A Short Course on

Synchronous Machines and
Synchronous Condensers
G. Heydt S. Kalsi E. Kyriakides
Arizona State University
American Superconductor
© 2003 G. Heydt, S. Kalsi and E. Kyriakides

Session Time Topics Instructor
Introductions 8:30 – 8:40 Bradshaw
1 Fundamentals of 8:40 – 9:50 • Energy conversion Heydt
synchronous • Synchronous machine
machines construction
• Energy transfer in a synchronous
machine
• Motor and generator action
• Phasor diagram for synchronous
machines
• Losses
• Superconducting designs
• Power factor and torque angle
• Example of calculations
• Transients and damper windings
• Saturation and the magnetization
curve
BREAK 9:50 – 10:00

2 Synchronous 10:00 – • What is a synchronous Kalsi
condensers 10:30 condenser?
• Applications of synchronous
condensers
• Analysis
3 Superconducting 10:30 – • Superconductivity Kalsi
synchronous 12:00 • The superconducting
condensers synchronous condenser (SSC)
• Performance benefits of SSC in a
grid
LUNCH 12:00 – 1:30

formulas for calculation • Machine transients 5 State estimation 2:30 – 3:30 • Basics of state estimation Kyriakides applied to • application to synchronous synchronous generators generators • demonstration of software to identify synchronous generator parameters .4 Synchronous 1:30 – 2:30 • Park’s transformation Heydt machine models • Transient and subtransient reactances.

instrumentation • Calculation of torque angle Kyriakides. • Usual machine instrumentation and Kalsi Question and 4:30 – 5:00 All answer session participants . BREAK 3:30 – 3:40 6 Machine 3:40 – 4:30 • DFRs Heydt.

SESSION 1 Fundamentals of synchronous machines .

chronos = time . AC armature winding on the stator • May function as a generator (MECHANICAL Æ ELECTRICAL) or a motor (ELECTRICAL Æ MECHANICAL) • Origin of name: syn = equal. Synchronous Machines • Example of a rotating electric machine • DC field winding on the rotor.

Synchronous Machines ROTATION • FIELD WINDING • ARMATURE WINDING .

Synchronous Machines The concept of air gap flux STATOR ROTOR .

its is a motor) • Or energy is stored in the magnetic field and eventually flows into the electrical circuit that powers the stator – this is a generator . Synchronous Machines • The inductance of the stator winding depends on the rotor position • Energy is stored in the inductance • As the rotor moves. there is a change in the energy stored • Either energy is extracted from the magnetic field (and becomes mechanical energy – that is.

Synchronous Machines The basic relationships are POWER = ( TORQUE ) (SPEED) ENERGY = (1/2) ( L I 2 ) POWER = d(ENERGY) / d(TIME) .

There will be average torque produced only when the machine rotates at the same speed as the rotating magnetic field produced by the stator. RPM = 3600 rev/min . RPM = ( 120 f ) / (Poles) Example: f = 60 Hz. two poles. Synchronous Machines Consider the case that the rotor (field) is energized by DC and the stator is energized by AC of frequency f hertz.

Synchronous Machines d The axis of the field winding in the direction of the DC field is called the rotor direct axis or the d-axis. and λ is the flux linkage to the field produced by the field winding . ROTATION q The basic expression for the voltage in the stator (armature) is v = r i + dλ/dt Where v is the stator voltage. r is the stator resistance. 90 degrees later than the d-axis is the quadrature axis (q-axis).

Synchronous Machines Basic AC power flow jx SEND RECEIVE Vsend Vreceive .

Synchronous Machines Vinternal Vterminal The internal voltage. is GENERATOR ACTION – produced by the field POWER FLOWS FROM interacting with the MACHINE TO EXTERNAL stator winding. often labeled E. and this is the open circuit CIRCUIT. E LEADS Vt voltage .

is MOTOR ACTION – POWER produced by the field FLOWS FROM EXTERNAL interacting with the CIRCUIT INTO THE stator winding. often labeled E. and this is the open circuit MACHINE. Synchronous Machines Vterminal Vinternal The internal voltage. E LAGS Vt voltage .

and this is the open circuit voltage . is produced by the field interacting with the stator winding. often labeled E. Synchronous Machines Vinternal = E TORQUE ANGLE Vterminal = Vt Vterminal = Vt TORQUE ANGLE Vinternal = E GENERATOR MOTOR The internal voltage.

there will be a voltage difference across the reactance jx. After some arithmetic Psent = [|Vsend|] [|Vreceive|] sin(torque angle) / x . and therefore there will be a current flowing in jx. Synchronous Machines Active power will flow when there is a phase difference between Vsend and Vreceive. This is because when there is a phase difference.

Synchronous Machines Example A synchronous generator stator reactance is 190 ohms. Find the maximum possible output power of this synchronous generator . The machine is connected to a three phase bus whose voltage magnitude is 35 kV line-line. and the internal voltage (open circuit) generated is 35 kV line to line.

Synchronous Machines Example Work on a per phase basis 35 kV line-line = 20.2K)(sin(90))/190 = 2.2 kV l-n Max P occurs when torque angle is 90 degrees P = (20.2K)(20.3 MW three phase Vsend Vreceive .1 MW per phase = 6.

Synchronous Machines Example If the phase angle is limited to 45 degrees. find the generator power output Vsend TORQUE ANGLE Vreceive .

6 MW Vsend TORQUE ANGLE Vreceive . Synchronous Machines Example P = 6.3 sin(45) = 4.

. friction at slip rings Stray load losses: due to nonuniform current distribution EFFICIENCY = OUTPUT / INPUT = 1 – (LOSSES) / INPUT . iron parts moving in a magnetic field causing currents to be generated in the rotor body. resistance of connections to the rotor (slip rings) Stator: resistance.g. magnetic losses (e. Synchronous Machines Losses Rotor: resistance. hysteresis) Mechanical: windage. friction at bearings.

larger machines have the higher efficiencies because some losses do not increase with machine size. many generators in the 5 MW class and above have efficiencies greater than 97% But 3% of 5 MW is still 150 kW – and for large units – e. 600 MW.g. Synchronous Machines Losses Generally. For example. 3% of 600 MW is 18 MW! • Cooling • Damping .

Vsend = E Voltage drop in reactance Vreceive = Vt GENERATOR Current in the circuit NOTATION . Power factor Power factor is the cosine between voltage and current in a sinusoidal AC circuit.

Power factor Vsend Voltage drop in reactance Vreceive Current in the circuit Angle between sending volts and GENERATOR current NOTATION .

Power factor Vsend = E Voltage drop in reactance Vreceive = Vt Current in the circuit GENERATOR Angle between NOTATION receiving volts and COSINE OF THIS ANGLE IS current THE MACHINE POWER FACTOR AT THE TERMINALS .

Power factor Current in the circuit Angle between receiving volts Vreceive = Vt and current Voltage drop in reactance Vsend = E COSINE OF THIS ANGLE IS THE MACHINE POWER FACTOR AT THE TERMINALS MOTOR NOTATION .

Power factor Note that the power factor angle is controllable by the generated voltage E and hence by the DC field excitation. .

Basic expressions MOTOR Vt = E + jIax GENERATOR Vt = E .jIax .

Greater and greater field excitation . Is operated at successively smaller and smaller torque angle 2. Power factor Consider now a machine that: 1.

Successively smaller and smaller torque angle The machine torque angle is made smaller and smaller by reducing the electrical load (P) Vt = E + jIax Current in the circuit Vt E MOTOR NOTATION Voltage drop in reactance .

Successively smaller and smaller torque angle The machine torque angle is made smaller and smaller by reducing the electrical load (P) Vt = E + jIax Vt Current in the circuit E MOTOR NOTATION Voltage drop in reactance .

Successively smaller and smaller torque angle The machine torque angle is made smaller and smaller by reducing the electrical load (P) Vt = E + jIax Current in the circuit Vt E MOTOR NOTATION Voltage drop in reactance .

Successively smaller and smaller torque angle The machine torque angle is made smaller and smaller by reducing the electrical load (P) Vt = E + jIax Current in the circuit Vt E MOTOR NOTATION Voltage drop in reactance .

Successively greater field excitation Increasing the field excitation causes E to increase Vt = E + jIax Current in the Vt circuit MOTOR E NOTATION Voltage drop in reactance .

Successively greater field excitation Increasing the field excitation causes E to increase Vt = E + jIax Current in the Vt circuit MOTOR E NOTATION Voltage drop in reactance .

Successively greater field excitation Increasing the field excitation causes E to increase Vt = E + jIax Current in the Vt circuit MOTOR E NOTATION Voltage drop in reactance .

and the machine current becomes higher – but the power factor is still zero. And I leads Vt. As the field excitation increases. the power factor becomes cos(90) = 0. In theory. but a high and controllable level of Q. there is no active power transferred. |E| increases. This mode of operation is called a synchronous condenser . the active power to/from the machine goes to zero and (2) as the machine becomes overexcited.The foregoing indicates that as the machine (1) approaches zero power operation – the borderline between generator and motor operation.

Synchronous condenser operation Ia Q = | Vt |2 | I a |2 − P 2 = | Vt || I a | V jIax E .

Synchronous condenser
operation
Nearly zero active power flow, Power factor correction,
nearly zero power factor, nearly reactive power support,
perpendicular Ia and Vt, current voltage support,
leads terminal voltage acting as reactive power can be
a motor, it acts as a capacitor varied by varying
excitation, low loss, no
‘resonance problems’ of
Ia conventional fixed
capacitors, potentially a
large source of reactive
power
jIax
Vt
E

Examples
A synchronous generator is rated 100 MVA.
The machine is intended to be operated at
rated power at torque angle = 37 degrees.
The armature resistance is 0.1%, and the
reactance is 85%. The terminal voltage is
rated 34.5 kV. Find the machine internal
percent excitation and terminal pf when the
machine operates at 100 MW. Estimate the
armature I2R losses.

Examples

| Vt || E | sin(δ )
P=
x
(1)(| E | sin(37 o )
=
0.85
= 1.41

42∠37 − 1.85 | I a | ∠ϕ + 90o = 1.02 φ = −8.42∠37 o 0.85) = 1. Examples E = 1.9o ) = 98.00∠0o | I a |= 1.00 /0o 1.8% LAGGING .00∠0o + jI a (0.9o POWER FACTOR cos(−8.41 /37o Ia Vt = 1.

Examples A six pole synchronous generator operates at 60 Hz. Find the speed of operation .

Examples RPM = ( 120 f ) / (Poles) RPM = 120*60 / 6 = 1200 .

Examples A 40 MVAr synchronous condenser operates on a 34.5 kV bus. . The synchronous reactance is 150%. Estimate the field excitation to obtain a 30 to 40 MVAr range of reactive power.

0 0.5 | I a | ∠(90 + 90 ) o o At | I a |= 0.75 ≤} | I a |≤ 1.0− | E f | ∠0 = 1. Examples 0.5 | 0.75 ≤ Q ≤ 1.125 .75 | | E f |= 2.5) [1.0− | E f |= −1.0 Vt = E + jI a x 1∠0 =| E f | ∠0 + jI a (1.75 1.

50 Therefore the field excitation should be between 213% and 250 % .0− | E f | ∠0 = 1.5 | I a | ∠(90 + 90 ) o o At | I a |= 1.00 | | E f |= 2.00 1.0− | E f |= −1.5 | 1.5) [1. Examples Vt = E + jI a x 1∠0 =| E f | ∠0 + jI a (1.

SESSION 4 Synchronous machine models .

• Saturation and the magnetization curve • Park’s transformation • Transient and subtransient reactances. formulas for calculation • Machine transients .

Saturation and the magnetization curve SHORT CIRCUIT ARMATURE CURRENT OPEN CIRCUIT TERMINAL VOLTAGE RATED Vt OCC SCC NE RATED Ia LI AP G c R AI f’ f’’ FIELD EXCITATION .

SHORT CIRCUIT ARMATURE CURRENT OPEN CIRCUIT TERMINAL VOLTAGE RATED Vt OCC SCC NE RATED Ia LI AP G c R AI f’ f’’ FIELD EXCITATION SYNCHRONOUS REACTANCE = SLOPE OF AIR GAP LINE SHORT CIRCUIT RATRIO = Of’/Of’’ .

the material saturates and no little further magnetization can occur • Saturation is mainly a property of iron -.Saturation and the magnetization curve • Saturation occurs because of the alignment of magnetic domains. or other non- ferrous materials • The effect of saturation is to lower the synchronous reactance (to a ‘saturated value’) . When most of the domains align. plastic.it does not manifest itself over a practical range of fluxes in air.

Saturation and the magnetization curve • Saturation may limit the performance of machines because of high air gap line voltage drop • Saturation is often accompanied by hysteresis which results in losses in AC machines • Saturation is not present in superconducting machines .

Transients and the dq transformation rF ia iF LF a vF ra rD L aa L bb ib va iD LD rb v D =0 b rQ rn Lc c vb iQ LQ Ln rc v Q =0 vn ic c rG vc iG LG n v G =0 in .

Transients and the dq rF transformation ia iF LF a vF ra rD L aa L bb ib va iD LD rb v D =0 b rQ rn Lc c vb iQ LQ Ln rc v Q =0 vn ic c rG vc iG LG n v G =0 in  v = − ri − λ .

AND AGAIN AS IF THERE WERE ONLY A q-AXIS ROTATION q-axis  v = − ri − λ .Transients and the dq transformation d-axis THE VOLTAGE EQUATION AS THE BASIC IDEA IS TO WRITE IF THERE WERE ONLY A d- AXIS.

Transients and the dq transformation  v = − ri − λ   λ   va   ra 0 0 0 0 0 0   ia  a  v  0      rb 0 0 0 0 0 ib  λb   b      vc  0 0 rc 0 0 0 0   i c   λc  − v  = −  0      0 0 rF 0 0 0 i F −  λF  +  F    − v D  0 0 0 0 rD 0 0  i D   λ D  − v  0      0 0 0 0 rG 0 iG  λ   G    G  − v Q   0 0 0 0 0 0 rQ  i Q   λ   Q .

Transients and the dq transformation  1 1 1     2 2 π 2 π  PARK’S TRANSFORMATION P= cos θ cos(θ − ) cos(θ + 3  3  2 2 2 ) 3  sin θ sin(θ − 2π 3 ) sin(θ + 2π 3 )    θ = ωR t + δ + π 2 BY APPLYING PARK’S TRANSFORMATION. THE TIME VARYING INDUCTANCES BECOME CONSTANTS .

Transients and the dq transformation  v0  r + 3rn 0 0 0 0 0 0   i0   v   0 r ω( LAQ + A q ) 0 0 ωLAQ ωLAQ   id   d      vq   0 − ω( LAD + A d ) r − ωLAD − ωLAD 0 0   iq  − v  = −  0 0 0 rF 0 0 0   iF   F      − vD   0 0 0 0 rD 0 0  iD  − v   0 0 0 0 0 rG 0  iG   G      − vQ   0 0 0 0 0 0 rQ  iQ   L0 + 3Ln 0 0 0 0 0 0   i0   0 LAD + A d 0 LAD LAD 0 0   i    d   0 0 LAQ + A q 0 0 LAQ LAQ   iq  − 1  ⋅ 0 LAD 0 LAD + A F LAD 0 0  i  ωB   F   0 LAD 0 LAD LAD + A D 0 0  iD   0 0 LAQ 0 0 LAQ + A G LAQ  iG      0 0 LAQ 0 0 LAQ LAQ + A Q  iQ  .

Machine reactances rF LF ra La iF rD id vF iD + LAD vd LD + ωψq d-axis equivalent circuit .

Machine reactances rG LG ra La iG rQ iq iQ LAQ vq LQ + ωψd q-axis equivalent circuit .

Machine reactances • These equivalent circuit parameters are traditionally obtained by a combination of manufacturers’ design specifications and actual tests • IEEE has a series of standardized tests for large generators that yield several time constants and equivalent circuit inductances • Aging and saturation are not well accounted • Change in operating point is not well accounted .

Machine transient and subtransient reactances Subtransient direct axis LD L2AD + LF L2AD − 2L3AD inductance L " d Ld − LF LD − L2AD Transient direct axis L2AD inductance L ' d Ld − LF Subtransient open circuit time constant in τ " do LD LF − L2AD the direct axis ω B rD LF Transient open circuit time constant in the τ ' do LF direct axis ω B rF Subtransient short circuit time constant in τ " d L"d " τ do the direct axis Ld ' Transient short circuit time constant in the τ ' d L'd ' τ do direct axis Ld .

Ea’ jiqxq SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR jidxd PHASOR DIAGRAM iq iara ia Vt id .

Ea’ jiqxq SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR jidxd PHASOR DIAGRAM iq iara POWER ia FACTOR Vt ANGLE TORQUE ANGLE id .

Ea’ jiqxq SYNCHRONOUS jiqxq ji x GENERATOR PHASOR DIAGRAM jiaxq d d idxq iq iara POWER ia FACTOR Vt ANGLE TORQUE ANGLE id .

circuit inductances and resistances can be solved. Then using the formulas. TIME CONSTANTS EQUIVALENT TESTS INDUCTANCES CIRCUIT PARAMETERS .Machine transient and subtransient reactances The usual procedure is that IEEE standardized tests are used to obtain inductances and time constants.

• Popular solution methods include Matlab toolboxes. then X(h) is used to obtain X(2h). And if there are discrepancies. etc. PSpice • The computer solutions could be used to compare with actual field measurements. the computer model could be updated to obtain better agreement – and hence a more accurate model. Transient calculations • Transients in dynamic systems are calculated as solutions of differential equations • The usual solution approach is a numerical solution of (dX/dt) = AX + bu • Most numerical solutions relate to the approximation of dX/dt as (delta X)/(delta t) • Solutions are iterative in the sense that the given initial condition is used to obtain X at time t = h. EMTP. . ETMSP.

SESSION 5 State estimation applied to synchronous generators .

Session topics: • Basics of state estimation • Application to synchronous generators • Demonstration of software to identify synchronous generator parameters .

7 V2 = = = 4. BASICS OF STATE ESTIMATION + R1=5Ω V s=10V - It is desired to measure V2 V the voltage across R2 R2=5Ω Assume we have two voltmeters: A and B Va = 5. 9 V 2 2 .1 V Measure the voltage across R2 with both Vb = 4. average the result to estimate V2 Va + Vb 5.7 V voltmeters Since the two measurements do not agree but are close to each other.1 + 4.

BASICS OF STATE ESTIMATION Now assume that we have a third voltmeter C Let the measurement from C be Vc = 15 V Clearly this measurement is not reliable Simple approach: disregard Vc and estimate V2 from Va and Vb Another approach: Use weighted state estimation This means.7 × 20 + 15 × 1 ⇒ V2 = = 5. give the following weights: • if B is the best instrument give it a weight of 20 • give a weight of 18 to A • give a weight of 1 to C since it is not reliable 5. assign appropriate weights to each of the three measurements according to the confidence that the user has to each instrument.15 39 . For example.1× 18 + 4.

Measurements Estimator System Estimated z x̂ states H . using measurements from the system under study. BASICS OF STATE ESTIMATION Definition: State estimation is the process of assigning a value to an unknown system state variable. Knowledge of the system configuration and of the accuracy of the measuring instruments is used in this process.

1  2 x1 − x2 = 0.1 1 1   3.8 Process matrix 2 states 3 measurements 3x2 2x1 vector 3x1 vector The matrix equation is of the form Hx = z . EXAMPLE 1 Assume that it is desired to estimate two states (variables) Three measurements are obtained.2     x2    x1 − 3 x2 = −4.8 1 − 3 − 4. which form the following equations x1 + x2 = 3.2 In matrix form: 2 − 1  x1  =  0.

EXAMPLE 1 1 1   3. A solution should be selected such that the error in satisfying each equation is minimum.1  Number of measurements: n=3 2 − 1  x1  =  0. the system is overdetermined 1 − 3 − 4. This error is called the residual of the solution and can be computed by. r = z − Hxˆ x̂ : the vector of the estimated parameters The residual will be calculated later .2  Number of states: m=2    x2    Since n>m.8 Hence there is no unique solution The solution is not unique since in general it is not possible to satisfy all the equations exactly for any choice of the unknowns.

which in effect minimizes the length (Euclidean norm) of the residual r. This method results in a simple formula to calculate the estimated parameters Given the system is of the form Hx=z. EXAMPLE 1 There are many ways to minimize the residual r One of the most popular is the least squares method.the vector of the estimated parameters is given by. ˆx = ( H T H ) −1 H T z = H + z H+ is called the pseudoinverse of H .

1  Substitute H and z in xˆ = ( H T H ) −1 H T z 2 − 1  x1  =  0.972  .3   − 4 11   17 . 3   0 .8 −1  6 − 4  − 1. H x z EXAMPLE 1 1 1   3.1   1 2 1     1 2 1    xˆ =  2 − 1 0.3 ⇒ xˆ =     =  17. 12   1.098 ⇒ xˆ =   1 . 2  1 − 1 − 3    1 − 1 − 3    1 − 3  − 4.8 −1  1 1    3.2     x2    and solve for the unknown states 1 − 3 − 4.3 0.08 − 1.22 0. 08 0.

972     1 − 3 − 4.8 − 0.098  r = Hx − z = 2 − 1  ˆ  − 0.224 − 0. EXAMPLE 1 To see how much error we have in the estimated parameters.224    1.2  =  0.018  − 0.224  = 0.018 .03    1.0514   − 0.1   − 0.018] 0.03 0.03  ⇒ J = [− 0. we need to calculate the residual in a least squares sense T T J = r r = ( z − Hxˆ ) ( z − Hxˆ ) 1 1   3.

. real power. current. WHY ARE ESTIMATORS NEEDED? In power systems the state variables are typically the voltage magnitudes and the relative phase angles at the nodes of the system. The estimator uses these noisy. The available measurements may be voltage magnitudes. or reactive power. imperfect measurements to produce a best estimate for the desired states.

these errors may go the output would be useless undetected There are periods when the communication channels do not operate. If errors are large. . WHY ARE ESTIMATORS NEEDED? It is not economical to have measurement devices at every node of the system The measurement devices are subject to errors If errors are small. Therefore. the system operator would not have any information about some part of the network.

HOW DOES THE ESTIMATOR HELP? An estimator may: • reduce the amount of noise in the measurements • detect and smooth out small errors in readings • detect and reject measurements with gross errors • fill in missing measurements • estimate states that otherwise are difficult to measure .

1 b.3 3. V2. V3 Assume that measurements are available for V1. and four measurements.1 0 3. EXAMPLE 2 V1 R1 Assume we have a network V2 R2 configuration as in the figure on the left.3 Therefore it is an overdetermined 10. it is necessary to express the estimation problem mathematically . 7. Now. Find a R3 relationship for V3 that has the following form: V3 = aV1 + bV2 + c Available measurements This is clearly an estimation V1 V2 V3 problem with three unknowns (a.1 1. c).4 5.4 0 9. 8. and V3.1 4.0 estimation problem.2 2.

3 3.1b + c In matrix form.2b + c 10.1 0 1 +  3.1 1  c  4.4 1.0  5.3 pseudoinverse of the H matrix   b  =    7.0 4.1374 8.4     cˆ   4.4  a   ˆ  2.2 2.3028  0 9.4 = 10.1 4.1b + c 0 9.3  − 0.4a + 5.1a + 0b + c 8.2 1 a   2.2505   0 9.1 0 1  3.1 10.3 2.4 5.3 3.1 = 7.1 1   x z H .3a + 3.1 3.1 1 1.1 1. EXAMPLE 2 Substitute the measurements obtained in the desired model V3 = aV1 + bV2 + c V1 V2 V3 7.3 3.0   1   = − 0. we can solve this  7.2     ⇒ b =ˆ     10.3 = 8.4 5.1 0 3.0 = 0a + 9. As in example 1.4 5.1 1   1.1 matrix equation by taking the  8.

System base: 100 MVA . EXAMPLE 3 Let’s work out another example: Estimate the relative phase angles at the buses of the figure below 40 MW BUS 1 BUS 2 M12 20 MW M32 60 MW 50 MW 90 MW M13 30 MW BUS 3 Given: X12 = 0.1 p. X13 = 0. X23 = 0.4 p.u.u.2 p.u.

and the P≈ X angle δ1 − δ2 is small. P can be obtained as.2 p.u.u. EXAMPLE 3 SOLUTION 40 MW BUS 1 BUS 2 M12 20 MW M32 Let bus 1 be the reference bus 60 MW 50 MW 90 MW ϑ1 = 0 From the measurements: M13 30 MW BUS 3 M12 = 20 MW = 0. M32 = -60 MW = -0.. The line flows are given by.3 p.6 p. 1 f ab = (ϑa − ϑb ) = M ab X ab V1 ∠δ1 V2 ∠δ2 The above formula can be shown X considering a simple two bus arrangement P V1 V2 sin(δ1 − δ2 ) Since V1 and V2 are approximately 1 p. δ −δ P≈ 1 2 X . M13 = 30 MW = 0.u.u.

3  ϑ − 10 10   3  − 0.6 X 32 0.2  ϑ In matrix form.5 10     − 10 10   − 0. and is solved as in example 1: −1   −5 0   0 .2 X 12 0.6  ϑˆ2  − 0.5ϑ3 = 0. f12 = 1 (ϑ1 − ϑ2 ) = 1 (0 − ϑ2 ) = −5ϑ2 = 0.3 X 13 0.  0 − 2.2 1 1 f13 = (ϑ1 − ϑ3 ) = (0 − ϑ3 ) = −2.4 1 1 f 32 = (ϑ3 − ϑ2 ) = (ϑ3 − ϑ2 ) = 10ϑ3 − 10ϑ2 = −0. 1  −5 0   0 .5 10    0 − 2.5  2  =  0. 3  0 − 2.1048  .2   − 5 0 − 10    − 5 0 − 10   ϑˆ =    0 − 2 .0438 ⇒ =  rad ϑ3   ˆ − 0 .6 This is again of the form Hx = z. 5   0 . EXAMPLE 3 Hence.

APPLICATION OF STATE ESTIMATION TO SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS • Need to know the operating parameters of generators to → perform studies → study behavior of the system at various operating levels → perform postmortem analysis • Meet requirements for machine testing (e.g. NERC) • To reestablish machine parameters after a repair • Fault identification / signature analysis • Incipient event identification .

and state estimation. knowledge of the model of the generator. to approximate the required parameters To do that. aging Cannot measure parameters while generator is committed Cannot afford to decommit unit in order to measure its parameters Solution: Use available terminal measurements. it is necessary to develop a model for the synchronous generator .APPLICATION OF STATE ESTIMATION TO SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS Problems: Generator parameters change with operating point.

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR REPRESENTATION a axis d axis ϑ q axis ib ic direction of rotation iQ iG iD ia iF ia iF iG iD iQ b axis ic ib c axis .

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR MODEL rF ia vF iF LF a rD ra Laa ib iD Lbb r va vD=0 LD b b rQ rn Lcc vb vQ=0 iQ LQ Ln vn rc ic c rG vc iG LG n vG=0 in Schematic diagram of a synchronous generator .

DEVELOPMENT OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR MODEL  va   ra 0 0 0 0 0 0   ia   λa   v  0   rb 0 0 0 0 0   ib   λb   b     0   ic   λc  v = − ri − λ − vn  vc  0 0 rc 0 0 0 − v  = −  0   v  ⇒ 0 0 rF 0 0 0  iF  −  λF  +  n   F    0  iD   λD    0 −  Dv 0 0 0 0 rD 0  − vG  0   0 0 0 0 rG 0  iG   λG       − v  Q   0 0 0 0 0 0 rQ  iQ   λ   Q  λa   Laa Lab Lac LaF LaD LaG LaQ   ia   λ0   L0 0 0 0 0 0 0   i0  λ   L Lbb Lbc LbF LbD LbG LbQ   ib  λ   0 Ld 0 kM F kM D 0 0   id   b   ba    d     λc   Lca Lcb Lcc LcF LcD LcG LcQ   ic   λq   0 0 Lq 0 0 kM G kM Q   iq  λ  =  L LFQ  iF  λ  =  0  i F   F   Fa LFb LFc LFF LFD LFG   ⇒  F  0 kM F 0 LF M X 0    λD   LDa LDb LDc LDF LDD LDG LDQ  iD   λD   0 kM D 0 M X LD 0 0  iD   λG   LGa LGb LGc LGF LGD LGG LGQ  iG   λG   0 0 kM G 0 0 LG M Y  iG             λQ   LQa LQb LQc LQF LQD LQG LQQ  iQ   λQ   0 0 kM Q 0 0 M Y LQ  iQ  .

DEVELOPMENT OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR MODEL λ0 dq = Pλabc i0 dq = Piabc v0 dq = Pvabc 1 1 1   2 2 2  P = 2  cos ϑ cos(ϑ − 2π ) cos(ϑ + 2π ) 3 3 3   sin ϑ sin(ϑ − 2π ) sin(ϑ + 2π )   3 3  Resulting model:  v0 dq 3 x1   i0 dq 3 x1   i0 dq 3 x1  v  = −[R7 x 7 ]i  − [L7 x 7 ]i   FDGQ 4 x1   FDGQ 4 x1   FDGQ 4 x1  .

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR MODEL  v0  r + 3rn 0 0 0 0 0 0   i0   v   0 r ω( LAQ + A q ) 0 0 ωLAQ ωLAQ   id   d      vq   0 − ω( LAD + A d ) r − ωLAD − ωLAD 0 0   iq  − v  = − 0 0 0 rF 0 0 0  i F  F      −  Dv  0 0 0 0 rD 0 0  iD   − vG   0 0 0 0 0 rG 0  iG       − v  Q   0 0 0 0 0 0 rQ  iQ   L0 + 3Ln 0 0 0 0 0 0   i0   0 LAD + A d 0 LAD LAD 0 0   i    d   0 0 LAQ + A q 0 0 LAQ LAQ   iq  − 1  0 LAD 0 LAD + A F LAD 0 0  i  ωB   F   0 LAD 0 LAD LAD + A D 0 0  iD   0 0 LAQ 0 0 LAQ + A G LAQ  iG      0 0 L AQ 0 0 L AQ L AQ + A  iQ  Q .

MODEL DISCUSSION
After the development of the model it is necessary to
carefully examine the available information about the
system, find out what is known in the model, what is
unknown and needs to be calculated or assumed, and what
is desired to be estimated.
For the synchronous generator case,
Measured/Known Unknown
line-to-line terminal voltages damper currents
line currents current derivatives
field voltage (for an exciter with brushes)
field current (for an exciter with brushes)

Finally, some of the parameters need to be estimated through
state estimation, while the other parameters need to be
calculated from manufacturer’s data

STATE ESTIMATOR CONFIGURATION
EXAMPLE
Estimate LAD, LAQ, and rF
i (t + ∆t ) − i (t )
• Calculate current derivatives by using i(t ) ≈
∆t
• Rearrange system in the form Hx = z
 i0 
 0 0 0
i 
 1 ′ ′ ′ 
ω (id + i F + i D ) ω (i q + iG + iQ ) 0  L  r + 3rn 0 0 0 0 0 0  d 
 0 i 
 B   AD  r ωA q 0 0 0 0  q 
 − ω(id + iF + iD ) 1 L = −   i
(iq′ + iG′ + iQ′ ) 0   AQ   0 − ωA d r 0 0 0 0  F 
 ωB  r  i
 1  F   0
 0 0 0 0 0 0  D 
 (id′ + iF′ + iD′ ) 0 iF  i
 ωB   G
iQ 
 i0   V0 
 i   V 
 L0 + 3Ln 0 0 0 0 0 0  d   d 
  i   V 
1  0 Ad 0 0 0 0 0  q   q 
−  i − − V
ωB  0 0 Aq 0 0 0 0  F   F 
i  − V
 0
 0 0 AF 0 0 0  D   D 
i −V
 G  G
iQ   − VQ 

DEMONSTRATION OF PROTOTYPE
APPLICATION FOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION

•Prototype application developed in Visual C++
•Portable, independent application
•Runs under Windows
•Purpose: Read measurements from DFR and use
manufacturer’s data to estimate generator
parameters

SESSION 6 Machine instrumentation .

Session topics: •Digital Fault Recorders (DFRs) • Calculation of torque angle .

circuit breakers and other equipment functioned properly.g. It is predominantly utilized to monitor system performance during stressed conditions. Therefore. and transmits this record to the central offices over a modem.DIGITAL FAULT RECORDERS (DFRs) A DFR is effectively a data acquisition system that is used to monitor the performance of generation and transmission equipment. if a lightning strikes a transmission line. the fault recognition by protective relays and the fault clearance by circuit breakers takes only about 50 to 83 ms. power and current). For example. This process is too fast for human intervention. the DFR saves a record of the desired signals (e. . where a utility engineer can perform post- event analysis to determine if the relays.

DIGITAL FAULT RECORDERS (DFRs) The DFR sends the measured signals to a central pc station through a modem .

DIGITAL FAULT RECORDERS (DFRs) Typical graphics window showing a snapshot of the measured signals .

TYPICAL DFR SPECIFICATIONS Data files are stored in COMTRADE IEEE format The DFR can be configured to create transient records and continuous records Can be used during disturbances. 16. 125VDC. abnormal conditions. and normal conditions Typical specifications: Analog channels: 8. 32. 48. or 64 Sample rate: 24-192 samples/min Operating voltage: 48VDC. 24. 250VDC. or 32 Digital channels: 16. 120VAC .

CALCULATION OF TORQUE ANGLE The torque angle δ is defined as the angle between the machine emf E and the terminal voltage V as shown in the phasor diagram E δ V jxqIa φ rIa Ia .

CALCULATION OF TORQUE ANGLE The torque angle can be calculated in different ways depending on what information is available Two ways to calculate the torque angle will be shown: 1. Using line to line voltages and line currents (stator frame of reference) 2. Using voltages and currents in the rotor frame of reference (0dq quantities) .

vbc. Calculate three phase active 1 va = (vab − vca ) and reactive power 3 P = vabia − vbc ic 1 vb = (−vab + vbc ) Q = (vabic + vbc ia + vca ib ) 3 3 1 vc = (−vbc + vca ) 3 3. Calculate the power factor Q φ = tan −1 P . Calculate phase voltages 2. vca) Line currents (ia. ib. ic) Procedure: 1. CALCULATION OF TORQUE ANGLE IN THE STATOR REFERENCE FRAME Known quantities: Line to line voltages (vab.

va = vm cos θ vb = vm cos(θ − 120) vc = vm cos(θ + 120) For phase a. use phases b and c 1 3 vb = vm cos θ cos120 + vm sin θ sin 120 = − vm cos θ + vm sin θ 2 2 1 3 vc = vm cos θ cos120 − vm sin θ sin 120 = − vm cos θ − vm sin θ 2 2 It can be observed that. Calculate the voltage angle for each phase For a balanced 3-phase system. vb + vc = −vm cos θ ⇒ vb + vc =− 1 cot θ vb − vc = 3vm sin θ vb − vc 3 1 vb − vc ⇒ tan θ = − 3 vb + vc . CALCULATION OF TORQUE ANGLE IN THE STATOR REFERENCE FRAME 4.

The angles for all phases are given by. Find the angle of ia Using the above procedure. − 1 (ib − ic ) θia = tan −1 ( ) 3 (ib + ic ) . −1 − 1 (vb − vc ) θva = tan ( ) 3 (vb + vc ) − 1 (vc − va ) θvb = tan −1 ( ) 3 (vc + va ) − 1 (va − vb ) θvc = tan −1 ( ) 3 (va + vb ) 5. CALCULATION OF TORQUE ANGLE IN THE STATOR REFERENCE FRAME The angles for the other phases can be calculated in a similar fashion.

CALCULATION OF TORQUE ANGLE IN THE STATOR REFERENCE FRAME 6. Calculate the machine generated emf Et = Vt + (r + jxq ) I a = Et ∠δ δ is the torque angle . Calculate the instantaneous line to neutral rms voltage for phase a vbc + vca Vt rms = − 2 3 cosθ va 7.

CALCULATION OF TORQUE ANGLE IN THE ROTOR REFERENCE FRAME Known quantities: 0dq voltages (v0. vd. iq) Procedure: 1. Calculate the active and reactive power P = vd id + vq iq Q = vq id − vd iq 2. vq) 0dq currents (i0. id. Calculate the terminal voltage Et = Vd + jVq = Et ∠γ .

Calculate the power factor angle P −1 φ = cos ( ) Et I t 5. Calculate the torque angle −1 ( xq I t cos φ − rI t sin φ) δ = tan ( Et + rI t cos φ + xq I t sin φ) . Calculate the terminal current P2 + Q2 It = Et 4. CALCULATION OF TORQUE ANGLE IN THE ROTOR REFERENCE FRAME 3.

SESSION 7 Question and answer session .