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# Indirect Vector Control of Induction Motor

## Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

Biranchi Narayan Kar, K.B. Mohanty, Senior Member, IEEE, Madhu Singh
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008
Email: biranchinarayan.kar@gmail.com, dr.kbmohanty@rediffmail.com, madhu_nitjsr@rediffmail.com

Abstract- The paper presents a fuzzy logic speed control system In this paper the configuration and design of fuzzy logic
based on fuzzy logic approach for an indirect vector controlled controller of indirect vector control of induction motor has
induction motor drive for high performance. The analysis, design
and simulation of the fuzzy logic controller for indirect vector been investigated. The performance of FLC has been
control induction motor are carried out based on fuzzy set successfully compared with conventional PI controller.
theory. The proposed fuzzy controller is compared with PI
controller with no load and various load condition. The result II. INDIRECT FIELD-ORIENTED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE
demonstrates the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed
fuzzy controller for high performance of induction motor drive The indirect vector control method is essentially same as
system. the direct vector control except the unit vector generated in an
indirect manner using the measured speed r and slip speed
Keywords: Indirect vector control, Fuzzy logic control, PI sl. The following dynamic equations are taken into
controller, induction motor, speed control consideration to implement indirect vector control strategy .
I. INTRODUCTION e = e dt = (r + sl ) = r + sl
(1)
Ac motor drives are extensively used in industrial
application requiring high performance. In high performance The rotor circuit equation
system, the motor speed should closely follow a specified
reference trajectory regardless of any load disturbance, d dr Rr L
parameter variations and model uncertainties. In order to + dr m Rr ids sl qr = 0
achieve high performance, field-oriented control of induction
dt Lr Lr (2)
motor drive is employed .however the control design of d qr R L
such a system plays a role in system performance. The + r qr m Rr iqs + sl dr = 0
decoupling characteristics of vector-controlled induction dt Lr Lr (3)
motor are adversely affected the parameter changes in the
motor.

## For decoupling control qr = 0, So the total flux r directs

The speed control of IM issues are traditionally handled by on the de axis.
fixed gain PI and PID controllers. However the fixed gain
controllers are very sensitive to parameter variations, load Now from equations (1) and (2) we get
disturbances etc. Thus, the controller parameters have to be
continuously adapted. The problem can be solved by several Lr d r
adaptive control techniques such as model reference adaptive
+ r = Lmids
Rr dt (4)
control, sliding mode control smc,variable structure control
VSC and self tuning PI controller etc. The design of the entire
above controller depends on the exact system mathematical Slip frequency can be calculated as
model. However it is often difficult to develop a accurate Lm Rr
mathematical model due to unknown load variation and
sl =
iqs
unavoidable parameter variations due to saturation, Lr (5)
temperature variations and system disturbance. To overcome For constant rotor flux r and dr/dt=0, substituting in
the above problems, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is being equation (4) yields the rotor flux set as
used for motor control purpose. There is some advantage of
fuzzy logic controller as compared to conventional PI, PID r = L m id s
and adaptive controller such as it does not require any (6)
mathematical model, it is based on linguistic rules within IF-
THEN general structure, which is the basic of the human logic
.

## 978-1-4244-8782-0/11/\$26.00 2011 IEEE

The electromechanical torque developed is given by is the change in torque T which is integrated to get the
3 P Lm reference torque as shown in the equation
Te = r iqs
2 2 Lr (7)
T * (t s ) = T (t s 1) + T
(9)

III. DESIGN OF FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR As shown in Fig. 2, the fuzzy logic controller consists of four
INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE blocks, Fuzzification, inference mechanism, knowledge base
Fig. 1 shows block diagram of speed control system using and Defuzzification.
fuzzy logic controller (FLC) .
A. Fuzzifications:
Here the first input is the speed error e and second is the
change in speed error ce at sampling time ts. The two input In this stage the crisp variables of input e(ts) and ce(ts)are
variables e(ts) and ce(ts) are calculated at every sampling time converted into fuzzy variables. The fuzzification maps the
as error and change in error to linguistic labels of fuzzy sets.
Membership function is associated to each label with
e (ts ) = r (ts ) r (ts ) triangular shape which consists of two inputs and one output.
The proposed controller uses following linguistic labels
c e ( t s ) = e ( t s ) e ( t s 1)
NB, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, PB. Each of the inputs and output
contain membership function with all these seven linguistics.
(8)

## d B. Knowledge base and inference stage:

dt
Knowledge base involve defining the rules represented as
IF-THEN rules statements governing the relationship between
input and output variables in terms of membership fuction.In
this stage the input variables e(ts)and ce(ts)are processed by the
inference mechanism that executes 7*7 rules represented in
rule table shown below. Considering the first rule, it is
represented as IF change in speed error is NB and change in
speed is NB, THEN the output will be NB.Here Mamdanis
algorithm for inference mechanism used.
C. Defuzzification:
Fig.1 Functional block diagram of Fuzzy Logic Control
This stage introduces different methods that can be used to
produce fuzzy set value for the output fuzzy variable T.

## Here the centre of gravity or centroids method is used to

calculate the final fuzzy value T(ts).Defuzzification using
COA method means that crisp output of T*(ts) is obtained by
using centre of gravity, in which the crisp output T(ts)
variable is taken to be the geometric centre of the output fuzzy
variables value out(T)area, where out(T) is formed by
taking the union of all the contributions of rules with the
degree of fulfilment greater than zero. Then the COA
expression with discretised universe of discourse can be
written as

n
Ti .out (Ti )
i =1
Fig.2 Fuzzy Logic Controller Internal structure T = n

## Where ce denotes the change of error e, r*(ts) is the

out (Ti )
i =1 (10)
reference rotor speed , r(ts) is the actual speed, e(ts-1)is the Then Te* obtained by integration which is used to calculate
value of error at previous sampling time. The output variable i*qs
Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 shows the X-Y plot of variation of
rotor flux, where it is observed that in case of PI controller it
will take more time to reach to steady state value but in case
of fuzzy controller it will take less time to reach steady value.

600

## 400 Actual Speed

S p ee d (S e c )
Reference Speed
200

-200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time(Sec)
Fig.3. Membership Function of Fuzzy Variables e, ce and (du)
Fig.4. Speed response of PI controller at no load
TABLE: 1 Fuzzy Controller Rule Base

600

400
Reference speed
S p e e d (R p m )

Actual speed
200

-200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time(Sec)
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig.5. Speed response of Fuzzy logic controller at no load

## The machine is initially at stand still with no load. The 600

reference speed is linearly increased from zero its rated value
500 rpm with FLC and PI controller. Various simulation 500
were carried out on both PI controller and fuzzy logic
controller on the indirect-vector control of Induction motor. 400
Speed(Rp m)

300
Fig.4 and fig.5 shows The PI and FLC with a step Actual speed
command of Speed are applied with no load condition. In case 200
Refernce speed

## of PI Controller the rise time is in between ts=0.5 to ts=0.6 ,

but in case of FLC rise time is in between ts=0.3 to ts=0.4 .It is 100
conclude that FLC offers faster response as compare to PI.
Hence FLC based drive system is superior to PI based drive 0

## system in all respect rise time, settling time and overshoot.

-100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time(Sec)
Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 shows the PI and FLC at load condition.
Here the PI controller was affected by change in load, but FLC Fig.6. Speed response of PI controller at load
have no affect by the change in load. Fig. 7shows that the
proposed FLC is more robust to load disturbance as compared
to PI controller.
600

500 APPENDIX
400 Specification of Induction Motor:
Machine type-3 phase induction motor
Speed(Rpm)

## Rotor type-squirrel cage

300
Actual Speed

200
Reference speed
Reference type-Stationary
100
5HP,1445 rpm,415V,50 hz,4 poles
Rs=7.34,Rr=5.64,
0
Ls=0.521H,Lr=0.521H,Lm=0.5H
-100
J=0.16Kg.m2,B=0.035kg.m/s
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time(Sec)

## Fig.7. Speed response of Fuzzy logic controller at load

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-0.2

-0.4
-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Fig.9. X-Y plot of Rotor flux of Fuzzy logic controller

V. CONCLUSIONS

## In this paper fuzzy logic controller for the control of an

indirect vector-controlled induction motor was described. The
drive system was simulated with fuzzy logic controller and PI
controller and their performance was compared. Here
simulation results shows that the designed fuzzy logic
controller realises a good dynamic behaviour of the motor
with a rapid settling time, no overshoot and has better
performance than PI controller. Fuzzy logic control has more
robust during change in load condition.