Induction Motor Speed Control

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Induction Motor Speed Control

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Biranchi Narayan Kar, K.B. Mohanty, Senior Member, IEEE, Madhu Singh

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008

Email: biranchinarayan.kar@gmail.com, dr.kbmohanty@rediffmail.com, madhu_nitjsr@rediffmail.com

Abstract- The paper presents a fuzzy logic speed control system In this paper the configuration and design of fuzzy logic

based on fuzzy logic approach for an indirect vector controlled controller of indirect vector control of induction motor has

induction motor drive for high performance. The analysis, design

and simulation of the fuzzy logic controller for indirect vector been investigated. The performance of FLC has been

control induction motor are carried out based on fuzzy set successfully compared with conventional PI controller.

theory. The proposed fuzzy controller is compared with PI

controller with no load and various load condition. The result II. INDIRECT FIELD-ORIENTED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

demonstrates the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed

fuzzy controller for high performance of induction motor drive The indirect vector control method is essentially same as

system. the direct vector control except the unit vector generated in an

indirect manner using the measured speed r and slip speed

Keywords: Indirect vector control, Fuzzy logic control, PI sl. The following dynamic equations are taken into

controller, induction motor, speed control consideration to implement indirect vector control strategy [1].

I. INTRODUCTION e = e dt = (r + sl ) = r + sl

(1)

Ac motor drives are extensively used in industrial

application requiring high performance. In high performance The rotor circuit equation

system, the motor speed should closely follow a specified

reference trajectory regardless of any load disturbance, d dr Rr L

parameter variations and model uncertainties. In order to + dr m Rr ids sl qr = 0

achieve high performance, field-oriented control of induction

dt Lr Lr (2)

motor drive is employed [2].however the control design of d qr R L

such a system plays a role in system performance. The + r qr m Rr iqs + sl dr = 0

decoupling characteristics of vector-controlled induction dt Lr Lr (3)

motor are adversely affected the parameter changes in the

motor.

The speed control of IM issues are traditionally handled by on the de axis.

fixed gain PI and PID controllers. However the fixed gain

controllers are very sensitive to parameter variations, load Now from equations (1) and (2) we get

disturbances etc. Thus, the controller parameters have to be

continuously adapted. The problem can be solved by several Lr d r

adaptive control techniques such as model reference adaptive

+ r = Lmids

Rr dt (4)

control, sliding mode control smc,variable structure control

VSC and self tuning PI controller etc. The design of the entire

above controller depends on the exact system mathematical Slip frequency can be calculated as

model. However it is often difficult to develop a accurate Lm Rr

mathematical model due to unknown load variation and

sl =

iqs

unavoidable parameter variations due to saturation, Lr (5)

temperature variations and system disturbance. To overcome For constant rotor flux r and dr/dt=0, substituting in

the above problems, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is being equation (4) yields the rotor flux set as

used for motor control purpose. There is some advantage of

fuzzy logic controller as compared to conventional PI, PID r = L m id s

and adaptive controller such as it does not require any (6)

mathematical model, it is based on linguistic rules within IF-

THEN general structure, which is the basic of the human logic

[3].

The electromechanical torque developed is given by is the change in torque T which is integrated to get the

3 P Lm reference torque as shown in the equation

Te = r iqs

2 2 Lr (7)

T * (t s ) = T (t s 1) + T

(9)

III. DESIGN OF FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR As shown in Fig. 2, the fuzzy logic controller consists of four

INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE blocks, Fuzzification, inference mechanism, knowledge base

Fig. 1 shows block diagram of speed control system using and Defuzzification.

fuzzy logic controller (FLC) [6].

A. Fuzzifications:

Here the first input is the speed error e and second is the

change in speed error ce at sampling time ts. The two input In this stage the crisp variables of input e(ts) and ce(ts)are

variables e(ts) and ce(ts) are calculated at every sampling time converted into fuzzy variables. The fuzzification maps the

as error and change in error to linguistic labels of fuzzy sets.

Membership function is associated to each label with

e (ts ) = r (ts ) r (ts ) triangular shape which consists of two inputs and one output.

The proposed controller uses following linguistic labels

c e ( t s ) = e ( t s ) e ( t s 1)

NB, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, PB. Each of the inputs and output

contain membership function with all these seven linguistics.

(8)

dt

Knowledge base involve defining the rules represented as

IF-THEN rules statements governing the relationship between

input and output variables in terms of membership fuction.In

this stage the input variables e(ts)and ce(ts)are processed by the

inference mechanism that executes 7*7 rules represented in

rule table shown below. Considering the first rule, it is

represented as IF change in speed error is NB and change in

speed is NB, THEN the output will be NB.Here Mamdanis

algorithm for inference mechanism used.

C. Defuzzification:

Fig.1 Functional block diagram of Fuzzy Logic Control

This stage introduces different methods that can be used to

produce fuzzy set value for the output fuzzy variable T.

calculate the final fuzzy value T(ts).Defuzzification using

COA method means that crisp output of T*(ts) is obtained by

using centre of gravity, in which the crisp output T(ts)

variable is taken to be the geometric centre of the output fuzzy

variables value out(T)area, where out(T) is formed by

taking the union of all the contributions of rules with the

degree of fulfilment greater than zero. Then the COA

expression with discretised universe of discourse can be

written as

n

Ti .out (Ti )

i =1

Fig.2 Fuzzy Logic Controller Internal structure T = n

out (Ti )

i =1 (10)

reference rotor speed , r(ts) is the actual speed, e(ts-1)is the Then Te* obtained by integration which is used to calculate

value of error at previous sampling time. The output variable i*qs

Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 shows the X-Y plot of variation of

rotor flux, where it is observed that in case of PI controller it

will take more time to reach to steady state value but in case

of fuzzy controller it will take less time to reach steady value.

600

S p ee d (S e c )

Reference Speed

200

-200

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time(Sec)

Fig.3. Membership Function of Fuzzy Variables e, ce and (du)

Fig.4. Speed response of PI controller at no load

TABLE: 1 Fuzzy Controller Rule Base

600

400

Reference speed

S p e e d (R p m )

Actual speed

200

-200

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time(Sec)

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig.5. Speed response of Fuzzy logic controller at no load

reference speed is linearly increased from zero its rated value

500 rpm with FLC and PI controller. Various simulation 500

were carried out on both PI controller and fuzzy logic

controller on the indirect-vector control of Induction motor. 400

Speed(Rp m)

300

Fig.4 and fig.5 shows The PI and FLC with a step Actual speed

command of Speed are applied with no load condition. In case 200

Refernce speed

but in case of FLC rise time is in between ts=0.3 to ts=0.4 .It is 100

conclude that FLC offers faster response as compare to PI.

Hence FLC based drive system is superior to PI based drive 0

-100

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time(Sec)

Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 shows the PI and FLC at load condition.

Here the PI controller was affected by change in load, but FLC Fig.6. Speed response of PI controller at load

have no affect by the change in load. Fig. 7shows that the

proposed FLC is more robust to load disturbance as compared

to PI controller.

600

500 APPENDIX

400 Specification of Induction Motor:

Machine type-3 phase induction motor

Speed(Rpm)

300

Actual Speed

200

Reference speed

Reference type-Stationary

100

5HP,1445 rpm,415V,50 hz,4 poles

Rs=7.34,Rr=5.64,

0

Ls=0.521H,Lr=0.521H,Lm=0.5H

-100

J=0.16Kg.m2,B=0.035kg.m/s

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time(Sec)

REFERENCES

0.6

[1] B.K Bose modern power electronics and ac drives Prentice-Hall

0.4 Publication,Englewood Cliffs,New Jersey,1986

[2] F.BLASCHKE, The principle of field orientation as applied to the

new transvector closed-loop control system for rotating-field

0.2 machine, Siemens Rev., Vol.34,no.3,pp.217-220,May1972.

[3] M Nasir Udin,Tawfik S.Radwan,and M.Azizur Rahman,

0 Performance of Fuzzy-Logic-Based Indirect vector control for

induction motor drive,IEEE Transaction on Industry

Applications,vol.38,no.5,September/October 2002.

-0.2 [4] Z Ibrahim and E.Levi, A comparative analysis of Fuzzy Logic and

PI controller in High-Performance AC machine drives using

-0.4 Experimental Approach,IEEE Trans.Industry

-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Application,vol.38,no.5,pp1210-1218,Sep/Oct 2002.

[5] Gilberto C.D.Sousa,Bimal K.Bose and John G.Cleland Fuzzy

Logic Based On-Line Efficiency Optimisation Vector-Controlled

Fig.8. X-Y plot of Rotor flux of PI controller

Induction Motor Drives,IEEE Trans.Industrial

Electronics,Vol.42,pp.192-198,April 1995.

[6] Mariun,N.; Noor,S.B.M.;Jasni,J.;Bennanes,O.S. A fuzzy logic based

0.4 controller for an indirect controlled three-phase induction

motor,TENCON 2004,2004 IEEE Region 10

Conference,Publication Year: 2004,Page(s) :1-4,Vol-4.

0.2 [7] MinhTa-Cao, J.L. Silva Neto,Houng Le-Huy, Fuzzy logic based

controller for induction motor drives,Canadian conference,

Publication Year,1996,Pages631-634,Vol-2.

[8] L.Zhen and L.Xu, Fuzzy learning enhanced speed control of an

0 indirected field-oriented induction machine drives,IEEE

Trans.Control System Technology, Vol-8,no-2,pp.270-278,March

2000.

-0.2

-0.4

-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Fig.9. X-Y plot of Rotor flux of Fuzzy logic controller

V. CONCLUSIONS

indirect vector-controlled induction motor was described. The

drive system was simulated with fuzzy logic controller and PI

controller and their performance was compared. Here

simulation results shows that the designed fuzzy logic

controller realises a good dynamic behaviour of the motor

with a rapid settling time, no overshoot and has better

performance than PI controller. Fuzzy logic control has more

robust during change in load condition.

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