# Introduction to Electrical & Computer Engineering

Kirchhoff’s Laws (KCL, KVL)

Dr. Cynthia Furse
University of Utah
1

Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)

Circuits, Second Edition by Fawwaz T. Ulaby and Michel M. Maharbiz, © NTS
Press, Used with Permission by the Publisher

Maharbiz. © NTS Press. Used with Permission by the Publisher . Second Edition by Fawwaz T. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) Sum of voltages around a closed path =0 OR -VDC+V1+V2 = 0 Sum of voltage drops = sum of voltage rises VDC = V1+V2 + +V1- VDC + . Ulaby and Michel M. V2 - Circuits.

V2. 2 Unknowns need 2 Equations Ohm’s Law gives 2 more equations But 2 more unknowns (I1.I2) V1= (I1)(R1) and V2=(I2)(R2) (2. Applying KCL and KVL I1 =10 Ω -VDC+V1+V2 = 0 (1) What is KNOWN? +V1. . R1=10Ω.I1.V2 .3) Node Equation gives one more eqn: I1 = I2 (4) Four unknowns (V1.4) OK! Now we can solve it! .I2) Four Equations (1. R2=50Ω VDC + =50 Ω What is Unknown? =120V V2 V1.2.3. I2 + VDC=120V.

- I1 = I2 = I Substituting: -120V + (I) (10Ω) + (I) (50Ω) = 0 I = 120V / (10 + 50 Ω) = 2A Then V1=(2A)(10Ω) = 20V V2=(2A)(50Ω) = 100V Check: VDC = ? V1+V2 Yes! . R1=10Ω. R2=50Ω VDC + =50 Ω =120V V2 V1= (I1)(R1) and V2=(I2)(R2) . I2 + VDC=120V. Applying KCL and KVL I1 =10 Ω -VDC+V1+V2 = 0 +V1.

for convenience) 5. Keep track of all unknown values +V1. Each KCL equation must pick up at least one new current. . Apply as many KCL (node) equations as needed to fill in unknowns. Write all KNOWN values 2. . 4. 6. Current sources can’t be in loops. Solve for the unknowns . Apply Ohm’s Law (I prefer to do this ‘as I go’. Each loop must pick up at least one new element. KCL and KVL Cookbook  I1 =10 Ω 1. I2 (Need as many independent equations + VDC + =50 Ω as unknowns) =120V V2 3. Write all KVL (Loop) equations.

Apply Ohm’s Law (I prefer to do this ‘as I go’. Keep track of all unknown values I1. Apply as many KCL (node) equations as needed to fill in unknowns. for convenience) 5. Write all KNOWN values VDC=120V. I3=6A 2. + - VDC =50 Ω I 3=6A I2 =120V . + - 1. Current sources are not counted as ‘new’ elements. I2 (Need as many independent equations as unknowns) 3. R1=10Ω. Each KCL equation must pick up at least ONE new current. R2=50Ω. Write all KVL (Loop) equations. =10 Ω + +I1. Solve for the unknowns 7 . 4. -VDC + (I1)(R1)+(I2)(R2)=0 (1) Each loop must pick up at least ONE new element. I1 + I3 = I2 (2) 6.

6. Solve: -120V + (I1)(10Ω)+(I2)(50Ω)=0 I1 + 6A = I2 Substitute to remove variables: -120V + (I1)(10Ω)+(I1+6A)(50Ω)=0 -120V + (I1)(10Ω)+(I1)(50Ω)+(6A)(50Ω)=0 Solve for remaining variable: I1=(120V – (6A)(50Ω)) / (10Ω + 50Ω) = -3A Go back to original equations to find other variables I2 = -3A + 6A = 3A 8 .

Interpret / Reality Check: =10 Ω + +(-3A)-+ - VDC =50 Ω I 3=6A 3A =120V . + - 9 . + - =10 Ω + -3A+ + - VDC =50 Ω I 3=6A 3A =120V .

Keep track of all unknown values (Need as many independent equations as unknowns) 3. Solve for the unknowns. Write all KVL (Loop) equations. Apply Ohm’s Law (I prefer to do this ‘as I go’. . for convenience) 5. Each loop must pick up at least one new element.KCL and KVL Cookbook  1. 4. 6. Each KCL equation must pick up at least one new current. Write all KNOWN values 2. Current sources can’t be in loops. Apply as many KCL (node) equations as needed to fill in unknowns.

for convenience) 5. Solve for the unknowns. . Apply Ohm’s Law (I prefer to do this ‘as I go’. Keep track of all unknown values (Need as many independent equations as unknowns) 3.KCL and KVL Cookbook  1. Current sources can’t be in loops. Apply as many KCL (node) equations as needed to fill in unknowns. Write all KVL (Loop) equations. Each loop must pick up at least one new element. 4. 6. Each KCL equation must pick up at least one new current. Write all KNOWN values 2.

6. for convenience) 5. Apply Ohm’s Law (I prefer to do this ‘as I go’. Each loop must pick up at least one new element. 4.KCL and KVL Cookbook  1. Write all KNOWN values 2. . Keep track of all unknown values (Need as many independent equations as unknowns) 3. Current sources can’t be in loops. Apply as many KCL (node) equations as needed to fill in unknowns. Write all KVL (Loop) equations. Solve for the unknowns. Each KCL equation must pick up at least one new current.

Write all KVL (Loop) equations. Solve for the unknowns. Write all KNOWN values 2. Each loop must pick up at least one new element. Keep track of all unknown values (Need as many independent equations as unknowns) 3. Apply as many KCL (node) equations as needed to fill in unknowns. Current sources can’t be in loops. Each KCL equation must pick up at least one new current. 6.KCL and KVL Cookbook  1. . for convenience) 5. Apply Ohm’s Law (I prefer to do this ‘as I go’. 4.

Current sources can’t be in loops. 6. Apply as many KCL (node) equations as needed to fill in unknowns. Apply Ohm’s Law (I prefer to do this ‘as I go’. Each KCL equation must pick up at least one new current. Each loop must pick up at least one new element. Solve for the unknowns. Write all KVL (Loop) equations. Write all KNOWN values 2. . for convenience) 5. 4. Keep track of all unknown values (Need as many independent equations as unknowns) 3.KCL and KVL Cookbook  1.

KCL and KVL Cookbook Does this work? NO!  1. . Write all KNOWN values 2. Nodes touching voltage sources can’t be used. Current sources can’t be in loops. Solve for the unknowns. Apply Ohm’s Law (I prefer to do this ‘as I go’. 4. Shorts combine nodes. Apply as many KCL (node) equations as needed to fill in unknowns. 6. Each loop must pick up at least one new element. Write all KVL (Loop) equations. Each KCL equation must pick up at least one new current. Keep track of all unknown values (Need as many independent equations as unknowns) 3. for convenience) 5.

KCL and KVL Equations Loops: -VDC+I1R1+I2R2=0 I3R3 – I1R1 =0 -VDC + I3R3 + I4R4 = 0 Node: IDC I3 – I4+ I1 – I2 + IDC = 0 VDC .

KCL and KVL Matrix Math -VDC+I1R1+I2R2=0 I3R3 – I1R1 =0 -VDC + I3R3 + I4R4 = 0 I3 – I4+ I1 – I2 + IDC = 0 IDC R1 R2 0 0 I1 = VDC VDC -R1 0 R3 0 I2 0 0 0 R3 R4 I3 VDC 1 -1 1 -1 I4 -IDC Next. use Gaussian Elimination OR Matlab matrix solution .

Second Edition by Fawwaz T. © NTS Press. Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) Circuits. Ulaby and Michel M. Maharbiz. Used with Permission by the Publisher .

Second Edition by Fawwaz T. Ulaby and Michel M. © NTS Press. Maharbiz. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) Sum of voltages around a closed path =0 OR -VDC+V1+V2 = 0 Sum of voltage drops = sum of voltage rises VDC = V1+V2 + +V1- VDC + . Used with Permission by the Publisher . V2 - Circuits.

KCL and KVL Cookbook 1. Keep track of all unknown values (Need as many independent equations as unknowns) 3. 6. Apply Ohm’s Law (I prefer to do this ‘as I go’. . Shorts combine nodes. Write all KVL (Loop) equations. Each KCL equation must pick up at least one new current. Solve for the unknowns. for convenience) 5. Write all KNOWN values 2. 4. Current sources can’t be in loops. Apply as many KCL (node) equations as needed to fill in Another Way … unknowns. Each loop must pick up at least one new element. Nodes touching voltage sources can’t be used.

Red Canyon (Bottom of Thunder Mountain)  Near Bryce Canyon. Utah 21 .