Unit 1

Phrasal Verbs

Get on with: Continue doing sth, especially work / “I need to get on with my homework project,
otherwise I won’t finish it for tomorrow”
Do up: Repair or decorate a building so that it looks attractive / “We’ll need to pick up some more pots of
paint if we’re going to do up your room this weekend”
Clear up: Make a place tidy by removing things from it or putting them where they should be
Go on: Continue / “I got bored with the film because it went on for too long”
Wear out: Make someone extremely tired / “Mati had a little sleep because she felt worn out after
spending all morning clearing up the mess in her room”
Pick up: Collect (or go and get) someone or something
Go off: For a bomb to explode; for an alarm clock to ring; to deteriorate; for a light to turn off (=go out).
“My alarm goes off at 5am”

Adjectives

Usually Positive Usually Negative Could Be Either
Concerned (preocupado, interesado) Aggressive Sensitive
Enthusiastic (entusiasta) Anxious Strict
Hard-working Bad-tempered
Mature Critical
Organized Impatient
Reasonable Impolite
Responsible Unreliable (poco confiable)
Self-confident
Understanding (comprensivo)

Prefixes

● Mis- usually means wrongly or badly
Misunderstand: Understand wrongly or badly
● Re- usually means do again and is often added to verbs
Rewrite: Write again
● Inter- means between or among
Interact

Note: Before words beginning with “r” we use ir-: irrelevant; before words beginning with “m” or “p” we
use im-: immature, impatient; before words beginning with “l” we use il-: illogical, illiterate (analfabeto).

Spelling

Spelling changes when adding -ed, -ing, -er and -est to words.

We double the final consonant when we add -ed, -ing, -er and -est to words.
● Which are one syllable and end in a consonant – vowel – consonant: stop – stopped, hit –
hitting, flat - flatter.

● The verb to be Note: When think means “to use your brain to plan sth. cancel – cancelled. ● Feelings: love. remember. x or y: slow . We don’t double the final consonant when: ● There are two final consonants: send – sending. or happens regularly: Paul lives in London. -ation. manage – management. Present perfect simple and continuous Both the present perfect simple and present perfect continuous talk about something which started in the past and: ● Either has a result in the present: . Simple and continuous forms ● Present simple describes a situation which is permanent. lovely – loveliest When adding –ing a final “y” after a consonant does not change: study – studying We drop the final “e” when there is a consonant before it and the suffix begins with a vowel (-er. not action. relax – relaxing. see. etc. know. suppose. prefer. in the continuous. ● Present continuous describes a temporary situation or one in progress: I’m staying with my aunt while Mum and Dad are away.slower. occur – occurring. These verbs describe: ● Thoughts: believe. like hate. display – displayed When adding –ed a final “y” after a consonant becomes “I”: study – studied. hear. taste. - ing. etc. fame – famous We do not drop the final “e” when the suffix begins with a consonant: safe – safety. -ed. When feel means “to experience sth physical or emotional” it can be used in the continuous (I don’t want to come to the party because I’m feeling tired). etc. feel. think (meaning “believe). the stress is not on the final syllable: open – opening ● The word ends in w.hardest ● There are two vowels before the final consonant: appeal – appealed. State verbs We do not usually use verbs which describe states. safe – safest ● For a verb. -ance. mean – meanest ● The word ends in a vowel: strike – striking. Note: In British English. touch ● Possession: have. make a decision” it can be used in the continuous (I’m thinking about what to do today – I’m planning). we always double a final L after a single vowel: travel – travelling. Unit 1 ● Which have two or more syllables which end in consonant – vowel – consonant and the final syllable is stressed: admit – admitted. hard . etc): irritate – irritating. belong. own. want. ● Senses: smell. solve a problem.

I've always lived here. ● Or is still happening now: We’ve been building an extension to our house (and we haven’t finished yet) Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Emphasises the result: I've phoned all Ephasises the action: I've been phoning my friends my friends and they're coming to the (and that's why I haven't done my homework) party Says how much of an activity is Says how long the activity has been in progress: I've complete: I've written two essays been studying all afternoon May give the idea that something is May give the idea that something is temporary (and permanent (and may be accompanied may be accompanied by a time expression which by a time expression wich shows this): shows this): I've been working here for the last two My dad has worked in the same shop all month until I go to university. so I’m feeling tired now. We've been eating his life. Is used when we want to say how many When we want to emphasise the process of change times an action has been repeated: I've over a period of time and that these changes are invited her two or three times. improving since I started doing my homework. so he can’t play football with us this afternoon. I’ve been partying all weekend. but she not finished: My teacher says my English has been always says she's busy. Unit 1 He’s twisted his ankle. dinner in the garden during the warm weather. Collocation: Housework Do the ironing Do the washing up Dust the furniture Get the dinner ready Hang the washing out to dry Lay the table Make the beds Sweep the floor Collocations with make and do Verb Definition Common collocation .

an Make To create or produce something excuse. business. But don’t tell anybody! However ● However normally starts a new sentence and refers to the sentence before. an arrangement. a noise. When these words are placed in the middle. he didn’t tell his family where he was going. progress. OR She decided to phone him although it was late. a change. work. But ● But can be used to join two sentences. In this case. a promise. it is used in the middle of the sentence and it often follows a comma: We warned her. but she didn’t pay any attention. the cleaning. while and whereas ● We use these words to put two contrasting ideas in one sentence: I didn’t buy the dress although I thought it was beautiful. ● They can be placed at the beginning of the sentence or in the middle. friends. Do To perform an activity or job homework. However. . a phone call. Unit 1 An appointment. a decision. an effort. ● They can be placed at the beginning on the sentence or in the middle. (an) exercise. even though I had the money ready in my pocket. a job. “not prevented by”: He got into the basketball team despite being quite short. ● It is usually follow by a comma: He decided to go out to the cinema. ● When the sentence begins with these words. She went swimming in spite of the cold weather. even though. Despite and in spite of ● These words means “without taking any notice of or being influenced by”. we separate the two parts with a comma. Linking words for contrast Although – even though – while – whereas – but – however – despite – in spite of – on the one hand – on the other hand Although. a choice. a favour. the shopping. ● Even though is stronger than although: I didn’t buy the car. an impression. a plan. An activity. housework. the comma is optional. a mistake. money. ● But can sometimes be used at the beginning of a new sentence: He likes romantic films. she decided to phone him. (a) sport. They are followed by a noun or a verb + ing. between the two contrasting ideas: Although It was late. a course.

On the one hand and on the other hand ● Normally start new sentences and can be used to balance two contrasting ideas or points of view: I’m not sure whether to go to the seaside for my holidays this year. We got to school on time in spite of the heavy traffic. a comma is also used to separate the two parts of the sentence: Despite working all day. On the one hand. ● On the other hand can be used to introduce a contrasting idea even if you haven’t used on the one hand. On the other hand. Unit 1 ● When used at the beginning of a sentence. most of my friends are going. Teresa didn’t feel at all tired. it’s time to have a change and go somewhere different. .