A

PROJECT REPORT

ON

“SATELLITE GROUND STATION”

Submitted By

RAVI SHANKAR
MANTOO KUMAR SINHA
VAIBHAV MISKEEN
PIYUSH ERANDE
RITESH ANAND

Under the Guidance of

Prof. S. D. JADHAV

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
BHARATI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CBD, SEC – 7, BELPADA, NAVI-MUMBAI
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
2009 - 2010

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BHARATI VIDYAPEETH’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
SECTOR – 7, C.B.D., NAVI - MUMBAI - 400614

Affiliated to University of Mumbai

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION

Certificate

This is to certify that the Project Work entitled

“SATELLITE GROUND STATION”

Submitted by

RAVI SHANKAR
MANTOO KUMAR SINHA
VAIBHAV MISKEEN
PIYUSH ERANDE

Students of B E. Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering
during the academic year
2009 - 2010.

This Project embodies the work carried out by the candidate,
Towards the partial fulfilment of Bachelor degree
Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering conferred by the
University of Mumbai

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Prof. S. D. Jadhav Prof. P. A. Kharade Dr. D. P. Mishra
Project Guide H.O.D. EXTC Principal
B.V.C.O.E

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Internal Examiner College Seal External Examiner

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M. P.O.D.IIT. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT While preparing this Report we received endless help from number of people.Jhonny Santosh Jha and Saptarshi Bandopadhyay (project managers. We would like to tender our sincere thanks Prof.Pujari (Lab assistance) for their support during our antenna fabrication work. which has given a sense of direction and purposefulness to this project and ultimately made it a success. This report would be incomplete if we don’t convey our sincere thanks to all those who were involved. who have helped us directly or indirectly. We also very grateful to Mr. Kadam (Mechanical department) for helping us in antenna mounting design and rotation mechanism. patience and enthusiasm. First and foremost we would like to take this opportunity to thank Aerospace Engineering. D.Bombay for involving us in to their PRATHAM SATELLITE project as ground station team and rendering all whenever we needed it. We are grateful beyond words to our H. Jadhav for his invaluable guidance and appreciation for giving form and substance to this report.N.S. We would like to express our heartfelt words for all these people without them the concept of this project was a far-fetched dream.D. Last but not the least we owe our thanks to all the staff of our Electronics & Telecommunication department.A. Wankhede (workshop dept. Pratham IIT-B satellite) for necessary guidance and assistance whenever we needed and associates in spite of their busy schedule for us to carry out the project. We also thank Mr.Kharade Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering for being so generous to us with his support and wise words in spite of his busy schedule.) and Mr. S. Their help and cooperation are gratefully acknowledged. Prof. Ravi Shankar Mantoo Kumar Sinha Vaibhav Miskeen Piyush Erande iv . We are indebted to the project guide Prof. It is due to his enduring efforts.

'Pratham' is the first satellite under this project. The project aims at launching at least 5 satellites within the next few years.The project will be involving students from other universities in the Satellite mission by building ground stations in the respected universities and enabling students and faculty to gain knowledge and experience in the field of Satellite and Space technology and also to empowering the Satellite Team with the skills to develop 1 . These Satellites could be test-beds for new technology that is being developed in the institute and need space qualification. The objective of this project is to make IIT Bombay a respected centre for advancement in Satellite and Space Technology in the world. This is entirely a student initiative with mentorship provided by ISRO scientists and IIT Bombay Faculty. The plan is to build a fully functional microsatellite in less than two years which would then be launched by ISRO. The satellite will fit in a 30*30*30 cm cube and will weigh less than 15 kg. The satellite will be launched probably in mid 2010 . INTRODUCTION The IIT Bombay Student Satellite Project is a landmark project taken up by IIT Bombay students.

• Centre for Distance Engineering Education Programme (CDEEP) IITB • Aerospace Engineering Association (AEA) IITB • Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER) • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) • Boeing India Ltd. 'Pratham' has a four-fold mission statement:  Enabling students and faculty to gain knowledge and experience in the field of Satellite and Space technology.\ 2 . • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) • ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) • Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) • Industrial Research And Consulting Centre (IRCC) IITB. Analysis.the Satellite through various phases of Design.  Involving students from other universities in our Satellite mission by building ground stations in their universities. Fabrication and Testing until the Flight Model is made. The various contributors behind this project are. For the relevance of the satellite to the student community.  Empowering the Satellite Team with the skills to develop the Satellite through various phases of Design.  Launching the satellite into orbit and measuring Total Electron Count of the Ionosphere. Fabrication and Testing until the Flight Model is made. they will be transmitting satellite data when the satellite passes over India so that any interested university with a small ground station will not only be able to detect the beacon signal from the satellite but will also be able to measure TEC above their ground station. Analysis. This is proposed to spread awareness among the student community about this exciting field.

Mechanical and Computer Science Departments are involved with the project. Detailed descriptions of the methodology and the results of the work done by the team have been included in the documentation. 3 . During September – October 2007. the team worked together and understood some of the essentials that were required for a project of this magnitude. The feasibility of the concept was proved to the Aerospace Department. which was attended by a number of faculty members. The team was lauded for the work done so far and suggestions were givn for improvement. Small Satellite Project) and his team of engineers who reviewed our progress. The Requirements Capture Report was written during the months of March – May 2008. the project-managers and team leaders of all Sub-Systems went to ISAC (ISRO Satellite Center) Bangalore. but is truly an institute level project as the work involves many other departments like Electrical. It was attended by Dr Raghava Murthy and other Project Directors and Engineers. etc. The Conceptual Design Report was written after the Conceptual Design was finalised in July 2008. The project is under the aegis of the Aerospace Department. 2008). the team worked on the Conceptual Design of the Satellite which culminated in the Conceptual Design Review (CDR) held within IIT Bombay on 31st July 2008. Although 'Pratham' is a student initiative. Electrical. BACKGROUND The challenge to build a Student Satellite was taken up by two Aerospace Department students namely Saptarshi Bandyopadhyay and Shashank Tamaskar. The next milestone for the Satellite project is the Preliminary Design Review. About 20 faculty members belonging to Aerospace. around May 2008. Sudhakar from Aerospace Engineering Department. Mechanical. During December 2008. the Payload for our first Satellite was chosen to be Total Electron Count of the Ionosphere. a team was chosen from amongst the students spanning various departments and batches. Finally after months of debating and reviewing. During the Summer Vacations (May-July. Then the entire team of 33 students went to ISAC in August for the project CDR. around July 2007. which agreed to support the team in this initiative. the team leader for Pratham is Prof. a lot of emphasis has been given to documentation of the work. All through the project. In February. where they interacted with Raghava Murthy (Project Director. Work on the Satellite began in full earnest from January 2008.

Phase II: Preliminary Design (Sep 08-Dec 09) This is the next step in any design process after the payload has been identified and its requirements from various subsystems known. In the month of April and May we had extensive reviews of our work and we finally converged onto a payload. building components and sythesising the system in December 2007. This is where we fix what components go into making individual subsystems. This trip made us realise the importance of system integration and documentation for our project. TIMELINE OF THE PROJECT AT IIT-B The project has been divided into 4 phases: Phase I: Conceptual Designing (Dec 07-Aug 08) The phase began with a 1 month project on functional decomposition. defining interfaces. 4 . Raghavmurthy and his team of system engineers who reviewed our progress. This was a training ground where we learnt that satellite making is a tricky business and importance of working as a team. In Feburary the team went on a trip to ISAC Banglore where we interacted with Dr. Over the next two months we spe nt many hours debating over the feasibility of our payload At the same time the team continued to learn the intricacies of the individual subsystems.

Phase III: Detailed Design (Dec 09-June 10) Once we procure various components and have a hands on experience with them we will enter into the detailed design phase.ThermoVac tests. Fig: representation of a student satellite. The satellite will undergo various tests in this phase . Vibration tests etc to ensure the robustness of various components. Radiation tests. Phase IV: Testing Phase (July 10-Launch) This is when each of the components will be tested many times and in all possible ways until we are sure that the satellite is capable of handling conditions found in space. it will be handed over to ISRO which launch it successfully in its orbit 5 . Finally when the satellite is fully tested in all ranges & conditions. In this phase we will be dealing with various nitty-gritty details on each of the components and how to join them together to make a prototype model.

Chennai • Atharva Engineering College. This will motivate the participating students and get them interested in satellite technology. So. for that purpose around 8 universities have participated in the purpose for making their individual ground station in their respective universities. In these workshops all the teams were described about their tasks & details regarding the tasks. For this purpose different universities across india are participating in this project. Saveetha University. Navi Mumbai • BIT Mesra. Mumbai • BVCOE. Extension centre Jaipur • GGTIM. They propose to share their knowledge by making other universities to participate in the field of satellite technology. PARTICIPATIONS ACROSS INDIA Team Pratham feels that the entire country should benefit by the knowledge and experience that the team has gained while going to the satellite building process. Patiala • Saveetha Engineering College. Gwalior IIT-B kept all the participating teams updated by organising workshops from time to time. Chennai • Faculty of Engineering Technology. The 8 participating universities are: • Thapar University. Here everybody got an opportunity to interact with each other and share their experiences. 6 . & tracking & receiving signals from the satellite. They can establish their own ground station that will track the satellite and receive the telemetry data from the IITB satellite named PRATHAM . Bhopal • Jiwaji University.

2009 at IITB. The basic agenda of the workshop is given below:  Communication Work and Requirements  Beacon  Telemetry  Link Budget  General Decision  Ground Station The Second Ground Station workshop was conducted on 22nd August. Deepika Thakur of the Communication and Ground station subsystem.Uda antennae using 4NEC2 software. which was to enable students to learn the technology of making a ground station. • Followed by simulation and optimization of crossed Yagis which was taken up by Ms. Through these workshops. It dealt with simulation and design of Ground station crossed Yagi. Jhonny Jha in the morning session. WORKSHOP DETAILS The First Ground Station workshop. Haripriya. 7 . 2008 at IITB. • Mr. conducted on 12th October. • Followed by an introduction to crossed Yagis by Mr. student teams will be able to make a working low cost ground station (<25. • There was a brief overview of the satellite project in the workshop which consisted of: • Brief introduction by Ms. Saptarshi Bandyopadhyaya gave a brief talk on "failure modes" in the afternoon session.000 Rs) capable of receiving signals and data from the satellite. Around 8 universities participated in this workshop.

8 . For the relevance of the satellite to the student community. It all started when some of our team members visited IIT-B for electrical department technical fest “AAGOMANI”. BVCOE ground station team will be establishing one of the ground station in the campus which will receive the telemetry data from IIT-B PRATHAM satellite . There they attended a seminar which gave them the idea of the project. where we were told about the various tasks according to which we had to do the work step by step. it will be transmitting satellite data when the satellite passes over India so that any respected university with a small ground station will not only be able to detect the beacon signal from the satellite but will also be able to measure TEC above their ground station.After that we used to attend workshops . decided to go for it . We liked the whole concept of the project so.All ground station teams will be establishing one of the ground station in their campus which will receive the telemetry data from IIT- B PRATHAM satellite.We are establishing our ground station at the roof of the Bharati Vidyapeeth College of engineering exactly above our ADC (Advance Communication) lab. BVCOE GROUND STATION Various universities across India are making student ground station . Here comes the role of our ground station.

The main objectives of our project are: • To establish two independent crossed yagi antenna at 437 & 145 Mhz in BVCOE campus. lab. The BVCOE Ground station project is a dream of the students of our department. 9 . • Data can also be used in radio astronomy. • The data collected from ground station will be used in measuring TEC of ionosphere & further in making the TEC map of India. • Demonstrate the setup and principles of satellite communication & antennas to the present as well as future batches. • Create a background for students wherein in future networking with other universities is also possible. • This ground station will be extra equipment in EXTC Dept. • Sharing knowledge within our institute in the field of satellite communication & antenna designing. • Gaining knowledge & experience through this project in the field of antenna designing & satellite communication. • To make the BVCOE. Navi Mumbai a respected centre in field of student satellite communication technology. We hope to see the working ground station that is which can receive the data from the PRATHRAM IITB satellite by the end of this year. With this goal in mind we four students from EXTC department are working on this project. • Involving juniors from our department in the project of building the ground station.

They are our source of interaction with the satellite. 10 . hence play an important part for any satellite related operation and it is very important to have a very good communication link between the ground station and the satellite/space segment. The objective of data user will be receiving the mission data from the ground station teams & processing the data from further examination. The data user is the IIT Bombay team. A ground station is basically an earth based point of communication with the space segment. BASIC CONCEPTS OF OUR GROUND STATION Ground station technology Fig 2: Relation between Space segment. ground station team is ours & various other teams across India & space segment is the “Pratham” satellite. Usually a ground segment/ground system involves following tasks. Ground station and Data User Above is shown the basic relationship diagram between the three segments involved in the project. As the ground station team our main objective will be to receive the mission signal that is the telemetry and the mission data from the IIT-B satellite “Pratham” which will be launched by end of 2010.

11 .to schedule all satellite passes and to monitor and load the on-board computer • Data processing operations to present all the engineering and the scientific data in formats required for the successful progress of the mission. • Determination and prediction of the orbit of the satellite. • Pre-pass software • Real time software • Post pass software Pre pass software: These are the software which are required in advance to the pass of the spacecraft. • Observation planning and scheduling. • Tracking and determine the position of satellite orbit • Telemetry operation to acquire and record satellite data and status • Controlling operation to determine orbital parameters. • Command list generation and simulation. • Voice and data links to the other worldwide ground station and processing centres Normally a ground segment can be divided into 4 main components. • Hardware • Software • People • Operations a) Software: There are mainly three different software used in the different ground station operations .

The “ham scope” & “cwGET” to decode the cw beacon from downlink. “Pre packet pro” to decode packet from satellite downlink. nova for windows. This includes the antenna tracking software. win orbit software and “virtual ground station” are used as pre pass software to determine the satellite AOS. Azimuth and Elevation angles. win orbit software and “virtual ground station” to determine the satellite crossing angles according to satellite position. 12 . Nova for windows software . Fig : satellite tracking software ineterface. Real time software: These are the software which are required when the satellite is visible to the ground station. GMS (ground station management software) is used to control the radio & antenna autonomously according to satellite position. computer control software. command and data control software.LOS.

quality control. Fig 4: A basic Ground station Configuration. data recorders etc. health assesement. data processing and orbit determination for data analysis. 13 . rotors. Post pass software: These are the software that are required for housekeeping . power supplies. peripherals. transceivers. computer. b) Hardware: Basically the hardware consists of antennas.

software & the people unit of the project together. 14 .People: In a commercial ground station people are involved in many different areas of responsibilities however in a student ground station like ours all the operations are carried out by few staff members and the group of students. It is the fundamental human unit that integrates the mission software and hardware into an effective routine process. Fig : A pictorial representation of a basic groundstation lab. Operations: This is the part that brings the hardware. Fig : Block diagram of operations Finally all the units come together under one roof and work in sync with each other to make the ground station work properly.

th Designing of mounting 10-04-2010 to present 4 TASK interface for antennae's using stepper motor. a) Studied basic antenna 23-03-09 to 30-03-09 parameters. 15 . c) Studied details of NEC 09-04-09 to 15-04-09 (numerical electromagnetic code) software. The description of timeline and various tasks performed is given as follows: TASK SUBTASK DATED Started the project with 20-03-09 1ST TASK permission of our HOD. b) Studied basic YAGI. d) Designed YAGI–UDA 18-04-09 to 27-04-09 antenna with specified parameters using NEC & sending the obtained output to IIT-B. rd Characterization of 10-03-2010 to 5-04-2010. TIMELINE Our project work is based on the various tasks which we have performed according to our projects time line. 2 TASK the verified parameters. 01-04-09 to 07-04-09 UDA & its design parameters. 3 TASK fabricated antenna. e) Studying about TEC in 30-04-09 to 3-05-09 Ionosphere. nd Antenna Fabrication from 25-08-09 to 25-02-2010.

th Studying of analog 10-04-2010 to present 5 TASK polarization measurement set-up & its installation. 16 . ground station & showing its working. in accordance with the timeline. Now the various tasks will be explained one by one which will give a brief idea of the work which we have done till now and how it has been done. FINAL TASK Installation of the full October-November 2010.

• Validate the parameters obtained from simulation with us or some of your professors Construct a Yagi antenna with the help of your parameters. The details about all the parameters are given as follows. Design a Yagi antenna having following characteristics:- 1) Frequency = 437 MHz 2) Gain = 10 dB approx. Chapter #1. • Download software nec2 (open source) and learn to simulate a Yagi antenna. Balanis. Basic Antenna Parameters • Polarization • SWR(Standing wave ratio) • Antenna Bandwidth • Impedance • Directivity Of Antenna and Beamwidth 17 . #2 and a chapter on Yagi antenna. We started with the first task by getting a basic idea about the basic antenna parameters which we may come to use during the process of our project. 1st TASK The first task which involved the understanding the basic concepts is given as follows. Steps to complete this task:- • Read general concepts of antenna and Yagi antenna from “Antenna Theory: Analysis And Design" by Constantine A.

Linear polarization: When the direction of propagation of electric field vector is perpendicular to the earth’s magnetic field then it is linearly polarised. SWR (Standing Wave Ratio): • Measurement of efficiency of antenna system regarding power radiation. the polarization of light is described by specifying the orientation of the wave's electric field at a point in space over one period of the oscillation. • Radiation pattern • Gain Of The Antenna One by one we will explain the parameters and their importance in the designing. In our case we will be dealing with linearly polarized electromagnetic waves. Circular polarization Signal having two plane waves of equal amplitude but differ in phase by 90 degree. It can be basically defined as the orientation of the electric field vector with respect to the earths magnetic field. Here E-field vector exist in a single plane(vertical or horizontal). By convention. Polarization Polarization is a property of certain types of waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Mainly there are two kinds of polarization: 1. • Mathematically: • VSWR = Vmax / Vmin 18 . 2.

for example. A more general expression of directivity includes sources with radiation patterns as functions of spherical coordinate angles θ and φ. an electronic filter. or a signal spectrum • Range of frequency over which antenna can be used to obtain a specified level of performance with good efficiency.√PR ) • In our antenna we need SWR as close to one as possible. Antenna Impedance: • Ratio of the voltage to current at any given point of antenna. • Our ground station is working at center frequencies of 145 MHz & 437 MHz . • It may be either resistive or complex depending on operating frequency. Directivity and Beam width: Directivity is defined by direction to the radiation intensity averaged over all directions. 19 . • VSWR = Zo / ZL ( Zo > ZL ) • VSWR = ZL / Zo ( ZL > Zo) • VSWR = ( √PF + √PR )/ (√PF . Antenna Bandwidth Pass band bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of. • In our antenna impedance should be near to (200+0j) Ω. a communication channel.

Fig: beam width of antenna. In the case of antennas with one narrow major lobe and very negligible minor lobes. the beam solid angle can be approximated as the product of the half-power beam widths in 2 perpendicular planes. all power would flow through it. Radiation Pattern: • Graphical Representation of the intensity of the radiation plotted against angle. • Side lobes usually attract spurious noise. • Major part of signals radiated and received are through main lobe.e. 20 . • Property to exhibit directive effect (i. radiate more power in some particular direction).Where ΩA is the beam solid angle and is defined as the solid angle in which if the antenna radiation intensity is constant. • Figure of merit of power radiated. • Directivity is defined as a measure that takes into account only the directional properties of the antenna and therefore it is only influenced by the antenna pattern.

the antenna gain is a measure that takes into account the efficiency of the antenna as well as its directional capabilities. Since the radiation intensity from a lossless isotropic antenna equals the power into the antenna divided by a solid angle of 4π steradians. • We are designing antenna for 10dB gain.t a reference antenna (an isotropic one). • Combination of directivity and efficiency w. we can write the following equation: Although the gain of an antenna is directly related to its directivity. Fig: radiation pattern of a yagi. 21 .r. Gain of the Antenna: Antenna gain relates the intensity of an antenna in a given direction to the intensity that would be produced by a hypothetical ideal antenna that radiates equally in all directions (isotropically) and has no losses.

This was all about the details of the 1st subtask of the 1st task. YAGI-UDA ANTENNA GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF A YAGI The word "Yagi" is used to describe a type of antenna and is credited to very famous Japanese antenna experts by the names of Yagi and Uda! Most hams refer to this type of antenna as the "Yagi" rather than use both men's names. Fig: an example showing antenna gain pattern. Now we go into details of the next subtask that is studying the basics of Yagi uda antenna and its various design parameters. 22 .

which is usually defined as the frequency range for which the antenna provides a good match to the transmission line to which it is attached. yielding much stronger signals both on receive and transmit! . Yagi-Uda antennas are widely used by amateur radio operators for communication on frequencies from short wave. and into microwave bands. commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi. THE ELEMENTS OF A YAGI 23 . Other parasitic elements shorter than the dipole may be added in front of the dipole and are referred to as directors. The bandwidth of a Yagi-Uda antenna. effectively operates as a reflector. or a wavelength range of 10 metres to 10 cm. with the resulting "effect" of making it appear that the transmitter was running lots more power than it actually was. diameter and spacing of the elements. This arrangement increases antenna directionality and gain in the preferred direction over a single dipole. Directional antennas such as the Yagi-Uda are commonly referred to as beam antennas or high-gain antennas. is a directional antenna system consisting of an array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic elements (usually a reflector and one or more directors). The dipole in the array is driven. A Yagi-Uda Antenna. It is usually used at frequencies between about 30MHz and 3GHz. and another element. For most designs bandwidth is typically only a few percent of the design frequency.They discovered (1954) that by adding "elements “of various lengths and spacing’s in front of and behind a dipole antenna that the performance and effectiveness of the dipole could be greatly increased and the pattern of the dipole rf energy could be "beamed" or focused in one direction. is determined by the length. through VHF/UHF. typically 5% longer.

and its length will be about 5% shorter. depending upon the director spacing. It is resonant slightly higher in frequency than the driven element. THE DIRECTOR The director/s is the shortest of the parasitic elements and this end of the Yagi is aimed at the receiving station. The number of directors that can be used are determined by the physical size (length) of the supporting boom needed by your design. the desired pattern. Feed point is on the centre of the driven element. 24 . the number of directors used in the antenna. A dipole driven element will be "resonant" when its electrical length is 1/2 of the wavelength of the frequency applied to its feed point.THE DRIVEN ELEMENT The driven element of a Yagi is the feed point where the feed line is attached from the transmitter to the Yagi to perform the transfer of power from the transmitter to the antenna. The director/s length/s can vary. progressively than the driven element. pattern bandwidth and element diameter.

BANDWIDTH AND IMPEDANCE The impedance of an element is its value of pure resistance at the feed point plus any reactance (capacitive or inductive) that is present at that feed point. thus reflecting it back to the feed line resulting in a Standing Wave Ratio.Maximum energy transfer of rf at the design frequency occurs when the impedance of the feed point is equal to the impedance of the feed line. F/B ratio.5 wavelength or more and will depend largely upon the design specifications of the antenna. The spacing of the directors can range from .1 wavelengths and . and its length is approximately 5% longer than the driven element. and side lobe pattern requirements of the final antenna design. the feed line impedance will be 50 ohms.1 wavelength to . The amount of gain is directly proportional to the length of the antenna array and not by the number of directors used. Its spacing will depend upon the gain. In most cases it can vary from approximately 40 ohms to around 10 ohms. 25 . impedance matching devices are highly recommended for getting the best antenna performance. Its length will vary depending on the spacing and the element diameter. THE REFLECTOR The reflector is the element that is placed at the rear of the driven element (The dipole). the point on the antenna where the transfer of rf from the feed line takes place. Because of this. Of primary importance here is the impedance of the driven element. Its resonant frequency is lower.25 wavelengths. their spacing and the antenna's pattern bandwidth. but usually the feed point impedance of the Yagi is rarely 50 ohms. depending upon the number of elements.The director/s are used to provide the antenna with directional pattern and gain. The spacing of the reflector will be between . bandwidth. If the feed line impedance does not equal the feed point impedance. the driven element cannot transfer the rf energy effectively from the transmitter. In most antenna designs.

• the spacing between all elements. • the length of the reflector and directors. and • the number of extra parasitic elements.8 1. from the feed line. wide pattern bandwidth. This is due to the fact that antennas have various applications and an extensive difference in the radiation pattern that needs to be produced.2 0.2 4. Table I.2 2. The design goal is to have the reactance at the centre design frequency of the Yagi = (0)….4 0. Yagi-Uda Antenna Design Theoretical limits for a Yagi-Uda antenna are generally specified in most antenna theory books. (j + 0).2 3. and low "Q" matching systems will all add to a wider impedance bandwidth.2 26 . Wide element spacing. for Distinct Boom Lengths d=0. large element diameter. The impedance bandwidth of the driven element is the range of frequencies above and below the centre design frequency of the antenna that the driven elements feed point will accept maximum power (rf). The impedance matching device will now operate at its optimum bandwidth. The design parameters that affect the results of the simulation are: • the length of the driven element.0085 Boom Length of Yagi-Uda Array (in ) SR=0. Optimal Lengths for Yagi-Uda Elements. However to get the desired radiation pattern for the specific purpose of a radio telescope is somewhat more of a trial and error process through the use of a simulation package. • the diameter of all elements.

398 0.442 0. We cross checked the result by using the “antenna maker” software which is a dos based software for designing the parameters of an Yagi.390 D14 0.20 0. given in Table I.390 D11 0.420 D4 0.482 0.35 14.424 D3 0. and dictates the length of the antenna.398 0.482 0.390 D9 0.482 0.390 0. We took the help of the above table for taking the geometrical parameters of antenna.390 0.407 D5 0. reflectors and feed elements are physically attached to.386 Spacing between 0.420 0.424 0.403 D6 0.386 0.420 0. Note that the "boom" is the long element that the directors.398 0.R 0.482 0.390 0.20 0. 27 .25 0.398 D7 0.386 0.415 0.428 0.475 D1 0.386 0.386 0.394 D8 0.390 D13 0.482 0. This is the next step of the task which is up next.386 0.428 0.308 directors.390 0.407 0.390 0. (SD/ ) Gain (dB) 9.35 Consider the table published in "Yagi Antenna Design" by P Viezbicke from the National Bureau of Standards.25 11.386 D15 0.390 D10 0.390 D12 0.428 0.420 0.386 0.407 0. 1968.428 0.20 0.55 16.20 0.386 0.424 D2 0.407 0.432 0.35 12.428 0.394 0.40 15.

Now next subtask was to go for the designing of the antenna. The rest is explained as follows. For the designing purpose we used various simulation software for obtaining the geometrical parameters of the antennas. 28 .

NEC2 (Numerical Electromagnetic code) Simulation of Yagi Antenna through NEC2 software And Antenna maker software 29 .

After entering these all above three value we can get the result. of elements according to our required gain. here we have to mainly input three parameters- 1. we only used this software for getting a rough idea about geometrical parameter so that we can input these values in NEC2 software that’s it . This software is very easy to implement. DOS-Antenna maker Software Before implementing the NEC2(Numerical Electromagnetic code) to design our antenna we first implemented DOS-Antenna maker software because this software was very useful for us in using NEC2 software. Since there is no any options for optimization so this is the main reason of not using the result of this software for simulating our antenna. Center frequency of antenna on which we want to design. The main input interface and output results of this software is given below as specified step wise. since we got a rough idea about the geometrical structure of yagi antenna by this DOS Software for required parameter(Gain=10dB at center frequency =437MHz) In NEC2 software . No. 2. Spacing between elements) of yagi antenna. 3. 30 . Diameter of the element. Because there will be problem in getting optimized values.we inputted all Geometrical parameter(like Length of elements .

DESIGN: 31 .

32 .

OUTPUT: Length of elements: 33 .

34 .Spacing between elements: Using this we got all the required geometrical parameters which we simulated using the NEC 2 simulation software which is described as next.

The output may include induced currents and charges. the numerical solution requires a matrix equation of increasing order as the structure size is increased relative to wavelength. This approach avoids many of the simplifying assumptions required by other solution methods and provides a highly accurate and versatile tool for electromagnetic analysis. while the output may include current and charge density. The code combines an integral equation for smooth surfaces with one specialized for wires to provide for convenient and accurate modeling of a wide range of structures. In such cases standard high-frequency approximations such as geometrical optics. electric or magnetic field in the vicinity of the structure. Although there is no theoretical size limit. or geometrical theory of diffraction may be more suitable than the integral equation approach used in NEC-2. Hence. NEC (Numerical Electromagnetic Code) Introduction:- The Numerical Electromagnetic code (NEC-2) is a computer code for analyzing the electromagnetic response of an arbitrary structure consisting of wires and surfaces in free space or over a ground plane. The excitation may be either voltage sources on the structure or an incident plane wave of linear or elliptic polarization. The Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC-2) is a user-oriented computer code for analysis of the electromagnetic response of antennas and other metal structures. physical optics. the program is suited to either antenna analysis or scattering and EMP studies. 35 . The analysis is accomplished by the numerical solution of integral equations for induced currents. The integral equation approach is best suited to structures with dimensions up to several wavelengths. and radiated fields. near electric or magnetic fields. It is built around the numerical solution of integral equations for the currents induced on the structure by sources or incident fields. and radiated fields. Hence. The excitation may be an incident plane wave or a voltage source on a wire. modeling very practical on a particular machine.

. Creating Electrical environment for antenna 3..so we are only concentrated about wire geometry. select 'Edit -> Input-file' on the 'Main' window or use the <F6> key to start 'Geometry-edit'. • specify 'Geometry Edit' as the preferred Edit method using the 'Settings' Menu on the 'Main' window • Furthermore select 'Feet' as the length-unit and 'Inch/Awg' • As the 'radius-unit' using this same 'Settings' menu.Simulation of any antenna through NEC2 software mainly consists of following steps:- 1. A picture of the selected example file is displayed.. Run the program 4. Creating geometrical structure of an antenna 2. • If not already set. • When done. as follows. Create an antenna model using 'Geometry • Using Inch and Feet as the basic length unit. Wire modeling :- A wire segment is defined by the co-ordinates of its two end points and its radius. select 'Options -> Set Segmentation -> Medium' on the Edit window to set medium segmentation density 36 . Optimization 1. Creating geometrical structure of an antenna As we know that yagi antenna only consist of wire geometry. there is no any surface or solid geometrical structure in it.

37 . Fig: settings for geometry edit. Select 'File -> New' on the Edit-window. To create a new model. As shown in fig below.

2. Creating Electrical environment for antenna

For creating electrical environment we should go through following steps

• Setting design frequency
• Add new wire(s)
• Add feed/transmission-line(s)
• Add voltage source
• Add wire-conductivity
• Specify ground parameters
• Run NEC-engine and create far-field pattern
Setting center frequency

Fig: Options available in geometry edit window to create the electrical environment.

Now one by one each step is explained below in details with examples.

38

 Setting design frequency

When starting a new model, initially on the lower right, frequency 'data' is displayed. This
because one of the first things we will have to do is specifying the antenna design-frequency.
Enter frequency (MHz) in the 'frequency' text-box on the right part of the window. When
entered, click the 'wire' button on top of the window (the one with the single line in it). Notice
the grid-size changing from .025 to .5 feet, corresponding to about half a wavelength for the
window-width. Furthermore the default 3D-display view is now set to 2 dimensional XZ
plane. (The Y-axis is pointing backwards)

 Add new wire(s)

To start adding a new wire, click the 'Add' button. The mouse-pointer changes to across-
hair, indicating 'Add-mode' is activated. The Y-position text-box on the right is now
highlighted. If required you can specify a certain 'depth' position, but for now we will stay in
the XZ-plane for an Y-position equal zero. When you will try to locate a mouse-pointer
position for eg. the height Z equals 70 feet, you shouldn't succeed, because the grid-size is too
small to cover a Z position of 70 feet.

First increase grid-size to 1 feet by clicking on the left arrow for the 'Zoom' scroll-bar. When
done, point somewhere inside the picture-box (that part of the window where the antenna
structure is displayed), hold down the right mouse-buttonand move the X-axis to almost at
the bottom of the picture-box. Now you should be able to locate a position for which Z equals
70 feet somewhere in the upper region of the picture-box.

Because we want to create a line at Z=70 feet with a length of 33.7 feet we will have to locate
a point for which Z = 70 and X = -33.7/2 = 16.85 feet. However, because the 'Snap to grid'
box is checked you won't succeed in this. For now we will locate a position for which X
equals -17 feet. To start drawing the wire, click and hold down the left mouse-button and
drag the mouse-pointer to the second position for which Z=70 and X=17 feet, then release the
mouse-button. Because this is the first wire added to the model, a pop-up window is
displayed asking for the initial/default wire diameter. Use the value which you want to. On
the right of the picture-box all data belonging to this wire is listed. You can edit the end-1 or
end-2 coordinates text-boxes to further refine the end positions. You will also notice that the
number of segments is set to 25, corresponding to 'medium segmentation'.

39

Note:-Next we will have to add the feedline. But, before doing so we need some knowledge about
how wires are identified in Nec-2/4. All wires are assigned a unique tag-nr. Mostly the tag-number
equals the wire-number. Ater delete, copy or paste operations however this sequence may have
changed. Tag-numbers should still be unique. You may use 'Resequence tag-numbers' in the 'Option'
menu to make tag numbers equal to the corresponding wire-numbers again.

Each voltage/current-source, transmission-line or RLC-load (see below) is 'assigned 'to a wire using
this unique tag-number. To specify the position of the source, TR-line or load on the specified wire a
segment-number between 1 and the nr-of-segments for the wire is used. Using Geometry-edit these
tag- and segment-numbers are automatically assigned. It is allowed to change these number
manually. When doing so please note how these tag- and segment-numbers are used within Nec-2/4.

 Add feed/transmission-line(s)

Adding/creating a transmission-line is done by clicking the 'TR-line' button (the one with
the ladder picture). If not in 'Add-mode', click the 'Add' button to start adding a new Tr-line.
Locate the mouse-pointer on the middle of the first wire and click and hold down your left
mouse-button and move the mouse-pointer to the middle of the second wire. When reached
release the mouse-button. When positioning was not too rude a new transmission-line is now
added. If not, try again. Note also that we did not take the velocity-factor into account, we
just used an electrical length.

 Add voltage source

To prevent loosing the changes, backup the model using 'File->Save as' and choose a folder-
and file-name for your new model.The next thing to do is add a voltage-source. While still in
Add-mode, click the 'Source button' (right of the 'Wire button'). Next click and hold down
your left mouse-button somewhere in the picture-box. At the current mouse-pointer position a
new source-object is displayed. Drag the source-object to the middle of the second wire, just
between the two lower wires-ends of the feedline and release the mouse-button. When
properly positioned a new source is now added. If not try again. For now we will set a default
voltage-source of 1+j0 volt (1V @ 0 deg.) Select the 'pointer' button to switch back to select-
mode mode. The mouse-pointer changes to the default arrow-pointer indicating 'Select-
mode' is active.

40

To do this. The 'Wire-conductivity' is not visible any more. change the 'Par-RLC' selection for the Load-data on the right of the screen to 'Wire-ld'. set to 'Free-space') and recalculate to see the results of your changes. To enable wire-loading display for the complete structure use 'Option > Show wire loading' . To create a full 3D far-field pattern. Then click <Generate>. click somewhere in the picture-box and drag the new load-object to any place on the first (upper) wire and release the mouse button. Switch back to 'Select-mode'. The initial conductivity is set to 10000 mho/m. click the 'Loading button' (the one with the RLC symbols). The default load however is a lumped load. specify 'Full' and a 5 degree resolution. click the 'Run Nec-engine' button (the one with the calculator picture) or push <F7>. You can return back to your model by pushing <F6> or clicking the 'Geometry-edit' window. You may alter your model (e. first change from 'spot load' to 'single-wire' (see lower right) . Notice how the whole wire becomes 'wire-loaded'. so we will have to include this in our model (the default is perfect wire with zero losses). To change this to distributed/wire-load. push <F9> to visualize the new antenna-structure Select 'Pattern' or push the 'R' key to see the 3D far-field pattern.g. The box shape on the first wire should now have changed to a red line segment. The new load-object is now 'connected' to the first wire. Change this to 'Aluminum' by using the 'G (mho/m)' selection-box on the right of the picture. Next change to ‘Whole struct'. A new pop-up window is displayed asking you for additional settings. select the second option 'far- field pattern'.  Add wire-conductivity We use aluminum wire for our antenna.For now we have added all required objects. To specify wire-conductivity for the whole structure. 41 .If the DirectX based version of 4nec2 is installed. 3. To run the NEC-engine and evaluate your model.Run NEC-engine and create far-field pattern. This would not deliver us additional information because the whole structure is now loaded (both wires).

and we keep changing the variable by the help of this(NEC) software till we not get our desired result.desired result was as follows –  Impedence=( 200+0j) Ohm  SWR=4  Gain=approx 10dB Which we did not get. As the above results are un-optimize(not up to desired level).” Its consist of the following steps :-  Create variable 42 . 4. Fig: unoptimized result and radiation pattern. so we can not start fabrication of antenna with this results.After running NEC-engine we will get un-optimize result which is shown below. Optimization “Optimization is the process in which we convert geometrical parameters of antenna in to variables . we need to go through a further process called optimization to get the optimized values (above mention desired result).

next six columns are for the two end co-ordinates(x1.165 3.15778 3. constants or mathematical expressions (equations).01 0 0.32928 0 -0.15778 0.15778 3.we can open Nec-output file in notepad as shown below. reflector spacing.y1. ds .e-3 GW 6 3 0.e-3 GE 0 EK EX 0 3 10 0 1 0 GN -1 FR 0 1 0 0 437 0 43 . dl.15092 0 0. director length.15788 3.01 0 -0.e-3 GW 3 19 -0.32928 0 0.e-3 GW 5 3 -0. length of reflector.01 0 -0.e-3 GW 8 19 0..21952 0 0.15778 3.z2) and last column is for radius of each wire.01 0 0.z1 and x2.15092 0. Geometrical Parameters without creating variables :- CE GW 1 19 0..10976 0 0. With this card it is possible to specify symbols(VARIABLES).15092 0.15778 0. As we can not set wire tag no and the corresponding segment no as variable so we need to create only 7 variables.10976 0 -0.01 0 -0.it is special 4nec2 "SY" cards are included. rs .15788 -0. fs and rad for length of folded dipole. We have given symbols as fl. Here the first column is for wire tag no.  Open optimizer window & select variables  Set priority  Start optimization  Create variable After running the NEC.01 0 0.15092 3.15092 0.21952 0 -0. director spacing and the spacing between the arms of folded dipole respectively.e-3 GW 2 21 -0.e-3 GW 4 19 0.01 0 -0.15092 3. rl.1646 -0.y2. second is for no of segment in corresponding wire tag .15092 3.15092 0 -0.e-3 GW 7 19 0.01 0 0.15778 -0.

32928 : length of reflector sy dl=0.0e-3 : radius of elements GW 1 19 fs/2 0 fl/2 fs/2 0 -fl/2 rad GW 2 19 -fs/2 0 fl/2 -fs/2 0 -fl/2 rad GW 3 3 fs/2 0 fl/2 -fs/2 0 fl/2 rad GW 4 3 fs/2 0 -fl/2 -fs/2 0 -fl/2 rad GW 5 21 -rs 0 rl/2 -rs 0 -rl/2 rad GW 6 19 ds 0 dl/2 ds 0 -dl/2 rad GW 7 19 2*ds 0 dl/2 2*ds 0 -dl/2 rad GW 8 19 3*ds 0 dl/2 3*ds 0 -dl/2 rad GE 0 EK EX 0 2 10 0 1 0 GN -1 FR 0 1 0 0 437 0 44 .30184 : length of director sy rs=0.31556 : length of folded dipole sy rl=0.Geometrical variables for optimization (after creating variables): CE sy fl=0.02 : spacing between arm of folded dipole sy rad=3.10976 : director spacing sy fs=0.1509 : reflector spacing sy ds=0.

together with their "Importance" (weighting factor. After this we select the variable(s) we want to optimize. First we set the traditional optimizer by selecting 'Optimize' in the Function-box and 'Default' in the Option-box. fs) with the 'variables' heading. dl. 45 .and input-boxes as shown below- Fig: optimizer window. ds.  Set priority(weighting factor) & start optimization Furthermore we must select one or more antenna properties to optimize. rl. rs. by clicking on the variable in the list-box(fl. A new window appears with a number of selection. The selected variable(s) will show-up in the right list-box as in above fig. contributing in the total result).  Open optimizer window & select variables Start the Optimizer by entering the F12 key.

Here we have given highest weighing(200%) to X-in.In the upper right box. together with the calculated overall result (Res%) and the step-size used. Fig: optimizer process after completion. and have fixed target value for impedance. 46 . the reactive part of the impedance because our intention is to get its value as minimum as possible so that there will be no losses in received signal power . so it is possible to follow the optimizing process. the selected variables together with the direction and relative amount in which they are changed are displayed. In the lower left box the calculated property values are displayed for each new optimization step. After clicking the 'Start' button the optimizing process starts and the button text changes to 'stop'.R=0) The target value for gain and SWR have given as 10dB and 4 respectively and equal weighting factor 100 % for both. In the lower right box the corresponding variable value(s) is/are listed. R-in+X-in= 200+0j ohm(R-in=200. First we set target value by Clicking with the right mouse key on one of the property- boxes to change the value of antenna parameter which we want to get and then after we give the corresponding priority by setting the weighting factor.

It is possible the process is not immediately halted. 47 .we got our desired antenna parameters and various patterns(optimized values and patterns).If the optimization results are OK. you may click the 'Stop' button. please wait till the active calculation step is ready. If so. To premature abort the process. Sometimes it may be necessary to click the button once more. Fig: Output results and radiation patterns after optimization. Here we have only shown the various pattern of 437 MHz.as shown in above fig. indicating the optimization is ready. After the process is ready/aborted. you may use the 'Update NEC-file' button to up-date your NEC-file with the new variable value(s). Simulation results for two antennae at center frequency 437MHz & 145MHz After going through the successful optimization process for our both yagi antenna one at 437 MHz and another at 145MHz . you may change the variables or properties and continue optimization by clicking the 'Resume' button. Now with the help of these obtained results we can start our fabrication work. Use 'Exit' to quit the optimizer without saving. After some time the process should stop with the message 'Optimized in xx steps'.

2883 mtr Spacing Between Folded Arms =0.1101 mtr Director Length =0.3076mtr Spacing Between Directors =0.Geometrical model of 437MHzYagi obtained: Output 3-D far field radiation pattern and smith chart: DESIGNED ANTENNA PARAMETERS AT CENTRE FREQUENCY 437MHz Driven length =0.02mtr 48 .

85 Z(impedance) =199.Reflector Spacing =0.938 SY FS=0. The variables created before optimizations are as follows: SY SY RL=1.003 SY LD=0.45 SY DS=0.88 GW 1 25 -RS RL/2 0 -RS -RL/2 0 RAD GW 2 25 -FS/2 DL/2 0 -FS/2 -DL/2 0 RAD GW 3 25 FS/2 DL/2 0 FS/2 -DL/2 0 RAD GW 4 1 -FS/2 DL/2 0 FS/2 DL/2 0 RAD GW 5 1 -FS/2 -DL/2 0 FS/2 -DL/2 0 RAD GW 6 23 DS LD/2 0 DS -LD/2 0 RAD GE 0 EK EX 0 2 13 0 1 0 GN -1 FR 0 1 0 0 145 0 49 .04 SY DL=0.042 SY RS=0.38 SY RAD=0.01 The same process was repeated for the 145 MHz antenna also.1532mtr F/B =18.59-j0.39 SWR =4.79 Gain =9.

0472m Driver length . 1.378m Director lengthg .0.0. 0.9 Gain = 7.4528m Director spacing .042m Reflector spacing . 0.8586m F/B ratio = 17.3 50 .9219m Folded dipole spacing . 0. Results and all patterns of antenna working at 145 MHz DESIGNED ANTENNA PARAMETERS AT CENTRE FREQUENCY 145MHz Reflector length .

FABRICATION OF ANTENNA 51 .

Design of coupler 2. So our next task was to fabricate the crossed yagi antenna. 1 driven element. the boom and the two elements of crossed Yagi. We also fit some screws onto the coupler to tight all the elements. E=6mm C=25mm D=6mm A=40mm F=20mm B=40mm Fig: design of coupler 52 . There were two major concerns 1.We used solid Aluminum material to fabricate the crossed yagi antenna and also for the boom just to make yagi more rigid and robust. The size of the coupler is 40*40*25 mm so as to make it robust and size would be less. Making of folded dipole Design of coupler Since the design of the coupler was little bit tough work as there were three elements that should pass through. Since we are doing student project we were keen to fabricate with the minimum number of elements keeping cost in mind. FABRICATION After we simulated both the antennae (one at 437 Mhz and another at 145 Mhz) on NEC2(Numerical electromagnetic Code ver2) software. And proper gap should be maintained to avoid any kind of interferences. 1 driven element and 1 reflector) and for the 145 Mhz antenna we have 3 elements (1 director. 1 reflector). For the 437 Mhz antenna we have 5 elements (3 directors.

For this we made several attempts to get accurate figures. However with slight change in the distance of the elements we managed to get the acceptable figures. First we had to fold from one side of the rod and to keep the driven length accurate and then to fold from the other side. Usually while doing this length of the driven element does not remain same. Making of folded dipole As we all know the distance between the folded arms plays the very important role in determining gain of the antenna. Although there were some errors during the design of coupler as the gap between the holes that were slotted for the two crossed yagi feeding elements was less as compared to the distance between the two arms of the folded dipole. It was very important for us to maintain the fix required distance. Fig :Fully fabricated antenna at centre frequency 437Mhz Besides this there were some small works like while cutting the elements the edge got rough so we filed them to make it smooth so as to minimize the unwanted radiations and we need to arrange all the elements in parallel. 53 . Fig: fully fabricated antenna at 145 MHz frequency.

54 . Fig: Specifications of RG series cables. But due to in availability of the cable in the market we have used RG58C/U cable.Coaxial Cable: As there are various cables available in the market and their specification are different first of all we searched for the 50 Ohm cable and the list was quite large then according to the velocity factor and the losses in dB the most suitable cable was RG8A/U. We have used RG58 cable having 50ohm impedance for the balun and for the connection..

The other pair of terminals is unbalanced. with equal currents in opposite directions. that is. The term is derived by combining balanced and unbalanced. one pair of terminals is balanced. A typical use for a balun is in a television antenna. such as a coaxial cable). which is described next. Now next is the characterization of the antennae.Balun: A balun is a device that joins a balanced line (one that has two conductors. Since in the simulation of our antenna we have kept the desired antenna gain 200 Ohm and we are connecting it to 50 Ohm cable. To match the load of 200 Ohm with the cable we have used balun. In a balun. the currents are equal in magnitude and opposite in phase. For the purposes we have used 4:1 balun to match the 50ohm cable with the 200ohm antenna impedance We have used RG58C/U for the balun as well as for the cabling. one side is connected to electrical ground and the other carries the signal. 55 . A balun is a type of transformer: it's used to convert an unbalanced signal to a balanced one or vice versa. Baluns isolate a transmission line and provide a balanced output. such as a twisted pair cable) to an unbalanced line (one that has just one conductor and a ground.

CHARACTERIZATION OF FABRICATED ANTENNAE 56 .

one must observe what outputs occur for a given set of inputs. The two main types of network analyzers are • Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA) — measures amplitude properties only • Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) — measures both amplitude and phase properties A VNA may also be called a gain-phase meter or an Automatic Network Analyzer. Network analyzers are used mostly at high frequencies. An SNA is functionally identical to a spectrum analyzer in combination with a tracking 57 . operating frequencies can range from 9 kHz to 110 GHz. After we are done with fabrication of the antenna our next task is to characterize the antenna. especially those properties associated with the reflection and transmission of electrical signals known as scattering parameters (S-parameters). Since we have fabricated our antenna at centre frequencies 437Mhz and another for 145Mhz and so there are various network analysers available with different specification in the market. These network analyzers can be used for example for the stability analysis of open loops or for the measurement of audio and ultrasonic components. so for the characterization purpose we have connected two n-type female connectors for each crossed yagi. There is a brief summary about the network analyser. A network analyzer is an instrument used to analyze the properties of electrical networks. Special types of network analyzers can also cover lower frequency ranges down to 1 Hz. When creating a characterization test. To characterize the antennae we are using network analyser. The goal of characterization tests is to help fabricators verify that the modifications made to a reference model of a system did not modify its behaviour in unwanted or undesirable ways. Characterization of both fabricated antennae using Network analyser A characterization test is a means to describe (characterize) the actual behaviour of an existing model. Since we are using 4:1 balun to match the antenna impedance.

We have used HP 8720A network analyser for characterizing the antenna. Fig: A microwave network analyzer (HP 8720A) showing a Smith chart 58 . Anritsu. but was lacking some of the user-friendly calibration features now available with the LSNA. a category of network analyzers introduced by Agilent is a programmable network analyzer (PNA). Also. VNAs are the most common type of network analyzers. The MTA was commercialized before the LSNA. The three biggest VNA manufacturers are Agilent. and Rohde & Schwarz. As of 2007. and so references to an unqualified “network analyzer” most often mean a VNA.generator. which measure both amplitude and phase of the fundamental and harmonics. A new category of network analyzer is the Microwave Transition Analyzer (MTA) or Large Signal Network Analyzer (LSNA).

It can be used to evaluate the forward and reverse gain and reflection coefficients of a system.20 GHz : 100 dB • Port Directivity (sliding load): • 50 MHz . Specifications • Frequency Range: 50 MHz . Care must be taken when using this device due to its extreme sensitivity. CONNECTION.2 GHz : 48 dB 59 . PORTS. The 8720 can be used to test systems operating from 50 MHz to 20 GHz.840 Mhz : 77 dB • 840 MHz . OPERATION Front Panel of HP8720es Network Analyzer The 8720ES is a powerful S parameter network analyzer.20 GHz • Dynamic Range (sliding load): • 50 MHz .

To ensure the accuracy of your test setup. These ports are found near the bottom of the front panel. it is important to ensure that a good calibration state is loaded. Other inputs. • 2 GHz . In this case. the GPIB port is found on the back of the device. Port 1 is used for measuring S11 and Port 2 is used for measuring S22. connect the Port 1 and Port 2 to the DUT. it is possible to connect only one of the ports. In addition. one finds the power connector on the back. Port 1 is the input port and Port 2 is the output port. HP8720ES Ports The back panel of the 8720es has a number of connections. They are labelled "Port 1" and "Port 2." See the following picture for a view of the ports. If only S11 or S22 measurements are desired. Prior to running any tests. Be very careful and ensure that the cables are terminated with a non open circuited termination to discharge any residual ESD! An adaptor kit is available to accommodate male or female connectors. If S12 and S21 are to be measured. This can be done by pressing the save/recall button on the front panel of the device. including an external trigger. Not surprisingly. it is a good idea to calibrate the system for the chosen 60 . It includes detailed information concerning different cable and calibration settings: Ports/Connections There are two primary ports on the 8720ES.20 GHz : 44 dB • Maximum Power : 5 dBm • Port Impedance : 50 ohms For Detailed Specifications please see the data sheet for the 8720ES. are also located on the back panel Operation For basic S parameter measurements. then both ports must be connected.

To initiate a calibration run. • For setting up the frequency we press the start button and set the start frequency as 387Mhz and stop frequency as 487 MHz after that press the marker button on the network analyser and enter the centre frequency at which we want to characterize in our case it is 437 Mhz. As a result. press the "cal" button on the front panel and follow the on screen instructions. The calibration process is fairly simple. This can be done using the terminations in the calibration kit (make sure you don't use the open circuit termination). If the device exhibits strange behaviour.interconnects with the included calibration kit. There is a very high probability that the cables are broken at any given time. This only takes a few minutes and is worth doing to eliminate unexplainable results. and a calibration kit can be found in the lab. proper calibration is vital to obtaining good measured results. check the cables. • Damaged Input Ports If the machine is acting strange and you've verified that the cables are fine. Press the start button on the network analyser and leave it for at least half an hour to stabilize. 61 . then it is likely that one of the input ports may be damaged Characterization process for the crossed yagi . • Now connect the adapter to port number 1which ahs 50 ohm impedance. • Protecting the input ports To avoid damaging the input ports. make sure to short out the leads of any cables prior to connecting them to the 8720ES. Calibration The 8720ES is a very sensitive piece of equipment.

To find a network analyser with required specification was not easy since the cost is too high. • Press the open switch and done one fourth calibrations. • Now for the calibration of the network analyser we use three load one 50Ohm one short load and one open. Through the similar process with change in the start and stop frequency and the centre frequency we characterized our 145 MHz antenna too. • One is advised to do this characterization in the open environment to avoid noise. • Then we press cal button which is the calibration button and go to calibrated value then we need to press port 1 where we are calibrating and characterize the antenna. • Now connect the open load with the adapter and check the all the fitting are tight. Open this short one and connect with the adapter and press the short button and when noise comes written it means you can now open • Connect the 50ohm impedance and you can see the marker button right pointing on the middle of the smith chart. • Lets switch to format and press the format button to smith chart after pressing this we get the smith chart with the marker at 437Mhz on the screen of network analyser. This is the basic characterization process of the Yagi antenna one should follow when characterizing the antenna. • We connect to the antenna and the plot is changing if we are changing the orientation of antenna. Press the load and one fourth calibration now if you want you can press the format button and get back log match. Although we managed to characterized it in SAMIR at IIT BOMBAY . 62 . • From the calibration kit we take open and short load and one 50ohm load.

GROUNDSTATION ANTENNAE MOUNTING INTERFACE 63 .

IITB students are using rotor to track the satellite and using a rotor will easily solve the tracking issue Information about the rotor is given below: Fig representing the rotor G-5400B The Yaesu G-5400B provide 360 deg azimuth and 180 deg elevation control of medium and large size unidirectional satellite antenna arrays under remote control from station operation position. The two factory-lubricated rotator unit are housed in weatherproof melamine resin coated die.cast aluminium. Rotor contains a thermal sensor to prevent damage from overheating during period of high usage. we are using rotor to rotate the antenna. Antenna mounting interface Our next task was to mount the fabricated and tested antenna on the roof of our college building exactly above on the Advance Communication Lab. We have fixed our antenna on 30 degree elevation and have to rotate 180 degree azimuth in order to track the Satellite. 64 .

the coils in a stepper motor must reach their full rated current during each step. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism (see Open-loop controller).Stepper motor will provide step wise rotation of our antenna which would be fixed at 30 degree elevation and rotate 180 degree azimuthally. Modern steppers are of hybrid design. Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count. As speeds further increase. synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. Winding inductance and reverse EMF generated by a moving rotor tend to resist changes in drive current. To achieve full rated torque. We will adjust the step of stepper motor according to time period of satellite and Limits of Visibility .But the cost of rotor is around 30000 to 35000 rupees which is not in our budget and the fact is we are making student ground station of total cost around 30000 including every equipment and other expenditures. the current will not reach the rated value. so that as the motor speeds up. and generally are closed-loop commutated. as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application. 65 . less and less time is spent at full current thus reducing motor torque.) Theory A step motor can be viewed as a synchronous AC motor with the number of poles (on both rotor and stator) increased. Stepper motor A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless. Additionally. having both permanent magnets and soft iron cores. and eventually the motor will cease to produce torque. So we are using stepper motor instead of rotor controller to rotate the antenna and track the satellite . soft magnetic material with many teeth on the rotor and stator cheaply multiplies the number of poles (reluctance motor). Once a satellite will get out of Limits of Visibility of our ground station antenna will go back to its original position.When satellite will pass over our ground station under the Limit of Visibility stepper motor will be synchronized with satellite using step wise rotation. taking care that they have no common denominator.

physically damping (frictional damping) the system. torque is more important when the motor is actually spinning) 3. When the gear's teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet. Stepper motors. there are several off the shelf driver chips capable of doing this in a simple manner). 7. This vibration can become very bad at some speeds and can cause the motor to lose torque (or lose direction). Steppers exhibit more vibration than other motor types. The torque curve may be extended by using current limiting drivers and increasing the driving voltage (sometimes referred to as a 'chopper' circuit. they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. Motors with a greater number of phases also exhibit smoother operation than those with fewer phases (this can also be achieved through the use of a micro stepping drive 66 . or using a micro-stepping driver. You must pay attention to the torque of the motor) 6. on the other hand. the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one.Basic operation Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors. which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. The effect can be mitigated by accelerating quickly through the problem speeds range. torque decreases. first one electromagnet is given power. 4. (this is important as at certain speeds the motor can actually change direction). To make the motor shaft turn. 5. (most motors exhibit maximum torque when stationary. effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off." with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. Stepper motors are constant power devices. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit. such as a microcontroller. as the discrete step tends to snap the rotor from one position to another. As motor speed increases. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step. 2. however the torque of a motor when stationary is of little use. In that way. the motor can be turned by a precise angle Stepper motor characteristics 1. which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. and from there the process is repeated.

Frame 3: The bottom electromagnet (3) is energized. 67 . another 3. attracting the nearest tooth of a gear- shaped iron rotor.6° rotation occurs.6° in this example. This results in a rotation of 3. pulling the nearest teeth slightly to the right. and the right electromagnet (2) is energized. With the teeth aligned to electromagnet 1. Frame 2: The top electromagnet (1) is turned off. they will be slightly offset from electromagnet 2.Stepper Motor Diagram: Frame 1: The top electromagnet (1) is turned on.

Since It is the main part of ground station.6°. 68 .we must have to go for antenna mounting . Fig: mouting design interface diagram. the teeth in the sprocket will have rotated by one tooth position. When the top electromagnet (1) is again enabled. Mounting design When we came to know that our antenna is working properly . rotating again by 3. since there are 25 teeth. Frame 4: The left electromagnet (4) is enabled. it will take 100 steps to make a full rotation in this example.

r1+r2=r where r=wavelength corresponds to 145MHz. typically rotation or linear movement. The main vertical rod which will be rotated by the stepper motor should be attached to a fix point on the horizontal rod to provide stability to the system and the point can be calculated as follows: Assuming The mass of 437Mhz antenna is m1 And the mass of 145Mhz antenna of m2 The distance form the437 Mhz antenna end is r1 The distance form the 145Mhz antenna end is r2 From the formula . Bearing Now to provide the stability of the system we are using two plain bearing to bear the system so as the full load will be balanced by the bearing and we will keep the stepper motor in base for the stepwise rotation. Bearings may be classified broadly 69 .A bearing is a device to allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts. The antenna will be mechanically fixed at 30 degree elevation and the whole system will be rotated in 180 degree azimuthal with the help of stepper motor.Operation of the design: The above diagram shows the proposed antenna mounting interface which we will implement in upcoming days. The two antennae(centre frequencies at 437Mhz and another at 145Mhz) mounted on the top. m1*r1=m2*r2 And the another equation is. By knowing the value of masse of 437Mhz antenna and 145Mhz antenna and the horizontal rod length we can calculate the point where we can joint our vertical rod to provide stability.

a drawer and the slides it rests on or the ways on the bed of a lathe.. PTFE has coefficient of friction ~0.05-0. provided wear is low. some bearings use pumped lubrication and behave similarly to fluid bearings. e. is the simplest type of bearing comprising of just a bearing surface and no rolling elements. in general. Friction -Depends on materials and construction.e. usually with lubricant. therefore the journal (i..35. The simplest example of a plain bearing is a shaft rotating in a hole. are the least expensive type of bearing.according to the motions they allow and according to their principle of operation as well as by the directions of applied loads they can handle. light weight. but some slack is normally present Speed -Low to very high Life -Moderate (depends on lubrication) Now next is the study of polarization measurement set up i.e. the part of the shaft in contact with the bearing) slides over the bearing surface. IC AD8302. 70 . depending upon fillers added Stiffness -Good.g. They are also compact. also known as a plane bearing. A simple linear bearing can be a pair of flat surfaces designed to allow motion.Plain bearings. and have a high load-carrying capacity. Description-Rubbing surfaces. Fig: A cutaway example of a four-point contact ball bearing Plain bearing A plain bearing.

POLARIZATION MEASUREMENT SETUP 71 .

The general mathematical form is: V OUT =VSLP log (VIN /VZ) (1) 72 . A pair of matched logarithmic amplifiers provides the measurement. and their hard-limited outputs drive the phase detector Basic Theory Logarithmic amplifiers (log amps) provide a logarithmic compression function that converts a large range of input signal levels to a compact decibel-scaled output. and phase difference between two signals. ANALOG IC AD 8302 This is the set up used for measurement of polarization angle difference and its intensity from the received signal from the two antennas. GENERAL DESCRIPTION ABOUT AD8302 The AD8302 measures the magnitude ratio. defined here asgain.

2 The output of the final stage of a log amp is a fully limited signal over most of the input dynamic range. and supply voltage affect both channels identically and hence do not affect the difference. This is the case for an integrated pair of log amps. introducing a systematic offset. The phase output has the general form: 73 . Furthermore. has dropped out.g. the intercept is typically more sensitive to temperature and frequency than the slope. The limited outputs from both log amps drive an exclusive-OR style digital phase detector. different peak-to- average ratios) or different frequencies. the resulting output becomes: V MAG =VSLP log (VINA /VINB) (2) where VINA and VINB are the input voltages. VSLP is thus the volts/decade. Note that if the two signals have different waveform (e. VZ is called the intercept (voltage). It is assumed throughout that log(x) represents the log10(x) function. Variations in intercept due to frequency. VZ. Since subtraction in the logarithmic domain corresponds to a ratio in the linear domain. this variability introduces errors into the absolute accuracy of the measurement since the intercept represents a reference level. no independent reference or intercept need be invoked. When single log amps are used for power measurement. Operating strictly on the relative zero-crossings of the limited signals. The log amp structure consists of a cascade of linear/limiting gain stages with demodulating detectors. one signal serves as the intercept for the other. process. VZ is the value of input signal that results in an output of zero and need not correspond to a physically realizable part of the log amp signal range. VSLP/20 is the volts/dB.where VIN is the input voltage. The AD8302 takes the difference in the output of two identical log amps. In essence.. While the slope is fundamentally characteristic of the log amp. the intercept is a function of the input waveform as well. Further details about the structure and function of log amps can be found in data sheets for other log amps produced by Analog Devices. and since a decade of voltage corresponds to 20 dB. Note that the intercept. and VSLP is called the slope (voltage). the extracted phase difference is independent of the original input signal levels. and Unlike the measurement of power. an intercept difference may appear. quantity such as relative signal level. VMAG is the output corresponding to the magnitude of the signal level difference. when measuring a dimensionless VSLP is the slope. temperature. each driven by signals of similar waveforms but at different levels. This technique depends on the two log amps being well matched in slope and intercept to ensure cancellation.

which may cause measurement errors for small signals. The output amplifiers determine the final gain and phase scaling. slight dc offsets can cause limiting of the latter stages. 74 . The individual gain stages have 3 dB bandwidths in excess of 5 GHz. The reference buffer provides a 1. a phase detector. VPHS =V√[√(VINA) √(VINB)] (3) where V√ is the phase slope in mV/degree and √ is each signal’s relative phase in degrees. a biasing cell. output amplifiers. The major blocks consist of two demodulating log amps. The log amps and phase detector process the high frequency signals and deliver the gain and phase information in current form to the output amplifiers. STRUCTURE: Fig: General Structure The general form of the AD8302 is shown in Figure. Since there is a total of 60 dB of cascaded gain. and an output reference voltage buffer. This is corrected by a feedback loop.80 V reference voltage that tracks the internal scaling constants. Each log amp consists of a cascade of six 10 dB gain stages with seven associated detectors. The signal path is fully differential to minimize the effect of common-mode signals and noise. External filter capacitors set the averaging time constants for the respective outputs.

respectively. The slope is derived from an accurate reference designed to be insensitive to temperature and supply voltage. The slope is derived from the same reference as the log amp slope. yielding by analogy to Equation 2: I LA = ISLP log(VINA /VINB) Where ILA and ISLP are the output current difference and the characteristic slope (current) of the log amps. Signals at frequencies well below the high-pass corner are indistinguishable from dc offsets and are also nulled. respectively. The current-mode equivalent to Equation 3 is: IPD= I√[√(VINA) √(VINB) 90°] (5) Where IPD and I√ are the output current and characteristic slope associated with the phase detector. The difference in the log amp outputs is performed in the current domain. PIN CONFIGURATION 75 . of this loop is set internally at 200 MHz but can be lowered by adding external capacitance to the OFSA and OFSB pins.The nominal high-pass corner frequency. fHP. The phase detector uses a fully symmetric structure with respect to its two inputs to maintain balanced delays along both signal paths. Fully differential signalling again minimizes the sensitivity to common-mode perturbations.

10 PSET Feedback Pin for Scaling of VPHS Output Voltage in Measurement Mode.5 V 5 OFSB A capacitor to ground at this pin sets the offset compensation filter corner and provides input decoupling.7 V to 5. Must be ac- coupled 3 OFSA A capacitor to ground at this pin sets the offset compensation filter corner and provides input decoupling. Same structure as INPA. 4 VPOS Voltage Supply (VS). 6 INPB Input to Channel B. Apply a 76 . Connect to low impedance ground 2 INPA High Input Impedance to Channel A. 8 PFLT Low Pass Filter Terminal for the Phase Output 9 VPHS Single-Ended Output Proportional to the Phase Difference between INPA and INPB.7 COMM Device Common. PIN DISCRIPTION Pin no Mnemonic Function 1. 2.

setpoint voltage for controller mode 11 VREF Internally Generated Reference Voltage (1.7 GHz • Dual Demodulating Log Amps and Phase Detector Input –60 dBm to 0 dBm in a 50 _ System • Accurate Gain Measurement Scaling (30 mV/dB) • Typical Nonlinearity < 0.8 V Nominal) 12 MSET Feedback Pin for Scaling of VMAG Output Voltage Measurement Mode. Output voltage proportional to the decibel ratio of signals applied to INPA and INPB 14 MFLT Low Pass Filter Terminal for the Magnitude Output FEATURES • Measures Gain/Loss and Phase up to 2.5 dB • Accurate Phase Measurement Scaling (10 mV/Degree) 77 . 13 VMAG Single-Ended Output. Accepts a set point voltage in controller mode.

5 V • Stable 1. 78 .7 V–5.8 V Reference Voltage Output • Small Signal Envelope Bandwidth from DC to 30 MHz APPLICATIONS • RF/IF PA Linearization • Precise RF Power Control • Remote System Monitoring and Diagnostics • Return Loss/VSWR Measurements Now we will go to the next task that is to study about ionosphere and total electron count of ionosphere and its applications which is the main application of our project. • Typical Nonlinearity < 1 Degree • Measurement/Controller/Level Comparator Modes • Operates from Supply Voltages of 2.

TEC TOTAL ELECTRON COUNT OF IONOSPHERE 79 .

TEC values are one of the most prominent sources of information for understanding the structure and dynamic behaviour of the ionosphere. where 1016 electrons/m² = 1 TEC unit (TECU). which slows the propagation of radio signals through the ionosphere. with units of electrons per square meter. often using Global Positioning System satellites. The ionising radiations of the sun and energetic particles transported by the solar wind produce concentration of free electrons especially in the 250- 400 km high layer known as the F-region. However. Introduction The ionosphere is a complex part of the atmosphere. which consists of ionized layers of the upper atmosphere.1. what we wish to measure is known as the Ionosphere Electron Count. Estimates of the TEC can be used to correct for transmission delays in GPS signals. Total electron content (or TEC) is an important descriptive quantity for the ionosphere of the Earth. TEC is the total number of electrons present along a path between two points. Our aim is to calculate total electron count there. TEC refers to the Total Electron Count of the Ionosphere. TEC is strongly affected by solar activity. 80 . Total electron count (TEC) is a measure used to characterize the conductivity of the ionosphere. lying from about 60 km of altitude up to several hundreds of kilometres.TEC is significant in determining the scintillation and group delay of a radio wave through a medium. It refers to the total number of electrons in a cylinder of unit area of cross section extending from the ground station up to our satellite in space. Free electrons in the ionosphere affect the transmission of radio waves by absorbing and reflecting. which can be incorporated in GPS receivers for more accurate location estimates. since there is a fraction of the ionosphere (about 5%) above the altitude of our satellite. Ionospheric TEC is characterized by observing carrier phase delays of received radio signals transmitted from satellites located above the ionosphere.

The performance can only be worse if we take into account the potential effect of a solar or geomagnetic storm during medium or high solar activity times. TEC predictions can be off by 20 to 25 percent. 81 . Further. which slows the propagation of radio signals through the ionsphere. the equatorial region is highly susceptible to fluctuations in TEC values due to various reasons. we can then deal with this error by taking into account ionosphere's dispersive nature. If the bias between the monthly mean TEC and the predictions provided by these models is 10 percent of the monthly mean values. But if we are using a single frequency GPS receiver then we need some other method for getting rid of this error. one must correct the carrier phase advance and pseudo range group delay that are caused when GPS signals pass through the ionosphere. The currently used global Ionospheric models can only model the monthly mean total electron content to about ± 10 percent.2. Free electrons in the ionosphere affect the transmission of radio waves by absorbing and reflecting.1 Error correction for GPS systems These days GPS satellites are used on many fronts and their use for position determination has proved to be important and useful for not only navigation but also several other research applications. The combined effect of the error in the monthly mean predictions and the day-to-day variability of the TEC will result in an overall performance of these models to be at about 22-27 percent (RMS) of the Ionospheric delay. But the fact that we are situated near the equator makes life a bit difficult for us because most of these models are based on data points obtained predominantly from mid latitude regions and have very sparse data of equatorial region. But in order to achieve a high level of accuracy from GPS (of the order of millimetres). So. So these models fail to deliver a satisfactory performance. An increase in data points in this region can be used by GPS manufacturers for correcting this Ionospheric error. These models cannot tell us about the day-to-day variability of the TEC which can be 20 to 25 percent (1 sigma) of the monthly mean value.If we have a dual frequency GPS receiver. even if the monthly mean TEC is modelled perfectly using one of the global Ionospheric models. Most GPS companies provide an inbuilt GPS model that predicts TEC values on the basis of previous history sheets. Importance of TEC 2. then the performances of these models are considered to be excellent.

so to have better accuracy of GPS in India we will have to device methods that can give us additional information of day to day variability. So anyways the data for equatorial region is very sparse. An interesting feature in the geographic location of India is that the magnetic equator passes through the bottom side tip of the country and the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly lies in the middle of the country. or equatorial ionization anomaly is characterized by a depression in ionization densities (or trough) at the geomagnetic equator and two peaks (crests) on either side of the equator at about 15° magnetic latitudes.2 EIA (Appleton Anomaly) & ESF: EIA.e. so measured range is greater than geometrical range). This difference is known as ionospheric error. 2.These two are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. Error is negative for carrier phase (phase is advanced.This is in addition to the fact that most of these single frequency GPS receivers use data models that use values obtained from South American & African Stations. it diffuses downward along geomagnetic field lines towards higher latitudes under the influence of gravity and pressure gradients and produces the anomaly. providing a unique opportunity for making studies on the latitudinal variation equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) which occurs at 5 – 25 82 . caused by field aligned plasma flow due to factors like neutral winds. The EIA is also asymmetric about the geomagnetic equator. Possible reasons: It is suggested that the trough exists because plasma produced by photo ionization at great heights over the magnetic equator diffuses downwards and outwards to the north and south leaving depletion at the equator. measured range is shorter than the geometrical range) and positive for pseudo ranges (i. We wish to do it by supplementing the current database and the ongoing Indian projects for TEC measurement with our TEC data. Another explanation is that the mutually perpendicular east-west electric field and north- south geomagnetic field give rise to an upward electrodynamics (E × B) drift of plasma during the daytime. After integrating the group and phase delay along the GPS signal path we will obtain a range between satellite and receiver that is different from geometrical distance between them. phase is delayed. As the plasma is lifted to greater heights.

the spread in the width of the pulses reflected from the F-layer increases abnormally. EIA as we know is intensification of ionization crests in the late afternoon near +/. and this phenomenon is called Spread-F. showing up as a diffuse trace. Formation of EIA is due to flow of plasma along a fountain from the equator towards the crest. there is no solar radiation falling on the atmosphere. A logical explanation for day night variation in TEC can be given as:. overtaking the process of recombination of ions and hence TEC value increases. we can easily get involved with this experiment. Link between EIA & ESF: Studies have shown that ESF is closely linked with EIA. 3. added to the effects due to the dynamics of the neutral winds. So we get very steep plasma gradients in the equatorial region. This increase in ionization comes at the expense of depletion in ionization of lower F layer (near the equator).During night time. Variation of TEC values: This randomness in the day-to-day variation in TEC may be attributed to the changes in the activity of the sun itself and to the associated changes in the intensity of the incoming radiations. During afternoon when the solar radiation is maximum. But the opposite process of recombination of ions takes place and so there is a decrease in ion density of atmosphere and hence reduced TEC is observed. 83 . These bubbles are found to travel upwards in the ionosphere. ESF actually refers to formation of areas in ionosphere that have abnormally low plasma density. which are conducive to Rayleigh Taylor instability and explains the relationship between EIA & ESF.geographic latitude. So as Mumbai falls in this region. ionization increases. in addition to the changes which take place in the Earth’s magnetic field and the equatorial electro jet (EEJ) strength. ESF. so there is nothing that is going to ionize the atoms present in the ionosphere. and the zenith angle at which they fall on the Earth’s atmosphere.or equatorial spread-f On certain nights.20deg latitude. which is caused due to Electric field generated in the atmosphere.

Variation in equatorial regions:
The daily variation in TEC at the EIA region shows its steep increase and reaches its
maximum value between 13:00 and 16:00 LT, while at the equator the peak is broad i.e. it
occurs for a longer duration of time and occurs around 16:00 LT. A short-lived day minimum
occurs between 05:00 to 06:00 LT at all the stations from the equator to the EIA crest region.
Beyond the crest region the day maximum values decrease with the increase in latitude, while
the day minimum in TEC is flat during most of the nighttime hours, i.e. from 22:00 to 06:00
LT, a feature similar to that observed in the mid-latitudes. Further, the diurnal variation in
TEC show a minimum to maximum variation of about 5 to 50 TEC units, respectively, at the
equator and about 5 to 90 TEC units at the EIA crest region.

Climatic variations in TEC:

The seasonal variation in TEC maximizes during the equinox months (equinox is that period
of time when sun passes over equator and lengths of day and night become equal , this occurs
on 21st March and 22nd September) followed by winter and is minimum during the summer
months.

Contour plots of the monthly average diurnal variation of TEC at four stations across
India (taken from the results of GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN)
project of ISRO + AAI)

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The lack of complete understanding of the above phenomena often leads to navigational
errors and communication losses. TEC measurements are necessary to improve our
understanding of the interaction between the solar wind and the earth’s ionosphere, which is
very crucial for the functioning of several space borne and ground based systems and also to
increase our capability for forecasting space weather events. Our venture will shed some light
on some of the complex phenomena occurring in space.

4. Orbit

The efficacy of our endeavour depends entirely on the orbit we get for the satellite. Most of
the Ionospheric phenomena occur at specific times of the day and we need the satellite to
have a pass over the ground stations at those times for us to obtain the relevant TEC values.
A circular orbit with an inclination of approximately 24 degrees would be optimum for the
mission since it will render several passes at different times of the day and these passes would
occur at different times of the day over the course of the lifetime of the satellite. The exact
value of the actual inclination would depend on the location of the ground stations, which
depends on the efficacy of the tomography algorithms. The satellite would be launched along
with a mainstream satellite of ISRO which would invariably put it in a polar sun synchronous
orbit. This would only allow us to measure the TEC values at the same local time. Given this
limitation, a 2:30 am-pm orbit would be optimum for the satellite as it would allow us to
measure the TEC values at a time when the EIA is at its peak.

5. Techniques for measurement of TEC from LEO satellite

The various techniques that can be used to measure TEC from LEO satellites are described
below:

1. Measurement of Faraday rotation (our method)

2. Measurement of group delay of received signal

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3. Measurement of Doppler shift of received signal due to ionospheric fluctuations

4. Measurement of amplitude scintillations of received signal.

Technique of Measurement of Faraday rotation:
When a linearly polarized radio wave passes through an ionized medium with a magnetic
field in the direction of propagation, the plane of polarization rotates. This effect is called
Faraday rotation. The relation between the rotation angle and the TEC is given by

B = magnetic field of earth,

Θ = angle between the radio wave and line of sight,

Δφ = angle of rotation,

f = frequency of the wave.

Measurement process: In order to radiate linearly polarized waves from the satellite,a
monopole antenna is to be used. The radiation pattern of a monopole is such that the radiation is
always polarized in the direction assuming the monopole is oriented in the direction. Thus, we
know the initial polarization angle.

Measurement at the ground station: We will be measuring the angle of polarization at the
ground station by using a crossed Yagi antenna and measuring the intensities of the signals at the
two feeds.

Resolution of the nπ ambiguity, use of two close frequencies: A major problem of the process
is the fact that there would always be an ambiguity of nπ in the angle measured at the ground
station. The formula for Faraday rotation gives an angle of about 110° for the rotation at a
frequency of 433 MHz even when the satellite is overhead. The maximum angle at this
frequency comes out to be about 600° which is pretty large. We propose to resolve this
ambiguity by use of two very nearby frequencies viz. 400 and 433 MHz and then measuring the
difference between the angles of polarization of the two waves. The difference between the
angles is given by:

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Disadvantages: The disadvantages of this process are as follows: 87 . Advantages: The advantages of this process are the following: • Needs comparatively less hardware on board the satellite. The following graphs illustrate the situation: However. then this initial angle will be 0. • Measurement is done only on carrier phase polarization angle which is an inherent property of the signal unlike a modulated signal where errors might arise. We plan is to use the frequencies 400 and 433 MHz . But if we keep the antennae perfectly parallel.This is not very large and can be easily measured without any ambiguity as the maximum value of this angle is only about 90°. to measure the actual difference between the angles of rotation of the two frequencies without any attitude data on ground will be impossible as the signals will have some initial angle between them which will depend upon the yaw of the satellite and the angle between the antennae. irrespective of the yaw angle.

Fig. • >The final result will not be directly proportional to the TEC but will depend upon the magnetic field along the path as well. This gives us information about the integrals of electron density in various directions. Ionospheric Tomography By Faraday rotation method. 2: tomographic image 88 . This technique is called Ionospheric tomography. 1: Geometry of the situation Fig. Thus this dependence will have to be accounted for by some other way. we can derive the values of the electron densities at various positions of the ionosphere. • The signal transmitted from the satellite must have a high degree of polarization purity which is not so easy. From these integrals. • The angle between the antennae will have to be very small. 6. we can measure the TEC (Total Electron Content) at various elevation angles of the satellite.

FINAL GROUNDSTATION SETUP 89 .

90 . • Then the output will be given to polarization measurement setup which will give us the phase difference between the signals and its intensity. Fig: final ground station set up The total connection of the ground station is shown in the diagram. • The signals from the antenna will be given to LNA’s(4) for amplification of signals and bringing them to an appropriate level. AD 8302 LNA SETUP ROTATING INTERFACE USING PC STEPPER MOTOR. • The output will be stored in a PC at regular level and at periodic time intervals and the data will be sent to IIT-B for further calculations and processing.Ground station diagram.

2000 STEPPER MOTOR 1 1200 WIRES . 1500 ANTENNA MOUNTING .) CROSSED YAGI 2 4000 FABRICATION 4 800 LNA AD-8302 POLARIZATION 1 19000 MEASUREMENT SET-UP. . CONNECTORS. 30000 The final ground station will be seen working in oct-nov 2010 after the successful launch of the IIT-B “Pratham” satellite 91 .COST ESTIMATION OF THE PROJECT: COMPONENTS QUANTITY COST (Rs. 500 EXTRA . 1000 TOTAL . CHARACTERIZATION .

ac. • “Master Thesis” by Anura Wickramanayake. like. o Overall Minutes Of CDR at ISAC.wikipedia. o CDR on Report System Engineering. • “Antenna Theory” by Balanis. 1968 92 .in/Pratham/ • www. • Yagi Antenna Design" by P Viezbicke from the National Bureau of Standards. o Project Design Report On Communication Subsystem. o Conceptual Design Report On Board Computing .iitb.org • Various project documents available on the Pratham website. o CDR on Communication Subsystem.References: • aero.