Introduction to Networks

Prof. Sanjay Verma
Computer & Information Systems Group
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

After this lecture you should
What are Computer Networks ?
What are different network technologies?
How networks work ?
What is Internet ?
What are Internet Protocols ?
What is IP Address ?
What are the strengths of Internet ?
What are the weaknesses of Internet

After this lecture you should

What are Internet services ?
What is W W W ?
Impact of Internet on Business

What are networks? Collection of equipment (computers) connected by channels to allow any- to-any communications .

Examples of networks Telephone systems Local Area Networks Internet .

Applications of Networks Electronic mail Electronic funds transfer (EFT) Electronic commerce (EDI) .

Why networks? Exchange data Share expensive resources Integrate corporate information systems Point to Point Communication .

Why networks? Integration of Data processing & Office automation Security Centralized management of software/hardware .

What Networks Require? Transmission Media Protocols .

Transmission Media Copper wires Optical Fibers Radio Satellites Microwave Infrared .

Protocols  An agreement that defines the format and meaning of the messages computer exchanges. .

Private  Circuit Switch Vs.Classification of Networks  Public Vs. Connectionless  Classification by Geography:  LAN (Local Area Network)  WAN (Wide Area Network)  MAN (Metropoliton Area Network) . Packet Switching  Connection Oriented Vs.

Circuit Switching Continuous Transmission dedicated circuit Costly Circuit Switch .

Telephone Call Establish a Session (phone Rings) Ack (Lift receiver – “Hello”) Transfer Data (“I’m calling to …”) Ack (“OK”) Close Session (“bye”) Ack (“bye”) .

Inc..Figure 14-1 Switched Network WCB/McGraw-Hill  The McGraw-Hill Companies. 1998 .

Figure 14-3 Circuit-Switched Network WCB/McGraw-Hill  The McGraw-Hill Companies. 1998 .. Inc.

Inc. 1998 ..Figure 14-8 Multistage Switch WCB/McGraw-Hill  The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Local Area Networks (LAN)  Provide communications within limited geographic reach  Locality of Reference Temporal Physical  Low error rates .

Local Area Network (LAN) Shared physical medium Privately owned Broadcast network .

LAN Topologies Physical configuration of computers to achieve interconnection Star Bus Ring .

Bus Topology  Advantages Simple wiring Low cable requirement Easy to extend  Disadvantages Difficult fault diagnosis .

Ring Topology  Advantages Less expensive No wiring closet space required  Disadvantages Single faulty node may result in failure Difficult to diagnose fault Network modification/recon- figuration is difficult .

Star Topology  Advantages Easy to modify Centralized control  Disadvantages Single point for potential network failure Expensive .

in length  Connection separation of 3mts. .Ethernet: An example of Bus Topology  Carrier Sense on Multi-Access CSMA/CD (click here) Network/Collision Detection  Segment of 500 mts.

IBM Token Ring: An example of Ring Topology  Nodes form logical ring  TOKEN regulates the right of access Token Ring (click here) .

Distance Limitations & LAN Design Fair Access Medium Signal Weakening Transmission Delays .

Extending LANs Repeaters Bridges Switches .

Figure 21-4 A Repeater .

Figure 21-5 Function of a Repeater .

Repeater  Connect two separate LAN segments R  Limit of four repeaters  Limitation  Do not understand complete frames  Repeats distortions .

Figure 21-7 A Bridge .

Figure 21-8 Function of a Bridge .

memory & network interface  Undertakes frame filtering  Adaptive learning .Bridges  Understands complete frame B  Consists of CPU.

Switches  A hardware that includes an electronic device that connects to one or more computers and allow them to send and receive data .

WAN Technology  Packet Switch Packet  Two types of I/O connectors Switch  many computers can send packets simultaneously Used to Used to  Store & forward connect to connect to other other  Next Hop forwarding packet computers  Source Independence switches .

A WAN  Technology Switch Switch  Performance One Two Switch Switch Three Four .

25  Frame Relay  ATM .Examples of WAN Technologies  DecNET  X.

 A computer attached to a given network can only communicate with other computers attached to the same network .Limitations of Networks  LAN is designed for high speed communication across small distances  WAN is designed to provide communication across large areas  A large organization needs diverse networks.

Figure 14-14 Datagram Approach WCB/McGraw-Hill  The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.. 1998 .

Packet Switching PACKET Intermittent Transmission bursty no center store and forward .

and through which communication is possible Its underlying architecture is both hidden and irrelevant Shifts the focus from interconnecting technologies to the interface that Internet provides .Internet: The virtual network A user thinks of internet as a single virtual network that interconnects all hosts.

Figure 24-1 An Internet According to TCP/IP .

content filtering Firewall – Restricts/filters traffic to a network . Internetworking Devices Router • forwards packets from one network to another compatible network (eg: Ethernet Network to Token Ring Network. router cannot Proxy Server – caching. both using TCP/IP) • Decides on best path for data to be forwarded Gateway • acts as a go-between two or more networks (which may have different protocols eg: TCP/IP and AppleTAlk) • gateway translate packets from one protocol to another.

Router  A hardware component used to connect heterogeneous networks  Has a processor and memory as well as a separate I/O interface  Priority Control  Path Selection  Load Balancing .

Figure 21-11 Routers in an Internet .

Protocols for Internetworking

 TCP/IP (T C P I P)

Application LAYER 5
Transport LAYER 4
Internet LAYER 3
Network Interfaces LAYER 2
Physical LAYER 1

Datagram Delivery Service - IP

Connectionless packet delivery system
Virtual Packets
Packet size dictated by underlying
Time to live
Best Effort Delivery IP
Datagram duplication Data Link
Delayed delivery Physical
Data Corruption
Datagram Loss

Datagram Transmission

Fragmenting a Fragment

TCP: Transmission Control Protocol Connection Orientation Point to Point communication Complete Reliability Reliable Connection Startup Graceful Connection Shutdown .

TCP Connection Sending Computer Receiving Computer Send Packet 1 Receive Packet 1 Send ack1 Receive ack 1 Send Packet 2 Packet Lost Timer Expires Resend Packet 2 Receive Packet 2 Send ack2 Receive ack 2 Send Packet 3 Receive Packet 3 Receive ack 3 Send ack3 .

TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP): Provide Connections. APPLICATION: Provides Screen Presentations 2. Can Repeat Transmission to Increase Reliability . Combine or Break datagrams 3. Sends Segments as Smaller IP Packets. INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP): Breaks.TCP / IP (1) 1.

TCP/IP (2) 4. PHYSICAL NET: Defines Electrical Transmission Characteristics for Sending Signal Along Networks to Destination . NETWORK INTERFACE: Handles Addressing and Interface Between Computer & Network 5.

Inc..Figure 3-14 OSI Seven Layer Model WCB/McGraw-Hill  The McGraw-Hill Companies. 1998 .

Figure 24-2 TCP/IP and the OSI Model .

Packet Movement on TCP/IP .

Building of a DataGram .

according to Internet IP Layer Transport TCP requests resend Layer of missing/corrupted datagrams Application Data Layer Destination . Source Data Transmission Process Application Data Layer Fragmentation Transport Layer TCP Header Internet IP Header Layer Packets travel over Internet.

Layers used in routing Two Internet hosts connected via two routers The corresponding layers used at each hop. Source: Wikipedia .

all computers should have uniform addressing scheme .Internet Protocol Addresses  Remember: Goal of internetworking is to provide seamless communication system  Internet is an abstraction  To implement the abstraction.

Figure 24-3 IP Datagram .

The IP Addressing Scheme  IP Address : A unique 32 bit number  Arranged in a hierarchy  Divided into classes .

Figure 24-4 Internet Address .

Figure 24-5 Internet Classes .

Figure 24-6 IP Addresses in Decimal Notation .

Figure 24-7 Class Ranges of Internet Addresses .

Figure 21-17 Example of an Internet .

Figure 21-18 The Concept of Distance Vector Routing See This .

Figure 21-19 Distance Vector Routing Table .

Figure 21-21 Updating Routing Table for Router A .

Figure 21-22 Final Routing Tables .

Figure 21-13

A Gateway

Figure 24-8
Network and Host Addresses

Internet Services


Understanding Client Server What is client server 2-Tier client server 3-Tier client Server Kinds of Servers File Server Database Server Application Server Web Server .

Figure 25-2 Client-Server Model .

Figure 25-3 DNS in the Internet .

Figure 25-4 Generic Domains .

Figure 25-5 Country Domains .

Figure 25-6 Inverse Domain .


to Navigate Web Tool for Locating Sites.WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) Hypertext Tool to Create Dynamic Links to Same or Other Documents Tool Supports Graphics. Information on Internet / WWW . Hyperlinks.

What does the WWW look like ? .

Figure 25-27 URL .

Figure 25-28 Distributed Services .

Figure 25-29 Hypertext .

Figure 25-32 Static Document .

BENEFITS OF INTERNET TECHNOLOGY Whether connecting internally or externally you may use same technology .



BENEFITS OF INTRANETS & EXTRANETS Standard Documents Always Current. Coordinate New Documents Virtual Conferencing Project. Less Expensive than Paper Can Create. Order Tracking Simplified . Available.

Marketing) Too Slow for High-Speed Data Transfer Not yet as Functional as Groupware Require Tight Security Control and Careful Management Planning .LIMITATIONS OF INTRANETS & EXTRANETS Can’t Replace Large TPS Programs (e. Production / Operations. Accounting.: Payroll.g.

Are e-mail Contracts. Electronic Signatures Legal? . Hackers Steal. Transfer of Graphics. Safe for Large Business Transactions??? TECHNOLOGY: Lack of Uniform Standards. Video can be Costly LEGAL ISSUES: Need More Laws Governing Electronic Commerce. Use Passwords.INTERNET CHALLENGES SECURITY: Exposure to Thieves & Vandals.