on the pilot s ll represents a
direct heat gain for the water tank. The Millivolt system also makes it unnecessary for a special electrical
circuit to be run to the water heater or furnace; these systems are o en completely self-sucient and can
run without any external electrical power supply. For tankless "on demand" water heaters, pilot igni on is
preferable because it is faster than hot-surface igni on and more reliable than spark igni on.

Some programmable thermostats - those that oer simple "millivolt" or "two-wire" modes - will control
these systems.

24 volt thermostats

The majority of modern hea ng/cooling/heat pump thermostats operate on low voltage (typically 24 volts
AC) control circuits. The source of the 24 volt AC power is a control transformer installed as part of the
hea ng/cooling equipment. The advantage of the low voltage control system is the ability to operate
mul ple electromechanical switching devices such as relays, contactors, and sequencers using inherently
safe voltage and current levels.[9] Built into the thermostat is a provision for enhanced temperature control
using an cipa on. A heat an cipator generates a small amount of addi onal heat to the sensing element
while the hea ng appliance is opera ng. This opens the hea ng contacts slightly early to prevent the
space temperature from greatly overshoo ng the thermostat seFng. A mechanical heat an cipator is
generally adjustable and should be set to the current owing in the hea ng control circuit when the
system is opera ng. A cooling an cipator generates a small amount of addi onal heat to the sensing
element while the cooling appliance is not opera ng. This causes the contacts to energize the cooling
equipment slightly early, preven ng the space temperature from climbing excessively. Cooling an cipators
are generally non-adjustable.

Electromechanical thermostats use resistance elements as an cipators. Most electronic thermostats use
either thermistor devices or integrated logic elements for the an cipa on func on. In some electronic
thermostats, the thermistor an cipator may be located outdoors, providing a variable an cipa on
depending on the outdoor temperature. Thermostat enhancements include outdoor temperature display,
programmability, and system fault indica on. While such 24 volt thermostats are incapable of opera ng a
furnace when the mains power fails, most such furnaces require mains power for heated air fans (and
o en also hot-surface or electronic spark igni on) rendering moot the func onality of the thermostat. In
other circumstances such as piloted wall and "gravity" (fanless) oor and central heaters the low voltage
system described previously may be capable of remaining func onal when electrical power is unavailable.

There are no standards for wiring color codes, but conven on has seAled on the following terminal codes
and colors.[10][11] In all cases, the manufacturer's instruc ons should be considered deni ve.

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Terminal Code Color Descrip on

R/V Red 24 volt

Rh / 4 Red 24 volt HEAT load

Rc Red 24 volt COOL load

C Black/Blue/Brown 24 volt Common (Ground)

W / W1 White Heat

W2 Varies/White/Black 2nd Stage / Backup Heat

Y / Y1 Yellow Cool

Y2 Blue/Orange/Purple/Yellow/White 2nd Stage Cool

G Green Fan

O Varies/Orange/Black Reversing valve Energize to Cool (Heat Pump)

B Varies/Blue/Black/Brown/Orange Reversing valve Energize to Heat (Heat Pump) or Common

E Varies/Blue/Pink/Gray/Tan Emergency Heat (Heat Pump)

S1/S2 Brown/Black/Blue Temperature Sensor (Usually outdoors on a Heat Pump System)

T Varies/Tan/Gray Outdoor An cipator Reset

X Varies Emergency Heat (Heat Pump) or Common

X2 Varies 2nd stage/emergency hea ng or indicator lights

L Varies Service Light

Line voltage thermostats

Line voltage thermostats are most commonly used for electric space heaters such as a baseboard heater or
a direct-wired electric furnace. If a line voltage thermostat is used, system power (in the United States, 120
or 240 volts) is directly switched by the thermostat. With switching current o en exceeding 40 amperes,
using a low voltage thermostat on a line voltage circuit will result at least in the failure of the thermostat
and possibly a re. Line voltage thermostats are some mes used in other applica ons, such as the control
of fan-coil (fan powered from line voltage blowing through a coil of tubing which is either heated or cooled
by a larger system) units in large systems using centralized boilers and chillers, or to control circula on
pumps in hydronic hea ng applica ons.

Some programmable thermostats are available to control line-voltage systems. Baseboard heaters will
especially benet from a programmable thermostat which is capable of con nuous control (as are at least
some Honeywell models), eec vely controlling the heater like a lamp dimmer, and gradually increasing
and decreasing hea ng to ensure an extremely constant room temperature (con nuous control rather
than relying on the averaging eects of hysteresis). Systems which include a fan (electric furnaces, wall
heaters, etc.) must typically use simple on/o controls.

Digital electronic thermostats

Newer digital thermostats have no moving parts to measure temperature and instead rely on thermistors
or other semiconductor devices such as a resistance thermometer (resistance temperature detector).
Typically one or more regular baAeries must be installed to operate it, although some so-called "power
stealing" digital thermostats use the common 24 volt AC circuits as a power source, but will not operate on
thermopile powered "millivolt" circuits used in some furnaces. Each has an LCD screen showing the current

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temperature, and the current seFng. Most also have a clock, and
me-of-day and even day-of-week seFngs for the temperature,
used for comfort and energy conserva on. Some advanced models
have touch screens, or the ability to work with home automa on or
building automa on systems.

Digital thermostats use either a relay or a semiconductor device

such as triac to act as a switch to control the HVAC unit. Units with
relays will operate millivolt systems, but o en make an audible
"click" noise when switching on or o.

More expensive models have a built-in PID controller, so that the

thermostat knows ahead how the system will react to its
commands. For instance, seFng it up so that the temperature in Residen al digital thermostat
the morning at 7 a.m. should be 21 C (69.8 F), makes sure that at
that me the temperature will be 21 C (69.8 F), where a
conven onal thermostat would just start working at that me. The
PID controller decides at what me the system should be ac vated
in order to reach the desired temperature at the desired me. It
also makes sure that the temperature is very stable (for instance, by
reducing overshoots).

Most digital thermostats in common residen al use in North

America and Europe are programmable thermostats, which will
typically provide a 30% energy savings if le with their default Lux Products' Model TX9000TS Touch
programs; adjustments to these defaults may increase or reduce Screen Thermostat.
energy savings. The programmable thermostat ar cle provides
basic informa on on the opera on, selec on and installa on of
such a thermostat.

Thermostats and HVAC opera on

Igni on sequences in modern conven onal systems


1. Start dra ing fan (if the furnace is rela vely recent) to
create a column of air owing up the chimney
2. Heat ignitor or start spark-igni on system
3. Open gas valve to ignite main burners
4. Wait (if furnace is rela vely recent) un l the heat
exchanger is at proper opera ng temperature before Lux Products WIN100 Hea ng &
star ng main blower fan or circulator pump Cooling Programmable Outlet
Thermostat shown with control door
Oil closed and open.

1. Similar to gas, except rather than opening a valve, the

furnace will start an oil pump to inject oil into the burner


1. The blower fan or circulator pump will be started, and a large electromechanical relay or
TRIAC will turn on the hea ng elements

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Coal (including grains such as corn, wheat, and barley, or pellets made of wood, bark, or cardboard)

1. Generally rare today (though grains and pellets are increasing in popularity); similar to gas,
except rather than opening a valve, the furnace will start a screw to drive coal/grain/pellets
into the rebox

With non-zoned (typical residen al, one thermostat for the whole house) systems, when the thermostat's
R (or Rh) and W terminals are connected, the furnace will go through its start-up procedure and produce

With zoned systems (some residen al, many commercial systems several thermostats controlling
dierent "zones" in the building), the thermostat will cause small electric motors to open valves or
dampers and start the furnace or boiler if it's not already running.

Most programmable thermostats will control these systems.

Combina on hea ng/cooling regula on

Depending on what is being controlled, a forced-air air condi oning thermostat generally has an external
switch for heat/o/cool, and another on/auto to turn the blower fan on constantly or only when hea ng
and cooling are running. Four wires come to the centrally-located thermostat from the main
hea ng/cooling unit (usually located in a closet, basement, or occasionally in the aFc): One wire, usually
red, supplies 24 volts AC power to the thermostat, while the other three supply control signals from the
thermostat, usually white for heat, yellow for cooling, and green to turn on the blower fan. The power is
supplied by a transformer, and when the thermostat makes contact between the 24 volt power and one or
two of the other wires, a relay back at the hea ng/cooling unit ac vates the corresponding heat/fan/cool
func on of the unit(s).

A thermostat, when set to "cool", will only turn on when the ambient temperature of the surrounding
room is above the set temperature. Thus, if the controlled space has a temperature normally above the
desired seFng when the hea ng/cooling system is o, it would be wise to keep the thermostat set to
"cool", despite what the temperature is outside. On the other hand, if the temperature of the controlled
area falls below the desired degree, then it is advisable to turn the thermostat to "heat".

Heat pump regula on

The heat pump is a refrigera on based appliance which reverses

refrigerant ow between the indoor and outdoor coils. This is done
by energizing a reversing valve (also known as a "4-way" or
"change-over" valve). During cooling, the indoor coil is an
evaporator removing heat from the indoor air and transferring it to
the outdoor coil where it is rejected to the outdoor air. During
hea ng, the outdoor coil becomes the evaporator and heat is
removed from the outdoor air and transferred to the indoor air Thermostat design
through the indoor coil. The reversing valve, controlled by the
thermostat, causes the change-over from heat to cool. Residen al
heat pump thermostats generally have an "O" terminal to energize the reversing valve in cooling. Some
residen al and many commercial heat pump thermostats use a "B" terminal to energize the reversing valve
in hea ng. The hea ng capacity of a heat pump decreases as outdoor temperatures fall. At some outdoor
temperature (called the balance point) the ability of the refrigera on system to transfer heat into the
building falls below the hea ng needs of the building. A typical heat pump is Aed with electric hea ng
elements to supplement the refrigera on heat when the outdoor temperature is below this balance point.
Opera on of the supplemental heat is controlled by a second stage hea ng contact in the heat pump

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thermostat. During hea ng, the outdoor coil is opera ng at a temperature below the outdoor temperature
and condensa on on the coil may take place. This condensa on may then freeze onto the coil, reducing its
heat transfer capacity. Heat pumps therefore have a provision for occasional defrost of the outdoor coil.
This is done by reversing the cycle to the cooling mode, shuFng o the outdoor fan, and energizing the
electric hea ng elements. The electric heat in defrost mode is needed to keep the system from blowing
cold air inside the building. The elements are then used in the "reheat" func on. Although the thermostat
may indicate the system is in defrost and electric heat is ac vated, the defrost func on is not controlled by
the thermostat. Since the heat pump has electric heat elements for supplemental and reheats, the heat
pump thermostat provides for use of the electric heat elements should the refrigera on system fail. This
func on is normally ac vated by an "E" terminal on the thermostat. When in emergency heat, the
thermostat makes no aAempt to operate the compressor or outdoor fan.

Thermostat loca on

The thermostat should not be located on an outside wall or where it could be exposed to direct sunlight at
any me during the day. It should be located away from the room's cooling or hea ng vents or device, yet
exposed to general airow from the room(s) to be regulated.[12] An open hallway may be most appropriate
for a single zone system, where living rooms and bedrooms are operated as a single zone. If the hallway
may be closed by doors from the regulated spaces then these should be le open when the system is in
use. If the thermostat is too close to the source controlled then the system will tend to "short cycle", and
numerous starts and stops can be annoying and in some cases shorten equipment life. A mul ple zoned
system can save considerable energy by regula ng individual spaces, allowing unused rooms to vary in
temperature by turning o the hea ng and cooling.

Dummy thermostats

It has been reported that many thermostats in oce buildings are non-func onal dummy devices,
installed to give tenants' employees an illusion of control.[13][14] These dummy thermostats are in eect a
type of placebo buAon. However, these thermostats are o en used to detect the temperature in the zone,
even though their controls are disabled. This func on is o en referred to as "lockout".[15]

See also
Automa c control
On-o control

Notes and references

1. "Tierie, Gerrit. Cornelis Drebbel. Amsterdam: HJ Paris, 1932." (hAp://
(PDF). Retrieved May 3, 2013.
2. "An Early History Of Comfort Hea ng" (hAp:// cles/87035-an-early-history-
of-comfort-hea ng). The NEWS Magazine. Troy, Michigan: BNP Media. November 6, 2001. Retrieved
November 2, 2014.
3. "Thermostat Maker Deploys Climate Control Against Climate Change" (hAp://
Retrieved October 3, 2009.
4. "Johnson Controls Inc. | History" (hAp://
/our_history.html). November 7, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2009.

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5. Falk, Cynthia G. (2012). Barns of New York: Rural Architecture of the Empire State
(hAp:// (paperback) (First ed.). Ithaca,
New York: Cornell University Press (published May 1, 2012). ISBN 978-0-8014-7780-5. Retrieved
November 2, 2014.
6. "Dr-Fix-It Explains a Common Pneuma c Comfort Control Circuit" (hAp://
/pneum1.html). RTWEB. 2005. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
7. Fehring, T.H., ed., Mechanical Engineering: A Century of Progress, NorCENergy Consultants, LLC,
October 10, 1980 - Technology & Engineering, p. 22
8. hAp://
9. Electrical poten als at and below 24 volts are classed as "Safety Extra-Low Voltage" under most
electrical codes when supplied through an isola on transformer.
10. Sawyer, "Doc". "Thermostat Wire Color Codes" (hAp:// dr-x- Retrieved 7 March 2015.
11. Transtronics, Inc. "Thermostat signals and wiring" (hAp://
/Thermostat_signals_and_wiring). Retrieved 7 March 2015.
12. KMC Controls. "Thinking about Thermostats" (hAp://
/thermostats.aspx). Retrieved April 22, 2013.
13. Sandberg, Jared (January 15, 2003). "Employees Only Think They Control Thermostat"
(hAps:// cles/SB1042577628591401304). The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved
September 2, 2009.
14. Katrina C. Arabe (April 11, 2003). " "Dummy" Thermostats Cool Down Tempers, Not Temperatures"
(hAp:// Retrieved
February 13, 2010.
15. Example datasheet of current art thermostat, exhibi ng lockout func onality :

External links
Professional Reference Guide (hAp://
"How A Thermostat Tends Your Furnance" (hAps://
sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=true) 1951
ar cle on the basics of the automa c furnace thermostatsthis reference has good drawings and
illustra ons.
How the Sun Aects a Thermostat (Energy2D: Online Java Simula on) (hAp://
"How Wax Pellet Thermosta c Valves Func on" An Illustra on (hAp://
"Diagrams of Wax Motors i.e. "Wax Pellets"" (hAp://
"Anima on of Bimetallic Switch" (hAp://
/conduc on_thermostats.html?fdall=true)

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This page was last edited on 8 August 2017, at 22:04.

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