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GEK 111865a
Revised, January 2008

GE Energy

Gas Chromatograph for Fuel Gas

These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible contingency to
be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Should further information be desired or should particular
problems arise which are not covered sufficiently for the purchaser's purposes the matter should be referred to the GE Company.
General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.
GEK 111865a Gas Chromatograph for Fuel Gas

The Gas Chromatograph (GC) is primarily used with the 7/9FA and 7/9FB model Gas Turbines to
accommodate variations in gas fuel properties from the design value. The advanced technology fuel
nozzles and combustion systems used in GE Gas Turbines are sensitive to the pressure ratio across the
fuel nozzle tip. Damaging combustion dynamics and flame instabilities can occur if the pressure ratio
across the fuel nozzle tip moves out of the specified design range. Gas fuels with the same MWI but
different compositions will require the same upstream and downstream pressure across the fuel nozzle tip
to supply the same heat input to the combustion system. Variations of gas fuel properties are controlled
by adjusting gas fuel temperature to maintain a constant MWI. With this adjustment the pressure ratio
across the fuel nozzle tip can be held within acceptable limits. Since fuel gas composition and the
associated MWI varies with the properties of the supply gas, the GC acts as the primary protection
against these dynamics and flame instabilities.

The Gas Chromatograph Skid contains two separate Gas Chromatograph Analysers (GCAs are
typically Danalyser 700s produced by Emerson Process Analytical Company) housed in one cabinet.
Each GC Analyser sends two sets of 4-20 mA signals to up to two Gas Turbine MARK VIs. A set of
signals comprises: Low Wobbe Index (LWI Range: 1180 to1300); Specific Gravity (SG Range: .525
to .675)) and Lower Heating Value (LHV Range: 850 to 1175 BTU/SCF). Each GCA is programmed to
analyse a fuel gas mixture every 4 (four) minutes. The GCAs are setup to lead-lag out of phase so a
signal gets sent to each MARK VI, every 2 (two) minutes. Having two GCAs in one cabinet allows for
doubling of the frequency of data and provides redundancy in case one of the GCAs fails. A single Gas
Chromatograph Cabinet can be used to control 2 (two) Gas Turbines as long as the GC sample is
extracted upstream of the main gas line tee-off point. If multiple Gas Turbines are present, then a
combination of signal multipliers, repeaters and amplifiers will be required to be broadcast the 4-20 mA
signals to the remaining Gas Turbines.

Operation of the GC begins when the fuel gas sample is filtered and pressure reduced at the pipeline. As
it enters the fuel gas probe it is then mixed with a 99.999% pure carrier gas of Helium (He) and sent to
the GCA ovens for preheating. The hot fuel gas/helium mixture is then sent thru the GCA columns. The
rate of passage of each fuel gas component varies depending on their characteristic viscosities. As each
component passes thru the columns, its quantity is detected and recorded. It consists of the mole % of:
Nitrogen (N2); Carbon Dioxide (CO2); Methane (CH4); Ethane (C2H6); Propane (C3H8); Iso- and N-
Butane (C4H10); Iso- and Neo- and N-Pentane (C5H12) and all heavier Carbon hydrocarbons reported as
C6+. At multiple gas turbine sites, VSCA Cards in the MARK VIs and PSCA Cards in the MARK VIes
allow the Modbus registers containing these individual digital gas component mole %s from both GC
A and GC B to be accessed via RS485 cables and 2 intermediary PLCs. The LWI, SG and LHV are
calculated in the GC based on these compositions and are also sent digitally along with the gas
compositions. The Mark VIe then calculates the Modified Wobbe Index (MWI) using the specific gravity
(SG), LHV (Lower Heating Value) and the temperature found at FG1 with the following formula:

MWI = (T@FG1*SG)1/2

The GCAs are periodically calibrated with a calibration gas. Calibration is typically recommended each
morning of operation. A general alarm and calibration gas cylinder empty signal is also available to be
sent to the MARK VIs to warn operators to change the gas bottles at the skid.

2 General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Gas Chromatograph for Fuel Gas GEK 111865a


General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved. 3

GEK 111865a Gas Chromatograph for Fuel Gas

g GE Energy
General Electric Company

4 General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.