Section 1: Forces and motion
Forces, movement, shape and momentum
describe the effects of forces between bodies such as changes in speed, shape or

distinguish between vector and scalar quantities
understand that force is a vector quantity
find the resultant force of forces that act along a line
understand that friction is a force that opposes motion
describe experiments to investigate how extension varies with applied force for helical
springs, metal wires and rubber bands
understand that the initial linear region of a force-extension graph is associated with
Hooke’s law
describe elastic behaviour as the ability of a material to recover its original shape after
the forces causing deformation have been removed.

A force is a push or a pull.
A force can cause an object to:
– speed up
– slow down
– change direction
– change shape

Force is measured in
newtons (N).
Force is measured with a

This force increases if either or both of the masses is increased and decreases if they are moved further apart. Some types of force 1. Bathroom scales measure weight. Gravitational This is the attractive force exerted between bodies because of their masses. Weight is the gravitational force of the A mass of 1kg weighs Earth on an object. . about 10N 1 stone is about 63N.

on the tyres balance the downward weight of the car . Normal reaction or contact This is the repulsive force that stops two touching bodies moving into each other. weight It is caused by repulsive The two upward reaction forces molecular forces. normal reaction forces 2. The word ’normal’ means that this force acts at 90° to the surfaces of the bodies.

Friction This is the force that opposes motion. The kinetic energy of the moving object is converted to heat energy by the force of friction.3. Friction is needed for racing Friction is needed for cars to grip the road walking! .

streamlined car a parachute maximises drag force . Drag is a more general term used for the opposition force in any gas or liquid. Air resistance or drag This is the force that opposes the movement of objects through air. Objects are often streamlined to reduce this force.4.

An object will float on a liquid if the upthrust force equals its weight.5. A hot air balloon rises when the upthrust from the surrounding air is greater than the balloon’s weight. . Upthrust This is the force experienced by objects when they are placed into a fluid (liquid or gas).

It is caused by the _________ attractive forces between ___________. Force is measured in _______ newtons (N) with a newtonmeter. contact force occurs when There are many types of force. molecules WORD SELECTION: newtons accelerate force attractive opposes molecules contact motion . A force can cause an object to accelerate ___________ or change shape.Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: A force _____ is a push or a pull. motion of one body opposes the _______ Friction is a force that _______ relative to another. ________ two bodies touch each other.

mass. SCALARS – do not have a direction examples: distance. VECTORS – also need to have their direction specified examples: displacement. speed and force) are described by a magnitude and a unit. force. .g. acceleration. Vectors and Scalars All physical quantities (e. work. speed. energy. velocity.

The arrow indicates the direction and the Displacement 25m at 45o North of East length of the line is proportional to the magnitude. Representing Vectors An arrowed straight Displacement 50m EAST line is used. .

Addition of vectors 4N 4N 6N 6N object object resultant = 10N object The original vectors are called COMPONENT vectors. 4N 6N 6N 4N object object resultant = 2N object . The final overall vector is called the RESULTANT vector.

5N is the resultant force of the 3N and 2N forces. 5N In the example opposite. . Resultant force A number of forces acting on a body may be replaced by a 3N single force which has the 2N same effect on the body as the original forces all acting together. This overall force is called resultant force.

4N 2. 5. 6N 10N 3N 4N 1N 3. 3N 4. Determine the resultant force in the cases below: 1. 6N 4N 4N 4N 7N There is no resultant 2N 4N case force in this .

greater than the drag force. . Examples 1 & 2 The box will move when The plane will the man’s push force is accelerate provided that greater than the friction the engine force is force.

. the resultant force in the glider moves at a near opposite direction to constant velocity as it the car’s motion experiences a nearly causing the car to zero horizontal decelerate. Examples 3 & 4 The brakes exert a Once released. resultant force.

accelerate A car is decelerated opposite direction to the when the braking force acts in the _________ car’s motion. WORD SELECTION: number rest direction zero opposite velocity accelerate resultant . called _________ number of forces that act on a body. the object will __________.Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: resultant force. can be used to replace A single force. a _______ If the resultant force is _____ zero then the body will either remain at _____ rest or continue to move at a constant ________. velocity direction as an object’s If the resultant force is in the same _________ motion.

Changing shape Force can change the shape of an object. . A squashing force puts an object under compression. A stretching force puts an object such as a wire or spring under tension.

Brittle materials such as glass do not change shape easily and break before noticeably stretching. Resilient materials do not break easily. .

Plastic materials retain their new shape.Elastic materials return to their original shape when the forces on them are removed. .

DO NOT metre rule EXCEED 6N. weights 3. 4N. 4. pin 3N. spring 2. Add 1N (100g) to the holder and note the new position of the pin. Place the weight holder only on the spring and note the position of the pin against the metre rule. Stretching Springs Experimental procedure: 1. . Repeat stages 1 to 3 for 2N. Calculate the extension of the spring. 5N and 6N.

Typical results Pin position Added weight Pin position Extension with holder or Force (N) with weight (mm) only (mm) (mm) 450 1 480 30 450 2 509 59 450 3 541 91 450 4 570 120 450 5 601 151 450 6 629 179 .

Force against extension graph Force (N) 0 0 Extension (mm) .

‘Proportional’ means that if the force is doubled then the extension also doubles. The line on a graph of force against extension will be a straight AND go through the origin. Hooke’s law Hooke’s law states that the extension of a spring is proportional to the force used to stretch the spring. .

Question A spring of original length 150mm is extended by 30mm by a force of 4N. 12N is three times 4N Therefore the new extension should be 3 x 30mm = 90mm New spring length = 150mm + 90mm = 240mm . Calculate the length of the spring if a force of 12N is applied.

Elastic limit Up to a certain extension if the force is removed the spring will return to its original length. known as the elastic limit. The right hand spring has been Hooke’s law is no longer obeyed by the stretched beyond spring if its elastic limit is exceeded. its elastic limit . If this critical extension is exceeded. The spring is behaving elastically. the spring will be permanently stretched.

Force against extension graph if the elastic limit is exceeded Force (N) elastic limit 0 0 Extension (mm) .

Force Stretching an elastic band An elastic band does not obey Hooke’s law. 0 0 Extension .

A graph illustrating Hooke’s law will have a line that is straight ___________ origin and passes through the _______. WORD SELECTION: stretched elastic permanently extension origin force rubber straight . A ________ rubber band does not obey Hooke’s law. ______ This law is not obeyed if the spring is taken beyond its ______ elastic limit after which it will become _____________ permanently stretched.Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: stretched Hooke’s law states that when a wire or spring is _________ the extension is proportional to the load increase in length or _________ force applied.