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LA-2000

PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS

(TID-4500, 13th ed., Supp,.)

**LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY
**

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ALAMOS NEW MEXICO

REPORT WRITTEN: August 1947

REPORT DISTRIBUTED: March 27, 1956

BLAST WAVE’

Hans A. Bethe

Klaus Fuchs

Joseph 0. Hirxhfelder

John L. Magee

Rudolph E. Peierls

John van Neumann

*This report supersedes LA-1020 and part of LA-1021

=-

-l-

g$g?

;-E Contract W-7405-ENG. 36 with the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission

m

2-0

**This report is a compilation of the dedassifid
**

chapters of reports LA.-IO2O and LA-1021, which

11.a.sbeen published becWL’3eof the demnd for the

hfcmmatimo with the exception d? CaM@mr 3,

which was revised in MN& it reports early work

in the field of blast phencmma. Ini$smw’$has the

authors had h?ft the b$ Ala.mos kb(mktm’y Wkll

this z%po~ was compiled, -they have not had ‘the

Oppxrtl.mity to review their CC@.ributions and make

mx.m%xtti.cms to reflect later tiitii~e

.,

CONTENTS

Page

Chapter I INTRODUCTION, by Hans A. Bethe 11

1.1 Areas of Discussion 11

1.2 Comparison of Nuclear and Ordinary Explosion 11

1.3 The Sequence of Events in a Blast Wave

Produced by a Nuclear Explosion 13

1.4 Radiation 16

1.5 Reflection of Blast Wave, Altitude Effect, etc. 21

1.6 Damage 24

1.7 Measurements of Blast 26

**Chapter 2 THE POINT SOURCE SOLUTION, by John von Neumann 27
**

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Analytical Solution of the Problem 30

2.3 Evaluation and Interpretation of the Results 46

**Chapter 3 THERMAL RADIATION PHENOMENA, by John L. Magee
**

and Joseph O. Hirschfelder 57

3.1 Radiation Hydrodynamics: the Radiation Flux’ 59

3.1.1 The Hydrodynamical Equations Imluding

. Radiation 60

3.1.2 The Radiation Flux 61

3.1.3 Steady State Smearing Out of a Shock

Front by Radiation 66

3.2 The Strong Blast Without Radiation 68

3.3 The Opacity of Air 69

-3-

CONTENTS (Continued)

**3.3.1 High Temperature Opacity of Air 70
**

3.3.2 Intermediate and Low Temperature

Opacity of Air 74

3.3.3 Absorption of Air at Normal Conditions 84

3.4 Radiation Expansion Period and the Formation

of the Blast Wave 87

3.5 Radiative Effects in Strong Blast Period 90

3.5,1 Qualitative Effects of Radiation in

Strong Air Blast 90

3..5.2 Diffusive Motion of the Internal Radiation

Front 92

3.5.3 Radiative Cooling of the Hot Core 95

3.6 The Ball of Fire 98

3.6.1 Radiation Expansion Period 99

3.6.2 Radiating Shock Front 103

3.6,3 Expanded Ball of Fire 103

3.6.4 Ball of Fire Radius 104

3.7 Scaling Laws 104

3.7.1 Radiative Expansion Period 104

3.7.2 Radiating Shock Front 105

3.7.3 Strong Shock Period and the Total

Radiation Yield 106

**Chapter 4 APPROXIMATION FOR SMALL y - 1,
**

by Hans A. Bethe 107

4.1 General Procedure 107

4,2 General Equations 109

4.3 The Point Source 111

4.4 Comparison of the Point Source Results with

the Exact Point Source Solution 116

4.5 The Case of the Isothermal Sphere 121

4.6 Variable Gamma 124

4.7 The Waste Energy 130

-4-

2. by Hans A.10 The Case of Two Pressure Pulses Catching Up with Each Other 166 5.2. Efficiency of Nuclear Explosion 184 6.3 The Total Energy 182 6. Development of the Back Shock 161 5.6 Comparison with TNT Explosion. CONTENTS (Continued) Chapter 5 ASYMPTOTIC THEORY FOR SMALL BLAST PRESSURE.3 General Theory 137 5.5 The Motion of the Shock Front 145 5. 5. 6.2 Initial Pressure and Density Distribution 180 6.5 Results 183 .1 Introduction 177 6.2 Acoustic Theory 136 .2 The Initial Conditions of the IBM Run 179 6.7 The Energy 150 5.8 The Propagation of the Shock at Intermediate Distances 154 5*9 The Negative Phase.1 The Isothermal Sphere 179 6.1 Introduction 135 5.4 Second Approximation 140 5.4 The IBM Run 182 6. by Klaus Fuchs 177 6. .6 Results for Very Large Distances 146 5.11 The Continuation of the IBM Run 171 Chapter 6 THE IBM SOLUTION OF THE BLAST WAVE PROBLEM. Bethe and Klaus Fuchs 135 5.7 Scaling Laws 202 -5- .

CONTENTS (Continued) Chapter 7 THE EQUATION OF STATE OF AIR.1.1 Itosseland Mean Free Path 72 3.5 Approximate Form of Adiabatic for IBM Run of Nuclear Explosion 253 7.3.000 to 25. Peierls 205 7. Thermal Energy$ Entropy.1.2 The Range from 300 to 12.000”K 237’ 7.3 The Equation of State of Air at Low Pressures 240 7.1 Path of Acoustic Waves Starting from the Center ~’0~~ 23 Chapter 3 THERMAL RADIATION PHENOMENA 3.2 Rosseland Mean Free Path 73 .1.3.6 The Hugoniot Curve 234 7.1 Outline of Method 205 7.1.2.000% 237 7.4 Degree of Ionization 219 7.3 The Thermodynamkal Quantities 247 7.6 Approximate Form Used for IBM Run of HE Explosion 297 ILLUSTRATIONS Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1. by Klaus Fuchs and Rudolph E.5 The Free Energy.2 The Equation of State of Air Below 25.4 Collected Results 253 7.3 The Partition Function of Free Electrons 211 7. and Pressure 221 7.2 The Composition of Air 240 7.3.1.1 The Range from 12.2 The Partition Function of the Ions 208 7.1 Equation of State of Air Between 2 x 104 and 2 x 106 Degrees 205 7.1 Introduction 240 7.000”K 239 7.2.1.

9 Radius of Internal Radiation Front vs Shock Radius 93 3.2 Initial Pressure Pulse 158 5. P = 1 atm 86 3.12 Pressure vs Distance at a Fixed Time 196 -7- . 192 6.1. 82 3.9 Pressure vs Distfice at a Fixed Time 193 6.and 0~ 80 3.3 Pressure vs Time 187 6.10 Over-all Time History of the Blast Wave 96 3.6 Pressure vs Distance at a Fixed Time 190 6.11 Shock Temperature vs Shock Radius 102 Chapter 5 ASYMPTOTIC THEORY FOR SMALL BLAST PRESSURE 5.4 Absorption Coefficient of N02 for T ~ 300”K 81 . the Radiation Temperature Above 10.5 Mean Free Path of Radiation in N02 3.4 Plot of g(s) Vs s 172 5. 5.7 Pressure vs Distance at a Fixed Time 191 6*8 Pressure vs Distance at a Fixed Time.3 Three Shocks Where the Reflected Shock Will Sometime Catch Up with the Rear of the First Pulse 166 5.7 Mean Free Path of Radiation in N02. Symmetrical Equal Shock Waves 151 .4 Pressure vs Time 188 6.2 Pressure vs Time 186 6.1 Shock Pressure vs Distance for Nuclear Explosion 185 6.6 Mean Free Path of Radiation in N02.11 Pressure vs Distance at a Fixed Time 195 6. OOO°K 85 3.5 Overpressure vs Shock Radius 176 Chapter 6 THE IBM SOLUTION OF THE BLAST WAVE SOLUTION 6.8 Absorption of Ai5 T = 300°K. Radiation the Same Temperature as the N02 83 3.5 Pressure vs Distance at a F~ed Time 189 6.3 Mean Free Path for Absorption of Radiation ~by 0. ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) 3.10 Pressure vs Distance at a Fixed Time 194 6.

1 Data for Opacity Calculation ’75 3.13 Pressure vs Distance at a Fixed Time 197 6.3 Hugoniot Curve.5 P/PShock 54 2.3 Some Properties of the Blast Wave During Radiation Expansion Period 89 3.1 x/xshock 2*2 x/xshock 2.8 Some Other Useful Quantities 55 Chapter 3 THERMAL RADIATION PHENOMENA 3. 6. ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) 6.15 The Positive Impulse and the Energy in the Blast 199 6.6 ei/6i shock = T/Tshock 54 2.7 E#c shock 55 2.4 U/Ushock 53 2.14 Deviation of the Positive Phase of a Pulse at a Fixed Distance 198 .2 Values of Number of Electrons per Cubic Centimeter in Air 79 3. Density vs Pressure 236 7.2 Hugoniot Curve.3 ~/~shock 53 2. Temperature as a Function of Shock Pressure 238 TABLES Chapter 2 THE POINT SOURCE SOLUTION 2.1 Degree of Ionization 229 7.4 Some Properties of the Blast Wave During Radiation Expansion Period 90 -8- .16 Efficiency of Nuclear Bomb as Cornpared to an Equivalent Charge of TNT 201 Chapter 7 THE EQUATION OF STATE OF AIR 7.

and ~ as Functions of ps/pQ D “ 300 -9- ——.11 Pressure vs Temperature for Various Compressions 254 7. and Entropy 232 7.18 Smoothed E@ation of State of Air 291 7.10 Low-Density Equation-of-State Data 251 7. VA.i3 Thermodynamic Properties of Air at a Pressure of 1 bar 262 7.5 The Degrees of Ionization and Number of Free Electrons 222 7.16 Properties of Air Along the Adiabatic 284 7. Energy..12 Properties of Air Along the Hugoniot Curve 261 7.’7 The Adiabatic 233 7.4 The Integrals LV 218 7.1 4.5 Effect of Shielding 101 L Chapter 4 APPROXIMATION FOR SMALL y .1 Variation of Ratio of Internal Pressure to Shock Pressure with Gamma 112 Chapter 7 THE EQUATION OF STATE OF AIR 7*1 Ionization Energies 212 7. —— .19 Values of V.17 Rate of Change of Shock Pressure with Entropy 288 7.14 Properties of Air Along the Adiabatic Terminating in the Hugoniot Curve 263 7.15 Thermodynamic Properties of Air 273 7. a.6 Pressure.3 The Integrals I(Q) and J(a) 217 7.8 The Shock Wave Curve 235 7.2 Energy Levels of Nigrogen and Oxygen Ions 213 7. TABLES (Continued) 3.9 Partition Functions of Molecules and Atoms 244 7.

. \ . .‘.. 0 . \ .

. The particular features of the blast wave produced by a nuclear explosion will be emphasized. especially on flash burn and radioactivity. In this introductory chapter we shall try to give a general idea of the various phenomena occurring in a blast wave in air. including curves showing the pressure distribution as a func- tion of time and position. Bethe 1. 1. namely of the order of fifty million degrees inside the active material. side the HE. reports on the experience in Japan should be consulted. Only a short discussion of other effects is given in Chapter 3. We have not included any detailed discussion of the effects of sn atomic bomb other than the blast effect. but many of the developments in this volume will apply generally to blast waves produced by any type of ex- plosion. developed in a very much smaller space.. In the following chapters the details of the theory will be given. The temperatures reached are consequently very much higher. This has several consequences in making the two types of ex- plosion differ.1 Areas of Discussion Ih this report the general phenomena connected with a blast wave in air will be discussed. -11- . as compared with about five thousand degrees in- . Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION by Hans A.2 Comparison of Nuclear and Ordinary Explosion The main difference between a nuclear explosion and that of an ordi- nary explosive (denoted here by HE) is that in the first case the energy is . of their interrelation and their time sequence. For further discussion.

Air temperatures of the order of a million degrees can be expected. caused by HE and. even with a bare charge. less energy is dissipated in the blast . again connected with the concentration of the nuclear explosion. in the initisl phase. It is. Taylor in his first treatment of the shock wave produced by a point source explosion. the highest temperature reached in the air is about three thousand degrees. more energy is left in the blast by the time the blast pressure has become small. The solution for the blast wave originating from a point source is particularly simple (see Section 1. At a million degrees. radiation is very powerful and will transport energy through the air very easily. so that the blast wave from a nuclear explosion is simpler to treat than that from an HE explosion.. is the appearance of large amounts of electromagnetic radiation in a nuclear explosion. As we have seen. In the Trinity test it was measured that about 15 to 20 per cent of the total energy was emitted in the form of radiation which could penetrate the air to a distance of several miles. the energy released ?. on the other hand. should be just the effi- ciency calculated theoretically for a point source explosion. therefore. The effect discussed in the last paragraph is reversed when the over- pressure in the blast wave has decreased to the order of an atmosphere or less. I. This radiation has appre- ciable heating effects which manifested themselves in the melting of the sand near the Trinity explosion to a distance of about three hundred meters.3 and Chapter 2). This dissipation is greater the higher the shock pressure. A further point of difference. radiation if we have a nu- clear explosion. He found that the experimental pressures at small distsnces were lower. During all this period the pressure in the air shock wave is Iess than it would be for a point source explosion liberat- ing the same energy. the shock pressure is lower in the HE explosion than in the nuclear explosion. TIM most important of these is that a nuclear explosion can be con- sidered more nearly as a point source of energy than an HE explosion. by HE is transformed into blast more efficiently than that released by a nuclear explosion.ble time until the energy is trans- ferred from the HE to the surrounding air. The latter. at a given radius and at a given energy release. Therefore. lh the case of an HE explosion it takes a considem. therefore. III Japan the radiation caused intense heat over a large area and caused many -12- . In other words. or ultra-violet. This is due to the irreversible dissipation of energy (increase of en- tropy) at the shock front. than his theory indicated. In the case of an HE explosion. not surprising that a much larger fraction of the energy is emitted in the form of visible. while at three thousand radiation plays only a minor role. This phenomenon was already pointed out by G. owing to the great difference in density between these two media. and decreased more slowly with increasing distance..

This will start a shock wave in air which will spread spheri- cally into the undisturbed air. To summarize. Other differences. rather than the impulse. the heating effects are greater. As a consequence of this. or of deducing the energy release from measure- ments of the pressure: For this reason a special calculation was made of the pressure obtainable from a point source explosion as a function of the distance (Chapters 5 and 6). (3) The radiation emitted is greater and. deaths and injuries due to flash burn up to distances of nearly one kilometer. In the region of ordinary bombs the damage area is proportional to the four- thirds power of the energy release because the distance at which a certain impulse is found goes as the two-thirds power of the energy. 1. (2) The pressure at large distances is smaller. After a certain time this shock wave will reach the outer surface of the bomb and will then be transmitted to the sur- rounding air.3 The Sequence of Events in a Blast Wave Produced by a Nuclear Emlosion The nuclear explosion will produce a shock wave going out through the material comprising the bomb. The transmission of impulse from the solid material of the bomb to ~’ the air is closely analagous to the corresponding phenomenon with ordinary -13- . the duration of the blast produced by an atomic bomb is longer than the characteristic vibration periods of most structures which can be destroyed. are due to the much greater yield of a nuclear explosion as compared to common HE explosions. since the distance at which a given pressure is obtained goes as the one-third power of the energy release. Also. . Therefore. This difference in size actually makes a qualitative difference in the effects. the criterion for estimating the damage to structures by nuclear bombs is the peak pressure in the blast wave. The difference in blast pressure as a function of distance between nu- clear and HE explosions makes it difficult to use measurements made with HE bombs for the purpose of deducing the effectiveness of an atomic bomb from its energy release. for instance.. up to considerable distances the effect of radiation was observed in the charring of wood and other combustible material. of course.. a nuclear explosion differs from an HE explosion of the same energy release in the following points: (1) The pressure at small distances is higher. therefore. the area of damage by nuclear bombs increases only as the two- thirds power of the energy release. which is the commonly used criterion for ordinary bombs.

and later somewhat higher. Our considerations so far have not taken into account the existence of radiation. whether or not the propagation of energy by radiation is important. however. Therefore. the amount of solid material is much smaller in comparison with the energy release than it is in an ordinary HE bomb. it can be shown that. Methods were evolved to study the further development of the point source solution at lower pressures than are covered by the Taylor-von Neumann theory.HE. However.4 and in Chapter 3. It has been shown that the shock pressure is first ~omewhat lower.1) with constant y and A another constant. This point source solution will. to take into account variations of y as long as y itself does not deviate much from unity. we shall describe the phenomena which will ~ occur if the radiation is effective. after a certain time the properties of the air shock wave become very similar to the point source solution. At such high temperatures the effect of radiation is very great. In Section 1. therefore. It is possible. determine the transport of energy in the air surrounding a nuclear bomb. This proves the essential stability of the point source solution of Taylor and von Neumann. in particular. This effect makes it rather difficult to obtain the energy release from measurements of the shock pressure at very early stages. the transmission of energy to the air will be completed at relatively high pres- sures and from then on the blast wave will have in effect the same shape as for a point source explosion. In this case most of the material behind the shock wave is concentrated immediately behind the wave front and the -14- . The assumption of constant ~ is essential in the point source solution of Taylor and von Neumann. Fortunately. The first correction which has to be applied to that theory is due to the fact that the equation of state air cannot be described by adiabatic of the form P = Apy (1. we have mentioned earlier that the air may be heated t~ as much as a million degrees or more by an atomic bomb. These calculations show also how the solution for the shock wave approaches the point source solution when the mass of air in the shock wave exceeds the mass of the bomb. determine the further development of the shock wave as its radius increases and its pressure decreases. radiation can transport energy from one piece of material to another very effectively. Calculations have been made shtig the influence of the heavy mate~ rial in the bomb upon the structure of the shock wave in the initial stages. However. It is not yet clear to what extent this transport of radiation will actually o. than it would be for a point source.

this is quite cumbersome and it is not clear at what shock pressure the approximation will break down. from the beginning. In this case the limiting form of the Hugoniot equations is no longer valid. temperature. The numerical calculation of the blast wave was begun at a pressure of 80 atm and continued to a pressure of 1. A similar numerical calculation had previously been done by Penney. and material velocity were smooth functions of the distance from the origin. In principle. decided to make a complete numerical calculation for these lower pressures. pressure. As the overpressure in the shock wave decreases to a small fraction of 1 atm. (2) The calculation was done with an isothermal sphere at the center such as is expected due to the effect of radiation (see Section 1.4). -15- . which reduced tedious computing work to a minimum and increased the speed of operations very greatly. As in all calculations on shock waves it is assumed that the shock front is infinitely sharp. From this theory it is possible to calculate the asymptotic behavior of a shock wave at very large distances. (4) New data on the equation of state for air were available (see Chapter 7). The results show clearly the for- mation of a negative phase (pressure below atmospheric) in the shock wave. problem of finding the pressure distribution can. using the method developed in Chapter 4. i. This theory is a correction of or- dinary acoustic theory and is described in Chapter 5. It was. that the viscosity of the air is very . This method is developed in Chapter 4. However. and none of these quantities reached unduly high values near the center. (3) The use of mechanical devices for the integration made it possible to use fine intervals in the coordinate and in the time. therefore. viscosity and turbulence effeots will occur which will change the shape and size of the pressure pulse. When the pressure decreases to very small values.. The density behind the shock is no longer constant and similarity no longer holds for the solution. there- fore.e. it is possible to use more approximate methods to describe the further development of the shock wave. The shape of the pressure wave is very similar to the observed shape.. New phenomena will occur when the pressure behind the shock front ceases to be very large compared to atmospheric pressure. it is possible to continue calculations into this region. In this way erratic fluctuations in the early values of physical quantities were avoided. Details and re suits are reported in Chapter 6. be reduced es- sentially to a one-dimensional problem which can be solved.025 atm in the shock. therefore. The present calculation was facilitated by several circumstances: (1) It was possible to use IBM computers for the integration. small.

With decreasing pressure and temperature in the shock wave. The uncertain y is due to the fact that it is very difficult to calculate. but it is likely that it does not play any major role. Its interred energy changes only by doing work on neighboring material ele- ments. However. therefore. 1. a stage in which the propagation of radiation is faster than the motion of the shock wave. Actually radiation will continue to play an important role which will be dis- cussed in the next section. therefore. Such transport of energy can actually occur in various ways. whether such a stage occurs in an actual nuclear explosion has not been decided as yet. this is quite small under the circumstances considered. especially if the air itself is at high temperature (see Chapter 3). theoretically.4 Radiation The theory developed in the last section is based on the assumption that any material element of the air retains the energy it is first given. very little is known about this mechanism. occur at the very beginning of the process. This is due to two causes: (1) The fraction of the energy contained in radiation decreases with the temperature. that considerable radiative transport of energy will take place in the air shock wave produced by the nuclear ex- plosion. the influence of energy transport will at first decrease. The radiation has a very high mobility since it moves with the velocity of light. let us say a million degrees. One possibility is ordinary heat conduction. but there is no transport of energy from one element to another. We have described the history of the blast wave from high to low pressures without making reference to radiation except at the beginning. the trans- mission of energy from the heavy material of the bomb to the air in detail. however. This opacity is very small for radiation of high frequency. The greatest effects of radiation will. a considerable fraction of the energy is contained in radiation rather than in kinetic energy of the par- ticles in the air. The most effective transport of energy is probably by radiation. At the high temperatures which exist in the air in the neighborhood of a nuclear bomb. It is conceivable that there is. It must be expected. in the very be- ginning. -16- . Another possibility is convection by turbulent motion. The transport of energy by radiation will be de- termined by the opacity of the air under the given conditions. and (2) The opacity of the air becomes greater as the temperature of radiation and air decreases.

This volume is clearly proportional to the energy released.000 degrees. Further spread of the radiation would lead to a decrease of the tem- perature below the critical value of about one million degrees and.000. this figure was mentioned above as the critical temperature. It is a good approximation to assume that from a certain . From now on the shock front will move ahead of the radiation. in general. the radius of this hot sphere will be about 10 meters. The further spread of the radia- tion becomes very much slower and will. the phenomena are as follows: The radiation will spread very quickly and will heat surrounding air. In this case we have a 1.. the air shock and the radiation will still be affected by the details of the transmission of the shock from the bomb into air. and this process will stop only when the air temperature decreases to 1.185 x 1016 ergs (a million kilocalories). initially. In other words. For . an energy release of 10. The ionization is a very sensitive fuilction of the temperature so that an increase in tempera- ture by 20 per cent will make the ionization nearly complete. the radiation does not spread at all. At such a small distance of only 10 meters. to considerably higher opacity of the air. . The rate of spreading of the radiation decreases quite rapidly with temperature. therefore. the radiative stage will continue until the radiation has spread over an air volume of such size that it can just be heated by the available energy of the explosion to a temperature of 1.. A ‘ton of TNTT’ by definition releases an amount of energy equal to 4. lf there is. The heated air is practically transparent to radiation of high energy. Delay in transmission will reduce the im- portance of radiation in transporting energy. With normal density the temperature required for re- moval of half the K-electrons is about a million degrees. -17- .000 tons of TNT equivalent and with air initially at atmospheric pressure and O°C.000. Another difficulty is due to the very fact that radiation transport may be important in the air and may lead to an immediate loss of energy by those parts of the air which have been heated by the shock coming from the atomic bomb. therefore. Fortunately it makes very little difference to the later stages a of the blast wave whether or not there is a radiative stage. at least as long as the air temperature is sufficiently high to remove the K-electrons from the air atoms.000 degrees. be slower than the motion of the shock wave.. and inside of this a smaller sphere which has been affected by the radiation. point on.. The radiation will therefore continue to spread rapidly into new mate- ri&l.. We shall have a comparatively large sphere which has been swept by the shock wave. a radiative stage.

It is sgain a good approximation to assume that the temperature. . soon exhaust the energy supplied to the air by the explosion. This sphere contains a fixed amount of air. !. the energy radiated would be proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. To follow this process it is necessary to know the opacity of air as a function of temperature and density. The phenomena so far described determine the distribution of tempera- ture and density inside the shock wave. There are some gaps of low absorption so that the effective limit of transmission of air lies between 7 and 15 ev. through the air outside the shock wave. which is also reported in Chapter 3. the high opacity of cold air for high frequency radiation is a necessary -18- . including such an isothermal sphere. actually these calculations are greatly facilitated by the existence of the isothermal sphere. Our present knowledge of the opacity is still very incomplete because the calculations are extremely complicated. Nearly all radiation up to an energy hv = 7 ev is transmitted by air without absorption. and the pressure are uniform in this sphere. From the practical point of view. Calculations of the opacity are reported in Chapter 3. In this sense . but its vol- ume continues to increase as the shock wave propagates. and the energy loss by radiation would . even though the temperature of the hot air near the atomic explosion is extremely high. corresponding to a spectrum predominantly in the X-ray region. TM theory is in qualitative agreement with our previous assumption that the spread of the radiation sphere is slow compared with that of the shock wave after the temperature falls below about one million degrees.. sphere in which radiation has effectively equalized the temperature (iso- thermal sphere).. radiation could be transmitted. the radiation will continue to spread into new material all the time. the density. In reality. The isothermal sphere has also been taken into account in the numerical calculations at lower pressure (Chapter 6). but closer to the lower limit. we have attempted to obtain at least an approximate theory of the propagation of radiation. It all types of . e however. However. the radiation going out to a distance will still be confined to the visible and the near ultraviolet. All radiation of higher energy than 15 ev is absorbed by air suffi- ciently effectively to prevent transmission over distances of more than a few centimeters. is developed.e. This feature of the absorption by cold air reduces enormously the total amount of radiation which can be emitted by the hot air. Therefore. radiation has to be of long wave length. the most important radiation problem is the emission of radiation which can penetrate to large distances. Between 7 ev and the ionization po- tential of about 15 ev there are many absorption bands which absorb very effectively. In order to penetrate through ordi. i. of course. In Chapter 4 a theory of the blast wave. nary cold air.

the opacity of the air behind the shock front for visible light will be large. h this case any light coming from the very hot gases near the center will be absorbed by t~e gas near the shock front and will be re-emitted in the form of radiation charac- teristic of the temperature near the shock front. This problem is also of importance for optical ob- servations of the explosion. In particular. then appear to come from a sphere smaller than the shock front. This is be- cause the radiation energy in each Wormal mode!! of black body radiation is given by the Planck distribution (1. Since transmission is possible only for radiation up to a certain limit- ing energy. on the other hand. it is an interesting question whether the shock front itself appears luminous or whether the luminosity originates from a smaller sphere. If. The radiated energy is not necessarily lost to the bIast wave. Therefore. reduces to kTe The number of effective normal modes into which radiation can be emitted is determined by the effective limiting energy and is independent of temperature.2) which. The criterion for luminosity of the shock front is that the mean free path of radiation be small compared to a length of the order of the radius -19- . If that temperature is sufficiently high. about 15 to 20 per cent according to the measurements made at the Trinity test. the radiation will !. Even so. the fraction of the energy which is radiated to large distances is appreciable. but it is probable that this rarefaction wave will reach the shock front only when the pressure has already decreased to very low values. This depends on the temperature of the shock front. This will give rise to considerable heat effects. This brings us to the question of where the radiation visible at large distances comes from. of the order of 10 ev. the temperature behind the shock becomes relatively low. just like cold air. The energy loss will set up a rarefaction wave. The bulk of the radiation is emitted at a fairly late stage and from some distance behind the shock. condition for the production of an effective blast wave by a nuclear explosion. Only a few per cent of the total energy is radiated very early. Hence the ~?radiative lOSS of blast energy” is only a few per cent. In this case the radiation emitted by the hotter layers nearer the center of the explosion will be transmitted by the region directly behind the shock front without being appreciably absorbed. the emission from a hot sphere of air will be proportional only to the first power of the temperature. the gas becomes practically transparent for visible and near ultraviolet radiation. for hv << kT.

the transparent region near the center and that near the shock front will join if the air has its normal composition. This number in- creases exponentially with temperature. The measurement is. -20- .000 degrees. accordingly. This observation is easy as long as the shock wave itself is luminous. .000 . This criterion is fulfilled for shock temperature above about 5. easiest until the shock temperature has dropped to 5. The light seen at large distances comes then from behind the shock front but still from regions much farther from the center than the isothermal sphere. The ef- fective temperature of the radiation. At later times the luminous region is smaller than the shock wave. corresponds to a shock pressure of about 200 atm. as we know. In Chapter 3 calculations are reported giving the radius of the lumi. at the critical temperature of 5. which. The neutral atoms themselves are. at a certain stagez in the development of the blast wave.000 degrees.000 tons. This would lead to an emission of a very large amount of radiation. One very convenient way of doing this is by optical observation. upon 2. in- capable of absorbing or emitting any long wave length radiation. Present indications are that. The main factor which determines the opacity in this tem- perature region is the number of free electrons and ions.. therefore. This occurs when the shock radius is about 100 meters for an explosion of 10. nous region when it becomes smaller than the shock wave. This substance. of the shock.000 degrees air in equilibrium will contain about 1 per cent NO. because then the radius of the shock wave is eqyal to that of the luminous region. which might easily re- duce the energy available to We shock by a factor of 2 or more. It is possible to de- duce the energy release from a measurement of the radius of the shock wave as a function of time at early times. is higher than the shock temperature but much lower than that of the isothermal sphere. This layer is formed in two stages: at certain temperatures around 5. The luminosity of the shock wave is important for the problem of measuring the energy release in a nuclear explosion. namely the inner isothermal sphere and the region between the luminous sphere and the shock front. The cor- rectness of this statement depends on the fact that there is a region of high opacity between the isothermal sphere and the apparent luminous sphere. degrees the fraction of atoms ionized is about 10+. Only the free electrons can absorb light of long wave length when they pass through the electric field of the atoms. this energy loss seems to be prevented by the formation of a layer of N02 behind the shock front which is opaque for radiation. This region must be interposed between two regions of low opacity. Fortunately.

These hot gases will still be able to emit radiation and will do so to a considerable extent. The details of this process are discussed in Chapter 3.5 Reflection of Blast Wave. All this work “21- .. After a few seconds the latter mechanism will predominate and .000 degrees. When the pressure in the blast wave falls to very low values. these calculations can be taken only as indications and should not be con- sidered as firm predictions. and largely carried out by von Neumann. however. For the. The radiation which goes to large distances is emitted from the. cooling. therefore. These gases seem to be responsible for the absorption of all light beyond the near ultraviolet.000 degrees and 20. reacts ~ickly with oxygen to form N02. out in the N02 layer and will serve to heat tws layer and finally to dissoci- ate the N02. therefore. As they rise they be- come mixed with the surrounding cold air and are thereby cooled. It will then be absorbed further . at which N02 dissoci- ates. Owing to the considerable difficulties in calculating the opacity of air. that the radiative loss of blast energy is only a few per cent. Until now we have considered the properties of a spherical blast wave which would exist if the explosion took place in an infinite homogeneous at- mosphere. the experimental work is due -. Important modifications are necessary to take into account the reflection from the ground and the variation of the air density with altitude. The N02 i$ opaqye to visible md ultraviolet radiation up to temperatures of about 5. Altitude Effect. They will also have a tendency to rise in the atmosphere. to overpressures below 1 atm. they appear to be confirmed qualita- tively by the results of the Trinity test and we conclude. The analysis of the opacity indicates that radiation will be emitted by the hot sphere near the center and will go almost unimpeded through the air layer of intermediate temperature. an im- portant factor seems to be the absorption of light by molecules formed in the air by the shock wave itself. The most important absorbers of this type seem to be N02 and 03.000 degrees. The theoretical work was initiated . let us say between 5. There is. spectrum of the radiation visible at large distances. let us say. mostly to the laboratories at Woods Hole and Princeton. outside of the N02 layer... the temperature of the hot sphere will fall sufficiently to make the emission of light unimportant from then on. competition between the cooling of the gases by radiation and by mixing. which is highly transparent. 1. Etc. Much experimental and theoretical work has been done on the reflec- tion of blast waves from solid surfaces. the blast wave becomes entirely sepa- rated from the hot gases which remain at the center.

if the incident shock is weak. this simple treatment omits consideration of the fact that the dissipation of energy at the ~hock front will also depend on the barometric pressure of the air into which the shock propagates. The temperature “-- -22- . the actual atomic bombs were detonated at considerable height..e. a Mach wave is formed which appears to have a very complicated structure and which involves particularly high reflected pressures. This case is naturally quite important for a nuclear explosion and the lack of information makes it dif- ficult to interpret the moving pictures of the test explosion at Trinity after the shock wave has touched the ground. If the blast wave falls on the ground vertically. This dissipation will. The effect of reflection is of considerable practical importance since it can be predicted that a given bomb will be more effective in causing damage when detonated appreciably above ground level than when detonated on the ground. and that the duration of the pressure pulse will also be independent of direction.shows that the pressure is considerably increased by reflection from the ground. i. incidence. be different in a vertical and a horizontal direction. both theoretically and experimen- tally. for the same distance. This effect can be treated rather simply by using the obvious assumption that the energy emitted into a unit solid angle is the same for all directions. . -. energy release is the density variation of the atmosphere with altitude. Another important consideration in determining the most advantageous height of detonation is the height of the stem of the Mach wave. Very little is known. However. The height of detonation was determined from the expected energy release and from the available experimental information on the reflected pressures as a function of the angle of incidence of the shock wave. Most of the experimental work was done at overpressures of a fraction of an atmosphere. about the case of high overpressures. This effect has not yet received theoretical treatment. or at a moderate angle with the vertical...7 ‘The second effect of the stratification of the atm!wphere is refraction. r. then regular reflection is obtained which can be treated theoretically in an elementary way.. be modified accordingly. therefore. it will be different vertically above the explosion and in & a horizontal direction. This density variation has two different effects. and the theory has to . Only he. Another problem which becomes increasingly important with increasing . hind this stem can the high reflection pressure be expected. The first is that the pres- sure in the shock at a given distance from a given explosion will depend on the direction. For this reason.. It is therefore desirable that the Mach stem be high enough compared with the height of the objects to be destroyed. In the case of more glancing .

compensate the difference in sound ve- locity between different layers of air. It is seen that there is a maximum horizontal dis- tance on the ground at which a signal from the point O can still be received. generally decrkases with increasi@ height. Such a wave meets layers of air of decreasing refractive index and therefore will be bent upward and may never reach the ground. there will always be a finite pressure on the ground. or completely.1 Path of acoustic waves starting from the center ~1O~t IU the case of shock waves the situation is slightly different. the velocity of sound decreases.1 illustrates the path of acoustic waves starting from the center O in various directions. This gives the possibility of total re- flection of any wave which goes downward at a sufficiently small angle with the horizontal. Consequently. but also on the shock pressure. therefore. it is not knOWII what the rnlnimum overpressure is which will keep the shock wave on the ground. This pressure dif-’ ference will partly. Any point beyond the point A on the ground will not receive any acoustic signal. which reverses the dependence of the refractive index on altitude. No calculations have been made to determine the actual pressure pro- file in a shock wave moving along the ground. Accordingly the atmosphere acts like a medium whose refrac- tive index increases with altitude. __~ SILENCE —. The shock velocity increases with increasing shock pressure. ‘ZONE OF . Moreover.1. 1. although this pressure may be somewhat smaller than the pressure at slightly greater altitude. This means that the propagation velocity above the line AB is higher than below that line. referring to Fig. 8 / // _ . a zone of silence exists stai’ting at the point A.’ the shock wave &ists and therefore a high pressure prevails above the line AB. not only on the temperature of the air into which the shock propagates. 1. Figure 1. b this case the velocity of propagation depends. but not below that line. It is fairly certain that any shock wave which has sufficient pressure -23- .- I GROUND A Fig. a shock wave will actually not be able to leave the ground. Now.

. 1. Evidence from ordi- nary HE bombs points to the conclusion that. to predict the extent of damage which can be caused by a nuclear bomb. If there are condensed water droplets in the air. of course. The water d“roplets may be evaporated by the high temperature in the shock wave. that a peak pressure smaller than the static strength .. According to the last paragraph. to cause damage will show the phenomenon outlined. the opposite phenomenon may take place. these pressures cannot be deduced from observations with ordinary HE bombs because those bombs act according to the impulse criterion. tion occurs after the shock wave. For waves whose duration is short compared with the natural period of the structures to be affected. it is possible that condensa. It gives a very spectacular look to a shock wave if it occurs. There is no doubt that for nuclear explosions the simple pres- sure criterion is valid. the integral of the pressure over the time. In most cases the static strength . for pressure waves of long duration. It is possible. in that case. of course. i. @ll stay on the ground in spite of the refractive properties of thp air. The damage radius will depend on the type of structure sgainst which the bomb is used and the kind of damage which is considered significant. i.6 Damage The aim of the theory of the blast wave is. i. Further effects have to do with the humidity of air. On the other hand. in a fog or heavy rain. the impulse crite- rion is valid as would be expected from the short duration of the shock wave produced by such bombs. This effect may reduce the energy available in the shock wave. This evap- oration is facilitated-by a tearing up of the water droplets due to the strong air motion in the shock.e.2 to 5 tons. the impulse in the blast wave matters. This effect is analagcms to the basic principle of the Wilson Cloud Chamber. owing to the adiabatic expansion of the air behind the shock wave.. frop .‘.. there is some evidence that the impulse criterion begins to break down. If the air has high humidity but no condensed water droplets.e. . For the largest bombs used in World War II. There is some question as to what pressurep ~are necessary to destroy a given structure. the duration becomes im- material and only the initial peak pressure matters. It is well known that the criterion for damage depends on the duration 3 of the pressure wave. may suffice to destroy a structure because dynamic loading can be approxi- mately twice as effective as static loading. of the buildings is the best indication of the required peak pressure.e.

gamma rays. Industrial buildings. If the release is made at an appreciable altitude. It was mentioned in Section 1. proportional to the two-tl@ds power of the energy release. The neutron intensity decreases very rapidly with distance. therefore. The distance at which a given radiation intensity is found is proportional to the square root of the energy release. After they have risen to great height. Although blast damage is the most important. and is likely to be harmless. and especially concrete structures. If it is released on the ground a large fraction of the fission products is likely to fall out in the immediate neighborhood or at relatively small distances from the point of explosion. The deposition of radioactivity depends on the height at which the nu- clear bomb is released. but its range may be slightly greater. as is usually preferable for obtaining maxi- mum blast damage. The limiting pressure for damage from a nuclear bomb has been esti- mated to lie between 3 and 8 psi. The intensity of radiation is I = E/L2 (1.6. When they are subsequently deposited.3) where L is a given distance and E is the energy release. This type of damage is effectively limited to dis- tances up to 600 or 1. there are also other causes of damage which should not be neglected.2 that the damage radius is proportional to the cube root of the energy release if the pressure determines the dam- age. may have still greater strength. The damage area is. owing to the diffusion and absorption of the neutrons in air. most of the radioactivity is taken high up in the air with the rising hot gases from the explosion. Damage by gamma rays behaves similarly. as compared with the cube root for the distance at which a given blast pressure is obtained. -25- . Further types of damage affecting only personnel are those due to neutrons. for very large energy release. is discussed in Section 3. which may act against buildings and especially against personnel. the activity at any particular place is much diluted and also reduced by radioactive decay.000 meters and is very little dependent on the energy release. Therefore. The ball of fire. The most important of these is due to the heat generated by the nuclear explosion. These are discussed in Chapter 3. damage by the heat of radiation may become more important than the blast. the fission products are likely to be distributed over a very large area by the wind. and fission product fall-out. the lower figures holding for Japanese houses and the higher ones for continental European and United States city apartment houses.

in spite of intensive work on the theory and the measurement of blast. -26- .1. The evaluation gives a result in sufficient agreement with other evidence on the energy release. Another method of determining the energy release is from the shock” pressure in the early stages of the blast wave. including standard types. especially if it comes to questions like the reflection from an irregular surface. the energy could be evaluated from the simultaneous knowledge of shock pressure and radius by using the point source theory (Chapter 2). the shield- ing of buildings by each other or by intervening hills.. from a knowledge of the shock radius as a function of time. evaluation was made difficult by the fact that the explosion took place only 30 meters from the ground. The shock pressure can be deduced from the shock velocity. i.e. such as piezo-electric crystals. and newly developed methods. They are used for an evaluation of the energy release in the explosion. the only obvious way of measurement was by airborne instruments at a considerable distance from the explosiom. In an ideal case. on the other hand. It must be evident that. Probably the most reliable of all the blast measurements was that of the excess velocity of the shock wave over the sound velocity. Several other methods have been used for measuring the blast pres- sures. Our information is still very meager. For the Trinity test the various methods of measurement gave con- cordant results. It is only pos- sible to give approximate values for damage areas under average conditions. condenser gauges were used for this purpose. Over Japan.. the existence of heavy mate- rial near the center of the shock wave causes perturbations which can be evaluated only approximately. In the case of the Trinity test. For shock radii as small as this. Many different methods were used for the measurement of blast. or the dissipation of energy by obstacles. One of these is to measure the pressures in the immediate vicinity of the explosion by the use of such instruments as crusher gauges or simply strong bars which may be bent by the pressure. The measurements are compared with the theoretical relation between distance and pressure.7 Measurements of Blast Extensive measurements were made of the blast pressures at the first test of the atomic bomb at Trinity. this problem is far from solved. such as the condenser gauge.

the following things must be computed: (I) The trajectory of the shock wave. since the high pressure area caused by an explosion is not pro- duced instantaneously. of . and (II) the continuous . The high pressure area will imme- diately begin to expand against the surrounding low pressure atmosphere and send a pressure wave into it. flow of air behind the shock (ahead of the shock the ai~ is unperturbed and at rest). This requires the solution of a partial differential equation bounded by the unknown trajectory (I)..1 Introduction The conventional picture of a blast wave is this: In a homogeneous atmosphere a certain sphere around the origin is suddenly replaced by homo- geneous gas of much higher pressure. As the high pressure area expands.. hence the effects it causes in the surrounding atmosphere weaken. and hence its intensity (the density of energy. Mong this trajectory the theory of shocks -27- . Mathematically. it seems to represent a reasonable approxi- mation of reality. its den- . its decay. however. and to weaken gradually as one goes backward from that head. Nevertheless. sity decreases and with it the pressure. nor is its interior homogeneous. This description of the blast wave caused by an explosion is somewhat schematic. that is. nor is it in general exactly spherical. that is. To determine the details of the history of the blast. As the pressure wave expands spherically through the atmosphere it is diluted over spherical shells of ever-increasing radii. This pressure wave is known (both theoretically and experimentally) to consist at all times of a discontinuous shock wave at the head. and with it the over- pressure) decreases continuously also. + Chapter 2 THE POINT SOURCE SOLUTION by John von Neumann 2. of the head of the blast wave. . this approximate description offers very great difficulties.

June 27. It is easy to see. central. . Report .. One will expect that. However. I. -28- . This dependence wumot be neglected as long as the entropy change caused by the shock is important. partial differential equation problem. the original pressure will have to rise to infinity. 1. A201. Hence the differ- ential equation (H) itself depends ofi the shape of the unknown traj eatery (I). For very violent explosions a further simplification suggests itself. and the entropy in qpestion in- fluences the coefficients of the differential equation (H). The main facts in the discussion which follows were presented by G. 1943. the situation is further com- . plicated by the fact that at each point (II) the local entropy is determined by the entropy change the corresponding gas underwent when it crossed the shock (Q. The latter depends on the shape of the trajectory (I). The results were generalized by J. Report AM-9. that is. NDRC.imposes more boundary conditions than are appropriate for a differential . due to G. < tween (1) and (II) which should permit one to determine the trajectory of (I) and to solve (II). MS-69. and John von Neumann. June 30. B. (London).44) are . Sept. Sept. B. It is clear that of all known phenomena nuclear explosions come nearest to realizing these conditions. can have appreciable effects in the outside atmosphere only c if the original pressure is very high. We wHI therefore investigate the laws of the decay of blast wavei due to a point explosion of energy EO. how these two are connected. Clearly. . or by combinations of these. Div. Van Vleck. 18. Div. Taylor. I. . Sam. H. 159 (1950). indeed. eqyation of the type (II). or rather from a neg- ligible volume. Important sim- plifications (in particular.. 2. Roy. One will want the energy of the original high pressure area to have a fixed value EO. the use of the variable 0 of Eq. NDRC. and as the original volume cont~fiw EO shrtnks to zero> the pressure in it VZUlhave to rise to infinity. or numeri- cally. e plosion it may be justified to treat the original. which changes the mathematical situation very radically. To this extent the problem is a so-called tffree boundary?? . that is. as @e original high pressure sphere shrinks to a point. Mathematically such problems are altogether inaccessible to our present analytical techniques. Compare also the later work of G. Y. British Report BM-82. For this reason the general problem of the decay of blast has been treated only by approximate analytical methods. by the shock strength at a certain point of (I). and this overdetermination produces a linkage be. 15. Kynch. the blast coming from a point. 1941. For such an ex. as long as the shock is strong (in air a shock can be considered %trong” if the shock pressure exceeds 3 atm). 1941. 1942. AM-11. high pressure area as a point. Taylor. British Report RC-21O. Proc.

density. This property can be explained in the following manner: Denote pressure. and temperature in the atmosphere by p. T. ad the original (explosive) release of energy. and time (m. original energy release (explosion by the letters X. Then if our problem . 1. This means ~2t-2 = m~l. p.. p. length. The essential simplification permitted by this model is the so-called ~!si~laritY propetiy” of the solution. stated possesses a well-defined and unique solution. accordingly.- . the only combinations of the units of mass. EO. very high compared to PO. To put it more precisely. we will usually neglect po. S$nce the coutant c is needed to connect the dimension of T to the ‘tcgs” system. The mass and the characteristics of the point explosive are to be neglected... X.t) which can be significant in this problem are nil-3 and 1%-2.. Hence..mlctt2 -2 -2 -3 ml-3 = m!~t From this it follows that This will indeed be the case providing that 2/5 lengths ~ t mass ~ t6/5 . this solution must be unaffected by the above change in time-scale. The significant data of the situation are these: The original (ball of fire) values of p. 2t? -2 . Po. . Also. PO is n6t neglected!) Put. denote the distances from the site of the .. To. a lines change of time-scale. since the pressures which we propose to consider are to be very high. the equation of state of the atmosphere. in the same sense in which a genuine point source is being assumed. p = cpT. Ei = [c/( y – I) IT. po = O for the time being. that is. the caloric equation of. let t = O be the time of the original energy release (explosion).ml-3. p. ~ . as. Let the trajectory of the shock wave (blast head) be . state. -29- . Furthermore. and since the constant -y is dimensionless. the only dimensioned quantities which appear among the data of the problem are E0 N ~~-2 and PO . T ti undisturbed air. (However.. Now let t = et?.

2 Analytical Solution of the Problem We must now set up the e~ations controlling the two phenome~ re- ferred to in Section 2. We rewrite 2.. the situation is even more favorable. the partial differential eqqa.2”) at2/5 () . 2. Only a one-variable function. .11 and 2.1.. X=at (2. 2.- and alSO illtrOdUCe . but in 2. tions must become ordinary ones and the unknown trajectory of the shock is replaced by one unknown parameter a. .. 2/5F X. Everything can @ determined by means of explicit t quadrature. then let its position at the time t be x= x(x.. t) (2.1’) and Eq. X the Eulerian coordinate..3) “1%= a+ . f(z). As will appear below.2) (x is the Lagrangian. If a gas element had originally (at t = O) the (unperturbed) position x.2’) It is evident that these relations will greatly simplify the eptire problem. These are to be fcnmwlated With we hel of Eqs.1: .(I) the trajectory of the shock wave.1 must @tve the form g = ~tzls (2.1 ~ unc-ed: ~ = at 85 . is unknom.. 2. ) Now by the above Eq. (II) the oqn- tinuous airflow behind the shock. -3il - . . 2. (2.2! of Section 2..2’ we replace t2/5 by at2/5 .2 must have the form $rf+ () (2.

x = x = ~ . that is. density.8) Returning to the shock. The Hugoniot shock conditions express all that must be required at this point. Thus P= Po~]t =..p =po[8(x3)/8(X3)lt.4 to 2.o$($)t ‘Po$+a (2. mass velocity). To and With the mZWSvelocity 0. this gas was in its origi~l state of rest> iOeOYit ~d X = ‘O Since the shock causes no discontinuous changes in position (but only in pressure.O). md with the m. l)p + ‘(y + l)po -31- .5) u=— =~at [F (Z) – z Fl (z)] ()at ~ (2. They can be stated as follows: . F(z) = z = 1. give the conditions immediately behind it. ~ other words> the shock occurs at z = (I) (immediately behind it: z = 1. (7+l)P+ (’Y.e. x = O goes at all times with X = O.. 2. and it imposes upon F the boundary condition F(z) = 1 atz=l (2. behind the shock lies the shocked (compressed and heated) and then more or less re-expanded at- mosphere in the state P.9) — PO “(y. with z = 1. Eqs. i. hence X = x remains true immediately bebind the shock. velocity u= (ax/at)xo The shock itself has the velocity U = d~/dt. i.O). This gives for F the further boundary condition F(z) = O atz=O (2.4)” 8X -3/5 (2.l)PO <. at X =El (precisely X =E .6) Let us now consider the conditions immediately behind the shock. Ahead of the shock lies the unperturbed atmosphere in the state PO = O (cf. Thus.6 above.- . P (2.T. Section 2.7) We note that for reasons of symmetry the origin can never be displaced. Immediately before the shock got there..1) Po.e.

9’ and 2.10’ and 2.10 ?’ can be compared. (2.11) ● 2P0 i Considering p.4 to 2..9’) -Ipo u’—— U= r 2p 7+1P0 ’y+lp (2. since it conta$ns p.11?) 2 r ‘o . every partiole x of the gas has the same entropy .11”) . above). ~: atz=l (2.10”) 2 I?=—y+lo p U2 (2.UP*I /(y + I)p + (y . The flow of the gas behind the shock is expected to be shock-free and hence adiabatic. 2. We can therefore take for it -32- .6. Equations 2. n (2.10’) —. pp-? at all times after it crossed the shock.11’ to express p and u in terms of U.7. Z(P – po) u (2. = O (cf.12 at z = 1. This turned out to .l)pn v u= (2. That is. Equation 2.8 at Z = O is self evident.10) . putting z = 1 in 2. be equivalent to the boundary conditions given by Eqs.11” cannot be compared with 2. these become y+l P ‘y (2. which does not occur there.6 and using 2. Eq. Both give the same thing: J?’(z) . = vf2po [(’y + l)p + (’y. essentially of the shock conditions. 2. We rewrite Eqs.12) Thus we have exhausted the discussion of the physical p~=oblem in Section 2.7 and 2.. that is.1. 2.4 to 2. .

x.2!’ and 2. the energy principle leads to a differential equation of order 1.4 and 2. whereas the equation of motion would lead to one of order 2.t for a particle. 2. 2 -6/5 227-3 1 P =&@pOat (2.4 and 2.11 I we have immediately behind the shock Using Eqs. 2. 2..1. however. and p. A reduction of the order by another unit is possible in either case for reasons of symmetry. by O < z < 1. that is. i. i. and therefore the former procedure permits the -33- . and in it z. 2.X are connected by Eqs. With the help of these relations one can set up the equation of motion and thereby achieve a complete formulation of our problem. and using Eqs. It turns out. to consider the energy principle only. Given z.e.6 this gives z2y 8(7 – ~)?’ 2 -6/5 1 P= 25(Y + I)fil ‘o a “ [F(z)]2Y [F’ (Z)]y that is. 2. the value of Pp-y immediately behind the shock. P. t’ = @/2. Hence by Eqs. its x is at2/5z. of the continuous flow of air behind the shock. e. \.3.U are given by Eqs.14) y+l () y+l We now pass to the consideration of (II) in Section 2. 2. by the above. it is indeed adequate .13. And by virtue of unusually favorable special circumstances. that it is preferable to work with the energy principle instead.lt and 2. [F(z)]2Y [F’ (Z)]y where 2 y– ~Y +’— — (2. As we saw above.13) t.5. Since only one Lagranghn coordinate is involved (x). hence the t? at which it crossed the shock is defined by at 12/5 z ~ at2/5z. with the same x..91 and 2.t. this region is defined by O < x < ~ .3..

2*Z 1 (2) E2(Z) =~pOa5 — f{o ~-1 [F(z) ]2(~1) [F! (z)]~l -I. At any rate we are going to use the energy principle. but we do not propose to pur. J .z F? (Z)]2 ‘~ 25 } that is. This situation is mathemati- cally of some interest and not at all trivial.5 and 2.1) p/p and the kinetic energy 1/2 U2 (both per unit mass).reduction of the entire problem to quadrature. hence.13 z2y-3 E 2 -6/5 1 ~%poat 1 [F(z)] 27 [F’ (Z)]7 (1) e2(z) = 4Tpo — ‘y-l 22 1 J[ P. the total energy per unit mass is 1p +~u2 E=—— ‘Y–lp 2 The amount of gas in the spherical shell reaching from the particles x to the particles x + dx is the same for all t.3 to 2.- z 2(y-1)-3 . Consider the energy contained in the gas behind the shock.15) } -34- . “ sue this aspect here any further. 0 [F(f)]2 F’ (Z) 1 ~ ~2t-6/5 a3t6/5 22 dz [F(z) . or upon introducing z. [F(z) – z F! (Z)]2 tz dz (2. 2. It is made up of the inner (thermic) energy I/(y . and using Eqs. and hence we may use its value for t = o. which is clearly 4~Po x 2 ~. since it leads to an easier solution. Hence the total energy inside the sphere of the particles x is x c~(x) = 41rpo 1o e X2 dx x 1 ~+1 2x2dx ‘ 4Tpo — /( 07 –lp v ) .

e. Then Eq+ 2. and at t = O this (energy = O) would apply to the entire gas.15 we can draw two conclusions. This was a physical necessity for z = 1. its material content changes with t. The first conclusion obtains by putting z = 1.15 that the energy within the z-sphere is constant. u = 0). 62(2) of Eq. . < 1) be given. Indeed. [F(z) -Z2 dz Z F! (Z)]2 (2. The energy ‘of tie material entering the z-sphere. which its original surface does by expanding against the surro~ding pres- sure. i. in the time between t and t + dt is 1 p+~u2 4?rpo X2 (dx)t e = 4Tp X2 (dx)t o ( ~1~ 2 ) and using the form of the integrand in the first expression (1). This z-sphere contains the gas within the x-sphere. So we have 12 2(7-1 )-3 ‘o =~poa5 J-[ o — 7–1 +2 [F(z)] 2(7-1) 1 [F ‘ (z)]y-l 1 +. let such a z (> O. Hence E2(I) is the total energy acquired by the gas between t = O and present t > 0. of Section 2.. the right hand side becomes -35- . the equivalent of the equation of motion.e. < 1). that is. i.16) } The second conclusion obtains by considering a general z (> O..e.. 2. for the entire shock zone. 2. x = at2/5z. It shouid be noted that in making this last statement we are stating the energy principle. Let us therefore express the two energy changes referred to above and state their equality. i.15 repre- sents the entire energy within the shocked region. and clearly positive. Outside the shocked region the energy of the gas is O (since PO = 0. the x-sphere x = atzlsz. It is obvious that it must be iden- tified with the explosion energy E. This quantity is the same for all t > 0.1.15. 2. The constancy of its energy amounts to stating that the energy flowing into it with the new material that enters is exactly compensated by the work . From Eq. but for general z it is a new fact with considerable consequences. It is clear from Eq.

5. I z2y-3 32r 5-1 ~ 1 ~poat [F(z) .3. .- Equating 2.17 and 2. — [F(z)] F’(z) ~2t-6/5 ~2t4/5 22 2 -3/5 ~tz [F(z) – z F!(z)]z ~ at } that is. 2(y-1)-3 167r 5-1 2 1 fipoat — @z ‘Y–1 Z(y-1) { [F(z)] [F’(z)] Y-l 1 + [F(z) – z F!(z)]z Z3 dt (2.13. 2.17) ) The work done by the original surface by expanding against the sur- rounding pressure is 9 . ~2y-3 2 -6/5 1 &moat [F(z)]zy [1?’(Z)]y 47rp 2 o 0 ‘y-1 4 1 [ P..-+. this becomes z2y-3 2 -6/5 1 4r~5@poat [F(z)]zy [F’(z)]y a2t4/5 [F(z)]z ~ at-3’5 [F(z) – Z Ft (z)] dt that is. -36- . 2.18) 2(7-1) [1?(z)] [F’ (z)]y . and 2. .18 gives . 2.Z F!(z)] dt (2.2?!. and using Eqs.

~)V – 3(7 . ~2(@) 1 2+ + Z3 [F(z) . (z)]~ This e~ation is equivalent to the equation of motion.21) J?(z) = 6?VS @(S) the constant v to be determined later.2:. Then Eq.12.2). Hence all three are equal.7. 2.I)@ =-Z@ exp[2y . as pointed out earlier in this section. (3) 2Y3-2(7.1)($ + .3. 2(7 . if -37- . the values of A being (1) 2(7-1)-2(7-1)~-(7-1)(~-1) (2) 3+2v.z Ff (Z)12 -=-i 7 [F(z)] 2(7-1) [F! (z)] y-1 z2y-3 =2@ [F(z) .z Ft(z)] [F(z)] 2(7-1) [~.y(v . 2. 2.19 becomes 2 + exp(3+2v)~ [ g+(v– 1)@ 1 -t (v . 2.y Each of these three terms contains a hctor eAs. and they differ from the second by (37 .20) 5 = es (2.1) + V)S . 1)~-7(V-l)+V The first and the third are clearly equal. 2.16. Put (2.8) it contains the full statement of our problem while the con- nection with the given explosion energy EO is given by Eq. and thereby s no longer appears explicitly in the differential eqyation. and 2.19. We now proceed to the integration of the differential equation. Together with the boundary conditions (Eqs.l)v .

We first solve Eq.24 permit determination of z..23) ‘Y @2~’ld@ Z+va ) Now put that is. F(z)s F I (z) by one quadrature. zF?(z) = e ‘s w(s) (2. Recall -- (2. .23 becomes ~< that is.25 explicitly by parametrisation. wd then Eqs. @)2 + 2@ ~2(7-1) *Y ‘Y– 1 @ *2(y-1) *.25) Thus @* are functions of each other by Eq.1 = 0 (2. 2. -38- .23.24’) Then Eq.22) ‘= 37-1 So we have —+ (v-l)@ ds = –2+ (2. 2.14) > . 2.25. 3(7 – 2) (2. and 2.22. *-@ ~ 2 1 (w . 2. 2.

-#l-u-E . (2. or equivalently. 2..14’) Now Eq.25 may be written @l —- * 2* 1 = o +— #7-1) *(7+1) y -1 #’-v # that is. -2 Now pUt (2. () D -39- . Put -1 (2.27) . .28) y+.26) D =~y+l Then (2.

It is ~onvenient to define a new quantity O by (2. we first note that according to Eq.30) .Then the almve equation ~comes 62-2:++”0 that is.31) $5= ()~ -40- .29 (2. F(z).. 2. 2. and then z.26.27 gives * =D[(~-. 2. l) (2. F‘ (z) also. To do ms.28 give . Next Eq.- Substitutingfrom Eqs.l-D.g+D and then this relation and Eq.30.). and 2. +l]=. 2.29) We cm now express s explicitly in terms of 0. we get 2 y+l -W8+7 -l ~+l(o. 2.29.

2. J ~ y+l + d6 / 3(2 . and 2.27. 2. (2. 2..d is easily rewritten with the help of Eqs.32) . yieldhg _—1 dO _ 2 de +.24? and 2..28 and the positivity of 6 by Eq. W is intrinsically positive by Eqs.31. 2.x –1 e+~ + — 3(2 — d$ – 37-1 y) 37–lf3+y +(y+l)de g+l ) =[( 3(2 – y)e+!2y+l Ig+y ‘(9 + y) d6 = de – (e + 1)’[3(2 . the positivity of @ and X implies the positivity of q by Eq. 2.7)0+27+1 -41- . 2.yt along with F t (z) and X. Hence. Thus we require 0>0 (2.YQ -&- P s = 3 –10 (0+7)$–2 37-16+1 . J The integran.4 along with F? (z) and pi. 2.33) 13y the definition of w in Eq.7)6 + 27 + 11 0[3(2 .24.y)e + 27 + 11 .21 and Z.30. Note that 0 must be positive: @ is intrinsically positive by Eqs.29.

2.34 in the following fo&x Y 0+1 lno –~ln~ ‘=2y+l 13y2 .20. 2.]15(2-. [O = 1 clearly implies @ = 1.12 require that at z = 1.*(+)-2’5 p2 .21 and 2.)(2.7 and 2.22 we obtain 2%(0 .34) + 15(2 .’7.7)(27 + 1) Before we go further.34’ ) + 15(2 – Y)(27 + 1) 7–y Now we express the original similarity variable z in ~erms of 0: 13y2-7y+12 ~=e= s . 2. *.7y +12 ~ 3(2 – y)e + (27 + 1) (2.y)6 + (2’y + 1)] (2. using Eqs..31 and 2.12. ] Hence Eqs.24! this means that at s= O. . IyZ/’(. and it is implied by them since W/@ = (-y– 1)/(0 -I-y). let us express the boundary conditions. 2.34”) Next._+’(2. 2.34. we have 6 = 1. and they are satisfied if we rewrite 2.+1) (2.7 and 2. F(z) = 1 and F’(z) = (y– i)/(y + 1). @ F(z) = evs @(s) = 0 . .(y– 1)/(y + I). in the new parameters. Equations 2. 137 2-77+12 5(2y+l)(3yl) [ 3(2 – y)e + (2Y + 1) 7–7 1 (2. + . 2.Carrying out the integration we get S=c+ ‘Y lnO – -# ln(a + 1) 1 Zy+l 9 137” – 7Y + 12 ln[3(2 ..12 are just sufficient to determine the constant of integration c1 in Eq. 2.wemusthave@=l.. Eqs.. By Eqs.35) -42- . 2.31 and 2.32 this means that at s = O. and* =(y– 1)/(y + 1)* By Eqs.

Eqs. 2. It is convenient to express F‘ (z) and F(z) – zF~ (z).35 shows that this implies l?(z~’.37 we have 13y “-77+12 [ 3(2 . X. 2. u in terms of O. Hence Eqs.36) corresponds to the interval O < 6 ~ 1. The results are -43- . 2.33)] and show that the interval (2.32 give F(z) _. 2.4 and 2. 2. 2.34” and 2. and 2. 2.34’1 and 2.l ZF t (Z) 7–1 7–1 Using these relations together with Eqs. p.31 and 2.34?! (with Eq. 2.33) shows that z ~ O corresponds to 0 + O.22 that On the other hand._O+l_ 2 O.35 contain the complete’ solution of our problem in parametric form [2.38) We can now use Eqs. 2. 2.341! (with 2.3. 2. y)e + 1 7-y (27 + 1) ‘5(2~l)(3y-1) (2.8 is automatically ? satisfied: Eq. in terms of 6.34”.32. Eq.0. and Eq.13. These equations showthat the boundary condition. too.21!. 2. 2.5 to express x. p. We find using Eqs.

(2.y )0+ 1 T–y (27 + 1) (2-T) (2y+1)(3Y-1) (2.43) e. . 13y2-7y+12 [ 3(2 – )g+ 1 y 7-y (’y + 1) .42) 13y2-7y+12 ‘[ 7)6 + 1 3(2 - 7–y (27 + 1) 5(2-y) (3y-1) (2. -44- .. .40) 13y2-7y+12 [ 3(2 .41) .5(2y+l)(3y-1) (2..

1) P/p ~d the.t-y = . 2. Ci per unit mass by those C:. We need finally the expression for the total energy E.y)o + (27 + 1) 7-Y 1 (2. .44) 4(y-1) 2(yl) -~ 8 a2t-6/5 2y+l f3. We express the internal (thermal) energy I/(y . 1 giving an immediate physical interpretation of the parameter 0.46 gives again e’ c’ —= . E (3 —== (2..45) Hence. it is now preferable to use a different pro- cedure. E~ per unit Volumet Equation 2..Mnetic energy 1/2 u~ per unit mass -2(13 y2-7~12) 5(2wl)(~w~) [ 3(2–j)O 7-7 + (27+ V 1 (2. ~? 0 i -45- .16. e ()y+l 25(Y+ 1)2 2 2(13y -7yF12) 5(2y+l)(3y=l) [ 3(2 .46) 0 c. We replace the inner and kinetic energies Cc.. Instead of calculating it using Eq.

47 ~ connect the necessary constant a with the physically given constants E.. 2. hence it varies from the value 9 = O at the center to the value 6 = 1 at the shock. = Kpoa5 (2. [F(z)]2 dF(z) / 02 Now e? = PC = l/(’y . 2. while. hence Eq. 2.46. We will now formulate verbally some of .46 give a complete description of the physical situation.l)p.3 Evaluation and hterpretation of the Results The formulae 2. 2..47) where .47 ‘) [ 1 F3 being obtainable from Eq. 2.39 to 2. The center is at O = O: x = X = O.43 gives 1 i E.35. the main qualitative features expressed by Eqs.and liOW 1 (?+1 = 87rG3 — E.47 and 2.39 to 2. PO. The ratio kinetic energy/internal energy is 0. 2 y -7Y+12 3(2 – y)o + (27 + 1) &y)(3@) d(F)3 7–y (2. -46- . The shock is at @ = 1: x = X = ~ = at2/5.

_ .44’ ) 2&-1) 2 2-6/5e0 3 (2.s 2.41’ ) Y 2 (2. k other words: the first factor gives the value of the corresponding quantity at the shock. ~ hence can give rise to qo .> that is.39t0 2.1) in p. It should be noted that the three other factors become all (6’ + 1)/2.39’ ) (2.43’) P= ~pOat 2 (2. The formulae are valid2 for 1 < y < 2. These formulae are regular in the limit y ~ 1. 0+1 (2. At this point it should be mentioned that one reason for developing the theory in the present form was to facilitate application of the small ‘Y. 0 except for the pov?ers of 6. 4. and the factor (y + 1)/(y . -47- . singularities.1 theory of Bethe in Chap.45’ ) c =~at c -. We restate these formulae in their limiting form for y = 1 except that we conserve terms of ordqr (y .1) [but n~t (y .45 the ~-dependent terns are 1 for o = 1$ .3 + l(y-1) x = at2/5 ● 6 9 (2. This gives: 1.6.1)2 and higher terms] in the 6 exponent and the leading l/(y – 1) term (but no ofier terms) in p.40’ ) ~-2(y-1) 2 0+1 P ‘--=-ipo “03*— (2. m all formdae 2.42’ ) 2-6/5. at the shock.

Y)e + (2’Y+ 1)1/(7 – y) becomes 1. while the exponent becomes .39”) e 1 (2.45 become -2/5 (1-0) (2.~ (l-e) e 7-y that is -3/5 (l-e) e Hence the last factors in Eqs. [3(2 .44”) -48- . p).41”) e 1 (2. indefinite form l~. These cases may be discussed on the basis of the ex- pression 1 2-y 3(2 – y)e + (2y + 1) [ 7–y 1 This can be written 1 zy ‘ 1-(2 -Y) *(l-6) [ 1 This has the same y -. p.. ci.43”) . u. since its basis. ~c)t this factor is simply 1.42”) -6/5 (1-0) (2. 2.2 the last factor has to be considered separately.40”) -6/5 (l-6) (2. p. For ~ -. e 1 (2. p as above) it assumes the .2 limit as .39 to 2. Where @e exponent stays fitite (X. itiinite in some cases (x. but for the others (x.

0 and p + PO. with the above assumption 87/(27+1) = #(7-1) .3 u -.5 shows tkt PO/pshock has very moderate values: As y varies from 1 to 2. whenever 6 W. 2. 2. respectively. Equations 2. This is also clear from Eq.45”) ‘. with the help of Table 2.40~ even X -. 2.1. .39? and 2.o). furthermore. 2. to the quantities of matter affected. x ~ XT/(wl) for x + (). . It shows also that this tendency. also shows that p varies mostly near the shock. 3..48) ‘shock = A . Table 2. H -3 . as we saw in paragraphs 1 and 2 above. EC .~. Near the center ‘p = O. but p . too. The formulae which have been derived so far permit us to make some A general qualitative remarks about the nature of the point source solution. tem- perature T ~ ei u p/p -. 1 (2. -49- .3 shows in more detail that the density increases from O to its maximum value as one moves from the center to the shock.11~’ show that pshock a= ● Equation 2. referred to spatial positions with the help of Table 2.47. except the total one (that is. The other factors offer no difficulties at all. Already Eqs. Table 2. and this tendency goes to complete degeneration as y ~ 1 [y/(y – 1) + ~].5. These are the following: 10 Equation 2. this ratio varies from 1/2 to about 1/4.44 and 2. and only little in the region which contains little material. 2. < @ near the centir. That is. 2.@ near the center. Indeed. Table 2. and. ~cl W Eqs.39 and 2. < 1). re- ferred to spatial positions with the help of Table 2. Indeed. and 2. .1 (that is.- (2.PO where O < PO < ~.45 show.44. Since p -. for (~1)/(2p1) fixed= any fixed volume..6. O < P. . the mass in the sphere tends to O as y -.43 (with 0 = 1).47? show more specifically that E. By Eqs. Table 2. that ~i . . and as y approaches 1 all material gets asymptotically into positions near the shock.1. goes to complete degeneration as y ~ 1. 4. the amount of material within the sphere of radius X (47r/3 X3) decreases with a high power [y/(y – 1)] of the volume of that sphere (47r/3 X3).0 can be omitted if y .2.5. .41 shows that the density vanishes at the center. and 2. 2.2.40.0 near the center.1.1’. . shows even more: most material is situated near the shock.

these tendencies accentuate more and more.48’ ) 25(y + 1) K 87r J as in 2. . while p tends to constancy.1.1 to 2. The gradually emptying region around the center has p degenerating to O. and all material concentrates in the im- mediate vicinity of the shock. they go finally to complete degeneracy. T a Ei degenerating to ~.47 ~ TO sum up: The point source blows all material away from the center. ~= 8 l__3(y-1) 1 (2.where . with moderate values of p/pshock* As y -. Tables 2. -50- .8 give numerical values of some relations discussed in this chapter.

2487 0.8 1 0 0.3312 0.8 1 0 0.1025 0.7546 1 0 0.9104 1 1.7233 1 0 0.1736 0.4892 0.2919 0.6 0.8977 1 1.5330 0.8103 0..2 0.4 0.9196 ‘1 1*2 o 0.6 0.5848 0.3640 0..5655 0.grangian label.7140 0. — x shock =-= ~ ( mass within shock ) z where x is the Lq.7368 0. value of z is in upper left corner and Z3 .4 0.5579 0.6633 0. 1/3 x x mass within 0 sphere .8269 0.7879 0.8434 0.4679 0.6919 0. t I I I 0 7 0 0. Table 2.4381 0.7775 1 o’ 0.1869 0.1514 0.6289 097595 0.6829 1 -51- . in lower right corner.1 . h .5321 0.8806 1 2 lLL__L__o 0.5026 0.2 0.4 0 0.9283 I 1 0 0.667 0 0.

9192 .4021 0.9571 1 2 0 0.5925 0.9521 1 0 0.8907 0.9305 0.8111 0.8747 0.9838 1 1.4 0.9763 1 0 0.9372 0.8961 0.2 0 0. Table 2.7436 0.9060 0.8231 0.8767 1 -52- .4 0 0. where X is the Eulerian positiom. 0 0.8 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0.2 0.2 1/3 x x = volume within 6 sphere x shock —— g ( volume within shock ) = F(z) .9440 0.66’ .9723 1 1.9621 0.1 0 0.6 0.9920 1’ 1. value of F(z) is in upper l@t corner and F(z)3 in lower right corner. 0 7 0 0.9810 0.

1508 0.9229 1 -53- .6 0.8820 0.3083 0.2 0..1200 0.2 0 0.4800 0.7240 1 1.4 0.3358 0.7200 1 1.2 0 0..8685 0.4 0 0.9236 0.7872 0.1 1 1 1 1 1.667 0 0.4 u u shock e ‘Y o 0.6929 0.7271 1 . Table 2.667 0 0.8 1 1 0 0.8027 0.3223 0.4901 0.1682 0.9659 1 1.2 0.8793 0.4978 0.6 0.6039 0.8363 0.4 0 0.5052 0.9460 1 2 0 0.8 1 I 1 0 0.7279 1 2 0 0.7349 0.1868 0. Table 2.7265 1 1.4 0.9592 0.9279 0.3 .2800 0.9821 1 1.1362 0. P ‘shock o Y o 0.5107 0.2954 0.

1526 1.6667 1.8 0.8659 2.2508 0.6107 1. Table 2.4674 0.2057 1 1.6550 0.8143 1 2 0.8 1 I 1 C+3 5 2.3656 0.7079 0.2 0.4 I 0.1187 1 2 00 1.8473 1 1.4235 0.667 0.1656 1.2 0.8236 1.3502 1.6 0.7515 0.6 0.3407 0.667 a 2.8857 1.6 0.5333 1.5 0.2 co 3.7 0.1662 1 1.5266 0. ~ T shock shock 0 -Y 0 0.3062 0.4 m 3.6360 0.8 1 1 0.5 1.4 0.4534 0.5952 0.7741 ‘ 1 Table 2.0988 1.4006 1.6 5 =— T E.4 0.5814 0.8730 1 1.2 0.2500 1 1.9 1 1.2967 1.4037 Q.5 P ‘shock 6 Y o 0.5191 0.0646 1 -54- .4219 1.

7543 0.2 0 0.7780 0.48? 1 0.9645 1 1*4 0 0. 2.312 0.2 0. 2.3647 0.6993 0. 2.242 2 0.0825 1.8510 0.47’.5401 0.8517 1 Table 2.329 0.155 1. (2) The significant quantity is A/(y– l).250 1.9200 0.2 0.289 1.8531 0.308 0. see Eq.4 0. 2.48~.7 E c z----- c shock Y 0 0.8 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1.764 0.350 0.4928 0.4 0.667 0. Table 2.4801 0.47~ K of Eq. -55- .47? A of Eq.7732 0.6 ‘0.6198 0.8 SOME OTHER USEFUL QUANTITIES Y 1of Eq.8950 1 2 0 0.9330 1 1.8611 0. 2.341 (1) The significant quantity is (y– I)IQ see Eq.6443 0.667 0 0.

.

we shall generally refer to a nuclear explosion re- leasing energy equivalent to 10. actually about one-third. A strong air shook wave develops when the radiation front is about 10 meters out and the air temperature has dropped to about 300 . about ‘a million degrees at the time a typical nuclear bomb bursts its case.Chapter 3 THERMAL RADIATION PHENOMENA (Revised 1953) by John L. A l~on of TNT?? by definition releases WI amount Of energy eqld to 4. This perid is characterized by having the air heated to a high temperature by radiation before it is set in motion by hydrodynamic effects. the temperature is so h3gh that radiation presents the most rapid mechanism for energy transfer. First of all it is intimately associated with the fortition and the development of the shock wave. as compared with five thousand degrees inside an ordinary high explosive. Hirschfelder The most profound differe@e between a nuclear and a chemical ex- plosion is that the former liberates its energy in a much smaller volume. Secondly. Conse- quently.000”K. This has the consequence that the temperature created in a nuclear explosion is much higher. After this time. there follows a period of “radiation expansion” which lasts through- out the first 10 meters or so. Thermal radiation plays a dual role in atomic explosions. of its total energy in the form of thermal radiation.i When the effects of such an explosion reach the ease of the bomb.000 tons of TNT. NIagee and Joseph O.185 x 1016 ergs. -57- . the thermal radiation emitted to large distances is responsible for a great many persomel casualties by skin burns and is re- sponsible for damage to structures by incendiary action. This means that a nuclear bomb will release a significant fraction. For definiteness. the shock wave runs ahead and the radiation front moves 1.

The ball of fire is defined.. This body of hot gas radiates strongly. ~’ is so hot that it is transparent to its own radiation. Finally. temperature interior from escaping. Finally. adding strength to . For a while this shell absorbs energy from the hot core and transmits it to the shock front. however. The formation of molec- ular absorbing materials. This energy loss does not weaken the shock.more slowly. The material enclosed in this sphere. Finally in the last section. since the blast wave out-distances hydrodynamical signals from the ball of fire at this stage. The radiation phenomena in the air blast are thus described only in the last three sections and some readers may prefer starting with Section 3. the shock front cools down and becomes transparent. the term isothermal sphere is there- fore appropriate. Because of the ease with which radiation can travel between any two points within this sphere. radiation from the core is transmitted through the fringe of surrounding air which is also hot enough (.4 for the first reading. The shock front stops radiating at about 100 meter radius. thermal gradients cannot exist. and up to this time a rather negligible amount of radiation has been lost. that this description of radiation phenomena in the air blast is rough and largely qualitative. bounded by the t’internal radiation frent. by radiation and shock energy is being lost in the wave lengths which cold air transmits. the radiation emitted from the ball of fire as a function of time is considered. It might be more satisfactory to include radiation in the hydrodynamical treatment of the blast problem at the start. at temperatures between 2000 and 5000”K forms a protective shell to prevent radiation from the higher <. The next two sections consider the role thermal radiation plays in the formation and subsequent development of the shock wave. and most of the observed radiation energy comes out in a few seconds (three or so) after the formation of this sphere. as the total mass of air which is hot enough to radiate visible light. The motion of the radiation behind the shock is probably of minor i~portance to the behavior of the blast. for example N02.5000”K) to radiate. The radius of the ball of fire is about 200 meters at this time. At first the front is hot enough to radiate as a black body. It is convenient to introduce at this point two terms which will later prove useful. the blast. approximately O. for this discussion. Throughout the history of the air expansion.3 per cent of the total yield. perhaps. The first three sections in this chapter deal with the laws of radiation and hydrodynamics divorced from atomic bomb considerations. It should be emphasized. rather than to attempt to describe the effects -58- . The hot inner core from which the blast originates will be called the isothermal sphere. It has been neglected alto- gether in the other blast treatments in this volume. radiation now comes from the higher temperatures behind.

000. E(int) per cubic centimeter. be 8 x 109 ergs/cm 3 . -59- .the radi- ation pressure is only one-fourth of an atmosphere.1) rad 3 X 1.1 Radiation Hydrodynamics: the Radiation Flux h general hydrodynamics there are two ways for radiation to play a role: (a) radiation is a means far transporting energy.523 atm and negligible compared to the material pressure (which would be considerably greater than 100.67 x 10-15 erg/cm3deg4. bomb materials.000 atm at such a time).1 to 1.2) p(atm) x 1. and T is the temperature in degrees Kelvin. When the temperature has dropped to 100.000”K. Similarly the radiation energy. 7.2. since Erad(per cm3) = aT4 = 7.0132 X 106 Here a is the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation constant.3) (Y – 1) Here y is the specific heat ratio which might have a value ranging from ‘y = 1. 000”K.67 x 10-15 T4 erg/cm3 (3.000 . as perturbations as we have done in this chapter. and (b) radiation exerts pressure. There are also influences of gamma radiation. it is the transportation of energy by radiation which is of most interest here and we consider the radiation flux in some detail. the radiation pressure would only be 2. Con- sequently. In order for the material internal energy to exceed this it would only be necessary for the pressure to exceed 1000 or 2000 atm (in place of the hundreds of thousands of atmospheres it would have at such a time). negligible compared with material pressure. E(rad) per cubic centimeter. the temperature (-106 “K) is sufficiently low so that radiation pressure is. 3. At the time that the explosion of a 10.523 x 10-21) T4 atm (3. If T were 1. OOO’K. is negli- gible compared to the material internal energy. Lf T were 1. are believed to be correctly described. E(rad) per cubic centimeter would .. however. radiation pressure is given by 4 7. Under equilibrium conditions. The principal thermal radiation effects.000 ton nuclear ex- plosion bursts into the air.67 x 10-15 T* P =~aT = = (2. and turbulence on the radiation effects which are neglected here.0132 x 106 Eint@er cm3) = ergs/cm3 (3.

thermal effects.5) Here (8E/8t)1 is the rate of change of energy due to the mechanical. and (tlE/8t) (rad) is the net increase in E per second due to radiation. etc. radiation does not effect the equa- tion c)f continuity (since radiation has no mass).4) Y where p is the density of the matter (gm/cm3) and u is its velocity (cm/see).1. 3. The hydrodynamical equations are discussed in Chapter 2. it foUows that (3. Then the time rate of change of E (at a fixed location) can be written E‘(31+(z)rad (3..7 makes it possible to introduce the effeqt of radiation flux in the equation for conservation of energy where it was previously neglected.6) Or. -60- . and B is the radiation energy emitted per second per cubic cen- timeter. nor the equation of motion (since we can neglect radiation pressure). since A – B is the negative of the divergence of the radiation flux. 3. we can write (3. and it only modifies the equation of energy conservation t@ough the flux of energy in the form of radiation. The existence of thermal. visc~us.7) Equation 3.1 The Hydrodynamical Equationsz Including Radiation For the case of radial symmetry (where r is the distance from the 2. If A is the radiation energy absorbed per second per cubic centimeter. Now let us consider the effects of radiation on the general hydrodynam- ical equations. Let E be the total energy (per cm3). then E=+l+ :PU2 + Erad (3.

and S. _—— 1 8p (3. Rosseland. dp . Some useful references on radiative transfer are S. neglecting P(rad). Intro- duction to the Study of Stellar Structure. Chandrasekhar. 3. Theoretical Astrophysics. Chandrasekhar. Oxford._pa – — (r2u) (3. 1950.10) By algebraic manipulations of these relations it is possible to obtain an equation for the rate of change of entropy. This can be written in the form ~ ln(pp-’) = (Y ~) – & (r2F) (3.11 is the radial component of the vector quantity.10 and 3. (2) Equation of Motion ~u . 1936.1. Oxford. and thermal conductivityy but including radiation flux. the hydrodynamic equations become (1) Equation of Continuity .8) m ~2 W . 3. S. E(rad). University of Chicago Press.2 The Radiation Fluxs From very simple elementary considerations it is clear that the flux 3. 1939. -61- . Clarendon Press.p t)r (3) Equation of Energy Balance d12 x [T“ P + P(7 – 1) 1=_la’2 —2 ~ pr (r F) (3.11) pr2 k these equations. the symbol d/dt represents the substantial derivative (3. viscosity. F.12) The radiation flux. Clarendon Press. in Eqs. Radi- ative Transfer. center and t is the time).9) dt .

y. zq —m 47rL2 dx~dy?dz? (3. Clearly Jo -62- .L) is the cosine of the angle that this line makes with the x axis. not in their most general form but should be satisfactory for treating the radiation phenomena resulting from a nuclear explosion. and COS(X. 13vxf. y?. #V (~m-~) for the frequency v. is to be taken along the line joining the two points.of radiation can be expressed at any point in space as an. y. z). y?. z). Z) dv (3.13) and (3. (x~.14) From geometrical c~nsiderations it follows that the component of ~V(x.L) 4 Fxv(x. z) in the x direotion.15) Here L is the distance between (x9. integral over all space.y. A great deal of the complication in radiative transfer problems comes from scattering. Let us suppose that the material has a coefficient of absorption. Then it is desirable to define. Also. zt ) and (x. therefore. z) = J o i?v(X. z~). S or (x. Fortunately. for this frequency range so that @ F(X2y. Radiation which reaches the point in question. FXV(X. y~. the radia- tion flux. y. The integral. z? ) is the energy emitted per cubic centimeter per second from the point (XI. y. z) = . scattering cannot have an appreciable effect in our problems of interest and so we completely neglect it from the start.y!. or (b) it was scattered once or more before reaching the point S. 3V. L #VdLT. z). z?) by the integral J(7f COS(X. there are two possibilities: (a) the ray came directly from the point of emission.y!. y. z Y) in this frequency range per unit frequency interval. can be expressed in terms of MVand BV(X’. BV(x~. y?. Qur equations are. must have been emitted by the matter at some other point.

~ 1 x “(x’) ‘x Here . Suppose that conditions only vary in one direction and the x axis is taken to be perpendicular to the plane of stratification.15 depends upon the fact that scattering has been neglected. p 1. (@?.x)il} (3.15.18) where TV(X! . It is clear that Fy and FZ must vanish. for FXV can be simplified by replacing the cartesian coordinates by the cylindrical coordinates. to the penetration of radiation through the cold air to points far ahead of the shock wave. we have finally x m Fxv(x) =. There are three conditions under which the radiation flux can be further simplified: (1) uniform distribution of matter at constant temperature over some part of space. ITV(X’.16) And integrating over s. comparatively easy to determine the radiation fhk for any one-dimensional problem where ‘the coefficient of absorption and the rate of emission are -63- . x) 1] is the exponenti~ integr~. (2) any one-dimensional problem. x)ll + ]TV(X’. (3. The first case corresponds.kes it . Now eliminating the variable p ~ in terms of the new variable. and (3) any system having very intense absorption. The third case leads to Rosseland~s mean free path treatment for the diffusion of radiation.x)! Ei[. COS(X. 3. Equation 3017 ms. s = (X?2 + pT2)l/2. The integral. l?q. The second case represents an approximation to the spherical geometry when the radius of the point in question is large compared to the mean free path of the radiation. The integration over @~ can be made immediately giving a factor of 2T.x) =r xl x /iv(x”) Cw (3. x! ). (3. The validity of Eq.L) = (X’ – x)/L.19) and Ei[– l~v(x~. Gv(xy) -= Bv(x’) {exp[– ITv(x’. One-Dimensioned Radiation Flux Problem. 3.17) / -G”(x’) “ .

y.Y) auv exp[-Lyv(x. the energy density. 8uv/8y. up. Uv. z (x? -x)+— () fly x. The radi- ation emitted per cubic centimeter per second would be emal to this since a radiative equilibrium would exist Bv = cu#v (3. (x! . z)] + () m x. If the medium were of infinite size and at constant temperature. z (Y’ . z) + — ax x. T.21 where Uv is characteristic of the local temperature.known as a function of distance. The radiative flux can be expressed in a si~ple form if the absorption of radia- tion is so intense that the radiation is in local thermodynamic equilibrium with the matter. of the radiation (in unit frequency range) would be characteristic of a black body at the temperature. z r ). of the matter . the energy absorbed in ‘WS frequency range per cubic centimeter per second would be Cuvpv. 3. _ 8nhv3 1 u (3. Then to a first approximation. Z) = – cflv J’7’[ () -Ca Uv(x. y. z). y. 3. ~(x?. y. . y. B.20) v ehv/kT _ ~ c’ If the matter has a coefficient of absorption.22) Integration of the terms involving. Eq.15 becomes to the first approxi- mation m 8UV ally Fxv(x. and fMv/iIz gives zero since the integrand is antisymmetrical with respect to the term.21) Now consider a situation in which the temperature varies so slowly that in a distance of I/pv very little change has taken place in Uvflv for all frequencies. is given by Eq. y. z (Zf . y. The < remaining contribution can be integrated immediately in terms of spherical coordinates to give -64- . pV.z) ‘x’: 1 ‘) 47rL2 dx? dyt dzr (3.x). yl. Then if we make a Taylor’s series expansion of UV in the neighborhood of (x. Intense Absorption of Radiation and the Method of Rosseland. To the first approximation pv varies sufficiently slowly with distance that it may be taken locally to be constant..

25) Rosselands defined a mean free pati.27) J“~ o dT dv 4. Z) = . 3.13 the totql flux is given by (3.exp(-hv/kT)]. . The only result of the inclusiop of this effect is to multiply the abso~- tion coefficient by the factor [1 . Discussion of induced emission has been neglected in this treatment. ~. Fxv(x.24) 3pv dT 8X Then according to Eq.y. Z) = – $ — (3.26) 3 ax 3 nTFEi- And since 4 ‘u dv E =aT = rad / Ov a comparison of Eqs.~ (3.23) ~ 8X But since u is a function only of the local temperature. 3. 3.25 and 3. -65- .26 shows that4 (3. See any text mentioned in Ref. auv FXV(X. we can express this relation in the form du — v —8T .. y. for the thermal radiation such that Fx = -—— c! +3 8E rad = -—%3 d(aT4) 8T (3.

Berlin. Because of radiation. NIaccoll in W. Let us idealize the situation by assuming that the shock velocity. 3. l% this coordinate system.10. do not vary with time. 3. 3. -66- . If the mean free path is AR. Ts.26. III. At any one time 1/6 of the photons are moving in the x direction and 1/6 are mov- ing in the opposite direction.10]. C. VO1.onsider a coordinate system moving in the z direction with the velocity R. W. Light travels with the velocity c. Taylor and Macco115 showed that this smearing out does not affect the shock velocity or pressure. the temperature of the shocked material is Ts quite independent of r. Eq. R. the shock temperature. and the shock radius.3 Steady State Smearing Qut of a Shock Front by Radiation . the flux for radi- ation is given by Eq. The energy equation. and Eq. . The Rosseland definition of the mean free path corresponds to simple kinetic theory of gas arguments. The material in front of the shook front has the density PO. becomes for the material in front of the shock (3. Aerodynamic Theory.28) Here the internal energy per gram has been written in the form CVT [rather than the equivalent form p/p(y – 1) as given in Eq. where Cv is the specific heat per gram of the material at constant volume. 1934-1936. Editor-in-Chief. G. the temperature and pressure at a shock front are smeared out so that there is no longer a mathematical discontinuity. L Taylor and J. H. R.28 can be integrated to give 5. Let z be the distance in front of the shock. is so large compared to the zone of radiation smearing that we can neglect the effects of curvature. the position of the shock front remains constant and the velocity of the material entering the shock zone is u = –A. Durand. 3. Springer. Once the steady state has been established. but of course it does have a very profound effect on the radiation emitted by a shock wave.1. Div. J. F. 3. and.

3. n-!fl 4A0 caTs (3. Let us assume that the radiation flux can be expressed in the form (3.31) poi CVT -I-+AcaT ~=0 If the mean free path varies with the nth power of the temperature. A = ?toTn (3. T = T~. If we let Z.30) Here A is Whe radiation mean free path. the initisl temperature of the cold air being so low that it can be neglected.33) T—— = constant 4 Xoca z n+3 When z=O.32) Equation 3. so that it can be subtracted from both sides of ~s equation to give a new constant.34) ‘o = 3(n + 3) po~ Cv so that Eq. the Rossehmd me~ free path. so that the constant must be equal to Ts . EWati~n 3s29 then be- comes 3 dT (3.31 can be integrated to give POR Cv M-3 + 3(n + 3) (3.33 can be written in the form -67- . ~ might be taken tO be AR.29) The term 1/2 fi3po is itself constant. be the distance in frent of the shock at which the temperature becomes zero. : i3Po +POR CVT – F = constant (3.” For example. Eqo 3*27. The new constant must be zero since the radiation flux a long way in front of the shock zone is essen- tially zero.

In general these functions depend upon the value of y and must be obtained by numerical integration. Taylor showed that for this case (as long as the shock pressure. 3. ad u into Eqs. the explosion of an atomic bomb can be idealized by supposing that all of the energy is released at a mathematical point. G.2 . 6. and 3. -68- . L Taylor. 1. The functions fl(r/R).j (3. and @1(r/R) are obtained by direct substitution of P. 3. ~(r/R). Boy. 3. 159 (1950). Po) the hydro- dynamical solutions have a simple form.36) For the cases in which we are interested. taking the radiation flux to be zero. P. Sot. If R is the radius of the shock front. n+3 z T —= ‘o l–— () T~ (3.9. J? = pelt ‘3 fl(r/R) (3. (3. I?rcx?.10.The Strong Blast . n is close to 3.35) or . G.37) P = po$(rm) (3. A second treatment due to TaylorG has actually been used in some of our later considerations and so we shall sum- marize the results here.38) u = R“3/2@l(r/R. A201.Without Radiation A treatment of strong blast waves with neglect of radiation has been given in some detail in Chapter 2.8.39) Here PO is the initial density of the cold air. If radiation is neglected. Ps9 iS large compared to the initial pressure of the cold ar. (London).

3. air is almost completely -69- .1. 3. and (b) the absorption of higher temperature radiation which comes from the hot core (see Section 3. In the low intermediate temperature region between 2000”K and 5000”K. below 2000”K. The absorption of very high energy radiation (hv 2 6.40) tot ‘o Thus R2R3 = constant = ~ S(7)5 E~ot / Po (3*41) 25 Here s(y) is a calculated function of ~ t is the time after the explosion. the absorption is due to bound-free transitions of the negative ions 0. In the intermediate temperature region. At very high temperatures (above 20.The variation of the shock radius is obtained by satisfying the equations of conservation” of mass. most of the air is present in molecular form and the absorption of its own thermal radiation is most likely dominated by the small amounts of N02 present.5.and N.ion is most likely dominant.21). momentum. but N02 absorbs strongly in the visible region and thus is important when the radiation temperature falls below 20 . since this property determines the length of time the shock front radiates. In this temperature region we are interested in radiation diffusion and thus the Rosseland mean opacity.000”K. Over much of this region the effect of the 0.000”K. It is found that 2/5El/5 -1/5 R = s (y)t (3. We are interested in two properties of this air: (a) the rate at which it radiates its own thermal radiation.000%) the absorption of air is due to bound-free and free-free transitions of atoms and positive atomic ions. between 5000°K and 20 .6 ev) is by 02 princi- pally. and Etot is the total energy released by the explosion. In the low temperature region. The Rossehmd approximation is not of interest to us in this region and we only consider the direct average of the absorption coefficient which gives the rate of emission of thermal radiation (see Eq.3 The Opacity of Air Problems involving radiative effects in air can be divided roughly into four temperature regions. 3.as well as bound-free transitions of the neutral atom and free-free tran- sitions.3). and energy at the discontinuity (shock front). which has been cal- culated and is discussed in Section 3.

Astrophys.3. Morse. since no N02 can be formed (see Section 3. the factor exp(~/kT) is designated as l/q by Morse. and me is the electron mass.transparent to low temperature radiation. 14. 7. -70- . ~2 is the square of the effective nuclear charge for the free-free scattering.42. It transmits all frequencies from A = 1860 A (hv = 6. The Gaunt factor.27.5.S(wa/Ta) t= + (3. 1%is probably within 10 per cent of this value throughout the range of interest. Ta is the temperature in units of M7. 3.44) E To + Fs ‘o S=l Here. expressed in Rydberg units. Eq. p electrons as determined by Slater screening constants.875.3). It has been taken to be that for 3s. 3. J.800”C.6 ev) through the visible and its infrared transmission depends upon the moisture content. Most of the calculation centers about the ?!guillotine factor.1 High ‘l?emperature Opacity of Air (above 20. S(Wi/Ta) is the Str6m- gren functio~ T for all conditions of interest here I?. the Wi ?s are the ionization energies of the various electrons in the mixture arranged in order of immeasing magnitude. 27 (1940). ~.42) The function ~ @ known as the ‘vFermi energy” and (3*43) Here Ne is the number of free electrons per unit volume.7 g. M.5 X 10 g 52 ‘q ()m (3.tf t. $(Wi Ta) n S(WU -I-l~Ta) . P. but for these calculations it was taken as 0. M is the average atomic weight. = 1. actually varies slightly with temperature and density.. can be expressed in the form7 -18 p T2 Mt * ?R= 8. .000°K) The Rosseland mean free path.

in most of the region of interest prac- tically all of absorption is due to L electrons and it is probable that the neglect of the line absorption is a more serious error. (3. The roughest feature of the opacity calculations was the neglect of excited states of the various ionic species. The probabilities of occurrence of each ionic species must be known and also the excited states of each of these. However. This method of treatment is more satisfactory for thermodynamic properties than for opacity.e. . it is difficult to put limits on the errors. the values were ob- tained by graphical interpolation. 3. The factor au is the fractional occupa- tion of the shell in which the electron has the ionization potential Wa. 3. usually not the even densities which are shown in the figures. The calculations were made at several densities at each temperature.1 and 3.2. At some temperatures the opacity will be too large and at others it will be too small. be the fraction of original air atoms which are neutral oxygen atoms...yi). The results of the calculations are given in Figs. From the above discussion it is evident that the high temperature opacity problem consists principally in obtaining the composition of air un- der the conditions of interest. The ~‘s and yi’s corresponding to a given condition (temperature ~d densitY) -71- . This was done because part of the composition calculations themselves were made treating all species as in their ground states.46) z i E i=O i=O At the high temperatures of the calculation there are no molecules. Zu was calculated from Slater screen&g constants for the various states of ionization. Let X. Then 8 8 x+ yi=l (3.45) Here ~2 is the same factor appearing in Eq. Let the correspon~ng quantities for nitro- gen be YO. Calculation Procedure for High Temperature Opacity. . . ~a is the effective nuclear charge on the electron having the ionization potential Wa and princi- pal quantum number nu. The compositions which were used are given in Chapter 7. The factor P(W#Ta) is the probability of occurrence of the state q i. and xi be the fraction which is ionized i times.42. Since opacity is a complicated function of rela- tive positions of all the ionization and excitation potentials. it is the fraction of atoms in the mixture having an electron in the state u.

5 5. 3.0 ilk T(”K) Fig.5 6.1 Rossdand mean free path. ~ = ~/(Pm) -72- . 7 6 5 4 3 2 0 Cj 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 4.

2 Rosseland mean free path .000 50.000 30. 5 4 3 15.000 3%000 40.000 20.000 45. 3.000 25. .000 T(°K) Fig.000 55.

The various quantities necessary for the calculation are given in Table 3.47) The charges for free-free absorption Z ~’ ‘Yi ‘ere cdcu~ated ‘or 3s.were obtained from equation-of-state data. The factor (1 – e ‘hV/kTl) due to induced emission was omitted from Eq. Most of the abso~tion is due to the photo-electric effect and so the calculation is not at all sensi- tive to this charge. 3. 3. Finally. The values of Fs were then calculated.3. -74- .(T1) = KP(T1)(l – e ‘hV~Tl). Also.21. assuming that all of the ions were in their ground states.000% to 2. p electrons using Slaterls screening constants. Tl) gives the rate of emission of radiation.7 3. (3*48) Jo UV(T2) CILJ where K.21B 8. Such a frequency averaged absorption coefficient is useful in determining the transmission of thermal radiation of temperature T2 through a region in which the temperature is T1 (see Section 3.49. UV(T2) is the energy in black body radiation per unit frequency range at T2. (3. 3. We are also using K for the mass absorption coefficient (cm2/gram) whereas before we used u for absorption coefficient (cm~ thus the factor p must be included in Eq. The coefficient K‘ (Tl. values of the factor t were obtained with the help of Morse%s tables of the Strdmgren function. Pressure ionization was completely ignored.2).2 Intermediate snd Low Temperature Opacity of Air (20.5. KV(T1) is the mass absorption coef- ficient in square centimeters per gram for matter at the temperature Tl.000”K In this temperature region we are most interested in a frequency averaged absorption coefficient of radiation of temperature T2 passi~ through matter at temperature TI. since according to Eq.1.

00 Oxx .45 3 NIV 78.15 5 N VI 491.95 3.75 2 Qm 54.70 6.90 0.00 . Oxygen 0 01 13.15 6 O VII 667. electric free~.00 8 *K. Dec. K~ch and R.60 2 NIII 47.25 1.07 5/8 4.45 4 Ov 113. Ionization photo. J.60 3.83 2/8 5. 8. The Eqpation of State of Air at High Temperatures.54 5/8 3.60 2. 1942.75 1 NII 29.90 1 on 35. -75- . z“ Degree scopic Potential.25 2.30 4 NV 98.00 7.70 5.90 1.84 4/8 5.00 7 o VIII 870.60 3 ON 77.39 3/8 4.1 DATA FOR OPACITY CALCULATION Nitrogen Zp Spectro.598 6/8 4.83 1 7.30 4.14 1/8 5.30 5 o VI 138.30 5. Table 3.59 1/2 7. Report MS-61.ree Ionized Notation ev~ a effect o ?S1 14.38 3/8 5..59 4/8 4. Fuchs . G .95 4.55 0.48 1/8 6. Peierls .18 1 6. 0 -.42 2/8 ~4.

Opacity due -to 0. J. Mayer. Wildt and Chandrasdiharii have reconsidered the absorption based on the new ioniza. Phys. %1500%). whereas a more recent determination by Vier and Mayerio gave 3.49) Here p is the density. independent of the polarizability.e. @ U(T1) = UV(TI) CIV Jo Thus it is this average which is of interest in the deterxpination of the rate of radiation from a region which absorbs only weakly. and for low velocities of the ejected electron (i. the absolute value of the cross section is uncertain to a factor of about 10. D.2 ev for the ionization potential..000”K region has been made by consideration of the effect of 0. 13JTl) = CW$T1) UV(TI) (3. 5 of paper by Bates and Massey. Sot. tion potential. S. T’. radiation of rather low temperatures. Chem. there is less uncertainty and the cross section seems to be @most constant.50) where.g) For the averaged absorption cross section 9. D. The total amount of energy radiated per unit time per unit volume is rm (3. R. Massey. 269-304 (1943). 87 (1944). E. Vier and J. but in this section we shall use the values given by 13ates and Masseye The absorption cross section appears to be rather sensitive to the actual position of the excited state of O-. Astrophys. Bates and H. 28 (1944). WiMt and S. They use 2. At higher temperatures (6000% to 12.12. J. (See Fig. 11. 10.000X for the radiation temperature). of course.07 ev. Trans.and 0~.and 0~ alone. (London). Bates and Masseyg have -calculated the absorption coef- ficient of O-. A rough calculation of the absorption in the 5000”K to I0. 100. W. -76- . Phil. . Chandrasekhar. Roy. R. Series A-239.

and the opacity calculation is rather simple.’7 x 10 (3. 3.7 x . all 02 is dissociated into atoms. respectively. In view of the other uncertainties. and No = 0. The cross section in Eq. however.10-17 cmz per ion. Taking No- -16 N 10 — = 1.38 x 10 — exp(ll. With this procedure.52) No e ~3/2 when N0-. We shall say that the effect per atom of O is independent of whether the molecules are dissociated or not. and Ne are the number of 0.54) we get K (cm2) .4x 2. Bates and Massey do not estimate the cross seetion for the molecular ion. independent of the temperature.ion.7.55) !3 e ~3/2 -77- .51 is averaged over the number of photons per frequency range instead of over the energy as we have done in Eq. O atoms and electrons per cubic centimeter. it would seem legitimate to use this average. No.090/T) (3. 3. but merely say that its effect should be of similar order of magnitude as for the 0.ions.445x 101’ ~ (3.53) ()‘o along with -17 cm2 TD = 0.48.49 x 10-12 N _ 10 exp(ll.090/T) (3. the opaoity only depends on the number of ions present. a -1 QD=O QD(v) : mu dv (3.51) —v Jo hv ‘“ we shall take ~D = 0. Above about 5000°K.

W. 2 cm -15 & ~ 10 pii ~ = 9. but the integrated effects should be much better. Macmillan. King.000 to 15.= 4360 to 2650 A. 3. and it has been assumed in our rough calculations that ttis coefficient will be independent of temperature.000 A tO h = 2500 A has been pieced together from data in the Literature. For N02 it is more convenient to define the absorption coefficient in terms of square centimeters per atmosphere instead of square centimeters per gram. The values of p /pn and T re- fer to the condition of the air. Curtiss and J. 3.48 since only the tempera- ture of the radiation matters. A convenient form for use is u .57) pK are given in Fig. this is undoubtedly a very poor assumption. An absorption coefficient for N02 throughout the range A = 40. Louis Harris and G. Melville.48 are shown in Fig. 1939. J. Hirsdfelder. Dixon. 3.4 are given data taken in the vicinity of normal temperature.3. 8. 3. II.6 we have values of the mean free path 1 A= l!?? P(N02) for air of various densities and temperatures. ibid. A. 0. 3.is P(N02) is 12. A. F. Absorption of N02. 51 (1934). 13* C. the amount of N02 present is the &quilibriurn amount and has been obtained from Curtiss and Hirschfelder. Values of ~~ averaged according to Eq. Farkas and H. In the vicinity of any one frequency.66 X 10 — exp(ll. J. Experimental Methods in Gas Reactions. 157 (1940). Thermodynamic Properties of Air. e T3/2 Some values of INe for alr are given in Table 3. W.2. Vol. h = 40. -78- .000 A. K. London. 300”K. ~. In Figs. Phys.5 and 3. 3.5. A = 7000 to 4500 A.090/T) (3.56) Cm ()P. 1948. Report CM-472 University of Wisconsin Naval Research Laboratory.iz In Fig. Graphs of the mean free path A =~ (3. Again we are simplifying Eq. Chem.

m. .02 x 1017 .Hj X ~()’g . 4000 6000 8000 10.02 X 10 1. .000 20.51 x 1015 1.38 X 1016 1.79 x 1015 4. ——--——— -—-—— — VAJJU@iBUN’ N ULVLBMJX . -- P/P.41 x 10 3.35 x ~017 11 14 O*1 1.38x 1017 2.85x ~018 1:22 x 1019 12 14 16 17 5.000 13 3.24 X 10 1.24 X 10 1. Table 3.01$ I 14 4.09 X 10 8.000 15.05 x 10’6 1..018 3.89 X 1016 4.94 x .(-J17 2*9 x . .07 x 10 6..63 x 10 2. —-. -------.78 X 10 1.38 x 1016 2.11X # 4.b~u’i’kwl’+ti Phil% UUBIG t2ENTIiviETER (Ne) IN AIR --.0 2.-” UJ! u..10 x 10 4.0 7.. . -—— -.37x 1016 .0’8 14 1.72 X 10 1.22 X 10’7 9J1 X 10’8 4.48 x 1018 2. ‘ .**6 x . —-.2 . ..24 X 1011 3.-..86X ~019 12 25 10 ●o 3.87 x 10 3.79 x 1011 2.4 ~ .

. 3...I (x o I c) T(aK} Fig.and 0~ ~ = l/pK .3 Mean free path for absorption of radiation by 0. . — .

E E E v I G .

A = l/K~ P(N02) . 3.7 6 5 2 1 0 — Fig.5 Mean free path of radiation in N02.

radiation the same temperature as the N02. A = l/K? P(N02) -83- . 3.6 Mean free path of ra~iation in N02. 0 2000 3000 4000 5000 T(°K) Fig. 10 9 7 6 4 3 2 .

the partial pressure in atmospheres which the N02 would exert at WC. 000”K. R is well known that oxygen and nitrogen molecules transfer energy between vibrational and translational energy very slowly.5 that the average absorption coefficient is approximately constant for radiation of all temperatures above 10. These are shown in Fig. 3. the Franck-C!ondon principle insures that some of the molecules will obtain vibrational excitation. E.7 the radiation is above 10.8. 3.6 the values of A are for black body radiation of the same tempera- ture of the matter. 128 (1940). G. Opt. Amer. No quantitative estimates have been made of this effect.66 ev). OOO”K. probably many milliseconds. Schneider.3 Absorption of Air at Normal Conditions The absorption of air in the ultraviolet at 300% and 1 atm pressure has been reported. and so a lag is expected in the establishment of complete equilibrium in the temperature region 5000”K and below. 3. The principal interest in vibrationally excited air molecules is in their transmission of high-energy ultraviolet radiation from the hot core. The absorption threshold for electronic absorption is reduced from 6.6 ev to a lower value depending upon the vibrational excitation.64 ev) to 1860 A (6.5 it is the vanishing of the absorption coefficient of N02 at about 2000” that causes the ball of fire to darken suddenly as this temperature is reached. 3. 3. 14 These measurements cover the range f~om 792. In Fig. In Fig. -84- . Another mechanism for creation of vibrationally excited molecules is from ultraviolet absorptio~ on re-ernission of radiation to retuin to the ground electronic state of the molecule. The above considerations were made for air completely at equilibrium at the various indicated temperatures. J. but it is be- \ lieved to be of importance. Transient Effect in Opacity.3. Thus.5 A (15. air cooling down into this temperature region is expected to contain vibrationally excited molecule~ for some rather long time period. . and thus the opacity is correspondingly higher. it is seen in Fig. also the absorption of air in the infrared is negligible. 14. Sot. The absorp- tion from 1860 A through the visible is essentially zero. According to the th~ory presented in Section 3. This condition will be particularly sig- nificant for air in which molecules have formed in th~ee-body collision proc- esses from atoms.&.

10 9 ‘. 8 7 6 a5 Cj 4 3 2 I o 2000 3000 4000 5000 T(°K) Fig. 3. Me radiation temperature above 10. OOO”K -85- .7 Mean free path of radiation in N02.

WAVE LENGTH A (A)

Fig. 3.8 Absorption of air; T = 300”K; p = 1 atm

-86-

.

3.4 Radiation Expansion Period and the Formation of the Blast Wave

**We shall now consider the initial period of radiation expansion before
**

a true stro@ air shock is formed at about 10 meter radius. This period

is characterized by having the air first heated to a high temperature by

radiation before it is set into motion by hydrodynamical signals from the

explosion. The description offered here is qualitative.

We shall find that there is a very well defined point at which energy

transfer by radiation becomes unimportant compared with work done by

mechanical accelerations. In order to investigate the problem, let us con-

sider the expansion of a parcel of air which has been affected during this

period, and let us say that the expansion occurs in a pseudo adiabatic man-

ner, with an effective specific heat ratio ~ The eqyation

(3.58)

**describes this process. Now subtract this equation from Eq. 3.11, which
**

describes the process when radiation is considered e~licitly.

**@–y)~ln V=– ‘y ’21) & (r2F) (3.59
**

pr

where V = I/p* Using the equation of continuity (3.8), we can write

(3.60)

**The conditions in the body of the fluid then obey the usual hydrodynamical
**

relations, neglecting radiation, but replacing y by ~. However, if a shock

front exists, ~ rather than ~ appears in the Hugoniot relations:

(3.61)

(3.62)

-8’7-

**Fortunately, an appreciable era does not exist in which both radiation
**

and shock are of equal importance for the hydrodynamics. We shall now

show that the value of ~ - Y varies as R-~6.5, This means that when an

air shock forms, it very quickly becorpes dominating. To show this depend-

ence on radius, we can exa~ine the Taylor similarity solution for strong

shock waves (Section 3.2).

-3

T“ P/P - R

u - R-3/2

If we assume that

A - T3 (Po/p)

R

then according to Eq. 3.26

Therefore, from Eq. 3,60

(3.63)

**Of course a strong shock formed in the manner just described would
**

not immediately have a good Taylor similarity, but the conclusion that the

shock forms suddenly is not very dependent on this detail. Although the

radius at which the shock forms is not explicitly given by this treatment,

it is determined within rather narrow limits in any particular case. The

following figures (Table 3.3) for a 10,000 ton explosion iHustrate the use

of this treatment.

-88-

Table 3.3

**SOME PROPERTIES OF THE BLAST WAVE
**

DURING RADIATION EXPANSION PERIOD

R, it, T,

cm ‘rad’Eint crn/sec “K 7–Y

**841 0.0035 4.8 x 106 492,500 0.28
**

1015 0.00123 3.8 x 106 328,300 0.032

1122 0.00052 3.3 x 106 246,250 0.0058

1271 0,00022 2.6 x 106 180,000 0.0011

**The internalenergy (Eint) and temperature relation was c~culated with
**

a hypothetical bomb model using the equation of state for air due to Fuchs,

Kynoh and Peierls (see Table 3.1 reference). R was calculated with use of

Eq. 3.62 and the assumption that the pressure, Ps, corresponds to ~ iso-

thermal distribution of the matter within the radius R. One mm be sure that

the radiatim is important as long as ~ - y is of the order of -y– 1 or

greater. The exact place is n~t easy to determine, but in view of the very

rapid variation of ~ - y with R, it is really not important that one locate

the initial air shock radius exactly. It seems reasonable to say that the air

shock forms at between 10 and 12 meters for a 10,000 ton explosion, prob-

ably more nearly 10 meters. This consideration suggests that the tempera-

ture has a uqique role and a criterion may be stated that an air shock will

form when the isothermal sphere temperature drops to approximately

300,000%.

It is to be noted that the fraction of energy in the form of radiation

(column 2 of Table 3.3) is very small, even in the radiation expansion phase.

At this point we shall make a second consideration which also gives an

indication of the radius at which the air shock forms. Let us consider prop-

agation of energy from an explosion with a constant velocity, which, of course,

is only an approximate description of the actual situation. There is always

radiation heating preceding a shock: if the radiation front is far ahead of

the shock, we have the initial radiative phase. If the two fronts are close

together, ‘we get a good description of the structure of the shock front at

later times.

The mathematical details of this model are considered in Section 3.1.3

-89-

**above. For the same 10,000 ton explosion, values. of Z. calculated with
**

Eq. 3.34 are shown in Table 3.4. As before, there is no definitely indicated

value of R at which the radiative phase has ended. Howev6r, when Z. be-

comes much less than R., it is clear that radiative transport of energy is

much less important than hydrodynamical transport, For R = 8.41 meters,

zo/R = 0.12; and at R = 10.15, zo/R = 0.013. Radiation is certainly impor-

tant in the first case, and of little importance in the latter.

The differential treatment of Section 3.1.3 breaks down when ~ is com-

parable with Zo, and an integral method should really be used. However,

the conclusions drawn above would not be changed by such an improved treat-

ment.

Table 3.4

**SOME PROPERTIES OF THE BLAST WAVE
**

DURING RADIATION EXPANSION PERIOD

R,

meters R, cm/sec ‘rad’Eint Ao, cm ZO, cm

-3

5.07 5.98 X 106 3.38 X 10 61 226

-3,

8.41 4.75 x 106 3.53 x 10 20 98

10.15 3,77 x 106 1.23 X 10-3 6 13

-4

11.22 3.28 x 106 !5.24 x 10 2.5 ‘ 2.6

-5

12.71 2.59 x 106 2.17 x 10 1.1 0.54

3.5 Radiative Effects in Strong Blast Period

**III this seotion we shall describe the effects of radiation dufing the
**

strong blast period as perturbations on the radiationless strong blast, which

has been treated in Chapters 2, 4, and 6.

3.5.1 Qualitative Effects of Radiation in Strong Air Blast

**In the last section we saw that the strong air shock formed when shock
**

transmission became faster than radiative transmission of energy into the

-90-

**cold air. During the initial phase of the strong shock, the radiation front
**

continues to exist, behind the shock front, and carries the high, temperatures

of the core outwsmi, by radiation diffusion, into the air through which the

shock has already passed. The motion of this ?~internal radiation front?! is

considered in more detail in Section 3.5.2.

It might be well to ,point out that the hot core bounded by the internal

radiation front is the same as the isothermal sphere of the small (y - 1)

theory of Chapter 4. h the radiationless theory presented in Chapter 4, the

amount of air contained in the isothermal sphere does not change at all as

it expands to atmospheric pressure.

The motion of the internal radiation front is understood qualitatively in

terms of the dependence of the opacity of air on temperature. The Rossela.nd

mean opacity, which controls the diffusive transpo~ of radiation, decreases

with temperature above 50 ,000”K (see Fig. 3.1). The internal radiation front

is, of course, formed at a tempera@re of about 300,000”K and thus as it

diffuses out (through the air already affected by the shock) the radiation

mean free path decreases at first as the temperature drops. Thus for a

while there remains a well-defined radiation front moving more slowly as

time increases. As the temperature of the core approaches 50,000°, how-

ever, the diffusion mechanism breaks down since the mean free path in-

creases as the temperature drops. The energy from the hot core is now

radiated very strongly into the colder air ahead.

The energy radiated at this time by the 50,000° core is not lost to the

blast. Most of it (iw a 6.6 ev) is absorbed strongly in 02 molecules and

these exist in large numbers in air below 5000”K. At the time the core

reaches 50,000=, the shock radius is about 80 meters and the shock tempera-

ture is 3000”K. As the temperature of the core falls, the absorption of N02,

which is present in the air between 2000” and 5000°, becomes more impor-

tsnt . This compound. absorbs most of the visible spectrum. As noted in

Section 3.3.2, there will also be absorption due to vibrationally excited air

molecules, particularly 02, present in excess of their equilibrium concentra-

tion. During this period the radiation flux actually strengthens the blast

since it transports energy closer to the front, which of course tends to in-

crease the pressure.

Although at the time the core starts radiating strongly the cold air

ahead is so opaque that essentially none of the radiation is transmitted

through the shock front, this situation starts changing immediately. Three

circumstances increase the transmission of the air ahead of the core as

the time progresses: (a) as the temperature of the core drops due to radia-

tion and expansion, a larger fraction of its emitted radiation is below

hv > 6.6 ev and is therefore transmitted by 02; (b) the amount of N02 and

vibrational excitation formed in the air is limited to the region in which the

-91-

The result can be givqn as 1/3 4 0. Also the actual radius of the radiation sphere. The yield of the explosion in tons of TNT equiva- lent is given by E. For 10. by loss of radiation. RO and ro are related by the continuity equation. is given. pi.000 tons of TNT yield this relation of ro vs R is shown graphically in Fig.9.3).1). 3 Pedro = pdRo3 (3. and in- ternal pressure.015 x 108 (3.65) The relation between shock radius. and pressure. which is permissible if To is much larger than Ts 9 A similarity solution for the motion of the internal radiation front can be found under these conditions. the ball of fire cools itself. radiation from the hot core is transmitted and the brightness of the ball of fire reaches a second maximum.5. ~ ing zone expands with time so that it becomes too tenuous to absorb a sig- nificant fraction of the radiation. is taken from the small (y . is given by the Taylor theory. An approximate treatment of the internal radiaticm front can be made by calculating the transmission of radiation through a regioq which has these properties. 3. in about 3 see.shock temperature was 2000°~ or higher (see Section 3. Ps. and the relation between the shock pressure. The ambient temperature of this region is (inconsistently) taken as zero. at about 80 to 100 Weter radius. R. for a while we know that the shock front moves much faster than the internal radiation front.1) theory (Chapter 4) -92- . very little energy is radiated at later times. is the Lagrangian coordinate of the radiation fro@~ the original position in centimeters of the matter which is at the radiation front when the shock front is at R.916 x 10 E – 6.5. RO. (c) the absorb.2 Diffusive Motion of the Internal Radiation Front After the strong shock forms. 3. ps.64) ‘o [ 1 Here r. Thereafter. At this time the mean free path of the radiation is falling with the temperature (see Fig. Soon after the shock front stops radiating.698 ~0.733 = 1. From the approximate solutions for strong shocks (with neglect of radiation) we know the variation of pressure and density behind the shock as a function of the time. 3.

9 Radius of internal radiation front (rO) vs shock radius (R) I . 18 15 !5 0 !) IW R (CMxlo3) Fig. 3.

5. w’ = 3 8 0 ‘o ‘“ 47T = ‘o + 6’015 x 10 -94- .156 x 109 Etot (3) Definition of W.015 X 108 (3. P~ —= 2. 3 ‘Q .67) ‘o [ 1 Solution 3.244 1/3 = 1.64 was derived using thq following relations.1 j was taken as 1.— P ‘1 = 0.66j Pi We can also write 8 0. — ‘o m was taken as 1.5.942 -0. (1) Mean free path for radiation yn () ‘1 .25 Q = 4.030 x 10 E Pi – 6. T = 5 x 104 OK 1 (2) Shock radius ‘5’2=+r ‘Y= 1.205 (3.

Thus the calculation breaks down badly as the core temperature approaches this value. increases from 10 meters to about 26. 3. (5) Specific heat Cp = 9. This radi- ation is prevented from escaping through the shock front by means of the molecular absorbing materials formed in the air below 5000”K. 3.2 we know that for tempera- ture below about 50.17 and the IBM temperature and density contours shows how this growth occurs. The most important of these are Og and N09. and the IBM calculation neg- lected radiation altogether.0(10°K the Rosseland mean free path increases with de- creasing temperature. the flux of radiation from the core into the region of the shock front starts increasing.3 Radiative Cooling of the Hot Core After the diffusion mechanism breaks down. Formation of N02 in Shocked Air. consistent starting conditions must be available. the value of r.5. 3.on but the N02 probl~m rerpires some consideration.2 took air temperature ahead of the internal radiation front as zero. This calculation yields approximately correct results initially when the mean free path of the radiation is sufficiently small and given by the relation (1) above. (4) Eqyation of state T ‘1 ‘1 P . The first (rising) part of the dashed curve gives this calculation. It is clear that 09 will be present in abundance in this temper~ture reg. Our diffusion calculation of Section 3.5. Curtiss and Hirschfelderi3 have calculated the equilibrium concentrations of N02 in air for temperatures -95- . a calculation of the radiation flux from the core into the 5000° temperature region using Eq.10. The direction of error in this calculation is clea~ the internal front will move further than indicated here.52 x 107 ergs/deg gram Figure 3. 3. so we are left without a consistent description of this period. since radi- ation transport is faster than assumed. From Fig. There is therefore a considerable amount of air taken into the initial isothermal sphere as the shock develops. However.9 shows that as the shock front goes from 10 meters to 240 meters. In order to investigate this effect quantitatively. and is given in Fig.

1 w 1320 Oa I I TIME (SECONDS) o 5 12 200 660 2150 SHO:.10 Over-all time history of the blast wave . RADIUS (i&ERS) Fig. 3. .

A similar calculation shows that at 2500”K the equilib- rium is easily established within a millisecond. The indicated N02 ~tcutoff?! is thus below 25000K and we have arbitrarily taken 2000”K as the limit.019 atm/msec while the equilibrium partial pressure is O. Schumacher. Dresden und Leipzig. Barrington Daniels. T.i6 The N02 zone is therefore limited to the air which was initially within 100 meters. k.bSIOW 5000eK.4 atm. the shock front is most opaque and therefore the radiated energy 15. dpNo — = 108*5 e-22*640 x 400 = 400 x 10-1*33 = 18.. 02 and N02.280/T) (atm see-l) N02 +02. Presumably the mechsnism for formation is in two steps (a) N2 + 02 + 2 ‘NO (b) 2No+02~2N02 Reaction (b)is is extremely fast at all temperatures above 600”K and will always maintain equilibrium between NO. Of course the air has no N02 at all before it enters the shock and so some time is required to form N02 after the air is heated by the shock. Hans J. private communication. Last Stage of the Cooling. Steinkopff. At the time the core starts radiating most strongly. We have selected 2000°K for this temperature from data furnished by Daniels.7 atm/sec dt The rate of formation of NO is 0. The shock front moves about a meter per millisecond and so obviously the N02 equilibrium does not have time to be established. = 108”5 exp– (45. 1938.2N0 J = 109 exp-(34. k. -97- . The rate of reaction (a) is strongly temperature dependent and so effectively one can say that it takes place above a certain temperature and does not occur below this tem- perature. Chemische Gasreactionen. ~ .000/T) (atm see-l) % % Air at the shock front when the temperature is 2000”K has a pressure of about 10 atm 02 and 40 atm N2. since the shock temperature is 2000”K at this distance. Formation of N02 in heated air under laboratory conditions has been studied by Daniels. 16.

turbulence. of course. Other phenomena of interest have to do with the transmission of radiation energy ahead of the shock.is essentially all absorbed behind the front. 3. At the very last. Effects of gamma radiation. temperature) of the radiation.10) is 1.000°K.’~ this description is qualitatively complete for air blasts of this size. At this time the ball has little ab- sorption for its own radiation and is no longer a well-defined sphere with a sharp boundary. at the time of the second maximum and later. In the final stage. and the size and appearance of the ball of fire. spherical ball of fire. -98- . The amount of radiant energy escaping per unit time into the air ahead of the shock front as a function of time is given in Fig. This figure is largely schematic and has been obtained by methods which will be discussed below. The bq.6 The Ball of Fire The last two sections have described the effects of radiation in the formation and growth of the air blast. the hot oore inside becomes more visible as the molecular absorbing layer becomes more tenuous.11of fire finally radiates as a hot mass of gas without self absorption. bomb materials. there is a well-defined. The unit @ (used in Fig. We have not followed the decrease in opacity of the absorpti~n layer as it expands. the flux of radiant energy incident into the earth’s outer atmosphere from the sum D is measured in meters.. but by the time the shock front reaches 300 meters there is certainly negligible absorption of 20. axcept for the noted omissions.10.35 x 106 ergs/gm2/see. there is a hot core radiati~. surrounded by a cooler fringe which is also radiating. When the shock front mm no longer radiate. not to be seen. as long as the front is itself radiating strongly. 3. Insofar as the description of the last two sections gives a complete model of the air blast.g. only N02 can radiate visible light and so the ball of fire darkens as it drops to 2000°. We also s get a description of the quality (e. In the early phase.000”K radi- ation by all outside layers. During this time the inner radiation front is. 17. we can use it to determine the amount of energy transmitted through the shock front as a function of time. 3. and at this time 02 in its lowest state is also very effective since the radiation has a tem- perature of about 40. There are about two optical depths for high temperature radiation dud to the N02 alone.

T o ‘o ) (3.1. In order to calculate the flux of radiant energy through the front during this period. and the radiation front extends out to z = Zo. This description. for r ~ 10 meters.17) for z = Z. for the radiation escaping into the air is -99- .70 x 10 ergs/see III order to convert to tons of TNT per second the ordinates. In this section. 3. however. we assume that the situation described in Section 3. Let us assume for this consideration that the front is correctly given by Eq. The air in the vicinity of the bomb.. Just ahead of the front the temperature is normal (or essentially zero).e.— z T. thus the fraction of energy in the radiation which can escape into the cold air is very small. The radiation front just described was established with neglect of the fact that radiation in the region hvo z hv 2 6. Dry air at 25°C transmits all light having longer wave length than 1860 A. therefore. 3.68.6 ev is transmitted in cold air. This air absorbs essentially all light with wave length less than 3100 A.3 prevaiIs. This neglect is justified since the temperatures in the isothermal sphere are so very large.68) where the coordinate axes are located at the shock frent. 3. Corrections for moist air are easily made.1 Radiation Expansion Period During the radiation expansion period there is a large temperature gradient near the front. must be divided by 2.30 to 60 ev. The flux calculated (with use of Eq. unit @ = 1. i. @. while in the interior it is hundreds of thousands of degrees. kT . we have used a 3100 A cutoff so that the energies we give will indicate the amount transmitted through dry air to large distances.46 x 105. which assumes plane sym- metry. The temperature distribution for the air behind the front was given as 1/6 .35 x 106 ergs/cm2/sec unit D2@ = 1.35 x 1010 ergs/see 11 unit 4rD2@ = 1. is most satisfactory for the latter stages. has large quantities of ozone formed at the time of detonation by gamma radiation.6.

71) If the high temperature TO extended to the surface at z = .72) where P’” f“ = J o UV(TO)dv (3. Examination of the . Z) dz’ (3. We shall now attempt to calculate this effect by evaluating the flux as given by Eq. The quantity P is the %ptical depth~t (3(Z) =r aJz z-z o &’ (Z’.100 - . The lower temperatures closer to the front will to some extent shield the higher temperatures further back.0.69.69) The temperature and hence ~’ and U are only functions of z.70 o and Ei (–~ ) is the exponential integral (3.73) r“ UV(TO)dv ~ o . 3. U is the energy density up integrated over frequency from zero to v~. (3. the value of the flux would be given by “ (Fz)o = aTo4 fO (3.

but this calculation is rough.50 Thus it seems that in the initial part of the air expansion.07 226 0. shows that in normal density air it is a fairly good approximation to say that the mean free path for radiation is 1/2 cm for the entire range from 30.: ‘o 1 (3. opacity data for air in Section 3. and pK’ (z.74) I’(7/6) is a complete gamma function. there is a partial shielding of the high temperatures.68.11.41 98 0.5 EFFECT OF SHIELDING Radiation Sphere Radius.000”K to 300 . Taking f?(z) = 2Z .3 (Fig.4. 3. This shielding factor was used in obtaining the D20 curve for the radiation expansion period (Fig. Calculating for some of the points in Table 3. o8 4f [ (1/2)7’6 r(y.36 10s5 13 0. 3. until after the shock is well formed. 3. The factor in the bracket gives the effect of the shielding by lower temperatures.10).31 8. It is not strictly logical to use Rosseland mean free paths for this purpose.74 o 5. 3. z) “= 2 and using Eq. the flux is found to be Fz =CT.000”K. we have results shown in Table 3.5 Table 3. 3. The temperature as a function of radius for this period is given in Fig. probably .1). meters z. .101 - .cm Bracket of Eq.

02 ..03 .0I .6 I 05 I 1 104 103 10-’ I00 .11 Shock temperature vs shock radius .04 RADIUS Fig. 1 t 1 . 3. . .

When the opacity of air increases as the tem- perature falls.2 Radiating Shock Front The shock front radiates as a black body until its temperature drops to about 2500 to 3000°K. Thus. 000”K.10 as the dashed curve which rises steeply to a plateau. during the time in which the radiation affects the blast wave signifi- cantly.. . the fringe of air between the ‘hot core and low temperature region becomes transparent’ to the core radiation. 3. The most difficult problem is the calculation of the energy and matter re- distribution in the ball of fire following the separation of the ball of fire from the shock front (at 0.10 has been extended through this period in a schematic way.3 Expanded Ball of Fire The quantitative theory of the final stage has not been worked out as yet. In Fig. is equiva- lent to about 30 tons of TNT. 3. The steep rise occurs as the isothermal sphere temperature approaches 50. opacity. the air ahead of the core can absorb the core radiation and keep the flux low by radiating its own lower temperature radiation. The rate of energy flow from the hot core into the lower temperature region has been calculated using the IBM density contours. since at this temperature the opacity of air goes through a maxi- mum.10.e.6. and the flux rises to a maximum value. shock temperature 3000eK). ture as a function of radius is given. When the opacity of air decreases as the temperature falls (i.” 3. Beyond the plateau the dashed curve does not repre- sent a calculation. 3. 3. The temperatures at the front during the strong shock period are determined by hydrodynamical conditions and the equation of state of air. D2@ gives this result. as determined by the integral of D2@ over time up to the time the front stops radiating. In Fig. or about O. but Fig.000”K). 3. and there is only an insignificant loss of energy through the front. it only redistributes the energy behind the front. where f is the fraction of thermal radiation energy of tem- perature T with wave length longer than 3100 A.013 see.000 to 3000”K. below 50. The hot core flux is shown in Fig. The rate of energy radiation per square centimeter of surface was taken to be fo’l!4.6. and equation of state data.11 the shock tempera- . During this period the temperature of the radiation drops from about 300.103 - . but only a rough estimate of the behavior of the flux. The total amount of energy lost to the air blast.3 per cent of the total energy. The air immediately ahead of the hot core is cooler and denser than the air of the core itself. It is able to radiate to such Iow temperatures by virtue of the N02 and other mol~cular species present.

The solid curve for D20 on integration gives approximately the correct . total energy radiated.000”K and a fringe at 5000”K containing eqyal energies radiate without any self absorption.00Q”K.7. is the initial shock radius o The energy ioss due to radiation is negligible in this period and need not be considered.7 Scaling Laws The discussion of this chapter has dealt with air blasts of a definite size. 35 per cent. During the next O.10. Later the entire ball becomes transparent to its own radiation.3. At first all the core radiation is absorbed in the low temperature region.@iative Expansion Period According to the discussion of Section 3. .1 to O.6. For explosions in which bomb materials can be neglected. After the breakaway the ball of fire is essentially bounded by the air which had initially been heated to 2000”K or so by the shock.2 sec the energy redistribution which has not been followed in detail occurs.000 ton TNT equivalent energy.75) where R. namely.104 - . 3. 3. . The maxi- mum size is reached in about O. 0.2 see) was calculated with the use of a siwple model: a core at I0.1 R. It is of interest to examine the various radiation effects to see how they scale for blasts of different sizes.6. Until 0.013 see.4 Ball of Fire Radius The radius of the ball of fire as a function of time for very early times is given in Fig. and thus the radius varies as the cube root of the yield. or (3.2 sec. it is coincident with the shock radius. 3. the volume of air contained at this stage varies directly as yield. 10. The last stage of the radiative cooling process (after .1 the radiative phase should end when the temperature drops to about 300 .

defined there) <. (3. symbols are.78) T-E” &-E” since these are essentially intensive propefiies and determine which is meant by saying the condition of the shock is the same.7.J 47rD2@dt = 4TU ‘o ~2T4 dR T (3. With use of the identity dR dt =~ we can write for the total radiated energy ~t ‘RI [ ‘o . 3.76) 4rD2@ = 4?rR2foT4 The total amount of energy lost is the integral of this qu~tity taken during the time the front radiates. frequencies transmitted by cold air can be given as (see Section 3. 105 - . See Chapter 2. and finally 1/3 (3.6.77) The scaling of these quantities has been discussed for shocks which have similarity 18 We have the following relations for shocks which have similar ● conditions f-EO (3.79) IR-E 18.2 Radiating Shock Front It is easy to demonstrate that the energy radiated through the shock front during the time” it radiates as a black b’dy varies directly as the ex- plosion energy. The rate at which the total surface loses energy in the .

3. As the yield increases.64. Therefore. this particular radiation effect becomes a better ap- proximation. Since the power of E is 0. the energy lost in this period is not expected to be of importance for any bomb. Most of the radiation yield energy appears in this final stage and so the scaling of the total yield “ energy is uncertain. have not been treated quantitatively. and particularly the final stage. According to the discussion of the final stage given above.Thus the entire scaling of the energy loss depends upon (3. the ball of fire finally appears as a transparent mass of gas. 3. as given by Eq.106 - .698 rather tb- unit.000 ton yield.7. thus affecting the energy loss. . the fraction of energy radiated should decrease slightly as the yield increases. apy self absorption effects would decrease the rate of radia- tion of energy and favor competing processes. The other radiation effects of the strong blast period. although the exact law is not to be obtained from this con- sideration. As the radius of the ball increases. therefore. it is seen that the internal radiation front is relatively less effective in penetration of the shocked matter as the yield increases. Since the percentage of ener~ lost was shown to be a negligible’ O.3 Strong Shock Period and the Tot@ Rad@ion Yield The motion of the inner radiation front. already has its scaling given explicitly. Such a mass of gas would radiate a certain fraction of its energy if there were no other mechanism of cooling involved.3 per cent for the bomb with 10.80) and so the energy lost varies directly as E.

A. the pressure is almost exactly constant inside a radius of about 0.107 - . together with the moderate size of the accelerations. The concentration of material near the shock front and the correspond- ing evacuation of the region near the center is most pronounced for values of the specific heat ratio y close to 1. The absence of any appreciable amount of material.1 General Procedure The solution given in Chapter 2 is only valid for an exact point source explosion. The clue to such a method is found in the very peculiar nature of the point source solution of Taylor and von Neumann.8 of the radius of the shock wave. The physical situation is that the material be- hind the shock moves outward with a high velocity. It is characteristic for that solution that the den- sity is extremely low in the inner regions and is high only in the immediate neighborhood of the shock front.. for constant y. immediately leads to the con- clusion that the pressure must be very nearly constant in the region of low density. Bethe 4. It is well known that the density at the shock increases by a factor . for constant undisturbed density of the medium. It is interesting to note that the pressure in that region is by no means zero. but is almost one-half of the pressure at the shock front. chapter 4 APPROXIMATION FOR SMALL T. 1 by H. It is particularly the first of these facts that is relevant for construct- ing a more general method. Similarly. It is very desirable to find a method which permits the treatment of somewhat more general shock wave problems and thereby comes closer to describing a real shock wave. and for very high shock pressures. Therefore the material streams away from the center of the shock wave and creates a high vacuum near the center.

By integration of the density we can then find a more accurate value for the position of each mass element.e. we have to use two additional facts. The procedure followed is then simply this. One is the Hugoniot relation between shock pressure and shock velocity. no similarity law holds. In order to obtain a differential e~ation for the position of the shock as a function of time. the amount of air inside a given radius. where r is the radius. we may again use the conservation of total . we may use the conservation of the total energy which requires that the shock pressure decrease inversely as the cube of the shock radius (similarity law). The ckmsit y near the center can be shown to behave as r3/(y – 1). the two quantities differ only by a factor 2/(7 + 1). Moreover. We start from the assump- tion that all material is concentrated at the shock front.. for y near 1 the assumption that all material @ concentrated near the shock front becomes .=— y-+-l PO Y–1 This becomes infinite as y approaches unity. if there is a central iso- thermal sphere “as described in Chapter 3. more and more valid. The other is energy conservation in some form: in some applications such as that to the point source solution itself. We obtain the pres- sure distribution. and the internal pressure near the center of the shock wave. This process could be repeated if required. it would then lead to a power series in powers of y – 1. Therefore. The method leads directly. knowing the acceleration one can calculate the pressure dist ri- bution in terms of the material coordinate. if y is near 1. P“~ . If we wish to apply the method to the case of vari- able y without isothermal sphere.108 - . The idea of the method proposed here is to make repeated use of the fact that the material is concentrated near the shock front. This calculation again is facilitated by the fact that nearly all the material is at the shock frent and therefore has the same position in space (Eulerian coordinate). to a relation between the shock acceleration. i. we can obtain the density of each material element if we Imow its pressure at the present time as well as when it was first hit by the shock. As a consequence of this fact ~ the velocity of nearly all the material will be the same as the velocity of the material directly behind the front. The accel- eration of almost all the material is then equal to the acceleration of the shock wave. From the relation between pressure and density along an adiabatic. but we may consider the adiabatic expansion of the isothermal sphere and thus de- termine the decrease of the central pressure as a function of the radius of the isothermal sphere. On the other hand. the material velocity behind the front is very nearly equal to the shock ve- locity itself. the shock pressure.

4) ‘=-~8R 2 8r dt2 Por The pressure for any givep material element is connected with its den- sity by the adiabatic law (conservation of energy). a direct comparison with the exact solution is possible.3) W P & The equation of motion becomes simply d2R lax= R’ -—— 8p (4. in this case the density behind the shock wave dogw not have the limiting value of Eq. The density at time t is denoted by p and the initial density by po. If we assume oonsta.nt y the adiabatic relation gives . The position of the shock wave will be de- noted by Y(t). The pressure is p(r. and the position at timq t by R.109 - . As has already been indicated.energy.4.2) From this we have &R P* — —=— # (4. This does not prevent the application of our method as long as the density increase at the shock is still very large so that most of the material is still near the shock front. but in this case the pressure will not be simply proportional to 1/Y3.1 but depends itself on the shock pressure. where Y is the shock radius. For the point source. 4. The case of not very high shock pressures can also be included. the applications of the method are very numerous. The only limitations of the method are its moderate accuracy and the possible c~mplications of the numerical work. The accuracy seems satisfac- tory up to y about 1. The particular adiabat to be taken is determined by the condition of the material element after it has been hit by the shock.2 General Equations We shall denote the initial position of an arbitrary mass element by r. t) and the pressure behind the shock is Ps(Y). The ccmtinuity equation takes the simple form PR2 dR = por2 dr (4. 4.

and for the relation between shock pressure and shock velocity ~ p~(Y) z ● —. 4. t) y p(r. themselves. must be supple- mented by the Hugoniot equations at the shock front which are known to be.1 for the density behind the shock ps.2.4 and 4. 4. and the continuity Eq.6. Therefore the position R cqn be identified with the position of the shock Y. 4. we find I/y 8R = rz LO = y – 1 r2 ix ~p 7+1.9 is independent of r.1. Using Eq. Y ? R= y+l =-.8) The problem will now be to solve these eight equations for particular cases with the assumption that y is close to 1. These relations give for the density at the shock front the result already quoted in Eq.110 - . ‘y+l and for the relation between the material vel~city behind the shock. t) = p~(r) (4.5) q [1 We shall use this relation mostly to determine the density from the given pressure distribution. Since the right hand side of Eq. ? (4. and the shock velocity. R. Then Eq.2.6) The three conservation laws. 4. 4. and the acceleration R with the shock acceleration Y. 4.9) On the right hand side of this equation we have used the fact discussed in Section 4. consequences of the same conservation laws.2 [1 ‘S(r) Pm’ (4. Eqs.1 that practically all the material is very near the shock front. (4.4 reduces to lap= —— Y r2 8r “PO ~ (4. 4. p(r.7) P. it integrates Immediately to give .

4. 4.7. and to determine the motion of the shock wave in particular cases.S The Point Source The simplest application of the general theory developed in Section 4. it applies also to a medium which has. To make any further progress we have to use the conservation of total energy in the shock wave. . This relation is obtained by putting r = O in Eq. the theory of von Neumann and G. – r3) (4. time. or pressure in- volved in the problem. Eq.10. the blast wave from a point source explosion must 1 .11 we can obtain the density or the position R using Eq. and put y = 1 in that relation we find further . From the pres’sure distribution Eq.6.. 4. In particular. I. P(r>t) _ *2 +> (Y3 —. 4. nonuniform density.r3) (4.111 - . and acceleration of the shock. Taylor is available for comparison. velocity. Of particular interest is the relation between the shock pressure and the pressure at the center of the shock wave.2 is to a point source explosion. It can be seen that the derivation given here is even more general than was stated. Equation 4.10) 3? If we use the Hugoniot relation. In this case. Since there is no characteristic length. center of the shock wave.11) ‘o 33? This equation gives the pressure distribution at any time in terms of the position. t) = P#) + PO 2 (Y3 . Then we get (4. initially..12) The pressure near the center is in general smaller than the pressure at the shock because Y is in general negative. It is only necessary to replace por 3 by the mass en- closed in the sphere r (except for the factor 47r/3). The remaining problem is now to calculate this density distribution explicitly. p(r. 4.12 gives a relation between various quantities referring to the shock and the pressure at the.

500 0. Integration gives ~ 2/5 A1/5 t2/5 Y= (4. the potential energy per unit volume is p/(y – 1) and therefore the total potential energy will be proportional to ps Y3/(y – 1).2 1. This assumption is not necessary for the validity of the following equa- tions.13) where A is a constant related to the total energy.12 we find immediately (4.7) will be inversely proportional to Y3. This gives immediately the equation . Table 2. 4.5.67 2 p(o)/ps = 0.obey a similarity law aq has been pointed out by Taylor and von Ne~mann.462 0.16) Therefore in the limit of y close to 1. the i@ernal pressure is just one-half of the shock pressure. 4. only the peak pressure and the scale of the spatial distribution will change as the shock wave moves out.366 0.424 0.4 1. which gives the following values for the ratio of internal pressure to shock pressure: Table 4.1 1.15) Inserting this in Eq. Now the energy is mainly potential.251 1.1 VARIATION OF RATIO OF INTERNAL PRESSUjlE TO SHOCK PRESSURE WITH GAMMA Y = 1 1. energyi if y is close to 1. . Eq. This can be compared with the numerical result of von Neumann!s theory in Chapter 2. Theref~re ps and Y2 (cf.112 - .14) ()3 and differentiation gives (4.306 0. the pressure distribution will always have the same form. ? = AY-3 (4. In other words.

we give the exact numerical factor in the last expression in Eq.094 2. A further error which has been made in Eq. Therefore. only an accident that there is almost exact compensation of all these . for all values of y up to 1. 4. 4.7 has been neglected.18) because all the material moves almost with the shock velocity Y. this justifies our neglect of the kinetic energy along with a large number of other quantities of the relative order y – 1. we can now calculate the total potential energy content.17. we know that all the matter is concen- trated in a very thin shell near the shock front. On the other hand. Eqs. It is seen that this kinetic energy is small compared with the potential energy by a factor y – 1. A = 27r .95 It is seen that this factor is very close to 2m/3.31b). the kinetic energy has been neglected.1).152 2.31a.17 is that the factor 2/(7 + 1) in Eq. The internal pres- sure is actually less than one-half of the shock pressure. the ratio of the volume average of the pres- sure to the shock pressure is much closer to 1/2 than the corresponding ratio for the internal pressure (cf. Moreover. This kinetic energy is very nearly e~al to (4. of course.4 1.13) (4.4.— ‘o Y3P=~~1 (cf. with the ex- ception of a very small fraction of the volume occupied by the shock wave.05 1. the pressure is equal to the interior pressure. 4.144 2.l)E/po A = 2..1 1. 4. 4. ‘Y = 1 1.energy is then Y3 47r Y3 p(o) = 2T pi E =— —— 3 y-l 3’y-l ST P. Indeed. This is due to a compensation of various errors. Eq. We know that the potential energy per unit volume is p/(~ .67 2 (y . 4. We further know from Eq.148 2. The total. but this is com- pensated by the fact that the pressure near the shock front is higher than the internal pressure.11 that the pressure is constant and equal to p(0) over the entire region which is nearly free of matter. 4.113 - .2 1. according to calculations of Hirschfelder. With the relation of internal and shock pressure known.17) 37–1 In the following listing. It is.

neglected terms up to values of y as high as 5/3.6 and 4.19) with r3 (4. y+lx(l [1 +x) To integrate this equation.20) -dX. 4.:[x(+xJI°I° (4. more precisely for x >> e-l/(y-l) (4.. Then.16 and find += fl[-]l’’-. neglecting quantities of order (y – 1)2. We can now we our result to obtain the density distrib~tion of the matter behind the shock front. 4.20 as equal to 1 since y – 1 is as- sumed small.20 gives R3 1+X Y3 + r3 1 -(’Y– 1) @ —=~-(y-l) 2X log .11 to 4. (4.19b) Eq.114- . 4. 4. integration of Eq.6 becomes l/y dy= y-l 2 (4.20a) we may consider the exponent in Eq. it is convenient to distinguish two cases: (1) If x is not too small. We need only ap@y Eqs.21) Y “—’ Y3 2r3 .19a) x ‘— Y3 Setting also (4.

4. we get dy=(y-l)x -1/7 ~x (4.115 - . .19b.22 sensible for small values of x.21a overlap very considerably.23) or Rr (Y-v/Y —=— YY () (4.21 and 4. Over most of the mass the material velocity is nearly equal to the ve- locity of the shock wave.22) (~l)/y + A Y =x . the material coordinate r should be kept constant.23a) From the position of any point we can deduce the velocity by a simple dif- ferentiation with respect to time. 4..23 gives for the material velocity (neglecting terms of order y – 1) ‘ (4. The regions defined by Eqs. Comparing Eqs.21a) we may neglect x compared to 1. Inserting Eqs.22 we find that A=O 4. we get = #y rl-(l/y) R (4. neglecting quantities of relative order y – 1. In this process.22a) neglecting a small term of order y . This value of A will make Eq. (2) If X<<l (4. Then.1. Equation 4. where A is a constant.19a and 4. 4. 4.24) Over most of the volume the material velocity is nearly linear in R which is borne out by the numerical integrations of the exact solution (see Chapter 2).20a and 4.

4. gives y-l ~1 26 F=— (4. Eq. A more accurate evaluation. Equation 4.2.116 - .43 t in the limit y = 1 the result . 2.26a) . () 0+1 For the pressure we find from Eq. Consequently y -.25) .35 becomes then y-l -y-l — R —= ~=O~_ry -— (4. keeping terms of relative order y – 1 throughout. Neglecting small quantities in this rower. In all other faqtors the base of the power becomes (O + 1)/2 in the limit -y = 1.25a) () Equation 2. 2. which goes over the range from 1/2 to 1 and therefore n~V(?r bSCOm& ve~ small. In going to this limit one should keep the expopeqt of O qorrect be- cause this quantity goes from O to 1.1 may be neglected in the exponent of these other factors except if higher accuracy iq desired.4 Comparison of the Point Source @suits with the Exact Point Source Solution The results obtained in the last section can be compared with the e%act solution described in Chapter 2. and if it is qlose to O a factor OT-l will matter. The results of that chapter can very easily be applied to the spe~ial casq when y is very nearly 1.34’t reduces to ‘Y —== /’Y+~ _ 1/3 () (4.5 may be rewritten 3 0= Z3=+ (4.Z Z aqd 6 being the notations used in Chapter 2 (cf. 2.4. Eq.23a).26) Y ()Y This result for the Eulerian position is identical with that obtained from pur approximate theory in Eq.39’).

neglecting terms of relative order 62. a more accurate evaluation. . 6 ‘3’-1 (4.117 - . 4.— 47r d(F3) . 4. neglecting only terms of relative order (y – 1)2. 4.27) This again is identical with the result of our approximate theory given in Eqs.28a.28a) of particular interest is thb relation between the total energy and such quantities as the shock pressure. we have (4.. we shall calculate the potential (heat) energy Y E =47T R2dRJL pot Y –1 ! o 1 Y3 ps = . 4. Inserting Eq..15.29a) . (4.29a and p from 2. gives P =~l+261nr 0+1+6 1 1 —. which should appear in the second term in the s uare bracket.+ (4.11 and 4. p=p~T=— (3+1 I 2PS1+Y h)] r’ (4. Again.1. It is permissible to set the factor 66.28) Fs [ ( 6+1 2 )] with the abbreviation .29 is only of order of d3 . equal to one. the error in Eq. We shall therefore calculate tfi-s relation including terms of relative order y .26a and 4.29) 3y–3 [o s Using Eqs. First of all.

it dif- fers from it only in the order 6 as is to be expected. 1?3 .17. expept for the last factor. of course.Eq. the integrand should be taken at 8 = O. 4. Eq.29 we get 1 1 . 4. and it is much closer . We note that 06 changes from O to 1 at very small values of 0. so that in first ap- proximation for this part of the integral.. 4. higher than the central pressure.30a) or =2T _p@[ls + ~(+-in 2)] E (4.118 - . 4.28 into Eq. This integral cm be evaluated very easily.31: This may be compared with the central pressvre (cf. the factor of 6 being ody -0.31) pot 3 y-1 This result.30) up to the order 6.30 gives I =1 +6@ ( +-. It is of some interest to define the average pressure (volume average). (This corresponds to the physical fact that most of the material is near the shoqk front.31b) The average pressure is.Oa becqbes close to 1 alrea small values of 0 or of the ~aterial coordinate Z = @1? () ‘“~v~~~i~~of Eq. ) +6-6 (4. 4..’):=[’[d(e’)-~+1 ‘0+1) [( l+ Hn~+—. this is according to Eq.2. 0 +-1 1 0+1 – 1 2 )] (4.28) . (4. The last factor is seen to differ only very slightly from 1. 4. Eq. is identical with the result of our approximate theory.=zfi(.

in agreement with the numerical results reported in Table 4. A further quantity of interest is tlR/~r = dF/dz for which Eq. i. we find for the total energy (4.’ Eq.32. 4.18.7: Zr Y3 +2 E ... 4.46. therefore 1 Y3 ps = .37 gives the result (for small y – 1): -(y-l) 8R_F. Eq. The result.1.30 and replacement of d(06) by 6d6/O.33) This gives the shock pressure as a function of the radius.—— [1+6( 1–ln2)l (4. neglect of the last square bracket in Eq.33a) 3y–1 Here again the correction factor in the bracket differs only slightly from 1. According to Eq. which will be useful for the calculation of the waste energy. Adding Eqs.32.e. including terms of relative order y – 1. to one-half the shock pressure than the central pressure is. .32) 27r 3 =yYps The simplifications in this integral. 4.119 - .31 and 4. 2. =’y -l&/3 8+1 ar y+l () 2 (4. are possible because of the factor 6 in the integrand. the ratio of kinetic to potential energy in any mass element is 6.— 47T E d(F3) : 6 kin 3y–1 /0 s (4. 2. agrees with that of the approximate theory. We may also replace p~ by the shock velocity ~ according tO Eq. 4. Now let us calculate the kinetic energy. 4. This also makes the integral of order 6.34) .

and therefore u —=—+ (4. u —=—2 5t (4.40’ we find.35a) This equation shows that the density becomes extremely low for all points away from the shock front even if they are only moderately close to the center of the explosion. in which case we get from Eq.36a) where a is a constant. therefore.41 we can find the density which turns out to be . from the similarity solution we know that 2/5 Y=at (4.120 - . This is in agreement with our basic assumption that most of the material is concentrated near the shock front.’y+l ~3/y 1_.36b) RY This result is again identical with the result of our approximate theory given in Eq. .- 3 P —=— Y+lome+l. in the limit y = 1.24. that our approximate solution is identicaI with the * limit of the exact solution of the point source for y = 1 if terms of the relative order y – 1 are consistently neglected. We see. 4.42’ and 2. 2.From this expression or directly from Eq. -y-~ Y -1 2 We can also express this density in terms of the Eulerian position.35) P. Finally combining Eqs. + Z3 2 (4. 2.26 (4. 4.36 R However.

At a later time when the isothermal sphere has expanded to R.37b) We shall show that with this assumption the solution with an isothermal . Instead of this we can now assume adiabatic expansion of the isothermal sphere. The problem now no longer permits the application of similarity argu- ments. its average density has decreased by a factor (rO/RO)3. Let us assume that the material coordinate of the surface of the iso- thermal sphere is rO. If we assume that the density and pressure in the isothermal sphere are uniform.37a) 37-1 We shall now proceed in two steps.37) PO =P~ () o where P is the initial pressure in the isothermal sphere which is related to the total energy by the equation Am P ro3 E=— (4. The initisJ position of this surface is then equal to ro.4. the pressure will be equal to 37 ‘o (4. For this reason we can no longer use the conservation of total energy to advantage. First of all we shall consider the case when the radius of the shock wave is not extremely great compared with the initial radius of the isothermal sphere. more precisely (4.5 The Case of the Isothermal Sphere We shall now consider the somewhat more complicated problem of the production of a shock wave by a sphere which is initially heated to a high uniform temperature and then exerts pressure on its surroundings.121 - . The relevance of this problem of the isothermal sphere has been discussed in Chapters 1 and 3 and is connected with the great influence of energy trans- port by radiation. This is completely equivalent to an application of the energy conservation law because the adiabatic law itself is based on the assumption that there is no energy transport out of the isothermal sphere.

the approximations used in the first part of our calculation will break down.37b is not valid.38 becomes d@= Ay-3 @+~Ydy (4. (1) Case 1: Y/rO moderate If Y/rO is not very great we can replace the exponent 37 in Eq. 4.40) This can be integrated wd gives (pY6= 2A Y3+B . increases. for large values of Y/r. and this will enable us to solve the problem for the case of .38) o This eqyation can be integrated without difficulty by setting Y‘2 =($(Y) (4.. large -values of Y/r. but we can then use the results of the last section to obtain Ro/Y for the surface of the iso- the~mal sphere.122 - . .. 4.39) and I? r03 3(Y . 4.39b) and Eq.12 P ro3 -3 YY Y2+~=lp Y (4.1) E =A= ~r (403%Q ‘o ~ Then 1 d(f) Y=–— 2 dY (4. RO is vev nearly eqpal to Y. Afterwards. where Eq. At the same time we can use our general as?um@ion that practically all material is close to the shock front and that. @epefore. With this approximation we find from Eq. 4. sphere approaches the point sowrce solution as Y/r.37 by 3.

A23-— Y Y6 3 =3(7-l)E — 27r . for Y = ro. We can then use Eq 4. 4.43) Equation 4. or with Eqs. i. >> 1. large ‘we know from the discussion of Case I that our solution approaches the point source solution as soon as Y/r. (2) Case II: Y/r.42a) so that B= –A r03 (4.-—.39 and 4. neg- lecting terms of s~cond order in y – 1.42) .e. the value corresponding to the point source solution. .123 - —..42b) and finally 3?=po [) ‘o - ● Ps = P.39a @(rO) r03 = A (4. This result appears rather important because it shows (1) that the point source solution is stable and is approached even under conditions which initially deviate strongly from those assumed in the point source solution.3 () 1 _—‘o ~y3 (4.43 shows that for large values of Y/rO. 4. where B is a new constant. (4. . the shock pressure ps approaches t~e value given in Eq.17.23 for the ~osition Rn of the surface of the isothermal sphere. Now the initial condition is. and (2) that the simple and well-known point source solution can be used at late times for our problem including the isothermal sphere. and obtain.

that y – 1 still remains small throughout. 4.4 to about 1.11) will still be valid. 4. energy in the b~ast is related to the velocity of the shock front in the same way as for the point source solution.43 is valid both for srmdl and for large expansions of the isothermal sphere. The ratio of the shock pressure to the central pressure in the isothermal sphere is according to Eqs. but the algebra becomes so involved that it seems hardly worth while to use the present method in- stead of direct numerical. further development is identical with that leading to Eq. with the value of y decreasing from 1. We also assume @at the shock pressure is high enough so that the Hugoniot relations hold in their limiting form.03’”3 = p ()y . and Y will no longer be given by Eq. The more general problem in which y is a function both of the entropy and the density can also be solved by the same method.44) Po Y3 .44a) ‘o 3?3 It changes from 1 in the very early stages to 2 in the late stages. 4. 4. so that it rqmains constant for any given mass element r as soon as that element has been traversed by the shock. 4. integration. 4. This assump- tion is fairly well fulfilled by air.43.25. We shall make the further simplifying assumption” that y is a function of the entropy only. Y. We . as we did in the previous section for a point source case. Therefore the . However. This is the same expression which we usql in Case I and which we then justified simply by neglecting y in the exponent of Eq.2 with increasing entropy. 3y 3 ‘o ‘o =I? (4. and later on increasing again to 1. However. The assumption is.15. 4. the analytical expressions are. of course. the relation between Y. and the velocity. The pressure d~stribut~m (Eq. We have thus shown that Eq.43 and 4. the position. At any reasonably late stage the.35 3 Ps ‘o —= 2 —— (4.67.6 Variable Gamma The theory developed here can be used to solve the problem of a shock wave in a medium with variable y. fairly in- volved and there does not seem to be any particular application for them.124 - . It is possible to derive the density distribution.

h the case of constant y we have (cf. E Ps”: o! Y3 E p(o) “: T (4.47) ~ where @ is an abbreviation for 3? .45 snd remembering Eq. 4.49) Therefore.7 we get the following relation between a and f?: 13=a+:d$gy (4. We shall calculate the geometrical coordinate R as a function of r with the help of the density distribution. Using Eq. It will be shown in the following that a changes very slowly with log Y.1 (4. in our theory in which y – 1 is considered as small. introduce the pressure at the front and the pressure at the center of the shock wave separately by writing .11 we have p(o) =Y!++YY=+ (4.48) where ~ + 1 has been set equal to 2.17) a= ‘Y. in fact da/d log Y is of the order y – I relative to a itself. In order to find a for a given function y(r) we use the fact that both the geometrical and the material coordinate must be equal to Y at the shock front. Inserting the expression Eq.125 - . we have p=cl (4. even with variable -y the ratio of the shock pressure to the in- ternal pressure is equal to 2.46) It is our aim to calculate a and P for a given variation of y with the mate- rial coordinate r. 4. 4. 4. Eq.45) Y where a and @ are slowly variable with the shock radius Y. The required condition is then .. Therefore.

owing to other neglected terms in our theory. Combining Eq. after dividing by Y3. M fact. we have put y in the exponent equal to 1 in all those terms where this makes an error of the order y – 1. by (cf. not be relevant for the theory of variable ‘Y* With this simplification we obtain and in particular for r = Y we find. .21) and also of Eqs.51 with 4. only by neglecting this last factor do we get the correct result for constant y.52 O!(Y) J () o () Y3 No appreciable error is made by neglecting the last factor in this expression because it is different from 1 only over a region in R of the order y – 1. Y I& = I o 3 ‘o d(r) F”Y3 (4. therefore. k any case.45 and 4.3 we fipd R3 as a fiwction of r as follows: r -1 3/7 1 r’ R3=— d(r3) $ [y(r) – 11 a(r) 1 +— (4. 4.5(9) The density of the material element r at the time when the shock wave is at Y is given. Furthermore. 4.49. 4.6) M this equation we have made use of the pressure distribution (4. Eq. this last factor is no different for constant and variable y and can.

56) ‘1 In order to solve this equation we proceed in two steps. with the value of the constant arbitrary. we’ know that in this case a = Y–1* Let us now assume that y is constant and equal to yl. Eq. Then Eq. In this case we shall be able to obtain a general and rather simple differ- ential equation for a which can be solved by quadrature. in tMs case we shall obtain a solution only in the special case of having a step-wise variation of y. As a second step we shall then admit large values of Y/rl.(r) (4. Also we shall expand the first term on the right hand side of that equation in a Taylor series.54) Q(y)=] *y-3[1-*l[~(r)-ll ~(r) This is the desired equation determining a(Y). From previous considerations.127 - . (4.17. In the first step we shall consider Y/rl as mod- erate so that the y – 1 power of the quantity can be considered equal to 1.5. similar to the cal- culations in Section 4.54 reduces to do which is solved by a = constant. In this case. ‘1 . particularly Eq. 4. 4. It is seen to be a linear integral equation.56 by 3. U . (1) Case I: Y/rl moderate In this case we may replace the exponent 3/7 in Eq. 4. 4. then a = al = yl — 1 in that region. 4. Let us first consider the case of constant y. Y-’+’/y(r) [y(r). for all values of r up to rl.54 reduces to qyl-l) a(y)= al (~) Y Jyj$.56 reduces to Q. for Y > rl the integral of Eq. Further.

x t 1 [Y(x”) – 1] dx?l I1 – (71 – ~) / o dX’ exp I -o ) (4.128 - . In this case we find x a!(x) = al [’r 1 + o dX’ [Y(X’) – ?jl 1 (4. In fiis case Eq~ 4059 can be solved explicitly with the result .60) The result (Eq. is obtained by assuming that ~ has the value Y2 for all values of r > rl.e. 4. Y o!(Y) = al – 3(71 .59 for small values of X. 4. which is of some interest because it is the simplest possible model of a substance with changing y. This may be set even more in evidence by solving Eq.59 show that a does not have a discontinuity at a point at which y has one.60) as well as the differential Eq.57) To solve this integral equation we need only differentiate with respect to Y. or better with respect to x= 3 log ~ (4.61) A special case. but only da/dX has a discontinuity. i. 4.59) (ix 11 This equation can be integrated with the result x CY(X)= exp ~ [Y(X1) – 1] m’ [/ I% i’ px p.1) al log z + 3 ‘1 I‘1 d log r [y(r) – 1] a(r) (4. for points just beyond the place at which y begins to change..58) ‘1 Then we obtain -=– Q(Y – 1) + a(x) [y(x) – 11 (4.

63) Another result which follows from Eq. 4. In this case Eq.\ a=(al– 1)[1+(72-71)X+”*”I (4. 4.65) ‘1 The integral in this equation can be expressed by means of Eq.59 is that da/dX is of the order @(’y. as in Case I.129 - . we solve this equation by differentiating with respect to x. (2) Case IE Y/rl large We shall consider this problem only in the particularly simple case when y has the constant value 72 for all values of r > rl.66) . This result has been used above in obtaining the relation ~ = a.1).62) . For small values of X this reduces 71) e to +y—1 1 1 (4. Neg- lecting terms of higher order in y – 1. -1) (4. Then we obtain 3(y1-1) da ‘1 = –(?’l – 1) al y + (y – 1) o!(x) E () 2 Y 3(y2-1) -(72–1) j () d+ a(r) (4.56 reduces to Similarly. a ‘— L y2–1 (Y2 – [. –1 (yl)x 4 . 4. we get then 3(7.64.

67 shows that the value of a goes gradually from the orig- inal value yl – 1 to the value y2 – 1 which corresponds to the new value of Y* It is seen that this asymptotic value is reached only for extremely large values of Y/rl. when the shock pressure falls low enough so that y increases to 1.This equation is actually even simpler than the differential Eq. the energy which remains in the hot gases traversed by the shock wave after an adiabatic expansion to a pressure of I atm. The shock pres- sure in a substance with y constant = 1.2 for the same radius Y of the shock wave and the same energy E. Taylor has introduced the concept of the waste energy. Let us consider a material element which is traversed by the .59 which we obtained in the approximate theory of Case L Using the boundary con- dition a = yl – I for Y = rl.e. and equal to 1. 4. Only when the hot gases which possess the low y fill a smll part of the volume included in the shock wave will the y in the outer regions of the shock determine the shock pressure.4. but increases very slowly.130 - . 4.2 and y2 = 1. the shock pressure is still influenced largely by the previous value of -y instead of by the present one. the coefficient a does not immediately increase by a factor 2. 4. The knowledge of this waste energy is useful because it permits one’ to calculate the energy which re- mains available to the shock wave at small overpressures. For air in particular we may take -yI = 1.63.4 should be twice as great as that for y constant. The waste energy can be calculated very simply for the point source solution.4. 1.7 The Waste Energy G. Eq.. i. Equation 4.68) which is identical with the result of Eq. 4. Physically the reason for this is that the interior part of the shock volume still has the low value of y and therefore has a high internal energy for a given pressure.67) [) For small values of X this reduces to (4.66 integrates immediately to 3(71-1) ‘1 cl= y2–1–(72–’y1)y (4. Actually. As long as Y/rl is moderate.

72a) .131 - .69) =poy P –q () Its temperature will be Po/P and its energy content per unit mass *o Y (y-l)/y p l/~ E (4. the reason for this is that our final state is obtained from normal air by heating it at constant pressure PO to the temperature PO/P o StrictlY speaking. we have used the specific heat at constant pressure.71) J We can now use the relation between shock pressure and radius. following d. Here c= WY-1) [ l–w-~) (-+ )] 22 y+l = (Y –l)[l–(y –1)(1–lnz)l (4.33 for Y. 4.72) W. We are using this fairly exact relation because it will turn out that we have to know the waste energy including terms of relative order y – 1. = C E{po)(y-l)’”y [ where K is some undetermined multiplicative constant (cf.33. 4. We solve Eq. 4. but we shall confine our discussion to the case when ps >> PO. we should subtract from Eq. Eq. 4. When this element has been expanded adia- batically to atmospheric pressure PO.71 we obtain co dp (Ps)l’~ 5 (4.iscus- sion). its density will be I/y y+l ‘o (4. 4. The total energy wasted in the shock wave is then w’ 41rpo Y2 dY 6 (4.shock at a shock pressure ps. in order to get the waste energy.70 the expression yPO/pO(Y.70) = P(Y – 1) = po(y + 1) Po s k calculating the energy content. inserting the result and Eq.70 into Eq.1).

7). and using the fact that y – 1 is small. 4. namely.1$ i*e*~ Of using Eq.72 gives the energy wasted up to the time when the shock pressure has fallen to the value KPO. This requires K>>y+l (4.75) 71- Setting (4.74 reduces to’ (4677) Of course the available energy will be further reduced as the shock pressure is reduced closer to atmospheric pressure.~)20 Equation 4. Eq.?2 can be integrated immediately ~d gives (y-l)/y ‘o w=+lc E— Y ()W?o -(y-l)/y =[l+(y– l)ln2]EK (4.132 - . This shows the necessity of knowing the relation be- tween ps and E UP to terms of the order y .33 will break down at too low values of ps. It is somewhat problematic w~t to use for Kc clearly the relation 4. when the limiting form of the Hugoniot rplations ceases to be valid.76) then n >> 1.1. It is therefore not possible to givq any accurate . Penney has shown that the dissipation of energy continues indefinitely as the shock wave expands (see Chapter 5.1 and moderate K this expression is proportional to y . 4“33 rather than Eq. Section 5.74) It is clear that for small values of y .neglecting terms of relative order (~ . Equation 4. In fact.17.$-(+ ~y-’)’y] (4. 4.73) Subtracting this expression from the total energy E we obtain the energy which is still available: Eefi .

to a relatively smaller blast wave at large distances. therefore. The change of a derived in Section 4. which would be obvious nonsense.definition of the percentage of energy wasted but it would be necessary to specify the shock pressure for which this statement is made. 4. In the latter case the temperatures reached are only moderate. the smaller y – 1. This slow variation of the shock pressure is in turn important if one wants to calculate the waste energy for a gas with variable y.133 - . less than for the nuclear explosion. . gases might occur in which the waste energy would be greater than the total energy available. if it were not for this gradual change.6 is just sufficiently gradual to keep the waste energy always be- low the total available energy. The fact that the air has a small value of y at high temperatures leads to increased dissipation of energy at the shock and. it would be necessary to follow the shock wave through the region of inter- mediate pressures which can adequately be done only by numerical methods (see Chapter 6). and the energy wasted is. but is rather close to the value for the original value of y. In order to obtain the percentage wasted for shock pressures of the order of 1 atm. therefore. that the shock pressure after a sudden change of y does not correspond to the new value of ~.6.77 that the energy available for the shock wave is smaller. This is the main reason why the blast wave from a nuclear explosion is less strong at a given distance than that from a TNT explosion liberating the same total energy. it is clear from our Eq. In fact. namely. The greater wastage of energy for smaller y is also related to the re- sult obtained in Section 4. However.

..

7 ). i. At one point in our develop- ment. carry terms of order (L/Y)3. the use of asymptotic formulae therefore improves both the accuracy and the ease of the calculation.Chapter 5 ASYMPTOTIC THEORY FOR SMALL BUST PRESSURE by H. This numerical calculation would become in- creasingly inaccurate and cumbersome with increasing radius of the shock wave.e. One purpose of such a theory is to provide a natural transition to the well-known acoustic theory. We shall in general retain the first and second power of L/Y and neglect the third. the distance from the first shock to a point at which the pressure has decreased to a small fraction of the peak pres- sure. Ordinary acoustic theory does not represent the first term in an ex- pansion of the type considered here. A. of course. Bethe and K. we shall calculate the actual energy trans - formed into heat at the shock front and at this point we shall. We shall find that the length of a . and to set in evidence the limitations of the latter. if we neglect terms of order (L/Y)3. we can consider the entire process as adia- batic which involves a great simplification. where p is the overpressure at the shock front which in turn is proportional to I/Y. Therefore. Another purpose is to give practical results for the pressure up to arbitrarily larged istances and to make it possible to stop the numerical calculation with lBM machines (see Chapter 6) at some finite low presstire. The theory presented in this chapter represents the first terms of an expansion in powers of the ratio L/Y where Y is the radius of the shock wave and L its length.135 - . One strong reason for stopping at just this point is that the entropy in the shock is proportional to P3.1 Introduction It is very desirable to have a theory of shock waves which is valid for small overpressure. Fuchs 5. . however (Section 5.

5) 1.2 Acoustic Theory In the ordinary hydrodynamic equations (see below.12) all terms shcmld be neglected which are of second or higher order in pressure p or material velocity u. faster than that of the pressure in an acoustic wave. . acoustic theory is very usefql to provide some guiding ideas for our theory. the decay of the pressure at the shock front is somewhat . Eq. whereas an acoustic wave retains its wavelength all the time.136 - .4) r wherei r=+ (5. and we shall therefore start by a recapitulation of the acoustic theory of an out- going spherical wave.=~+:~=c’+ 8r2 (5 .spherical shock wave increases gradually as the shock wave moves away from its center.1) $=-C(% +$) where a is Riemann’s quantity. 5. 5. Similarly.2) Combining the two equations of 5. we get the wave equation lc?.3) which has the solution -—f’(T) ~ _ (5 .10) which for small pressures is given by (7 = p/pc (5. However. (cf. Eq. 5. for ingoing waves. . a would be a function of t + r/c.1. We consider only outgoing spherical waves. Then the hydrodynamic equations become au au %=– CG (5.

therefore. and f’ is an arbitrary function of 7 which is determined by the source which produces the sound.137 - . For finite sound velocity the second term in Eq. therefore. it depends on the pressure which has existed in the wave at earlier times. It is interesting that this term contains a factor c.. meaning that the flow through any spherical surface is the same.8) 2 r At any given time.3 General Theory The equations of motion in Eulerian coordinates are . 5.6) . Instead of f I.6 is of the order L/r. We shall find that a more accurate theory of pressure waves can be constructed in close analogy to the acoustic theory here outlined. it will become very large in the limit of incompressible theory. behaves in the same way and is actually equal to u. we get f’ (T) u=—— r + $-) (5. the ratio of the second to the first term in Eq. we may also assume f(T) as given. e. u is inversely proportional to r2.1 &d integrating. 5. Inserting Eq.4 into the first equation of 5.6 is known as the after- flow term. the material velocity u has one term which. which cor- responds to infinite sound velocity. 5. as would be expected in incom- pressible theory. If the sound signal is of finite duration T = L/c. We see therefore that a and the pressure p are propagated with sound velocity outwards.7) J i. 5. and at the ssme time decay as I/r. In this limit the material velocity be- comes q T) u = c— (5 .6 may or may not be important. For this reason the second term of Eq. . This second term is proportional to f(T) = f’ (T) dt (5. the second term becomes unimportant in comparison with the first. f‘ = df/dT. On the other hand. and a second term which decreases as l/r2. With in- creasing distance r from the source. 5.

5. 5. au au —All—=— I ap —— at ‘ ‘ar p ar alOgp+ (5.1.10 into 5.13) U=ru With this notation the equations of 5.12 reduces to Eq. the quantity (5. The equation of energy conservation is replaced in our approxi- mation by the condition that the motion is adiabatic (see Section 5. instead of the pressure. In Eq. the second is the continuity equation. We therefore introduce the abbreviations (5.12 become 8U –+cg+u~-cq=o at r .9 we obtain (5.1).?s) Inserting Eq. It is convenient to introduce. 5.12) In the acoustic limit the terms containing u as a factor can be neglected and Eq.10) in which c is the sound velocity which itself depends on the density. We know from the acoustic theory that u and u behave approximately as I/r at large distances.9) at The first of these is the equation of motion.138 - .10 we have used the definition c 2 = dp/dp (5. 5.

18) .139 - . / . (5*14) . We therefore further set u= Z+D (5.17 is . This is the analogue of acoustic theory in which 2 propagates with velocity Co. The term D/r is small because D is expected to be small compared to X as will be proved below. In the first approximation. is small compared to d2/dr.u is physically obvious and is analogous to the well-known Riemann method for treating plane problems. x = E(T) (5. the first equation of 5. Equations 5. Therefore the term U/r. which is approximately equal to Z/r. in turn. the ratio of the two terms being of the order L/r.16.16) In the first approximation we may neglect the last three terms in the first equation of 5.. 5.. We should expect that d/dr of any quantity is of the order of that quantity divided by L. The replacement of the ordinary sound velocity co by the effective sound velocity c.14 now become #+(c+u) E+ C(E+$)-?” O r (5.15) and we expect that D will become small compared with 2 for large r. We know further from acoustic theory that u becomes asymptotically equal to a for large distances. small compared to the second last term.17) This equation means that Z propagates with the velocity c – u.16 reduces to (5. The solution of Eq. therefore. The last term is.

the right hand side re - duces to 2c2V’r and the factor on the left to 2. U we choose the same lower limit r.21 can be inte- grated and gives (’5.19.4 Second Approximation We shall now try to determine the function D from the second equation of 5. For the present we shall not specify the lower limit. 5. In this second equa- tion we can certainly neglect the last term. The first two terms can be transformed by introducing instead of t the variable ~ defined in Eq.. The lower limit in the integral may be a function of 2. then T iS the time when the value of Z to which it belongs passes the point r. This will be discussed in Section 5.16 and also to get a better approximation for Z. 5. 5. 5.19) TIm integration in the expression of Eq.16 becomes (5. The function 2 (T) must be determined from the shape of the shock wave at some initial time.21) Neglecting all terms of smaller order of msgnitude.(%3 T r c+.17. (5. Then Eq.20) and the second equation of 5.10.140 - . 5.with C& ‘r = %– J — C+u (5.22) . We have then (at’ (3 . The integral therefore depends on X and the equation does not give ti explicit solution of Eq.19 is to be extended over a path along which 2 is constant. for all Z.

and is there- fore small compared to 2 according to our assumptions. and V is the spec- ific volume.21 becomes 8D = (c + u): (5. however. The form of Eq. point at which D is to be calculated. 5.22. To prove this.26) . it must be shown that D behind the shock front is of smaller order than Eq.2. – v) (5. Section 5. 5. This can easily be done by using the Hugoniot relations and the definition of a. Further. It is of interest. to write down the right hand side of Eq.25) where the subscript O refers to the undisturbed material.141 - . as well as the treatient given in this section. This result shows that D is actually of the order Z L/r. but terms of order cD/r imd u2/r have been taken into account.. We have behind the shock front u 2 = (P – P*) (V.24) ()mr in which only terms of order uD/r are nqglected.22 (5. 5. This justifies the first approximation given in the last section.. For this purpose we note that according to Eq. The integral in Eq. we have generally (5.22 must be extended from the shock front to the ..27) .21 to the next approximation. 5.23) Therefore Eq. 5.22 shows that D has the character of ap after-flow term and therefore corresponds in all respects to the after-flow term in . The value of D behind the shock front is by definition D= r(u – a) (5. 5.

v (5.s of the usual form -a p.142 - . (5.30) W V2 0 and we write 2’ d2p co —=2a T dV2 ‘o 2 d3p co –—=~~= (5. TCI evahmte Eqs. . If the adiabatic law i. 2. . and to express the pressure in terms of this quantity _V~x+ V2 0d2px2 V3 _~d3p x3+ P=PO .32) ‘o v H o the values of a and ~ are .31) dV3 V.33) 6 . ~=(Y+wY+2) (5.28) = V.25 and 2.29) OdV 2 dV2 6 dV3 Using the definition of the sound velocity we have 2 co __ C@ =— (5. where a and P are dimensionless coefficients.26 it is convenient to introduce the quantity V*– V x (5.

36 into the expression 5. It is interesting that it depends on the quantity a.34 and 5.34) ‘o Inserting Eqs.) (5.26 we find (5.5). . . on d2p/dV2 which is also the qu~W determining the entropy change at the shock front (see Section 5. 5. 1 (5.39) 0 24 This relation holds generally behind the shock front.e.22. Fors our present purpose the important point is that u – a is proportional to x . With these abbreviations Eq. .37) Inserting Eq. .25) we obtain 12X2+ u=coxl+—lax+~ [ 2 (2@ ——Q 8 ) . .. 5.c~— (5.143 - . J%=+[’+ -(:-$)x’+. and therefore falls off as l/Y3 where Y is the shock radius. .29 becomes 2 co P–PO =—(x+ax2+px3+.36) or for the sound velocity (5. 5.28 into the Hugoniot relation (Eq. The quantity D just behind the shock front will therefore fall off as l/Y2 which makes it of smaller order of magnitude than the expression of Eq. i.38) and subtracting we get 2 X3 u— (J. 1 (5. and therefore to U3.35) Further we find. . 5. . 5.

Therefore the first equation of 5.24 and the definition of T. 5.16 we see that the terms U/r cancel.41) Using Eqs. this can be integrated to give (5 . 5. according to Eqs.43) Neglecting u in c + u. neglecting tbe very small term D2/r2.23. . Inserting Eq. along a line of constant T.5. but the somewhat more complicated quantity x itself therefore increases as the wave propagates outwards. We note in passing that.20. 5. 5. We have to calculate the quantity (. not 2 itself is a constant.44) h other words.42 into the first equation of 5. only quantities of the order (u/c )(D/r) are neglected in this expression. the velocity of wave propagation is in first approximation C+u=co(l+ ax) (5.144 - .16 becomes.37. this becomes As was explained above.40) We shall now insert our expression for D back into the first equation of 5. and 5. 22 +(c+u)~ () t =— r2 (5.16.35 and 5.

then T + Y/c. therefore.5 The Motion of the Shock Front Let us assume that the shock front moves from a radius Y to a radius Y + dY.~ —. Y — T = t– J C+U Y co where Y is the shock radius at the time when the signal 2 reaches the shock front. #r ~.5. then the rarefaction will gradually cut down the strength of the shock.u) (5. II we use the definition above.45) and the time needed for the shock to travel the distance dY is 2dY dt = (5. so that the shock velocity is += . M order to calculate the variation of 7 along the shock front. Y. sid if the shock is followed by a rarefaction as it is in the case of a blast wave. It is convenient to define the arbitrary constant of integration in Eq. The time difference dt between the arrival of the signals ~ and T + dr at the shock front is therefore . is the time when the signal 2 reaches the shock. The former sound velocity is CO. or 7 is the difference m the actual time and the time which would be required for a signal traveling from the origin with normal sound ve- locity co. the value of T at the shock will gradually change. Therefore these sound waves will catch up with the shock wave. we have to complete the definition of 7 which was left somewhat arbitrary. c + u. if it has the value ~ when the shock is at Y.145 - .19 as follows . 5.46) +C+u co The shock velocity is smaller than the velocity of sound waves behind the shock.(CO + c +. is a function of ~ md this is permissible since the constant of integration was allowed to depend on z. k our notation. the latter c + u. The shock velocity can easily be shown to be in first approxima- tion midway between the effective sound velocities ahead and behind the shock. it will have the value ~ + d7 when the shock has moved to Y + dY.

146 - . We can get further results if we assume tha$ initially (at small distances from the origin) the shock wave was of short duration? and that most of the duration at shock radius Y is due to the excess of the shock velocity over the unperturbed sound veloc)ty c . This assumption is quite well justified for blast waves at sufficiently la%ge distance..+% (5. 5.46 yields dr 2 1 co–c–u ~co-c–u 9 (5.40) r 1? dr dr t= to+ —N to+ / C+u J + o?z ‘o ‘o co T (5. about the shape of the shock wave. then we have for the arrival time of this value of Z at the distance r (cf. Eq. 5.49) Hence Eq. From Eqs.48) W= CO+ C+ U–FO=CO(C+C +u)– 2COU This equation describes the catching up of the rarefaction wave with the shock front.6 Results for Very Large Distances llp till now we have not made any special assumptions about the function 2(T).40 and 5. dt = d. 5.38 follows C+u=co+ aa (5.51) . If to is the time at which a given value of Z exists at a given small radius ro. 5. e.48 becomes (5.50) where we have also used the definition of ~ = aY.47) co Comparison with Eq. 5. i.

of to md ro for different values of X. H we neglect small difference in the values . Then we get dzs 2s (5. the value of Z at the shock front is not constant but decreases due to the catching up of the rarefaction. it goes only as the inverse square root of the loga- rithm of the shock radius.51. since the latter travels with sound velocity CO: i.54) is applied. to vary over any appreciable rage. Jn fact. Z = ~s.14? - . This is not so. This decrease is very slow. it follows that for fixed r.50. This is easily verified from Eq.51 in particular at the shock front r = Y. For this purpose we substitute Eq. Z is a linear function of t and theyefore the pressure assumes a linear shape also.53) dY = – 23? In (Y/ro) which can immediately be integrated to give A (5. we find therefore ZSQ! = –~lnz (5. M order to obtain Ts as function of 2s O~Y. 5. it is easily shown that we are led to contradictions if we allow r. Neglecting again ro and to as small quantities.52 into 5. 5. this time was ako equal to T~ + Y/cO where TS k the vdUe of T corresponding to ~s. Then t is the time of arrival of the signal 2s at the shock radius Y. How- ever. ti other words. we have to e~ress the shock radius Y in terms of 2s. ITSI is identi~~ with the duration of the positive pressure pulse.e. The derivation given above may give rise to the impression that ro may be chosen arbitrarily as long as it is small compared to all values Y for which the formula (Eq.54) 2s = Jln (Y/ro) where A is a constant.52) T s ‘o co ~ the approximation in which ro ~d to are neglected! I TSI is W definition the difference in the arrival time of the shock and of the signal z = O. We apply Eq. . . 5. 5.

c + u.9. and duration. For the present let it suffice to point out that a pressure pulse of the asymptotic shape requires two parameters to determine its initial conditions. snd still faster in one. or the so-called impulse of the wave. Connected with the spreading of the wave there is a decrease of the front pressure which is faster than I/Y. Another interesting phenomenon which is connected with the variation of the sound velocity c + u is the fact that a second shock must be formed in the negative phase of a shock wave. pf. Going back to Eq. we find then that the duration of the pressure pulse will increase as the square root of log Y. The spreading of a shock wave in three dimensions is very slow. 5. two constants in the asymptotic law and thus both the constsnt A and the constant rO are determined by the properties of the pulse. Since the very tail of the shock wave moves with velocity co. We require.51. elementary acoustic theory would give constant front pressure whereas the actual behavior is as l/~ The case of two ‘dimensions is again intermediate. o. On the other hand. namely const pfe = ~ (5. Therefore the point Z = O propagates with a velocity slightly greater than normal sound velocity. 5. We shall see later that a detailed analysis will allow us to determine the correct value of rO which should be inserted in Eq. will there- fore behave exactly as l/Y. and for more than three dimensions. which is smaller than normal sound velocity. Again. Another interesting problem is the motion of the point 2 = O. Ih our approximation the propagation velocity of this point is just the normal sound velocity co. It would be considerably faster in two. acoustic theory becomes the correct asymptotic limit. This will be discussed in more detail in Section 5. in one dimension. the end of the positive phase x= O moves with a velocity slightly greater than the end of the negative . however. The regions of negative pressure have a patiicularly smali propagation velocity. nsmely the strength and duration of the pulse. therefore. co. Therefore the very end of the shock wave tends to catch up with the regions of negative pressure and a second shock will result.148 - . u is somewhat greater than a by the amount D/r.55) We have thus seen that in our approximation a shock wave will spread out gradualIy$ in contrast to the acoustic theory in which the wave retains itg shape for all time. which marks the end of the positive pressure phase (p > PO) and the beginning of the negative phase. The product of peak pres- sure. Actually. for a space of more than three dimen- sions this effect will not occur. in three dimensions this effect is small. dimension.54.

This corresponds to observations. but large compared to the region of the hot gases. One is the central region in which the gases have been left at high temperature by the shock and therefore have low density. 5. Therefore in this region we can replace r by Y. p – po$ is proportional to a. the deviation of me density from normal.56 we get Y.57) where M is a constant independent of X and of the time.58 Y2 Jshock adr=Y J shock Zdr=h!l (5. If X denotes a radius small com - pared to Y.56) There are two regions in which the density is appreciably different from the normal density PO.phase. 5. Subtracting Eq.58) The shock region itself may be assumed to be small in extension com- pared to Y.57 from 5. E the shock wave is far out. these regions have returned to atmospheric pres - sure and therefore to a definite density. Therefore we obtain from Eq. Furthermore.59) From this follows that . A very important remark about the shape of shock waves has been made by Penney. J~ (P . It is most easily deduced from the fact that the total mass of air behind the shock must be equal to the original mass of air within the radius Y. we shall have x Jo pr2 dr = poY x’ -M (5. Consequently the positive phase will tend to become somewhat short - er and the negative phase somewhat longer than the elementary theory indi - cates. This means Y 3 Jo pr2 dr = po~ (5.149 - . POM2 dr=M (5.

(1) the work done by the material on one side. with equal shocks at the beginning and at the end as illustrated in Fig. Since we have proved at the end of the last section that the pressure pulse in a shock wave has a negative phase balancing the positive phase. we know that the value of Z at the front is nearly constant. . (5.62j [ Ifweset u=a. 5.7 The Energy The energy flux through a given surface consists of two parts. Therefore the energy flux in the shock wave through a sphere of radius Y is in sufficient approximation w = 4TY2 pudt (5. the energy flux becomes 1 w= 47tpc J 22 dt = 477pcz: e ~ -1 x2dx (5.60) However. In particular. The shock wave must consist of a phase of positive a (overpressure) and a phase of negative a (underpressure) such that the impulses of the two phases cancel each other in first approximation. the final displace- ment of any point is zero in first approximation (5. 5. on the material on the other side.52. 5. Therefore the integral in relation 5.60 must consist of two contributions which nearly cancel each other.61) This means that the net transport of energy with the material is zero of higher order than the work term mentioned as part (1) above. namely. anda= 2/Y. it was first given by Penney using the energy rather than the amount of material. and (2) the energy transported with the material itself. the shape of the shock wave becomes symmetrical. This argument is also a proof of the existence of the negative phase.1. in the limit in which the pressure depends linearly on the time.63) where o is the duration of the positive phase which. p=pca. and if we further assume that the pressure distribution is as indicated in Fig.1. 5. according to Eq.

1 Symmetrical equal shock waves . P t Fig.. . 5.

The energy can be expanded in a Taylor series in the change of volume and of entropy..66 shows that the total energy in the shock wave decreases slowly’ as the shock wave propagates.68) ‘6 8V . To determine this wasted energy or increase in entropy.67) where the quantities without subscript are behind. It is interesting to determine the decay of the energy in the shock wave in a different way also. = +(P + PO}(VO– v) (5. those with subscript O in front of.+ ~(s . (5. but Ii@ this waste will depend on the distance to which the shock wave has gone. the shock wave.. we use the Hugoniot equation for the energy E – E.64) ‘o co so that 87rtYp W=y Zf3 In X (5.152 - .54 for 2 this becomes ~ 87rap A3 w?=~ (5.66) o 4 ~ (Wro) Equation 5.= —2fh) ~ (5. This fact was first pointed out by Penney and means that it is impossible to define in any general way the energy wasted in the shock wave. This is based on the fact that energy is irreversibly converted into heat at the shock front at all times..So)+. 5.has the value LYE $.65) o ‘o Using the relation of Eq. as follows 2 E –Eo== 8V(v–VO)+~a~(V – VO)2 av 1 83E –=(V -vO)S +..

) +. Thus we find for the decrease of energy in the shock wave itself . 5. –-@ox+”— (5.47rpY2 TO(S –so)=–% Qpco x Y E = _ 27r _—pa ~3y2 (5.So) = ~2 — ~v2 o .153 - . .73 occurs twice. If we remember that () 13E m~=–po .70) ‘68V2 O Further.+ TO(S -s.71) 20 2W Inserting Eqs.38 we obtain dW 232 = .4 (5..72) TO(S . 5.28. 5.73) 3 co In our shock wave at very large distances.70 and 5.68 becomes 1* V2X2 E –EO=PoVOX–~8V o 182P —— V3X3+. 5.. . This is the energy wasted per gram of material swept over by the shock. we have ap 1 a2p ~ 2X2 P = p. we find I a2p v 3X3 (5. 4 . there are two shocks of equal strength and therefore the energy loss Eq.67. 8E = To (5. If we now use Eqs.69) %FV () and introduce the abbreviation of Eq.71 into 5. Eq.31 and 5. . 5.

but the pressure distribution behind the shock is .66. 5. We therefore have found the decay of the energy by two . dW=_ W TY 2Y in (Y/rO) (5.74) Comparing this with the expression for the energy itself. we . Hence. z= z(y) t (5. Eq.78) . e.— ‘f dY –Yco Y (5. Eq. an arbi- * trary shape of the pulse. Both methods are only applicable if the shape of the pressure pulse remains unchanged.75) . we find . w= (5. \ we shall slightly change the procedure used in the preceding sections. 5. Since we are interested i~ applying the theory to the IBM calculations.. but we allow. i. 5.66.154 - . point as function of time.r– J ‘o (C + u)dt (5. 5. “3 cigv= 411pa . There is an intermediate region. not yet linear.* make all the assumptions which led to the first approximation considered in the preceding section. entirely independent methods.76) @I (y/ro) This result is exactly the same as deduced above by explicit evaluation of W. in which the shock pressure is quite small. we write the solution of Eq.. within certain limitations.77) A y.17 in the form . h- stead of introducing as initial condition the shape of the pulse at a fixed . which integrates immediately to Const . we introduce the pulse at a fixed time tO as function of the radius y.8 The Propagation of the Shock at Intermediate Distances The asymptotic form of the pressure pulse behind the shock is usually reached only at very large distances when the shock pressure has become a extremely small. We shall now consider this intermediate region.

Co(t – to) – = in (5.49 we find t = Co(t – to) – au dt (5. Also u = X/r and Z iS constant for the purpose of integration. Thus = – co(t – to) – a~ In. the two equations differ only by terms of the order (X/y~0)2. 5.82) which is a Constant.83) co k particular.81) Yr co Y ~ince Z/c. 5.Then 2 as function of y is given by the initial pressure distribution at time tO. Using Eq.155 - .82a) Then Eq.80) Y~ co Alternatively we might have replaced r in the integral by y + co(t – to) and found y + Co(t – to) = –.79) Y r– JL ‘o The remaining integral is a small term and therefore we may replace dt by dT/cO. if 2s is the value of ~ at the shock front R . (5 . We introduce the abbreviation (5. must be small ~omwred to y.80 takes the form r = Co(t —to) += [g(~) + 2 lnr+k] (5. For convenience we define k in such a way that g(o) = o (5.

. one finds (5. 5.85) The shock velocity is also equal to the average value of c + u in front and behind the shock.88) 2R dzs dzs This is an inhomogeneous linear equation in in R and can therefore be solved with the result Here 20 is the value of 2s at time t = to. glag dt [1 COR “o+:fo[*s+hR1 (5. ~=+[co+c+u]=co[l +~] (5.84)’ co Differentiation yields . when R = Ro. i.e. .86) Here we have made use of Zq. Ft=co(t-to)+~ [g(~~) + ~~ In R + k] (5. Comparing the two equations for dR/dt and observing that 2/cOR is a small quantity.156 - .87) or 2 sdR —— +43 —+ln R=O (5.49.

92) co =77 it follows that (5. 5. Partial integration yields (5. Since g(X) and 2 are finite.10 Ap = ~oCOU (5 . 5.157 - .89 in the form Then the last term tends to zero if 2s tends to zero and we have asymp- totically . Let us write Eq.90 is finite except for 2s = O. Hence 2s tends to zero as R tends to infinity. Either of the two equations gives the shock radius R as function of 2= Ra.93) Thus we obtain the shock pressure Aps as function of the shock radius. 5.91) and.90) TM form of the equation is more convenient if g is given as function of 2 in numerical form. since it avoids numerical differentiation. the right hand side of Eq. Now from Eq. since 2 ‘o (5 .

we have obtained here the constant A in terms of the initial con- ditions and furthermore we have now a definite radius R* in terms of which the radius R should be measured. The contradictions which arose previously are therefore. However.94) is obtained only if 2 is sufficiently small. if we plot 2 against y. A 2S = (5.2 Initial pressure pulse .2.94) in (NR*) where (5*95) This is essentially the equation derived previously for very large distances. it will have some shape of the form shown in Fig. avoided. approximating roughly the initial pressure Y Fig. It will be observed that the asymptotic law (Eq. 5.158 - . 5. 5.

1P (5.pulse. ++ ln— (5. 5. We shall consider the negative phase in some detail below. cm Y~ + Co(t – to) L+=y~ –y..97 and using Eq. 5. The asymptotic law holds only if 2s has become small com- pared to 2. + Co(t -to) =R-L+~R (5. The length of the positive phase is obtained from Eq. 5.159 - .80 instead of Eq. and Y.96) o Y Asymptotically Z tends to zero. As time goes on various 2 values catch up with the shock front and the range of values which initially extended to 20 contracts and extends only to 2s.e. but previous considerations have shown that asymptotically the posi- tive and negative phase become symmetric. also the pressure become linear in r. The smaller x the longer it takes for this x to catch up with the shock front.94 one finds (5.99) U we wish to obtain the pressure as function of time at a fixed point. 5. (We have proved this only for the positive phase.. unless the initial pulse is already close to a linear function.96 by subtracting r for 2 = O from R for 2 = 2s.81 y + Co(t – to) r =y+co(t–to)+c S??. and therefore it may take an appreciable time before the asymptotic law is established.98) Inserting this expression into the in of Eq. 5.81 . Hence Z and. The pressure distribution behind the shock in space is most easily obtained from Eq.97) 0 Ys Asymptotically we have ys --Dy. 5. therefore. i.. ) At the same time y tends to a fixed value y. or more precisely if 2s is so small that 2 may be considered a Unear function of y between Z = O and 2 = 2s. it is more convenient to use Eq.

Alternatively we may use Eq. Co(t –to)=r–y–~~$- ‘0 Following the same arguments as above one finds that the pulse is asymp- totically linear. 5. If A t is the time interval between the arrival of the shock and the arrival of the signal x at the point r.83.83 to determine the length of the pulse.101) as it should be.100a) co The shape of the pulse is obtained from Eq. 5.100) or asymptotically (5. one finds At = ~ [g(~s) – g(2) + (Zs – Z) in r] (5. Y*+C=ln o $ s) (5.99a) and for the duration T+ = ~ [g(~s) + 2s In R] (5. 160 - . 5. 82a we find (5. The duration of the positive pulse is given by 02 T+=l- co (q.102) co . with Eq.

5. If r as function of y has an extremqrn.9 The Negative Phase. In fact.106) If we differentiate Eq.83 follows for fixed t (5. Hence they must both be finite in Eq. A shock starts at the boundary be- tween the two cases.107) dy dz . As long as r increases with increasing y. the Z values have a tendency of catching up with each other.2.104 and we may write o (5.161 - . so that the negative phase gradually returns to normal pressure. throughout the whole region in which dE/dy is negative. At some stage a 2 value in this region will overtake another tid then a shock starts. the 2 values are in the correct initial order. From Eq.82 (5. 5. dg/dy and d2/dy cannot vsnish simultaneously. some 2 values have already overtaken others. whereas all other 2 values in the negative phase travel more slowly.5. 5. 5. Development of the Back Shock We assume that the initial conditions are as indicated in Fig.103) The condition that dr/dy = O gives g+ghr=o (5. when r as function of y has a point where both the first and second derivatives vanish. we find ddgo = —— (5.105) and (since aZ/Coy is small). 5.104) dy dy Now from Eq.103 once more and put dr/dy = d2r/dy2 = O. The value 2= O travels with normal sound velocity.

or c?g _ ~ n dz A \ If we neglect small terms of the order X/coy and L/y. at which the back shock starts.109) Following the procedure used for the first shock.105 (co/a) lnX=— (5. we have for the shock velocity in analogy to Eq. 5.162 - .‘r 2Y . this condition can easily be reduced to d2Z _ ~ (5. co —[Y – Co(t . 5.106 gives the radius r = rl and finally Eq. If Zf and 2r are the corresponding 2 values.106a) y (dZ/dy) Equation 5.84.83 gives the time t = tl.108) F co 2COY ( ) where Y is the position of the back shock. ‘f . 5.106 yields with Eq.88. Substitution into Eq. 5. The back shock starts somewhere inside the negative phase and for some time at least the pressure in the rear and in front of the back shock differs from normal.86 Zf+z dY . we find equations similar to 5. 5. 5.to)] = g(zf) + ~g in Y + k o! =g(Xr)+Xrlq Yi-k (5. In addition we have two equa- tions similar to Eq.107 determines the value 2 = 21. r I+a (5.107a) dy2 and similarly Eq.

113) 2Y CEf q Zr=o with the solution .111) dz + f lnl?-t-~f r Eliminating Y by means of Eq. Hence the value 2 = O will eventually catch up with the back shock.163 - . . (5. Since both Zr and 2f are negative. (5sio) Combining the two equations we find lnY+= e dzr = o (5.114) Here 22 and Y2 are the values of Zf and Y at the time when Xr reaches O. +lny=o (5. the shock travels with a velocity below the velocity of sound. Then the equations for the propagation of the back shock take a form similar to those for the first shock 2fdY+dg —. 5.109 one finds This equation requires in general numerical integration. and then the back shock leaves the material behind at normal pressure.!.

The s~e is true if we choose the initial conditions at any later time. (5.e.118) Using the expression of Eq.. . and the integral of 2 taken over the whole pulse vanishes. Just as for the first shock it follows fiat zf approaches zero for large Y and one has asymptotically –B .119) The last term in the integral is small and we require therefore 2 Y2 J’ 2 2 0~dy=2c ‘Z21n— 02y2 (5. (5. If we choose our initial conditions at the time when x just vanishes behind the back shock. then y2 = Y2. i.164 - .82 for g we find by means of partial inte- gration (5.120) Here y2 is the value of y corresponding to ~2 and we have made use of the fact that y = It. for X = 20.116) (5. Hence A should be equal to B.115) ‘f = d-” (5.117) W6 have seen previously that asymptotically the strength of the back shock must be the same as that of the first shock. 5.

For later application we shall finally write down the equations which result if the initial pulse has linear shape.125) ‘% (-iE o) 00 The pulse is characterized by the two constants.82.121) 2=20 to. 20 is the value of 2 at the shock front. we find that dg/~ is constant dg=co=o (5. More precisely 3 co ‘% A2=— ‘R (5. is the shock radius and Lo the length of the positive pulse at time t = to.93 Roco Aps zo=y — (5. We assume y+ LO-Ro .95 we find 2 dg co A2 +ln R =FL2 =Zo21n(Ro/R*) (5.165 - .121 CO Lo dg cm —— (5.95 for R*.122) ‘o Differentiating the function g(~) defined by Eq. 5. 5. R* and A2. 5.123) m=~~– 1 coy –lny () Neglecting the second term in the bracket. . –2Lo<y<Ro (5. For the constant A2 defined also by Eq. which is small. multiplied by the radius R. one finds with the help of Eq.124) ——-ln Ro=-ln R* cm a 20 Here we have used the definition of Eq. which is related to the shock pressure by Eq. 5. 5. ‘o where R.125a) ~ e Po . A2 is essen- tially the product of the duration 0 = Lo/co and the shock pressure Aps.fort= It. snd observing that y is for practical purposes constant and equal to Ro.

and they keep.10 The Case of Two Pressure Pulses Catching Up with Each Other If the explosion takes place at some considerable height and the pres- sure pulse is measured by airborne instruments. 5. the two pulses behave independently and the calculations of the preceding sections apply. and what happens if it does. However.3 P I Fig. As long as ‘the front of the second pulse has not reached the rear of the first pulse. We assume for simplicity that both pressure pulses have reached the asymptotic form. the problem arises as to whether or not the reflected shock from the ground catches up with the first shock. these are neg- lected in the following considerations). 5. therefore. since these quantities are constants snd apply therefore at any time.The radius R* is similarly given by (5.124a) Here the subscript O for R has been dropped. We then have three shocks as shown in Fig.166 - . the length of each pulse increases indefinitely and therefore the reflected shock will some time catch up with the rear of the first pulse. at a constant dis- tant (apart from geometrical factors arising from the fact that the reflected shock has a center different from that of the first shock. The mid-point of either pulse travels with sound velocity c.3 Three shocks where the reflected shock will sometime catch up with the) rear of the first pulse . 5.

i.g.. . r in RO/R* % = ‘1 O In R/R* (5.124a. remains unaltered.110. R* is given by Eq. The equation for the first shock.e. in the second equation dg/d23 = – In !iY. ‘2 ‘z3dY dg +Iny=o (5. Similarly.130) 2Y E2 + S2 ‘3 – 22 dY dg +ln Y=o 2Y E3 + m3 In the first of these equations dg/d22 is to be taken from the g function of the first pulse.e. we find (5. it is equal to – in R* (see Eq.129) ‘3 o For the central shock we have to use the equations devised for the case when both the air in front and in the rear of the shock deviate from normal. Observing that the length of the positive pulse at time to is equal to l/2(Ro .128) ‘4 = – ‘3 Or in Z/Z* CY– Z ~Z*=lnzo–~~ 0 0 (5. Thus .Yo). 5. to the time when the second shock just catches up with the first pulse.167 - .126) where the suffix 1 refers to the first shock.124). . 5. e. i. These occurred previously in the treatment of the back shock and are given by Eq. 5. of course. and the suffix O to some specified time.127) Similarly we have for the back shock of the second pulse in Zo/Z* (5.

135) ~ln (Ye/R*) + Jln (Ye/ z*) .132) “hY/R* ‘~@*”O ‘3 2 ‘y Integration yields –22=(230–220) (5.130 and integrate. ‘2 ‘2. 1 1 -~ (5.— ~kY lnIt*=o 2Y dZ2 – ~z*=() (5..131) These equations may be combined to give d(Z3 . we obtain 22 and 213 separately.133) 23 Il%KRT If we substitute this expression into one of the equations of 5.168 - . (5.22) 2Y _ .3dY . The result is Jln (Y/Z*) – /ln (Y/R*) + ~ 20 = A.134) 0 fln (Y/ Z*) where 4 in (Ye/Z*) In (Ye/R*) A=(~30-z20) In (R*/Z* in (Ye/R*) + 230 din (Ye/Z*) ’20{ B=— (5.

125 which in turn is related to the “impulse” of the pulse 19Apsmultiplied with the shock radius (see Eq.133 it drops much faster than either the rear shock or the front shock. Since 220 = – ZI 0. 5.137) ‘lo{ Neglecting the small difference between 3?0 and RO. the other short duration and comparatively large shock pressure.125a). /ln (YO/R*) in (Ye/Z*) 1 (~30 – 22 ~) +13 ‘2 = -~ h (Y/R*) ~ln (YO/R*) in (YO/Z*) =. then both 22 a@ 23 tend to O more rapidly than either 21 or 24. so that the reflected shock would simply disappear. According to Eq. takes some time. which combines with the negative phase of the second pulse. If B = O. Let us consider first the exceptional case B = O.136) ‘3 in (Y/Z*) The shock strength of the central shock is related to 23 – 22. We conclude that B = O if the impulse of the two pulses is the same at the same radius. 5. the pressure level at which this shock occurs tends. of course. If the two pulses were completely identical. ac- cording to Eq. It will be noticed that R* and Z* may nevertheless differ. Thus the positive phase of the second pulse and the negative phase of the first pulse are eventually eliminated. AU this. .169 - . to a finite Z value. only the product of shock pressure and duration will be the same. one pulse may have long duration and low shock pressure. 5. 5. the equations can be simplified. However.H in (Y/R*) >> in (R*/Z*). these quantities are identical with the quantity A defined by Eq. Thus. the remaining pulse would be indistinguishable from either. until in (Y/R*) >> in (Ye/R). This implies that the central shock must either catch the first shock (if B > O) or the rear shock must catch the central shock (if B < O). B= O implies that in (Ye/R*) = 2230 dln (Ye/Z*) (5. U R* and Z* differ from each other the pressure gradients in the positive and negative phase will also differ.(230– 210) -!-B (5. and there remains the positive phase of the first pulse.136.

170 - . increased by a factor 2. Asymptotically the energy in the blast wave is therefore not equal to .e. and in this case the central shock catches up with the first shock. This increased energy dissipation is due to the fact that the shock front of the second pulse must go through the negative phase of the first pulse. if B is negative. the sum of the energy in the two pulses. Similarly. assuming for simplicity equal shock strengths in both pulses.138) ... the energy dissipa- tion just before the second pulse catches up with the first is proportional to 4(ApS)3. After some m~Pu~ation one finds as a consequence that Z o + 24 = O. the radius at which the central shock catches up with the first shock is given by the condition Z z = ~ 1. there are two shocks of strength Aps and one of strength 2Aps. but equal to the energy in either the first or the second pulse. which is now zs. E g. If B is positive. The remainder of . the energy has been dissipated at the central shock. the front shock. whichever is the greater. therefore. has the same value it would have had if there had been nO first pulse. Just after the second pulse has caught up with the first. Also one finds for the radius R the condition /ln (R/R*) = ~k- 2 ‘~ o ln (Ro/R*) + 2z~ o‘3 () h (zO/z*) + ‘~ ~ in (Zo/Z*) (5. i. If B > 0. The factor 4 arises from the four shocks.5. the second pulse will eventually disappear and only the first pulse remain. Eventually the first pulse disappears and only the second pulse remains. we require that the impulse in the second pulse be greater than the impulse in the first.. and the energy dissipation is proportional to 2(Aps)3 + (2APS)3 = 10(Aps)3 and has.

— =~ (5.89 yields APs SF 170. 5. be independent of the time.4 lnR = ~ +~[2.05sF] . Here we have used th@ boundary condition that at R = 314.140) co Then the positive phase can be represented in the form g = 2. when the shock radius is only 200. From these data we obtain immediately the function Z(y) and we can deduce the function g(~) defined by Eq.2.5.7. 5.4. we have approximately APs —= m P* JR in (R/R*) . The IBM machines give us the pressure Ap as function of the radius at a fixed time. This function should.141) Substitution into Eq. As SF becomes small. the quantity yz RAp s =—= — (5.11 The Continuation of the IBM Run The methods developed in the preceding sections have been used to continue the IBM results of Chapter 6.142) ??0 ‘F where sF is the value of s at the shock front.97 meters). instead of Z.7 (we use here the ~M unit for the radius which is 19.82.0251P0.2 + 0.075s2 (5.171 - . For the numerical evaluation it was convenient to introduce.’ The circles refer to the last IBM cycle when the shock radius is 314. The triangles refer to an early cycle. 5.2s + 0. of course.139) co ‘o and instead of g O@) g(s) = – — (5. Aps = O. It is shown in Fig.

5.172 - .4 Plot of g(s) vs s . 42 L b 38 34 30 26 22 9(s) 18 14 A 10 ~ – T I 6 & I 2 0 -4 . -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 s Fig.

145) .141a) which leads ix? lnR=~+ + (1.0867sF) (5.1) which differs by about 6 per cent from the previous formula.38s (s < o) (5. . The data from the larger radius should be more reliable and have been used for all calculations.APs 278. The constants in this representation have been chosen in such a way that we .13s2 (5.6 + 0. one finds .142a) and asymptotically.7 (R in meters) (5 .1) The data from the earlier cycle are better represented by the formula g = 1. AP~ —= 260.2y .173 - . For the negative phase. the data from the . In actual fact.38s) {W* ~S} + 5. ~2 = 13. but that also the slope of the function g is continuous at s = O ~d fiat the integral of tie pressure taken over the pulse vanishes.03 (R in IBM units) (5..6s + 0.4 per cent. since at the smaller radius the overpressure is 4.144a) Po = R{ln (R/129. we get a good approximation by the formula g = (11 + 0.! get not only a good representation of the numerical data. This is the error to be expected.143) Introducing the meter as unit.6 (R in meters) (5. R~~ (R/260.. . ~R*=% 2.144) P.

5. the minimum slope can be determined fairly accurately and is 8.=& 8. in order to get a reasonable function g. (5. However.107) that the back shock will start at a value of s for which o .102) .8 x 105 meters We shall not be interested in such large distances.100a 0=1 ‘s lnR–g(sF) (5. For this reason no attention has been paid to this erratic behavior and the condition that dg/ds be continuous at.147) minimum “ r = 1. however.148) co~F [ 1 or with Eqs. s = O has been used instead. 5. if we go back to the numerical data.025 S. this is due to the analytic repre- sentation.142 and 5. This must be due to an error in the IBM run. we find that the curvature changes sign. 5.148a) co [ Y SF 1 The shape of the IX@ at a fixed distance as function of time is similarly given by the formula (see Eq. The slope determines the radius at which the back shock starts (see Eq. The exact value of s where the change occurs is not easily determined.4 .145 we find that this condition cannot be satisfied for any negative s. 14 lnr=~(~) .4 x 104 IBM units = 2. For the duration of the positive pulse we find from Eq.2 (5. 5. (5.106).2. 5.1’74 - .141 ~ =~ a 170. since the data from the earlier cycle are quite smooth.— – 0.last IBM cycle are somewhat erratic in the neighborhood of s = O.146) If we use the presentation of Eq. 5. We have seen before (see Eq.

The peak pressure vs shock radius curve is shown in Fig. using IBM units . la ~=e––—sh~ co [ Y – g (s) 1 (5. For comparison.5. In order to obtain the time in seconds. .149) where s varies from its value SF at the shock front to – 3 at the pressure minimum and back to zero. we should use for co the ‘W13Mvaluet~ Co = 17.38.175 - . 5. some points obtained if we stop the IBM run at an earlier instant are also shown. 6.14 of Chapter 6. The duration vs peak pressure is shown in Fig.

176 - .5 Overpressure vs shock radius . 0.0[ o 8 6 4 2 0!001B Iod 2! 46 8 103 2 468 R IN IBM UNITS Fig.10 8 6 4 2 0. 5.

Therefore qualitative statements made about the conditions at the shock front hold to a large degree also for the subsequent expansion behind the shock. d. ) “-. 7----------.. appreciable compli- cations arise in view of the large variations in temperature and entropy. Fuchs 6.. It was felt that the exact energy distribution at this .177 - . the total variation between the shock pressure and 1 atm is not excessive – about a factor 2 at shock temperature of 3000% and slightly more than a factor 10 for a shock temperature of 1. below 3000°. We may roughly divide the range of shock temperatures into two regions. First. However. A temperature of 3000% is reached in the shock when the shock pres- sure is about 80 atm.4 in normal conditions.. here dissociation of molecules and ionization of the atoms takes place. Even if we disregard any transport of radiation. more mwresmu m me pressure region from about 1 atm down (corresponding to shock radii of 500 meters or more).nowever.000.1 Introduction The discussion in the preceding chapters shows that the problem of the propagation of the blast wave from a nuclear explosion is quite compli- cated. . OOOO.“ . ---- 2. For this reason the variation of y along an adiabatic is not as pronounced as one might expect from the change in temperature. (For an energy release of 10.. The temperature varies also. tons of TNT the we are. The effect of decreasing temperature along the adiabatic on the degree of ionization or dissociation is partly balanced by the decrease in density.000.. Second. the region from about one million degrees to about three thousand degrees absolute. along an adiabatic. of course. - shock radius is then 80 meters. L1. here y is less variable and approaches eventually the value 1. ---._.. consequently y – 1 is fairly small but varies with temperature. Chapter 6 THE IBM SOLUTION OF THE BLAST WAVE PROBLEM by K.. —-1_-1 .

early stage could not have an appreciable effect on the pressure distribution in the later stages as long as the energy distribution is at least roughly correct. We require also. this assumption seemed justified. but the error introduced thereby is small and it has the advantage that the isothermal sphere can be included as an integral part of the calculation. It was decided to start an IBM calculation at this point and to calculate the initial conditions for this instant by means of the approxima- tions developed in the preceding chapters. For the IBM run it is of great advantage if the variation of the pres- sure aiong an adiabatic is a simple function of the density. h this case the adiabatic of each mass point is given by one or two con- stants and we reqyire only a table of these constants as functions of one variable. of course. However we require only the tail end of these adia- batic. in the second instance the iso- thermal sphere greatly facilitates numerical computations. with the limitation to shock pressure below 80 atm the demand of a simple representation becomes feasible. The requirement of a simple equation of state is the principal reason for starting the IBM run at such a comparatively late stage. in the first instance we are inter- ested in the isothermal sphere as such. (3) y – 1 was assumed small. This assumption is not essential. It would be difficult to find a simple presentation of the equation of state covering the whole region of adiabatic between the shock pressure curve and normal pressure. has been used is discussed in Chapter 7. The equation of state which.178 - . since then no ionization or dissociation occurs. which were shocked by stronger shocks. and eliminates the. (2) y was assumed to be constant and an average value 1. but in view of the fact that we did not require a very accurate estimate of the initial conditions. However. However. In particular this is true for the adiabatic which start at shock pressures below 80 atm. IU actual fact the isothermal sphere at this late stage has no significant infiuence on the propagation of the shock. the adiabatic of the inner mass points. and that a calculation with variable y is hardly feasible without a great amcmnt of computation. since it reduces the total range of temperatures and entropies which exist at any given mo- ment. no allowance has .2): (1) An approximate treatment of the isothermal sphere. though the variation from one adiabatic to another may be given in numerical form. The approximations made in- clude (for details see Section 6. This is probably the least satisfactory of the assumptions made. singularity y at the centre. the highest entropies are eliminated by the equaliza- tion of entropy inside the isothermal sphere. Furthermore. Although radiation transport has been taken into account insofar as it is responsible for the formation of the isothermal sphere.25 was as- sumed.

be obtained by the usual scaling laws.1 The Isothermal Spherez The Lagrangh. It was convenient to choose 1. The opacity data required for the purpose of calculating this transport are not sufficiently well known.601. i In neglecting the radiation transport altogether we are pessimistic. The principal data are summarized below without going into the details of the calculation. 6. so that at larger distances the shock pressure might drop again more rapidly. . 3. no definite energy can be attributed to the run throughout its whole history. Other energies can. and Y are given in centimeters.2 The Initial Conditions of the IBM Run The initial conditions of the LT3Mrun were prepared by Hirschfelder and Magee.85 Y0”7326 . 6.3. Then the shock pressure decreases less rapidly than it would otherwise. Chapter 3 contains a discussion of opacity data which postdates this statement. Chapter 3 values are revised figures. 2.000 tons.been made for the radiation transport from the isothermal sphere into the region in which N02 is formed. All data are for an energy release of 10. The IBM run was intended for an energy release of 10. Owing to some unfortunate circumstances related in Section 6. of course. At sufficiently large distances the energy should be assumed to be 13. since it is of advantage to have the energy close to the shock front.000 tons of TNT.1?9 - .2. and at sufficiently large distances the effect of the radiation transport on the shock pressure would be reversed. Notations in equations used here are in the main those of Bethe in Chapter 4. this transport of energy becomes important when the shock radius ha& reached about 100 meters and it should affect the propagation of the shock shortly thereafter.5] 1’3 100 cm (6. As explained in Chapter 3. The increased sh~ck pressure would naturally lead to a greater degree of dissipation of energy by the shock.64 of Chapter 3. It can be rewritten in the form = [11.1) ‘o Here both r.n coordinate of the radiation front is given in terms of the sho~k radius by Eq. At present we are not in a position to make any definite statement about this possibility.000 tons of TNT.

H/R= 1. which corresponds to a shock pressure very near to 80 atnii Then = 1997 cm. The actual radius R. Section 5. Y = 7987 cm.0392 x normal density Entropy &/R = 85 Interned energy and enthalpy E/It = 1.pIt. then varies in accordance with Eq.782 x 106 R. that the isothermal sphere can be treated on the assumption of small y . Since we assume consta@ density p and constant pres- sure in the isothermal sphere one has 3 pOrO = . varies very slowly after the shock radius has reached about 10 meters. is 60 meters.2 Initial Pressure and Density Distribution It has been shown by Bethe in Chapter 4.3) The value r. (6 . 6.2) ‘o . The initial condition of the isothermal sphere is given by the following quantities: Temperature = 49. The initial value of R.0 atm Density = 0. and the value 4 was chosen.2.1 approximation has been checked for a point source solution (see Chapter 4.1. It is a good assumption to assume that r.97 meters ‘o These data were obtained from a calculation indicated below. is constant. and the effect of the isothermti sphere on the shock is negli- gible a short while thereafter. Sections 3 and 4) and it was found satisfactory in the region in which we are interested. Beyond a shock radius of 80 meters ro varies very slowly indeed. = 60. of the isothermal sphere is obtained from the con- servation of mass. OOO”K Pressure = 37.28 meters = 19. Since the solution which we require is in any case very close to the point source solution except in the neighborhood of the isothermal . Y/rO = 4 (6.180 - .487 x 106. The small y .3 only because the air in the isothermal sphere expands. The actual radius It. 6.a simple value of Y/r.

sphere. but the lines along which it proceeds are sufficiently indi- cated in Bethe ~s Section 4. The density contour was. as would be expected for y = 1. at the start of the IBM calculation the value of y at the shock front is larger than 1. which may be due to either method.25.1 approximation. may be seen from the values of Ro/~ the small y = 1 treatment gives RO/Y = 0. The initial velocities were then calculated directly from the equation 3(7-1)/7 . Furthermore. A minor adjustment arose from the fact that the small y – 1 treatment of the iso- thermal sphere does not agree exactly with the treatment of Hirschfelder and Magee. We shall not go into the details of the calculation. The resulting equations had previously been evaluated for two values of y in order to see how sensitive they were to a change in y.25 were then obtained by interpolation.761 by means of the other method. and the correct radius of the isothermal sphere. .25 atm is p~/po = 7. Some adjustments had to be made on the intial conditions. The analysis is rather involved. The error. Here the correct shock velocity Y for the given shock pressure was used. instead of a compression ratio in the shock Ps/P() = 9. the value obtained from the correct Hugoniot curve for a pressure of 77. adjusted to give the correct compression ratio at the shock. 1++ v () (6. therefore. The values for y = 1.850 compared to 0. The latter value was assumed to be more reliable.3.4) Pr2dr where r is the Lagrangian coordinate.24.5. the error of the small (y – 1) approximation is small.25. since it is essen- tial that the initial conditions satisfy the equation of continuity: P.2 and y = 1. In this way we find the initial pressure and density distribution as well as the velocities and the Eulerian coordinates of all mass points. _=— R2 _dR (6 .5) which follows from the small y . This required also an adjustment in the Eulerian coordinates R. The values chosen were y = 1.181 - .

7) P rzdr In addition we have the equation.500 tons TNT. For most purposes the total energy in the IBM run should be assumed to be about 13. Since the inihial shock pressure of 77. All that can be said is that the shock pressure vs distance curve corresponds to 10. we have no remedy for the discrepancy. 000 tons is more appropriate. except at small shock radii. 500 tons for large radii. was recalculated from the initial conditions only after the IBM run had been completed. Actually the discrepancy is slightly less. 6. For this reason it is not surprising that the total . where 10. of the adiabatic which were put in the form (6 .25 atm at the initial shock radius of 79.4 The IBM Run The hydrodynsmiwd equations are (6. me !Iloss?l of 400 tons is entirely due to errors of the IBM run and is of the order of magnitude to be expected from this source.6) Po —=— 1?m— (6. the energy . 000 tons up to 80 meter shock radius and to 13.9 meters corresponds to an energy release of 10. For intermediate radii it should slowly change between the se values. A check of the total energy at a shock radius of 2000 meters gave only 13. energy corresponding to these conditions turned out to deviate appreciably from the assumed value of 10.000 tons of TNT.3 The Total Energy The methods used to establish suitable initial conditions are in parts somewhat arbitrary.182 - . 000 tons. 000 tons.6.8) . Unfortunately.100 tons. It was then found that the total energy was 13.

but it became erratic as the overpressure became small. so as to c~culate changes in density and pressure rather than their absolute values. The latter determine also the entropy of any’ mass point as it passes through the shock front. The entropy is assumed to remain constant. the IBM run was discontinued and the semi-acoustic theory was used for the purpose of continuation. 000 tons. The method employed first in solving the system of partial differential equations by means of the IBM machines was suitable as long as the shock pressure differed appreciably from 1 atm. This cha@ge of procedure quickly suppressed the erratic behavior of the pressure. as well as from calculations which do not appear in this volume. and (2) that the length of the pressure pulse be small compared to the shock radius. as calculated for the Trinity test (sealed down to 10. Since the further propagation of the shock is influenced at these low overpressures only by the positive pulse. 6“. the semi-acoustic theory of Chapter . Even the-application . The dotted lines show upper and lower limits for the effect of the bomb material on the propagation of the shock.where g and q are numerically known functions of the entropy. so that es- sentially g and q are given functions of the Lagrange variable r. 000 tons. The positive pulse was 290 meters long and the negative pulse 760 meters. At that instant the overpressure in the shock was 0.000 tons of TNT). Here the total energy is between 10. M this graph all data have been collected from the previous chapters. Hence.0251 atm. The method was therefore changed. They are (1) that the overpressure be small compared to 1 atm.000 and 13. The time of arrival of the shock is indicated at various points.5 Results The shock ~ressure as a function of the distance of the shock front from the center of the explosion is shown in Fig. the approximations on which. . the upper value being correct at sufficiently large’ distances. From a shock radius of 10 to 80 meters the similarity solution has been used.270 meters. In @s region the curve corresponds to an energy release of 10.183 - . 6. For shock radii from 80 to 6300 meters.012 sec after the explosion. the shock pressures are ob- tained from the IBM run.5 are based are well satisfied. T = O is the start of the IBM run which was 0. The boundary conditions are that the velocity 8R/i3t vanish at the cen- ter nd that at the shock radius the Hugoniot conditions be satisfied. The run was continued until the shock radius had reached a value of 6.1.of the semi-acoustic theory to the negative phase is not bad.

**Beyond a radius of 6300 meters up to 67, 000 meters, the semi-acoustic
**

theory of Chapter 5 has been used.

A number of curves showing the pressure at a fixed distance as func -

tion of time are shown in Figs. 6.2 to 6.4. Graphs of the pressure vs

distance at a fixed time are shown in Figs. 6.5 to 6.13.

The duration of the positive phase of the pulse as function of the shock

pressure is given in Fig. 6.14.

Finally, there are shown in Fig. 6.15 the positive impulse I+ and the

fraction of the total energy which is left in the blast as functions of the

shock pressure divided by the normal pressure. The latter is independent

of the energy release. The positive impulse has been scaled to an energy

release of 40,000 tons in free air (or 20,000 tons on the ground) for the

purpose of comparison with observations at Trinity.

6.6 Comparison with TNT Explosion. Efficiency of Nuclear Explosion

**One purpose of the IBM run was to find the efficiency of a nuclear
**

explosion compared to an explosion from an equivalent charge of TNT. In

the nuclear explosion a greater amount of energy is used for the purpose

of heating the air near the center of the explosion to high temperatures.

A large fraction of this energy is useless for the propagation of the shock.

Since no comparable IBM mm exists for a TNT explosion, we compared

the results for the nuclear explosion with experimental data. For this

purpose, the experimental curve prepared by Hirschfelder, Littler and

Sheard4 was used. It is based on experimental data for charges fired on

the ground, and for shock pressures in the range from 15 to 2 pounds per

square inch. The charges varied from 67 to 550 pounds. The curve is

given by the expression

38,5 5760

AP=;–+:+~ (6 .9)

x X“

(6.10)

**Here Y is the shoclk radius in feet; w the weight of the charge in pounds;
**

and Ap the overpre ssure in psi.

**4. Hirschfelder, Littler and Sheard, Estimated Blast Pressures from TNT
**

charges “of 2 to 10,000 tons, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report

LA-316, June 25, 1945 (classified).

- 184 -

v,—

I I I I I 1111

1

I

u I I

t

i Ntttt17 I

I02

3 I04 IOg

10 50 102

SHOCK F?ACN!?S

IN METERS

**Fig. 6.1 Shock pressure vs distance for nuclear explosion. Time is given in seconds; T = O is
**

start of IBM run, 0.012 sec after explosion.

1

0.I Lo 10 100

TIME (SECONDS)

Fig. 6.2 Pressure vs time for radius of 170.7 meters, 223.4 meters, and 332 meters

,

10

o

10.0 100

Lo

TIME (SECONDS)

**Fig. 6.3 Pressure vs time for radius of 466.5 meters, 682 meters, and
**

1224 meters.

- 187 -

----- --------- -.

I lMt (5tLUNUS)

35 40 45 50 55 60

1.1

I.1

0.9

0.9

15 20 ‘ 25 30 35 40

TIME(SECONDS)

Fig. 6.4 Pressure vs time for radius of 2031 meters and 3586 meters

,

.

1

~= IBAR

I1.0 — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

I

10.0

9.0

8.0

1 Fv%

w“

m

C9 7.0

I

6. o— — — — — — — — — — — — —

5. o— — — — — — ‘— — -

0

4. 0

100 I20 I40

R (METERS)

Fig. 6.5 Pressure vs distance at a fixed time

6..0- / o / 4. .5 1/“ / 4. ~=1BAR 5.6 Pressure vs distance at a fixed time Y .0 * 2.5 5.0 120 I40 i60 180 200 220 R (METERs) Fig.5 — — — — — — — — .5 2. . _ _ _ _ Q 3.0 / D T 3. .

40 1.00 I I-J w w 1 1.20 ‘ L 300 320 340 360 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 R(METERS) Fig.20 P/~ 2.80 260 2.7 Pressure vs distance at a fixed time . 6.40 ‘ 2.8o“ 1.60 I. ~=I BAR v 2.

4 i. ~=1BAR 2.2 I.8 I 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 R (METERS) Fig.0 ‘ 1.8 Pressure vs distance at a fixed time .6 1.0 -0 0.3‘ 1. 6.

40 1.00 ‘ 0.9 Pressure vs distance at a fixed time .60 1.10 1. ~= I BAR 1.80 —u 200 300 400 500 600 700 R (METERS) Fig.30 1.90 0.50 I. 6.20 1.

06 1.10 I I 1.i8 1. 6.02 0. .94 220 300 380 460 540 620 700 700 860 940 1020 I100 1180 R (METERS) Fig.10 Pressure vs distance at a fixed time . ~=1 BAR 1.

b

~= 1BAR

1.04

I.02

P/~

I.00

0.98

1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600

(METERS)

Fig. 6.11 Pressure Vs distance at a fixed time

~=113AR

1.08 “

I.04 ‘

0.96

200 600 1000 1400 1800 2200

R (METERS)

Fig. 6.12 Pressure vs distance at a fixed time

,

,,

!

~= IBAR

I.020

1.016

1.012

1.008

1

I.004

I 0

I.000

I%Yr7

I

0.996

0.992

yi$y

0.988 5400 5800 6200

3800 4200 4600 5000

R (METERS)

Fig. 6.13 Pressure vs distance at a fixed time

I IIHIIII

I I 11111111 I 1111111

1

— I

1 11111

0.001 0.01 10 I00

OV:iPRESSURE IN SkXK

Fig. 6.14 Deviation of the positive phase of a pulse at a fixed distance

,

10 I

8

6

5

4

3

11111111

b’”

2

LO LLLJf-

II

i&i

I

fi’

~ ~ ni

9:8

\ I

lx

/

I H

0.6 /P

0.5 I

0.4 u

1 ‘ .Ym””’i

0.3

0,2

I

1

0.1

0.0 I o. I I 10

—. Ap/pO

**Fig. 6.15 The positive impulse ~d the energy in the blast. IBM run scaled to 40, 000 tons in
**

free air. (Q is the total energy. )

**For lower pressure 13irschfekkw, $heard and Littler used the asymp-
**

totic formula

35.0

AP=- (6.11)

“dlO%ox – 0’928

**The constants were obtained by fitting to the low pressure end of the curve
**

(Eq. 6.9). The analytical form of the equation follows from the semi-

acoustic theory presented in Chapter 5, provided the pressure pulse has

reached its asymptotic linear shape.

From these formulae we calculated the weight of the TNT charge re-

quired to give the same shock pressure at the same distance as the nuclear

explosion. Dividing this charge by the weight of 13,000 tons assumed for

the IBM run, and multiplying by a factor 2 to take care of the fact that the

TNT data apply tcl an explosion on the ground so that practically all energy

is in a half sphere, we obtain the efficiency of the nuclear bomb compared

to an equivalent charge of TNT.

The efficiency defined in this way depends on the shock pressure

chosen for comparison, and it is not surprising that it should vary with the

shock pressure; however, it is surprising that the efficiency should increase

with decreasing shock pressure as shown in Fig. 6.16 over the range in

which experimental data for TNT exist. However, the individual experi-

mental points scatter appreciably, especially for high shock pressures and,

therefore, this variation of efficiency with shock pressure is not necessarily

correct. The most reliable data are those at the lower end of the experi-

mental range, whioh would indicate an efficiency of about O.6.

The curve h:ts been extended on either side to higher and lower

shock pressures. The extension to higher shock pressures by means of

Eq. 6.9 is quite arbitrary and has been performed only since experimental

data for the Trinity test have usually been compared with this formula.

The extension to lower pressures depends on the assumption that the asymp-

totic formula is valid in this range, which is not necessarily correct. Again,

the main reason for performing the extension is the fact that experimental

data have been analyzed by means of this curve.

A similar comparison has been made by using the experimental

curve of A. H. Ti~ub,5 for half-pound TNT charges in free air. These

differ quite appreciably from the curve of Hirschfelder, Littler and Sheard,

. .

**5. A. H. Taub, Air and Earth Shock, Interim Report No. 1, NDRC-A-4076,
**

September 5, 1944.

- 200 -

6. .4 L . 0.! [ I.’ .16 Efficiency of nuclear bomb as compared to an eqtivdent charge of TNT .6 I 0 0 Fig.

6.202 - . but change all radii and times in the ratio of the cube root of the energy release. we can use the following scaling laws. no exact scaling laws exist. which might be important. The total energy was Q = 13. This discrepancy shows the difficulty of assigning any defitite value to the efficiency of the nuclear bomb for the purpose of producing blast and makes it desirable to have a comparable IBM run for TNT. the efficiency d the nuclear bomb is improved. ‘This has tie effect of equalizing the temperatures in the inte- rior of the shock sphere and it will make the nuclear explosion more simi- lar to a TNT explosion. PO = 1.of energy from the ball of fire into the N02 layer.~ P. it could reduce the efficiency at very low shock pressures.16. The sound velocity of normal air is then co = 347 cm/sec. within the accuracy of the primary data which enter the IBM run. One of these is the radiation transport . It should be noted that two factors. discussed in Chapter 3.000 tons. . i. Hpwever. which relate the primed quantities for arbitrary normal conditions to the IBM quantities: P’ P ~-l =— R?.7 Scaling Laws The IBM run was made assudng a normal density of air. we keep all pressures and velocities fixed. The other effect is the radiation which escapes to large distances. 6. 00 o ‘b 3 Q’=—~ Q (6. The arguments presented in Chapter 3 show that this radiation occurs at a time and place where it cannot affect the shock pressure in the region of practical interest.e. At c’=. However.12) P. and a normal pressure. have been disregarded in the IBM calculations. For the change to a different energy release we have exact scaling laws.as may be seen from Fig.163 x 10-3 gm/ec. For the change to different normal densities or pressures. . down to about 1 psi. Consequently. PO = 1 bar (106 dyn/cm2). u’ — u t! = co --&.

the times by the sarqe factor A and the inverse ratio of the normal sound velocities. ) . The linear dimensions are scaled by an arbitrary factor h. finally. and. the energy release is scaled by A3 and the ratio of the normal pressures.. since P0c02 = pocoz =P()= PO” These scaling laws are based on the assumption that the equation of state of air can be written in the form P -Po = ‘inctionofk) ‘d(%) which is true for a y law. Tbe scaling laws for pressure. velocities.203 - .i. of course. velocity and ~ty are. but only approximately correct for the true equation of state of air. and densities in the ratio of their normal values. we scale all pressures. (E is the interval energy per unit mass.e. not independent of each o~er.

.

the asymptotic approximation is not very satisfactory since the effect on the energy of each ion of the free electrons in its neighborhood is not negligible. THE EQUATION OF STATE OF AIR by Klaus Fuchs and Rudolph E. The probability of ionization per atom is independent of the density. the degree of ioniza- tion depends on the density. Conversely. when the interaction forces between different atoms or ions are negligible. At densities above ordinary atmospheric density. however. whereas that of recombination per ion is pro- portional to the density of free electrons.’ at Birmingham.1. Peierls 7. M order to do this. there are only nuclei and free electrons left. It is well known that even for low density. in the neighborhood of two million degrees. Kynch and Peierls . which itself is proportional to the average degree of ionization. Chapter 7 ‘. 7.205 - . These calculations were done by Fuchs. For the asymptotic case of extremely low density the problem is discussed in Section 7.3.1 Equation of State of Air Between 2 x 104 and 2 x 106 Degrees We shall briefly describe calculations on the equation of state of air in the region in which all molecules have been completely dissociated into atoms and in which the atoms are being stripped of their electrons until. and in order to treat the statistical mechanics of such an . since it represents the equilibrium between ionization and recombination.1 Outline of Method The most troublesome part qf this work is the calculation at each temperature and density of the fraction of atoms in any given state of ion- ization. the effect of the ions on the motion of the free electrons also has to be taken into account.

each electron has to be considered as moving in a given field of force.. whe:reas the number of free electrons within the space be- longing to the ion depends on the average degree of ionization of all atoms. If we ascribe to each atom a “cell.assembly satisfactorily. g.. If we consider an ion of a given degree of ionization. however. and the meaning of its energy depends on the field. the cell radius) and to regard an electron as free if its energy is sufficient to reach this radius. However. Care is necessary. 7. this may not lead to a consist- ent definition. we should replace the !tsmallerl? sign in Eq. Then the condition that the electron cannot reach a ‘distance b from the center of the ion is 2 m2ze2<ze —v --— -— (7. and that no states be omitted or counted twice. e. that each possible state of an electron be counted either as bound or as free. since the energy of one particle is unambiguously defined only if we imagine it moving in a given potential field. a sphere equal to the aver- age gas volume per atom. the errors may be more serious. i. This is an essential limitation of the kind of method used here but it is likely that. i. the number of bound electrons is fixed by definition. with a reasonable choice of the criterion. otherwise. however. essential that this criterion be made consistent... due to the average charge distribution of all other electrons. as suggested above.1) 2 r b provided that in the region between r and b the field can be regarded as a pure Coulomb field. It is. ” i. It is therefore clear that the results of the calculation will be slightly different. and instead.206 - . e.1 by a ~?greaterll sign. Since. ze. it would at first sight appear to be most natural to choose a radius (e. . This difficulty can be avoided in the following way: Consider an elec - tron which is bound to an ion of core charge. the errors will be small. the opposite condition holds.e. This is important since it is impracticable to consider the many-body problem to which a rigorous solution of the problem would lead. according to whether a certain electron is regarded as free or as bound. it is evidently necessary to have a criterion which determines when an electron is to be regarded as free. where by core we shall always mean the ion minus its last electron. its correlation with the degree of ionization of the ion in question will be neglected. In the case of a free electron. free and bound electrons are assumed to move in slightly different fields.

4T a3/3 is the gas volume per atom. The interaction energy between the ion and the free electrons is replaced by that between a point charge and the free electrons. On the other hand. This means that the highest bound state should be one with a quantum number large compared to unity.1 and 7. This implies that the disturbance of these states due to the presence of free electrons is negligible.1 and 7.— (7. II we write all equations with reference to an ion of core charge z.2) 2 r The inequalities. the remaining ion has a total charge ze and is. The results may be expected to be quite insensitive to the exact choice of b. This choice must be a compromise between the following requirements: b should be larger than the ionic core. it should be smaller than the cell radius a. This requires that the volume of a sphere of radius b be a small fraction of the cell volume. 7.. since the consistency of Eq. and otherwise from hydrogen-like term formulae.Eq. according to our convention. con- sidered as an ion of core charge (z + l)e. therefore. limit the states of bound and free elec - trons. e. 7.1 with Eq. 7.207 - . of total charge (z – l)e. If the electron has become free. we have to write the condition for a free electron as 2!2V2 _ (z – l)e2.2.1 applies to the last electron in an ion of core charge ze. but since this would very appreciably complicate the calculations.e. i.. quan- tization can be neglected. 7. since otherwise Eqs.3) where a is the cell radius.2 and all subsequent work ought to make allowance for the charge of the free electrons contained within a radius b. . _ (z ~ l)e2 (7. i. We can now state the remaining assumptions and approximations: The energy levels of bound electrons are taken from spectroscopic data where available. respectively. Since these conditions are formulated in phase space. it was assumed b“& . they can be applied in a simple way only if. which is correct for all densities to be considered. 7. No doubt the best compromise would be different for different densities. Eqs. It is now necessary to choose the quantity b. since we have assumed that for some distance inside b the field is that of a point charge. for the relevant states.2 ensures that no electron is omitted and the difference in the treatment of free and bound electrons lies mainly in interactions and correlations which are not large effects.

functions of the individual ions and those of the free electrons. (7. we neglect fluctuations in the cell volume and the quantum effects in the motion of free electrons. it is assumed that the density of free electrons within that cell equals the average density of free electrons. Similarly. With these assumptions the mathematical problem is defined.5) (n . E does not include any interaction between the ion and the free electrons. 4. We shall also :neglect the presence of rare gases and other impurities in the air.1. We shall first discuss the partition. In considering any free electron in any one cell. The errors might be worse at temperatures at which the degree of ioniza- tion varies rapidly with temperature and density. where m is the ionization potential. this neglects density fluctuations. treating it as a mixture of 21 per cent oxygen and 79 per cent nitrogen. where fluctuations in the degree of ionization are small and where interaction forces between electrons are unimportant as against the strong forces ct. . 7. .2 The Partition Function of the Ions The partition function of an ion is the sum ~we-(E/kT) (7 . 3. The levels have been measured experimentally in many eases and can be arranged in series z2Ry E = —— + const n =.208 - . They are also small at fairly low temperatures.:e to the almost bare nuclei. and in the following sections we shall discuss details of procedure. . w is the weight of the energy level E. and thus show how to obtain the degree of ionization and other thermodynamic functions. the iqcrease of the density inside the ion.d)2 . It is difficult to obtain an estimate of the errors caused by these ap- proximations. We shall measure E in this definition of F from the state of lowest energy of the ion. so that m – E is the work obtained by bringing the last electron from a large distance to the level of energy E.4) F= over all the rlboundl’ energy levels of the ion.2. Hence. where the number of free electrons is small and their effect unimportant. They are likely to be quite small at very high temperatures. and the fact that the presence of one free electron will reduce the probability of the presence of others.

The experimental evidence available shows that for both singly-excited and doubly-excited levels the interaction energy of the excited electrons with the core or with one another is small compared with kT. 7. To the partition function Fz of an atom ionized (z – 1) times. however.(Fz+. for exsmple O VII and 0 VIII. The total partition function is Fz=(yq .where Ry is the Rydberg number. these contribute a sum similar to Eq. b the second group (j) one or more electrons is excited to another shell n = 3. but we have also counted these doubly-excited levels twice since we arbitrarily distinguish the two excited electrons. which have in their lowest state only K-electrons.4.209 - . so that the atom may be regarded as an atom ionized z times. the resulting error is unimportant. . p. the partition function is simply evaluated. Since. and 6 the quantum defect of the series. n the total quantum number. ) For the most highly excited atoms. w:mz-E)”T) -E/kT + F Fz=~we 2+1 2 we-E’kT (7. By this procedure we include some levels which have been counted before.:mz’’T)(. d states of the excited electron and also depends on the spin coupling between the electrons. where two electrons are ionized so that tlie atoms have positive energy. Then for a given series of levels of the first excited electron 6 is almost independent of the state of the remaining electrons (unless two electrons are highly excited to similar levels which usually requires a large amount of energy. For a singly excited ion 6 has different values in the s. We neglect its dependence on spin except for the very lowest states where n < 3 for all electrons. Their energies are available from spectroscopic data. to which an additional electron is added in a state n a 3. whereas Fz is referred to the lowest state of the ion (z — 1). In the first group (i) are all levels with all the electrons in either the K or L shell (n < 3). For other atoms it is convenient to divide the levels into two groups. the contribution of these doubly-excited states to the partition function is in any case small. namely that electron in an excited state of the ion and the electron added to it.6) i j -mz/kT The exponential e enters with Fz+l since Fz+l is referred to the lowest state of the ion z.

.5) adequately represents all levels. i. 7. electrons satisfying the inequality.1.2.9) Sums of this form were evaluated for simple values of 1 between 4 and 60 and the results for any z and T obtained by interpolation.210 - .1 at large distance. This is exact for the last ionization .— (7. and a fraction n* —(nl —d + 1/2) of the next one.1 and 7.7) (n –0)2 b If this limit falls somewhere between two levels. with Z the atomic number of the nucleus. which labels O V an oxygen atom ionized 4 times. Since the energy levels (Eq. In the case of the higher ions for which the formula (Eq. . e. we must clearly include in our sum a fraction of the weight of the next level. it is convenient to introduce the dimensionless variable z2Ry . The values of the ionization potentials in Table 7. The last two ionization potentials are not known experimentally and the formula 13.53 Z2 was used for the ionization potential in electron volts. 7. ionization potentials.8) l-kT so that the sums are of the form z n ~l[const + l/(n . according to our convention. 7.6)2] (7. we de- fine a number n* as the value of (n .6 + 1/2) and (nl – O + 3/2). Eq. 7.7 becomes an equality.1 are those used in the actual numerical computation. and n* lies between (nl . 7. we must include the level of quantum number nl fully. We can now define the weights w.6) for which Eq. however.5) arise from an energy expression which is identical with tbe left-hand side of Eq. The data on energy levels. The use of E’z for an atom ionized (z – 1) times is consistent with spectroscopic custom. The sums have to be limited so as to include only bound electrons. in particular. the values in parentheses are pref- erable. and weights which were used for the computation of partition functions are summarized in Tables 7. If. this condition simply becomes ~: z ——— Ry < -—ze2 (7.

potential. Feynman has pointed out in the mean time that a reliable formula for the last-but-one ionization potential can be obtained by using a variational principle. according to Section 7. The partition function is a sum of terms. The last two terms in Eq. the density of free electrons being z per cell. e. It may be written (7. 7.1.. the fractions of all cells filled by oxygen or nitrogen atoms ionized z times.211 - .1. ‘ and also on the density of free electrons. Each free electron therefore has a potential energy 2 ~e2 rz + 3Ee2 v’: –. “ and depending on the degree of ionization of the ion in that cell. respectively. P~+I are. assumed independent but they move in a field due to the ions and to the average free-electron charge distribution.53 Ziz -:Z +g6 ) The error in this formula decreases from 7 per cent for helium to 4 per cent for carbon. The weights given in the table do not include the weight of the configuration of the inner electrons. In Table 7.2 a distinction is made in accordance with the procedure explained above between the ‘lowest levels” of group (i) and the “series levels?’ of group (j).3 The Partition Function of Free Electrons The free electrons are.1. the total degree of ionization. since this weight is already in- cluded in the partition function Fz+l of the Previous ion. 7. g(z. in accord with our assumptions. The ionization potentials obtained from this formula are given in parentheses in Table 7..1. but not for the one-but-last. Z) is the partition function for free electrons in a cell containing an ion of net charge ze. (7.11 are due . the latter are those in which one or more electrons are excited into a state n > 3.10) Here p~+l. i. each referring to a “cell. the POSsibility of penetrating into the core of the ion has been neglected. the formula is ( 13.11) 2a 2a3 where.

8 Nitrogen Ionization Ion Potential N VII 7.321 OIV 898 0111 636. Table 7. R = Boltzmann’s constant.1 IONIZATION ENERGJES Potentials are ~ven in units of 103 x R ergs.4 NI 168.580) OVI 1.700 (6. Oxygen Ionization Ion Potential Ovm 10.4 on 407 01 157.212 - .607 Ov 1.138 NIV 910 NLII 550 NH 343.750 NVI 5.103 OVII 7.750 (8.7 .410) NV 1.

0 2 2p5 negative (4p) 15.4 9 2s22p(ns) nS6 631/(n – 0.3)2 2 1s ls22s2p 710 3 2s(np) n=6 2520/(n . 5spd) 11.0 6 energy (4ctf.0 6 2 141. (n) denotes any set of one-electron quantum numbers for an ion not previously mentioned in the table.213 - .5)2 2 2P 2s2p2 2 406 10 2s2(np) nS6 1420/(n – 0.0 12 (4s) 20.6 2 s 2P 127.1 10 (3d) 17. Table7.7 4 2S22P2(3S) 49.0 32 .0.5)2 6 1s 321.25)2 6 D 224 355 20 2s2(n) 1420/n2 (2n2 – 8) SPP or 2n2 2p3 224 250 20 PDS NIX ls22s22p2 3 343.6 15 D 1P1D3S3P 186 20 83 5s 20 2p4 83 NI ls22s22p3 4’ 168.862 2 ls2(ns) n=5 3940/(n – 0.2 5 2s22p(n) 631/n2 2(n2 – 4) lD or 2n2 2s2p3 3 210.2 ENERGY LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND OXYGEN IONS Energyisinunits 103x R ergs.14)2 2 2s ls22p 2P 1066 6 ls2(n) 3940/n2 2n2 – 2 or 2n2 NIV 1s22s2 910 1 2s(ns) nS6 2520/(n – 0.14)2 6 1P 802 9 3P 2p2 620 15 2s(n) 2520/n2 (2n2 – 8) 1S3P1D or 2n2 NIII ls22s22p 550 6 2s2(ns) n=6 1420/(n .0. Ion Lowest Levels Series Full Full Configuration State Energy Weight Configuration Energy Weight NVII 1s 7750 2 (n) 7750/n2 2n2 2s NVI 1s2 5700 1 (Is)(n) 5700/n2 2n2 ?s NV 1s22s 3940/1.8 10 D 2s2p4 42.4 1 (rip) nS6 631/(n – 0.2 6 (*) 32.8)2 2 P 296.

607 2 (ls)2(ns) nS5 5690/(n – 0.103/n2 2n2 OVII 1s2 % 7.214 - .p 1.2 6 349 6 (3d) 73.1 1) 1~ 109.0.3)2 2 ls22s2p 3:P 1. Table 7.1 -13 .25)2 6 ‘D 2S2P4P 630 20 2s2(n) 2520/n2 (2n2 – 8) or 2n2 2p3 441 20 2]~2D4S Onl ls22s22p2 S]p 636.1)2 2 (1S)2(2P) 2 1.3 10 2P 2s2p4 hp 235 12 (4s) 63. 8) D or 2n 2s2p3 3 465 15 D 11?1D3S3P 432 20 5 310 20 s 2p4 011 ls22s22p3 4s) 4Q7 4 (2P)2(3S) 139 2 2I) 369 10 (3p) 109.750 1 (is)(n) 7750/n2 2n2 c) VI (1s)2(2s) 2s 1.8)2 2 1~ 575 1 (rip) n=6 1420/(n . Full Full Configuration State Energy Weight Configuration Energy Weight own (n) 10.5)2 6 1 608 5 2p(n) 1420/n2 (2n2 . f) 40.321 1 (2s)(ns) n56 3940/(n – 0.5)2 2 2s2p2 720 10 (rip) n=6 2520/(n .7 72 01 1S22S22P4 Sp 157.2 (Continued) Ion Lowest Levels Series .423 6 (ls)2(n) 5690/n2 2(n2 – 1) P or 2n2 Ov 1s22s2 1 s 1.091 3 (2s)(n) 3940/n2 (2n2 – 8) or 2n2 2p2 971 15 OIV ls22s22p 2P 898 6 2s2(ns) nS6 2520/(n – 0.4 9 2p(ns) n=6 1420/(n -0 .202 9 (2a)(np) nS6 3940/(n -0 .2 2 2 169 10 (4p) 51.7 24 (55*) 30.14)2 6 I.7 50 (65P) 22.0.8 9 1 135.7 6 I) Sp 102 6 (4d.

12 is negligible as compared to the first. the second term in V of Eq. If we consider first the part of the integral in which r < b.e. (7.13) h’ o a 4’r2dr 1: “P-(A ‘*)’”p’dp where h is Planck’s constant and where o.215 - . Since this term is a constant it may be included in the expression for the potential energy per electron which therefore becomes. however. with our assumptions the average interaction energy is independent of the states of the free electrons. 7. the error can be .2. counted twice. Since. remedied by subtracting from the totai energy the expression 6Ze2/10a for the self-energy (per electron) of a constant-density sphere of total charge Ze. to the interaction of free electrons with each other. This part of the integral can be written as .14) [2rnze2(+ -$)1/2if r. in effect. It would therefore be wrong to compute the total energy by adding the energies of all free elec- trons obtained from Eq. ifr>b pl. since it again represents the part of we charge density that has penetrated inside the ion. 2 22 ?Zer 9 Ze2 v=–:-— (7 .11. z) =1 J (7 .b according to condition 7. since in this way each interaction would be .12) ‘To T 2a3 Our cell partition function becomes now g(z. i. . 7.

’ 2X4* J =[1 ‘d’ ~’ exp(at2) For range r > b we use the substitution (1 .19) ..1 = 64r — T b a exp-~o~~ (I + J) (7.l=’’:i’m)’’’J:’ -ii ‘--(=9 .216 - .7.17) () h’ ( ‘) where {1‘-(Q’2)(1+X2’2J1’ ‘=[OO’.x’t’) 1/2 X4 dx 1 (7’. /hew-(fJ+’+Ep& o . 7. using Eq.18) (7.3.16) ‘~k~’ ‘~’ ‘— 2 II ze we have. x’ (7.15) Introducing the variables 2 z{? ~’ bE ‘ cz . 33 y~3y 3 2 2mk .

Table 7.3.he sum of gl and g .3 THE INTEGRALS I(a) Am J(a) 3/2 3/2 a I(a) a 0! J(a) —c! — 0.14486 2.50 0.00 0.10546 0.25 0.07385 0.19817 5.44 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.00784 0. Then . Values of u%/21 and of a3/2J are given in Table 7. The partition function g(z.20) s where d~ (7 .56 0.0 0.0 2.21) 1.12832 1.49 0.919 4.21672 For all practical purposes we can use an expansion of the integral K.09350 0.0352 1.642 1. K depends on the parameters a and E/z . The integrals I and J are functions of the parameter a only.016 3.245 2.16217 3.0 0.0110 0. -(%+3 (7 .96 0. Z) is then obtained as .0 20.1284 1. which is obtained by expanding the second term in the exponential in powers of [(tl/4)2 – (3/4)].00 0.24 0.18002 4.0 7.217 - .

6227 0.0051 0.0097 0.0079 0.0258 0.0000 1.0001 3.0001 2.22) IIn = (7.0121 0.6747 +0.4 THE INTEGRALS L v 0! L* L2 ‘3 —— ‘1 1.75 0.25 0.23) The integrals ~ are tabulated in the British Association Tables. (7 .0 1.$ 0.2678 0.0115 1.0 0.2619 0.4.0065 0.0 0.0001 2.2728 0.0041 0.0029 0.3214 0.0006 0.0090 0.218 - .0001 4.0075 0.3098 0.:3984 0.4829 0.0059 0.0053 0. U a is Table 7.0052 0.0197 .50 0.0050 0.:1890 -0.0002 5 ●o 0.0163 1.0001 3.5 0. The LV were calculated as functions of a and are tabulated in Table 7.00 0.004 0.

0001273 + . 3 aL = 0.2071CY2+ 0.24) aL = -0. . 2 3 (7.1. .a + 0. as defined in Eq.0114 + 0. . . 1 3 aL = 0. is v .2 by (7.00930! + . omitting the motion of the ions. .$ .4 Degree of Ionization The partition function of our system. ~ and f: are the partition functions of the ions referred to the energy level of the neutral atom. .6095 + . .219 - . and the p:.03516cY + .00784 + 0. . .0578Q3 + . 7. . .0040CY2+ . G is the partition function of free elec- trons.1.26) where the m‘s are the successive ionization energies. and are therefore related to the partition functions defined in Section 7. . .01115 + 0. o 3 CYL = – 0. p~ are the fractions of cells occupied by oxygen and riitrogen atoms ionized z – 1 times.small the following expansions can be used ~3j2 J = 0.10. again omitting the motion of the ions. 3 7. The free energy is. Here N is the total number of ions.

these we can determine new values of Z from Eq.29 together with the normalizing conditions of Eq. Fi = . 7. subject to the conditions . G E) + Hz] Pz = CN $ ~ exp z[g(z – 1. o where C and CN are normalizing factors which do not depend on z.79 .30.220 - . and H is an abbreviation for ~ G aG (7.30) In practice the most convenient procedure for dealing with this set of P. 7.28) The requirement that F be a minimum. From . The three quantities have to be adjusted until they . H and Z.21. 00 Ez Pz=k = mole fraction of 02 = 0. subject to these conditions. 7. * z z N Pz = kN = mole fraction of Nn = 0.4 1) (p: + p:) = z (7. P:=c N OOGZ fz= () z exp ~[g(z –l.29) ●✎ () G .28. .28 and of G and H from Eqs. 7. Then the pz cm be obtained from Eq. equations is to guess values for G.21 and 7. leads to the equations . E ) + Hz] (7.kT In Pi The occupation nuinbers pzo and p: and Z have to be determined J from the condition that the free energy should be a minimum with respect to the variation of these parameters..

and this leads to a slight saving.221 - . 7. high or at very low temperatures. 7. . 7. hence in some of the integrals the upper limit in one. This procedure is not as cumbersome as it might appear since all quantities vary continuously with temperature. the value of a for one equals that of b for the other. si=T1 .27 yields N i. Thermal Energy. a reasonably good first guess can be made by extrapolation. 7. The temporary slowing down of ionization near 4 x 105 degrees is due to the fact that at that point the ionization of the L-shell is practically complete. ) The thermal energy is given by Fi Ei =–RT— a ~ln T () — RT (7. and Pressure Substitution of Eq.reproduce themselves. The pressure can be obtained by differentiation M?i Piv=ahv (7. case .32) . The calculation is best started either at very . equals the lower limit in the other.31) “ 6 which is most convenient for the purpose of numerical calculation.5 The Free Energy. Entropy.in :+ Fi=RT ( kOln CO+kNln C Z(E+ 1): ) (7. listing the occupation numbers and the average degree of ionization as function of the temperature for five different densities which are listed at the head of the table.29 into Eq. so that after \ the problem has been solved in a few cases. The same results tie shown in Fig.5 gives the results ‘of this operation.1.. Table 7. The particular sequence was chosen from a consideration of economy: if two densities are in the ratio 23/2. whereas that of the K-shell has hardly started yet. and where the equations can be solved analytically. where each atom is found only in two states of ionization.33) and the entropy is given by Ei – F.1.

T = 9.00008 .831 3.200 I . # 0. .004 0.1315 0.200 -. 0.035 0. 0.128 0.200 z 7.102 0.660 0.513 .004 0.206 7.012 0.0015 0.0335 0.33 T= 2. P: 0.208 7.002 0.117 0.010 J P: 0.057 0.055 N 0.008 -’.015 P5 0.263 x 106 P7 0.618 0.202 0.024 0.081 0.131 0.130 o 0.66 5.164 7.6875 x 10 1?6 0.006 0.0745 0.582 .120 ‘7 .208 0.443 0.016 T= 1.336 0.084 ]?7 0.141 0.959 6.023 0.006 0.101 0.0655 &- ‘6 N 0.1855 ‘9 p. 0 0. = 0.367 1.0035 0. N 0.204 ..00008 ‘6 7.072 0.44 7.166 0.052 0.767 0.009 0.004 1~ N 0.001 0.832 50 0.526 x 106 p: 0.019 0.0002 0.001 0. 7.008 0.076 0.89 6. 0.006 .0005 0.004 P: 0.5 F THE DEGREES (IF IONIZATION AND NUMBER OF FREE ELECTRONS P/P.006 0.126 0.071 0. Table 7.064 0. .008 0.202 7.222 - .204 0..493 0.003 0. o 0.155 0..4 p.001 0.206 0.. .116 .0485 6.0003 0..015 0.712 0.007 0.

668 0.217 T = 7.5 (Continued) p/p.021 0.173 0. 0.33 N 0.102 0.001 0.0001 0.009 0.326 6.008 P! 0.175 0.001 0.0145 ’223 - .66 5.033 0.053 0.431 0.001 0.183 0.025 0.125 x 105 p: 0.022 0.002 N 0.050 0.151 ‘7 o 0.203 0.021 0.015 0.00005 o 0.031 0.001 0.014 0.312 0.367 1.0003 0.381 P7 N 0.046 0.44 7.00002 0.172 0.019 0.576 0. Table 7’.201 5.011 o 0.00007 0.163 0.0008 0.589 0.011 0.015 0.831 3.328 0.052 ‘6 P: 0.925 x 105 p: 0.151 0.010 0.196 ‘8 z 6.491 0.173 0.029 P5 z 6.172 ‘7 P: 0.558 T = 4.00002 0.0002 0.436 6.374 ‘6 N 0.036 0.006 0.055 P.0003 0.00001 0.006 ‘8 N 0.870 5.1985 0. ‘Q.003 0.244 0.017 0.722 5.034 0.006 0.002 0.000007 P: 0.629 5.159 0.4385 0.94 6.615 6.003 0.269 0.104 0.025 o ‘5 0.

004 z 5. Table 7.074 o 0.00005 0.073 0.001 0.047 P: 0.135 0.0295 ‘5 P: 0.096 0.002 0.090 ‘5 P: 0.0003 0.121 4.109 5.0002 0.831 3.4625 X ~0 p7 0.367 1.246 ‘5 P: 0.002 0.732 0.097 0.029 P.003 0.0025 0.013 o 0.185 0.001 0.764 4.1015 ‘6 o 0.00005 0.678 0.055 0.845 4.048 0.001 0.44 7.008 0.00003 0+00002 P7 P.005 0.386 5.025 0.00004 0.493 N 0.967 4.568 0.001 0.5 (Continued) I@ = 0.045 0.012 0.0865 0.66 5.660 0.017 T= 3.120 P5 P: 0.33 N 0.011 z 5.0105 0.126 0.023 0.027 0.001 0.283 x 10{) p: 0.672 0.0005 0.054 5.007 0.0665 0.077 ‘6 o 0.087 0.016 0.018 0.181 0.224 - .0875 0. 0.001 .536 0.057 0.647 0.028 0.023 0.172 5.105 0.682 50 T= 2.215 0.003 0.102 0.002 0.008 0. 0.0001 0.005 N 0.082 0.016 0.5785 0.018 0.035 0.082 0.058 0.131 0.110 0.645 ‘6 N 0.070 0.

005 0.022 0.729 3.5 (Continued) P/P.44 ‘?.001 0.0003 0.001 ‘2 E 4.078 ‘3 N 0.061 0.327 0.042 0.285 0.002 0.279 ‘6 P) 0.405 0.362 P: 0.0001 0.007 0.315 0. N 0.113 0.025 0.00001 0.8 X 105 p7 0.4 X 105 p7 0.078 0.987 3.645 4.326 ‘5 P: 0.027 0.367 1.0005 0.66 5.004 0.044 0.017 ‘3 N ‘2 0.001 0.33 <.044 0.001 0.002 0.428 4.495 0.185 o T = 1.105 0.008 0.296 4.112 0.0004 0.0002 0.462 0.673 0.196 0.013 0.003 0.010 0. = 0.065 0.250 0.249 0.2935 0.548 3.007 0.325 N 0.105 0. Table 7.019 0.589 3.088 o 0.001 225 - .0004 1? 4.015 ‘6 o 0.078 0.483 o T = 1.989 4.076 0.132 N 0.060 ‘6 N 0.002 0.009 ‘3 N 0.106 0.018 0.167 0.002 0.046 0.385 0.1155 0.356 0.110 0.098 ‘5 P: 0.040 0.078 0.346 0.831 3.0003 0.389 0.00002 P: 0.0003 o 0.

5 (Continued) P/P.038 P: 0.007 0.016 0.004 0.432 0.00005 0.435 N 0.116 0.518 0.042 0.001 0.302 0.003 0.903 3.14 x 104 p.001 0.046 0.985 2.453 0.018 0.0001 0.097 0.007 0.012 0.025 0.118 0.442 .0001 0.090 0.086 0.040 0.132 0.065 0.205 0.051 0.0275 0.000 0.005 0.027 0.178 0.119 0.060 0.002 0.001 0.050 0.001 0.123 0.149 0.002 0.891 T= 10.014 0.002 0.179 0.1605 0.007 ‘2 N 0.1415 0.047 o 0. Table 7.337 0.001 0. 0.005 ‘6 N 0.226 - . P: 0.002 0.339 3.016 0.134 0.125 0.087 0.36?’ 1.039 0.038 0.117 .66 5.378 0.265 0.002 0.302 0. 0.0115 0.109 2.3935 0.44 7.036 0.033 0.132 ‘5 P? 0.439 0.4235 0.0002 0.419 0.119 0.210 ‘3 N 0.104 0.006 0. = 0.009 .142 0.034 0.003 0.296 0.831 3.009 ‘2 z 3.33 P: 0.

012 0.287 2.006 P: P! 0.1665 0.049 0.002 0.113 ‘2 0.438 0.0205 0.841 1.678 1.208 0.372 2.092 P.0235 2.035 0.209 0.0005 0.5805 0.017 T= 5x104 P: o 0.085 0.02 2.588 1.593 0. 0.5 (Continued) 1.3365 0.367 # 0.602 P: .336 0.33 PIP* = 0.403 0.004 0.0005 0.101 0.227 - .110 0.004 0.533 0.0005 0. Table 7.435 0.008 0.112 0.020 0.043 0.072 0.44 7.019 0.002 T = 7.004 0.133 0.003 0.001 0.112 0.040 0.0001 0.572 2.026 0.0025 0.0925 P? 0.002 0.027 ‘2 0.007 0.1 X 104 P: 0.090 0s005 0.023 0. o 0.002 0.001 0.1675 0.141 0.218 1.297 0.015 0.153 0.66 5.006 0.480 0.0925 0.026 P: P.040 0.007 0.029 0.0675 0.257 0.246 0.523 0.027 0.487 0.019 0.831 3.003 E 3.165 0.00002 0.5365 0.002 0.158 0.164 0.055 0.

456 0.0435 0. = 0.580 0.0002 0.143 0.119 .177 0.527 1.1015 0.098 0.6105 0.001 0.081 1.0325 0.001 0.465 0.1795 0.367 1.66 5.067 0.024 0.401 0.192 ‘1 N 0.118 T= 3x104 0.159 0.018 ‘2 o 0.0915 ‘2 0.102 0.874 0.022 0.001 N 0. Table 7.134 0.681 0.008 0.068 0.095 PI z 1.002 0.177 0.108 0.33 N 0.033 0.428 0.012 0.831 3.1205 0.6695 0.195 1.679 0.0001 0.001 0.323 0.334 0.0001 0.101 ‘2 0.135 0.989 o T= 3 x 104 0.485 0 T= 2 x 104 0.026 0.542 0.3915 ‘2 P: 0.689 0.188 0.186 0.361 0.655 0.142 0.076 0.112 0.047 P3 o 0.532 0.085 0.5 (Continued) P/P.44 7.213 0.3975 0.228 - .246 0.

O (TIIOOO) Fig. ‘5. = 1.2 2. (C) P/Po = 3.0 [. (~) p/p. 7 4 6 a w Q u k’ IL3 IL o I o 1.4 3. 3.66.8 2.1 Degree of Ionization: (A) #p.367.8 4.33 .2 4. = 0.6.4 1. (B) #p. 7. = 7.44.831.229 - . (D) p/p.6 LOG.0 3.

37) 81n T 2 % The terms containing ag/8z were in general small. Now from Eq. z). 7.20 g ix equal to T multiplied by a function depending only on (z – 1)/T and z/T. z) -+ :(P: + p.8). Hence . 7.) (z – 1) ~z . Hence 8g(z – 1.36) 3/2 and from Eqs. However. and since g had been obtained for various values of z. (7. In differentiating the free energy (Eq. .- 3 H a g(z – 1.230 - . 8g/8z could easily be obtained by numerical differentiation. Further from Eq. 7. observing that I?z is given as a function of the parameter Iz (defined by Eq. 7 .33 yields . a in fz 8 in Fz =Kz–lzal (7. 7. (pz + p:) g(z – 1. the p and Z may be assumed to be constant.17 and 7. The pressure has been obtained by graphical differentiation. (7. in order to obtain the energy. since the free energy is a minimum for a variation of these parameters. Z) 3 “y~ -z:: —–(Z–1)% 81n T 81n G c—. 7.Here all quantities refer to one gram atom.26.NI ‘o G= Iz .38) aln T z The differential can be obtained by graphical differentiation. Hence Eq. graphical differentiation was not accurate enough.27) with respect to T.

containing the values of p for the five different densities and for various values of the entropy. The entropy S/R is not normalized.030 RT RT +2+ T S —=—‘i +$ln T + lnV+ const (7. and S/R are given in Table 7. One has p.6.v pv=l +1 ~ RT E —=— ‘i —3 40.The curves of constant entropy (adiabatic) are easily obtained by graph- ical methods.39 arises from the dis- sociation energy of the molecules. one finds pv — = 8.792 X 107 =.231 - . The result is given in Table 7.7. At the highest temperatures (above 2. .39) RR Here the last term in E in the middle equation of 7. . when the ionization is complete but the ionization energy is still comparable with the thermal ener- gy. E/RT.5 x 106).21 ~ln T+ln V i.-12 al )Z( z z z z ) To the internal thermodynamic functions those due to the motion of the ions have to be added.21 – T > 2. 8. o N 2( a in Fz 8 in Fz 00 N ~N + Pz Kz – 12 al + Pz .21 RT I E 1.40) R ( ) PV/RT.const (7.5 X 106 m T s — = 8.

41 45.5 2.1 7.43 55.74 1.01 6.91 20.24 43.5 2.2 8. S/R P/P.5 1.64 22.68 19.98 10.93 108.925 X 105 6.39 19.6 5.85 61.44 7.263 x 106 8.80 9.26 16.80 62.2 3.831 3.16 14. AND ENTROPY Pressure.6875 x 105 7.68 5 x 104 2.87 35. Table7.66 5.00 6.1 8.83 91.68 76.8 6.1 5.8 7.1x 104 2.36’?1.38 2 x 104 1.8 7.44 7.06 18.30 17.04 55.7 2.03 7.13 20.13 11.07 1.11 7.6 6.283 X 105 6.0 2.37 13.2 1.24 17.02 15.86 77.831 3.1 18.6 PRESSURE.12 19.13 13.03 17.45 12.75 5.38 78.24 7.2 4.40 20.82 60.25 5.48 8.9 2.7’7 24.43 7.75 14.5 4.62 16.82 31.38 16.89 67.16 104. \ T 0.0 22.8 18. E/RT Entropy.1 8.8 5.15 12.1 1.99 103.65 8.96 56.1 2.35 I 2.55 24.00 74.45 50.9 5.0 6.40 7.66 88.85 8.3 5.51 17.0 2.8 3.92 20.10 10.4 24.59 17.5 9.56 18.8 25.41 64.82 19.5 1.4 23.83 39.8 3.6 7.4 6.58 18.3 1.0 5.58 10.5 3.4 19.16 8.2 5.17 22.1 8.68 1 t .8 5.1 4.01 49.96 13.10 27.94 53.01 18.4 2.55 3 x 104 1.54 17.36 117.64 40.2 3. ENERGY.08 58.0 3.92 24.71 15. pV/RT Energy.87 18.367 1.94 29.03 98.44 18.44 7.97 16.42 42.41 8.6 1.6 6.8 4.2 6.7 22.6 4.80 8.49 15.50 12.47 22.80 52.64 15.59 5.41 95.83 44.66 5.143 x 104 3.4 5.9 7.87 1.95 28.1 1.92 15.78 \ N) 4.37 19.18 20.9 7.96 24.3 7.74 80.38 19.0 12.2 5.17 35.1 8.44 18.39 CO N 3.5 5.24 51.626 X 106 8.33 16.21 65.125 X 105 7.85 35.9 1.1 19.50 11.24 87.60 94.46 56.8x 105 5.62 67.46 81.831 3.19 47.367 1.25 10.82 21.93 21.93 70.4625 X 105 6.4x 105 4.33 0.665.33 2.5 15.35 36.13 27.4 4.4 19.25 71.17 92.25 9.8 27.33 0.

0 7.3 30 0.233 - .9 43 80 130 58 1.1 20.1 24 68 121 188 62 2.9 4.4 17.53 4.1 26 38 45 1.3 28.2 12.3 7.0 5.2 12.5 42 102 172 256 70 4.9 58 103 168 60 2.5 18 35 0.367 1.0 70 174 299 471 90 12.75 6.9 18.7 26 40 0.00 8.0 20 0.3 10.078 0.2 3.831 3.44 7.9 8.8 4.5 51 81 53 1.0 15.66 5.5 80 134 207 65 2.4 36 54 50 1.9 37 93 158 236 67 3.27 1.5 12.7 47 117 195 286 75 7.3 58 142 238 355 80 9. Table 7.62 1.7 THE ADIABATIC (pressure in 103 atm) P IPO S/R 0.58 2.9 36 68 106 “55 1.33 \ 15 0.17 1.6 14.29 10.9 28.38 3.6 104 278 516 833 .9 25 0.

44) The Hugoniot curve is tabulated in Table 7. e is related to the energy E used in the preceding sections by the relation E = cpv (7.44. 7.5 x 106 it follows from Eq. The curve has two maximum values of p /po corresponding to the ionization of the K-shell and L-shell. The increase in p /pn at the lowest pressures is due to the dissociation enqrgy. It is also shown in Fig.21 RT (7. asswning for P. snd ~ the internal energy per unit mass. respectively. In particular for high temper- aturesabove 2. will be negligible com- pared to c and p. 7.41) ‘0 = Here U is the shock velocity. /p) P-PO =pouu 4. are pressure and den- sity behind the shock and in front of the shock. are: u = U(I –P. p. u the material velocity behind the shock. which is clearly evident from Eq.42) In the region in which we are interested COand p.41 with 7. p.367 ~06 —=4+— Po T pv = 8. 2.42 we find 2E —— P ~ (7 .41 that P 4. the density of air at 1 atm and a temperature of 285”K. -234- . It has an effedt qimilar to that arising from the ionization energy at the highest temperatures. which are to be satisfied for a shock-wave.8.1.43) *’PO This equation determines the Hugoniot curve. Combining the third equation of 7. p. (7.6 The Hugoniot Curve The Hugoniot conditions. and p.7.

925 X 105 7.0 1.09 1. T — 4.8 x 105 9.9 x 104 2:4625 X 105 8.5 x 106 5.263 X 106 7. Table 7.4 x 105 9.235 - .1 x 105 7.4 9. I P/P.86 X 106 2 x 107 4.28 x 105 4.09 x 106 8 x 106 4.125 X 105 6.44 2.4 1.545 2.44 x 105 3 x 106 5.— .7 x 104 1.8 8.058 x 106 3.0 x 103 3 x 10 10.6 x 103 2 x 104 .46 9.97 1.87 1.0 x 104 10.143 x 104 9.5 4.5 x 106 5.8 4.403 x 106 5 x 106 4.3 x 103 5 x 104 4 9.2 3.2 x 104 3.8 THE SHOCK WAVE CURVE p/P.283 X 105 8.3 x 105 2.7 2.2 2.1 3.6875 X 105 6.173 x 106 4 x 106 5.22 4.2 x 104 IY4 x 104 9.635 x 106 6 x 106 4.12 x 104 7.0 6.288 x 106 4.56 x 106 10 x 106 4.1 x 104 9.0 6.526 x 106 6.7 x 105 1.25 1.2 1.5 3.73 1.

2 Hugoniot curve.12 STARTC)F IONIZATION IN 10 ‘ i ‘iii iiii i ‘iii iiii I Ywiti I 10 102 103 104 I05 106 . density vs pressure r . 7.07 P@~ Fig.

000 to 25. Richardson. i and by 13ethe and Teller from 300° to 5000°. 3 7. April 27. It. A. Tables of the Properties of Air Along the Hugoniot Curve and the Adiabatic Termi- nating in the Hugoniot Curve.3 shows the temperature as a function of the shock pressure. and the temperatures in Section 7. 3. Hans A. only those electrons are counted whose classical orbit has a radius less than half the mean distance between atoms. February 9.2 below 103 atm will be discussed in the next section. 7. 000°. 1944. 7. but this advantage is necessarily gained at the expense of some loss in accuracy.2 The HugoNot curve and the adiabatic have been calculated by Brinkley. Bethe. Bethe and Edward Teller.2.1 The Range from 12. H. 7. and J.1.1. M. S. 000° are produced by ordinary high explosives. Con- ditions in this region are therefore directly comparable with those treated in Section 7. OOO”K The highest temperatures included in the report of Bethe are in the range in which dissociation of the nitrogen and oxygen molecules is com- pleted and the ionization of the atoms is begimiing to be important. . Kirkwood and Richardson. An electron is assumed to be free if it has positive energy. no date. For this reason the equation of state of air up to temperatures of this order has been calculated by Bethe from 5000° to 25. Brinkley. He uses simpler approximations which make the computation less formidable. The part of the curve in Fig. States of bound electrons with larger orbits are neglected.2 The Equation of State of Air Below 25. This leads to an underestimate of the pressure of the free electrons.1 were chosen in such a way that there is some overlapping with. 2.237 - . Bethe’s calculations. John Kirkwood. Report OSRD-3550 (NDRC B-3550). free electron is assumed to be kinetic and its potential energy is neglected. The Specific Heat of Air up to 25. Report AM-562.OSRD-369 (NDRC B-171). OOO°C. A bound electron is one of negative energy. Bethe ts treatment differs from that outlined in Section 7. Fig. 1. 1942. OOO°K Air shocks with a shock pressure up to about 1 kilobar and tempera- tures of the order of 10. The energy of s. Deviations from Thermal Equilibrium in Shock Waves.

06 P/P~ Fig. temperature as a function of shock pressure . . 7.3 Hugoniot curve. 106 I05 -r I04 t03 10 102 103 104 105 .

since the highest permitted states of neighboring atoms overlap appreciably.2. 7. which can be obtained from the spectra but is usually not very important compared to either vibrations or dissociation. (1) The kinetic energy of translation 3p/2p. (6) The electronic excitation of the atoms. the partition function of the bound electrons is probably over- estimated.2 The Range from 300 to 12.1 should be expected to be more accurate.2.239 - . since it shows that the re- sults are sensitive to the assumptions made. (3) The energy of vibration. Fig. The effect of the ionization of the L-shell starts at a shock pressure slightly above 1 kilobar. it is difficult to assign any definite magnitude of error to either calculation. 000”K Below 12. In addition Bethe. whereas in the calculations of Section 7.. (4) The energy of electronic excitation of the molecules. which becomes important at about 3000°K. 7. which is zero.1 it started some- what below 10 kilobars. . 7. depending on the molecular structure.3. The Hugoniot curve obtained from these calculations is included in . and second order rotation effect.000” ionization of the atoms is unimportant.2. The following effects have to be considered. from the interaction between oscillation and rotation. (5) The dissociation of the molecules. depending on the frequencies of the normal modes which are obtained from band spectra. Although the calculations of Section 7. This conclusion is borne out by the Hugoniot curve shown in Fig. It becomes important at about 600”K. 7. RT or 3RT/2. This discrepancy is rather disappointing. and Bethe and Teller included terms arising from the anharmonicity of the vibrations. This is probably a fairly small contribution and therefore the total pressure will be underestimated. (2) The energy of molecular rotation. all these are important only at high temperatures. provided there are stiU undissociated molecules. The (negative) pressure of the bound electrons has been neglected. The shock velocity and temperature are shown in Fig. which of course is impor- tant only if dissociation occurs. Nevertheless.

The low density approximation presented in the following was proposed by Christy and developed by Hirschfelder and Magee.3. It will be more convenient in the following calculation to refer all quantities to a mole rather than to a gram atom. In the region in which we shall be interested this simplification is not valid. However. the assembly behaves like a perfect gas as far as composition and pressure are concerned.367. ‘I’hen the partition function of the ions is simply given by the statistical weight of the ground state.367 but the intermediate region may be covered by interpolation.240 - . this is not quite justified at a density of 0.3 The Eauation of State of Air at Low Pressures 7. 7. In the region of low density considerable simplification can be intro- duced. and the assembly is a perfect gas for all purposes.3. Furthermore. molecules) are on the average so far apart from each other that their partition fuctions become independent of the density and concentrations of the various constituent particles. ions. It is essentially based on the fack that at low densities the various particles (electrons. we require the equation of state at much lower densities.1 Introduction The equation of state calculated in Section 7. If the density is very low. a further simplification can be introduced. Similarly.1 for high temperatures has been extended only to a lowest density of 0.2 The Composition of Air In the conditions of a perfect gas the equilibrium of a composite sys- tem AB with its two components A and B is determined by the following equation . Then the volume at the disposal of the free electrons has such a large statistical weight that eventually it outweighs the Boltzmann factor and ionization will occur before there is any chance of exciting the higher elec- tronic states. for this purpose the density has to be very low indeed. In that case the equations for chemical equilibrium are much simpler. dissociation of the molecules will eventually occur before the vibrations can be excited.7. since the air which has been shocked by very strong shocks expands considerably when it returns to normal pressure. at least in this high tempera- ture range. However.

49) Here we have introduced the atomic weights M = Nm.46) ‘A+ ‘B and NA. These are therefore twice the occupation numbers of Section 7. p: will be the number of (z . Ris Boltzmann’s constant (1.48) ‘AB F(AB) 3/2 ‘O A=~— () 2rR Nh2 (7 . Then Eq. ‘ANB = 27’mlRT 3/2 ~ .379 x 1o-16). We choose for V the mole volume and define the occupation numbers such that NA = N etc. where N is Avogadro 1s number (6.47) ‘= ‘AB ~= ‘AB ‘AB . NBj NAB are the respective number of particles in volume V.-Q/RT F(A) F(B) (7 . 7.241 - . is a standard volume. . and A = 7. and h is Phanckts constant (6. pA for example.1.027 x 1023). ~ ~3/2 T3/2 e-Q/RT F(A)F(B) (7 .1) times ionized oxygen ions for each molecule (oxygen and nitrogen) which was originally present. Then N/V.445 X 10 V. and V. is the number of molecules per cubic centimeter in standard condition p: 19 — = 2.45 is conveniently written in the form PAPB v ‘o (7.50) .620X 10-27).45) () F(AB) ‘AB h2 Here the Frs are the partition functions (assumed to be independent of the density and concentration). which we shall choose as the mole volume of a perfect gas at a pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 300”K. Q is the energy of dissociation of the system AB into the components A and B.68 cgs units (7. m is the reduced mass \ m. ‘AmB (7.

7. Fo -4 3/2 z z-i-1 K“ = 1. 7. This condition may be written in the form *<<170r(t1’3’<3(::) 1’3=163xlo4T/~ (7”.51) could also have been obtained from Eq.29.53) ..1 becomes independent of z and 27. 7. . Iz is @e z -th ionization potential and the Fz are the partition functions of the ions.51 can therefore be stated in the form that the quantity a used in Section 7. The condition of applicability of Eq. a --.52) z ‘~m~ () z Here the redqced mass has been replaced in sufficient approximation by the atomic weight of the electron (1/1823) and the statistical weight of the electron is taken as 2.1 (see Eq. Eq. 2+1 o = K— Po Z+l ~N ‘O o . a . 7.~. 7. T 3/2 a3 lim g(z.—= (7. 7. reduce essentially to Eq.45.PO is then the normal density of air. 7.51) ZP N 27 Pz P= where Z is the average number of free electrons per molecule and -10.973 x 10 (7.Pz Z+l 8 = 1. The formula (Eq. Eq.16) should be sufficiently small for those ions which are present in appreciable numbers. M this limit the partition function of the electrons as defined in Section 7. For the ecpdlibrium between ions and electrons.242 - . e.Z) = lim g(Z) = 2 27rmk— 47Ty (Y-O 0!--0 () h2 where a was the radius of the average volume per atom.973 x 10 T z ‘Xp()m ~ z FN ~ ~3/2 .O). It is now easily verified that the expressions..29 by going to the limit of large volumes (i.47 yields o N Zp iip —.

It should be noticed that Z increases less rapidly than T. K.54 the values of Bethe have been ‘ used. = 7. ~t i.- molecules. It should be noted that. becomes relatively less important. This is due to the fact that with increasing temperature the kinetic energy of the free electrons increases and the potential energy. 390/T ()‘1 ‘=K —. 2 ‘on = 7. Hence the validity of the formulae (Eq. F~ reported in Section 7. 7. but independent of the volume. 7. . .4 For the partition functions in Eq. the partition functions of the ions and electrons become volume dependent only because of ~~ressure ionization. the omission of highly excited states by the ll~ut-off ~~requirement. and it was therefore decided to use the further simplification of neglecting electronic excitation and replacing the partition functions of the ions by the weights of the ground states. For the molecules on the other hand there is an appreciable range of temperatures in which the partition function is temperature dependent because of the excitation of vibrations and rotations. in the approximation used.68 X 8 02 p ‘o. 7.1.e. For ions this usually means that the partition functions do not differ vqry much from the statistical weight of the ground state. which was neg- lected. Hence the approximation extends to much higher densities if the temperature is high. In fact because of rotations of the .54) would be much more restricted if we used the statistical weight of the ground state. The partition functions of Bethe are given in Table 7.9. 3/2 ~3/2 e-59.54) “N.1 were not available at the time. ~since the excitation energy of the first excited state is usually of the same order as that of other excited states. Unfortunately the primary calculations of the partition functions of the ions F:. -243 - . The weights and ionization potentials have been tabled in Section 7.51 applies.68x y3/2 T3/2 e-8595@/T () :: “ (7. The equilibrium between atoms and molecules is determined by C)2 02 (Pl ) P. This simplification further reduces the range of densities in which Eq. it could be used only at extremely low temperatures.

153 20.276 27.525 41.79 2 z= (E – @ + p:) (7.51 and 7.750 9.728 . (7.500 2.478 9. They are solved by introducing the quantity P.534 9.244 - .210 23.114 6.295 9. p.500 3.818 4.539 4. 176 4.351 31. ‘K FN Fo F ‘2 1 ’02 1 5.000 5.015 9.053 5.524 The occupation numbers satisfy the conservation law T 1 z -p: z +.362 4.770 9.934 4.000 3.000 2.841 4.994 9. These equations together with 7.069 13.000 1.817 9.56) From Eq.314 4.550 4.000 6.500 2.380 9. w=..51 follows .042 11.244 8.406 10.54. Table 7. 7.780 9.000 4.9 PARTITION FUNCTIONS OF MOLECULES AND ATOMS Temperature.54 constitute a complete set of equations for the determination of the occupation numbers.21 1 z -zZ p: + pN = 0.106 16.153 7.55) 7 . 2 = 0.196 7. 383 4.081 6.

WP. 7. . + ~KN KN .59 as three simultaneous equations for the quwtities PPY P! d p /po for given v~ue Of WC The ‘irst ‘Wo combined yield -24. o N =K.5 - .I?3 and so on. P2 =K. wp: P2 0020N ~N .57) P: =K#1wp1.54 02p_ ~ (7.+ KIK2K3K4K5K6K7 W ‘2=2 { } .. ..55 yields 2 Op = 0.58) P02 = (P1} p.21 (P:) ‘lpl + poKo 2 2 A2p~ + ~ (p!) = 0.+ KIK2K3K4K5K6K7 K8W ‘1 =~l+K~W+K~K~W2+. 02 .60) ‘4 1 12*’ 12”7 /- We consider the e uations of 7. { } NNNNNNN7 %+ K~W+~#W2 +. ‘I#I#W pi (’7. ~N W7 (7.&T+mA&A .79 PoKN 2 ‘o (7*59) A3P: + *4p: =~ where the A ~s depend only on W and are given by the following: 000000008 . from Eq. 7. PN~ = @~)2~ ~ ‘o ~ Substitution into Eq. and.

one finds the quadratic equation for pp~/po 02 N ()( PP1 0. Then o 0.21 N 0.63) (7 .21 A — (7. P.1 . 21 A2A3 —.21 A: ~ PP1 . 2 [() N N PP1 ~ PP1 = 0.79 ‘—. (7.— — +— . P1=~ (7.246 - .64) If there are no undissociated molecules present the quadratic terms drop out.61) 2po+r (~ )] ‘2 Eliminating pp~/ p. %2 )()( ‘O The remaining quantities are determined by o –A 3 ( )] PP1 — p. ‘1 ‘m~ ’02 0.79 A.59.65) ‘1 ‘1 2 . in terms of pp~! pO by means of the third equation of 7.

. O!=E+l (7.A. The main purpose of this was to be able to decide whether the molecules could be neglected in the region in which we are interested. . this equation holds also if molecules are included. with the help of Eq.Q. /. If V is the mole volume.69) and therefore _=(a!+l)l 1?’ E. Since the pa~ition function of the molecules may be assumed to be vol- ume independent.55. then povo = RTO (7. For this reason we shall in the following neglect the molecules. but the equations are no longer those for a perfect gas. ( PO.247 - . then Q!=z+l –P9-P2. (7.3.21T + o*79— (7 . For a perfect gas the pressure depends only on the number of particles in a given voiume and the temperature. N The perfect gas equations break down.3 The Thermodynsmical Quantities’ Until now we have included the undissociated molecmles into the calcu- lation. We shall see that this is the case. 7. There is in principle no difficulty in including the molecules. A4 — = w .70) Po To P. since the partition function of the mole- cules is temperature dependent.0000 or more). 7.66) P 1 ‘2 ) . however. 4. The reason for this is that the very low densities will be obtained only at fairly high temperatures (of the order of 10. if we consider the energy and entropy. then4 pv ‘ = number of pa~icles per molecule = a + 1 (7.68) In normal conditions air behaves again like a perfect gas and cz = O: .67) ~T where.

72) 1 2+1 R The enthalpy.556 ‘(7. S@ilarly for the ions: ~ = Npz.390 . = 1 atm. For the electrons we have %1 = gel = 2.248 - . s elZ3:: ~ln. + hl.75) T { } A =~+~ln~m’~JO)+ln(~)+ ln2=2 . is given by H= E+pV (7.560 . Observing that z (p: + p:) = 2.The specific heat of the electrons and ions is 3R/2. the ent~py is -Ei/RT If fi is of the fcmm fi = gie then the last two terms give just in g. which is of interest for some calculations. In the energy we must in addition include the energy of dissociation and io~zation. Then (7. Jf there are n particles of type i with partition function fi and mass mi in a vohqne V.73) Finally we require the entropy. and %1 = NE. one finds .76) for To = 300”. Jz+l 0 = J: +: where ‘1 ~N P = 85. Hence. JN =J:+Z (7.‘o -ln Z+A (7.71) lo o =: 59. p.

79) hB 2 where g is the statistical weight of the electronic ground state (3 for 02 and 1 fo%lN.n.28 (7. since the rotations are fully excited and the vibrations are not excited.~m~2RT0)+3(0. +21n H — ‘o N (7.08 cm-l for 02).) and B is the rotational constant (2.211n16 +0.~ln(’$)+p:1n($)]+3h& ‘21n(:)+B1 (’i’.80) 1[ 0. fo2 so=~+3 #n i-h —+ 0.87 cm-l for N2 and 2. 13=5+21.78) For air at normal conditions we can again apply the perfect gas equa- tions.81) z P= Pz . ‘i —= R I z .791n14) Here mp is the proton mass. 1.. 1.79 1 Thus so s–y’ ( +1.79 -I-:1.249 - . + 0 + ln— ‘o (E+2)– P ) 0 i!iln E+EA N 1 gz g= -1-q p~ 1.. Then hmp RTO v. Then RT1 ‘ fi = gel —— (7.=+ pz‘ln~+B (7.21 F2 N 0.21 () h2 [ h fN2 +.32 + 0.(~) +31.

the number of N2 molecules is no longer negligible.10. -250. It will be noted that at the lowest temperature of 7000°.batics given in the following tables are subject to correc - tion at very low densities. by observing that .59 (7. The data obtained are given in Table 7.1’ and the factor 2 arises.638. ‘o B = IBt –~= 10. when ionization is complete. r . at very high temperatures. Unfortunately. s–s.68 (7. because here we use 1 mole as standard amount. The formula used in numerical calculations contained an additional term (Z + 2) in (Z + 2) and the values of the constants A and B were 1.833 (7. and adia. some errors were made in the calculation of the entropy. except for very low densities.42 #ln$- 0 + ln~ ) ‘o + 6.750 and 24.. At this temperature the approximation used breaks down.83) Comparison with the data of Section 7.82) This entropy can be related to that used in Section 7. These errors have not yet been corrected in all results for the entropy. —.1 gives s –sO s —. = 2’~ + 11.1. It ( + 16.84) R where S1 is the entropy of Section 7.

066 x 10-8 1.1248 27.086 x10_1 2.209 x10_2 2.730 78.140 XIO_l 16.0661 25.864 x10-2 1.084 x10_1 1.0472 2.73 6.771 XI0-8 -9 1.8354 1.6471x 10 26.655 X 10-3 5.173X 10-5 3.412 x1 O:.359 X 10-5 1.2726 1.437x 104 1.166 76.266 x10-2 2.035 X10-1 2.390 X10-7 1.514x 10 9.527 x10-2 7.050 40.660 4.874 x10-1 4.183 14.750x I0 .5? OX10-3 5.077 x10-1 1.6275 9.082 x10-1 2.168 XIO-l 21.258x 10_3 6.826 X10-1 2.526 x1O:.966 x10_1 1.523x 10 7.2871 x10_2 14.06 2.556 x10-3 4.032 x10_3 2. 4.9222 x10_1 1.100 16.372 X 10:.500 x10_1 2.234 14.052 21.637 X 10-6 1.307 x10-5 -4 7.526 x10-S 2.8371 4.437 9.98 1.581 x10-1 1.258 x10-1 3.263 27.568 19.183 13.313 x 10 4.32 1.333 21. I.866 X 10-3 8. 6 .8255 24.904X IO: 2.352 x1O 12.624 x10-1 2.796 x10_1 7.270x 10_3 ‘3 2.601 17.8940 8.430 x10_3 I.283 26.662 62.481 24.35 6.084 11.5887x104 16.9220 19..373 x 10-4 1.0316 -1 27.6 IOX1O 5. 6.666 X 10 1.433 x 10 1.589 x10-5 3.1800 x10-1 1.781 23.627 x10-1 3.331 3.3078 1. 7.304x1o 1.8333 9.74OX1O 4.716x1O 1.060 X 10 6.295 7.5594 7.338 x10-3 2.674 x10-1 3.2486 1.162 x10_1 1.847 x10-2 3.637x1O 1.206 x10-1 6.037 x10~~ 2.108x1O 6.318 x10-1 5.66 1.61 4.487 X 10 -3 7.456x1O 1 .189 x10-1 4.035 x10-1 9. 1.5430 16.94 2. 4.295 x10-1 7..008 x10-5 4.385x1O 1.372 x10~j 3..633x1O 4.032 x10_7 6.095 x10-2 7.303 X10-2 4.098 x10.335 x10_3 -1 5.231 x10_1 S.-13 7JO6X1O 5.309 12. -11 4. 2.781x 10-1 2.758 XIO-l 26. O17X1O 5.507 255.778 x10-3 1.036 x10-1 4.838 37.99s x10-2 3.563x104 1.894 47.397x Io 1.857x1O .675 x10-2 2. O22X1O :: 1.266 x10-1 5.033 x10_1 1.744 x1o:.246 x10~~ 7.61 3.096 x10-1 6.791 x10_1 6.996 1.7820 38.663x10-9 3.176 X 10 7.556 x10-3 7.226 2.08 1.111 xIO-1 7.653 x10_3 3. 5.320x Io~ I.97 1.375 29.2756x104 15.000% P/P.048 X 10 1. 1.488 12.062 70.96 Qx10-1 7.:=::-: 6.543 x10_2 2.641 x10_1 2.445 x10-1 6 .344X1O 3.149XI0 30.507 Xlo 6.641 67.916 X 10.410 XIO_l 22.398 x10-2 9.500 X10-4 4.::: -11 7.604 x10-1 3.602 1.62 1.681 16.523 x10-1 2.324 12.835 X 10-1 4.0141 S.663x1O 1.547 x10-2 1.016 99.180 x10-2 5.746 29.303 x10_2 1.776 x10_1 1.3714 34.655 43.0317 x10-2 14.068 x10_8 2.529x1O 2.660 XIO-l 17.615 x10-1 1.565 44.05 2.804x 10 2.526 x10-5 1.618 10.636 x10_3 4.374 xlo_3 6.624 x1O:.650 x10_3 3.8123 1.667x1O 1. Zible 7.31 1.12 9.258 X 10-1 3.061 %10-1 1.478 x10_2 5.252x1O 5. 29.700 x10_1 3.917 12. 3.352 x10-4 2.1 9.099 x10_1 7.539 X10-2 14.9853 x10-1 26.523x 10 3.7515 8.146 X 10_5 I.630 x10_3 6.40 2.816 x10_1 9.878 x10-2 I.7852 x10-1 4.317 x104 5.036 x10-1 4.363x1O 3.067 x10-1 1.496 x10_2 1.485 20.6$J3X1O 5.295 X 10 1.068 4.606X1O 2.152 X 10-1 3.062 x10-2 2.471x10-3 5.376x1O 1.270 x10_1 5.242 x10_2 I.62 3.61 4.848 13.924 x10-2 1.032 x10_2 I.312 X 10:. O36X1O 5.026 33.97 2.140 x 10-3 1.233 32.99 2.18 2.741 x10-1 2.222 62.464 S4.432X 10 5 .676 X 10-2 3.0185 1.004X 10 2.583 x10~~ 9.1695x104 18.63 1. 4.576X 10-7 4.97 7.8560 42.6400 4.366 X 10-2 6 .825 x10-5 1.007 X10-4 3.0381 5.601 x10_1 3.658 1.617x 10:.132 x10_2 1.0105 43.67 2.7913 x10_1 4.15 2.299 x10-1 6.450 51.s50xlo_3 :::::.926 17.847X 10_l 9.165 X 10:.679 x10_1 2.968 x10_2 1.86 1.557 x 10: -1 2.97o X 10 2.21 1.225 X 10fl -4 3.925 X 10-1 4.0324 1.187 x10-7 I.10 LOW-DENSITY EQUATION+3F-STATE DATA T = 7.943 x10_2 7.736 X 10-7 1.445 x10-2 4.431X 10 1.657 x10-5 2.052 X 10_lo 2.5539 25.593 x10_1 7.798 12.061 x10-7 4.851 x10-6 5.722 X 10 1.52 2.761 x10_2 1.366 X 10.464 3.014 10.617 x10-1 7.328 X 10:.254 13.322 x10~.652 34.828 22.4280 2.149 7. O58X1O 7.564 x10-1 2.326 66.22S3 30.10 1. 7.470 x1O :.3463 6.755 x10-2 1.607 X 10-1 1.000 XIO-5 6.107 30.786X 10-1 8.0126 1.563 x1o:.7428 1.882 32.971 x10-5 -8 -3 7.474 x10~.724x1O 1.551 X10-1 6.706 X 10j..7099 x10-2 14.32 -2.000°K -4 -2 2.797 Xlo-l 25.818 9.920 xIO_3 5.8971 9.364 6.696 x10-2 1.315 X10-1 8.431 X1 O-2 -9 -2 7.044X 10 1.411 4.166X1O 9.236 63.522 x10-5 2.985 x10_2 1.325 x10_5 1.536x 10+ 4.6225X 10 5.054 x10-3 2.913x 10 6 .791 X10.20 2.541 12.743X104 3. -o 1.322x 10+ 6.143 x10-3 5.717 x10-2 S.153x IO+ .337xlO T = 30.122 x10_2 4.881 x10-3 1.061x 10~.202 x10-1 I .6363 34.1841 1.307 x1o:.665 x10-2 3.83OX1O 7.424 x 104 2.7 Z8X10-13 4.204 9.140 x10-3 3.742 23.064 x10-1 3.005 X10:: 2.000”K -3 1.81 I.502 x10_2 1.969 X 104 5.554 x 10+ 1. 2.835 x10-2 I.156 1.5641 1.061 X 10-2 I.8257 x10-5 13.298 x10-1 3.7241x1O 20.789 60.843x 10-8 4.012 54.146 x10-2 1.985 %10-2 9.137 Xlo _l 26.926 1.958 x10-8 7. 7.241 X 10-2 2.766 x10-1 52.006 13.0243 1.583 x10_2 1.484 X 10-6 8. O85X1O 4.124 X 10 4.6101 X 10 12.1604x I0 .660 29.552 x10_1 4.406 x10-1 1.458 2.3 S6X1O 2.173 12.95 2.94 2.856 59.300 x10-1 1. O91X1O 6.361 X 10~.987 1.126 10.370 1.250 2.475 x10-1 6.17 4.760 40.001 x10-2 2.380 13.107 60.2469 26.6 3.705 21.0110 5.747 xlo_1 I.075 x10-1 I.824 Xlo ‘1 24.204 x104 6. O4IX1O 2.670 x10-2 -1 1. 3. 14.244 49.826 x10-1 2.556 85.803 29.33 1. 1.573 x lo_6 4..626 71.763 x10-6 3.446 x10-j 7.178 14.402 37.785 x10_1 3.697 13.968 x10_7 3.061x I0 3.000% -2 -1 -3 1. 1 .8737 x10_1 3.636 3.457X1O I 2.530 x10_8 6. 3.9224 22.49 6.0064 21.166 x10-2 2.672 x10-5-5 I.576 x10-1 3.131 x10-2 1.224 x10-3 1.125 X 10~ 2.651x1o 4.241x1O.241 X10-9 4.0921 22.564 37.399 23.14 4.372 X 10_5 5.113 xlo_2 2.0633 1.9325 x10-4 15.020XI0 4.000”K -1 -8 -1 ‘3 6.769x 10 1.763 16.56 2.240 x10-1 2. 1.230 x10-6 3.703 45.731X1O 7.631 67.000% -3 -1 -3 3.6121 8.626XIO:.502%10 3.455X1O 3.160 x10-5 1.6 S7X10+ 1. 2.674 x10-2 7.84 U49x10_2 1.61 1.067 x10_1 1. 7.2620 6.231 x10_1 1.0605 x10_1 23.587 x10-1 4.623 1.666 X1O-I 1.4940 1.364xlO .1663x 10-1 -1 25.898 X 10-4 l. 1.778 x10-2 3.143 X10-2 1.809 x 10:~ 1.632 X 104 5.981 x10-2 9.067 21.688XI0 T = 10.825 x10-1 -6 1.216 x10-2 3.187 1.673x1O:.107 XIO-8 1.7025 3.4062 29.7099 x104 16.553 x10_1 5. a I/z z II= H/RT 1/2 p: 1/2 P02 -2 -1 -4 -1 -1 -5 -5 1.754 7.131x1o -1 6.31 2.351X 10 6..060 38.519x lo-3 2.565 x10-2 2.549 X 10:.243 x10_3 5.640 13.111 x10_l 3.075 x10-1 2.032 14.083 32.000% -1 -5 -2 4.6046 X 10-3 14.224x ‘3 10_3 2.116 1.512 XIO_l 19.411x1o T = 20.6032 x10-1 3. 3.794 x10-5 7.982 x10-1 1.449x 10-1 2.356 x10_3 7.49OX1O 7.099 x10-1 8.9368 8.613 X 10:.600 15.684 X 10j ::.102 x10_2 2.264X 10-6 1.097 65. 2.836x1O 3.667 30.633 24.676 1.55 3.369 1.7717 1.180 x10-2 1.195 x10_2 1.611 x10_2 1.374X 10 ? .373 x10_2 6.3606 x10-1 7.014x 10 -3 8.0015 24.426 x10-1 6.678 x10~.996 34.4577 37.346 20.874 X 10-7 T = 40.371 36.0559 28.473 21.345 29.6288x1O 14.557X1O 2.66OX1O -1 2487 X 10 6.065 X 10+ 1.097 x10_1 4.405 x 10 7.582 x10-1 5.121 65.43 51.531S 2. 3.:g:.940 56.821 45.118 6. 1.788x 10_7 w::-.3782x 10 :. 6.981x1(34 1.694 x1o.624x 10:.658 8.556 65.03 2.975x1O 7.83 46.96 4.046 22.863x I0 1.1670 8.157X 10-3 ‘3 3.153 18.723x 10 6.046 x10_2 3.291 x10_2 2.874 26.51 1. O25X1O:.630 26.073 x10-2 2.633 61.791X1O 2.827 x10_1 7.521 x10-1 1.795 x10-5 8. O79X1O 1.326 x10-2 7.561 X 10~~ 2.276 X 10:.122 x10-1 7.4566 1. 24.0115 x10-5 13.9121 1.887 531.822x10-3 7.583x 10 4.569 17.551 x lo_9 5. -1 -2 -7 4.1362 1.153 x10-5 5.381x 10 6 .366x104 1.965 xlo-1 -7 5.529 X 10 T = 15.36 2.200 x1O 19.866 X IO: 9.57 2.6656 40.656 12.833 44.257x1O .896 x10_3 -1 5.037 20.142x10_2 2.087 54.081 83.065 1.241x1O T = 25.348 X10-1 2.9284 9.9 I6x1O 7.365 5.712 x10-1 1.925 x10-5 4.983 x10-1 105. 2.0210 2.02 7.

331x 16:: 6.4165 52.013x 10 2.732x 10_l 9.43 140.450x 10 4.016x 16 1.9102 54.621 569..385 X 10] 1.879x 10_3 2.681x 16-1 3.76 8.2456 2.5038 .157.:~2.24 8:656X 10:: 2.517 x 10+ 4.503 57. 000% -6 -2 -6 1.619x 16_z 3.130x 10 1.246x 10-6 2.1 4.688x 10_2 1.S27 .037 6.487 x 10-2 1.14 4.:~.4046 5.696x 10 9. 000X -4 -1 -12 -7 -3 -1 -2 -3 -12 -3 -1 -1 4.401X1O 8.655x 10:.494 103.133x 10-1 8.235x 16 6.90 150.20 144.667 X 10-1 6. 2.101X 10-1 10.741 1.492x 16-5 4.036x 166 1.982x 10-3 5.0jf 3.177X 10+ 9.107x 10.716x 16+ 6.320x 16-2 1.842 .067x 10-8 3.173x 10-7 1.351x16+ 1.524x 10 5. :-11 -1 4.0604 7.6225 74.636X 10_l 6.669x 10_2 1.809 X 10-1 3.712x 10 T = 71.6386 69.467 X 10+ 6 .:.107x 10-2 5.309x192 71.7616 45.288x 10j.128x 16-2 4.665x 10_7 7.~-.581x 10~ 4.879x10 7.164x 10-2 3.906 x 10-2 7.8696 49.200 x 10-1 5.615x 10_2 1.556x 16 11.482x1O ) .60 1:274 x1O:.840x 16 7.879 162.646 104.7550 37.736x 10-1 7.895 X 16-1 1. 9.297 X 10_7 8.4073 2.flj.781x 19-1 6.745XI0 8.740 175.1756 66.381 x10-2 8.539x 10+ 8.964 x10-6 1.861x 10 8.465 X 16_3 1. 6. 7.166 x10-3 2.203.752 x10j~ 4.3.376 114.466x 10~~ 1.854x 16-3 2.988 xlfl_# 5.414x 10-2 1.873x 10_2 1.171x1O 8.535x10 6.658 X 10_l 3.567x 10-8 4.33 127.967 X 10+ 3.387 x 16-2 6.3028 44.78 1.4668 64.81 3.4633 52.532x 16 4.659x 16 3.570x 194 2.620x 104 6.686 X 10-7 9 .669x 16+ 1.10-1 3.649 X 10 5.STOXIG.311 186.7417 30.046 x 10-1 2.252x 16_2 1.829x 10-2 1.238 X 16-3 1.~.119x 10-1 3.7836 71.266x 10+ 6.6726 74. -2 4.614x 10 2.395 x 19-2 7.391 x 16_6 2. 1/2 f 1/2 ~: 1/2 g 1/2 f 1/2 ~: 1/2 p! 1/2 ~: 1/2 # 1/2 # 1/2 # -6 -1 -4 -8 -2 -3 8.0226 41.536x 10-1 7.34 :’:.065x 10 3.649 x10-11 3.817 X 19.364x 10 1.674x 10-1 2.723x 10-1 19.148 157.924X 10-5 5.5302 3.851X zc_7 :.213x 10 1.88 4.126x 19-3 5.7425 46.837 X 16-2 6.683x 10~ 6.955x 10_3 l.691x 10+ 3.303 x10_1 %.916 X 10-3 3.146x 104 1. 8.996 X 16 68.172x 10-1 16.624x 19_1 1.96 4.720 140.97 2.759x 10 9.6355 53.159x 10:.161 155.182x 16-2 6.623x 16_3 1.642x 10_8 1.014 121.544 3589.1144 2.244X 16-5 1.106 x 10-4 4.1666 66.156x1O 5..281 0.426 2.316 X 10-1 6.8804 2.714.45SX 10-3 8.0=i 2.393x lo_l 4. 1.3S4X 10:: 2.180 2.689x 16~.286x 16-5 1.3513 6.x 10~.788x 10_6 Z.284 341’7.799x 10-1 4.359x 16 3.3211 5.252x 16-1 1.337 X 16 4.644 3.166x 19+ 5.260 x10-2 11.IZ6xM:j 1.3104 4.360x 10_l 6.462x162 146.33SX 10 .79 7.0682 45.452x 10 10. 5.084x 10-1 1.346 x10+ 2.8353 61.563x 10-1 11.munued) T = 50.566x 10_l 6.716 1.004 x 10-2 1.-l 6.991 X 16_3 1.3S42 5.410 4.633X 10-2 1.650x 10 8.361x 10-2 6. 2.880 X 10-2 4.25Ix1o:.093x 10-5 3.6562 57.011% 10 2.5895 1.713x 10_l 1.10-7 2.777 X 10-1 1.15 3.47 1.416x 10-2 2.286x 16~.36 1.856x 16_7 7 .562x 10 4.522Y.462x 16-2 7.6742 88.788x 10-5 1.2436 26.718x 10 1.89 146.466 X 10:. 2. fi-18 .572 x10-2 1.070x 16_5 .865x 3.320X 10-1 ?.621x 16_2 4. 7.075 2.048 x 16_1 1.366x 16-1 5.996 X 16-1 1.012X 10-1 5.579 8.673x 10-1 6.116x 10-’ 9.34 9.570xK7~ 4.662 x10_7 4 .4806 .3290 65.026 X 10-3 3.7891 54.824 X 16-3 7 .77 5.243 xDl~.8649 4.051x 16-1 6.284x 19-2 1.442x 104 8.576 x 16-6 2. 006°K l/2 Z n=H/RT 12/RT P As/R 1/2 p.S426 5.379 x 104 3.178x 10-6 2.617 x 10-2 1.626 53.920x 16_2 5.114x 10_2 3.566 6.606S 47. H-14 1.51 1.663x 10-2 2.598 x19-2 1.427 X 10-1 4.693x 10-6 2.2664 s .716x 10~.9478 27.8279 78.1036 55.982x 10 7.744x 10+ 2.9637 92.233 X 10+ 3.650x 16.6896 3.3802 41.373x 102 114.509x 16 1.57OX1O 1.425 x 10-5 1.886x 10_2 2.834x 16_2 8.393 286.2169 43.766 X 16-2 4.1460 56.616x 10-5 2.266x 10-2 2.472x 16-3 1. 2. 660% -3 -4 -2 -2 -2 9.078 %10-5 1.469x 10:.852x 10_l 1.544 x10_2 1.687 25.267 X 10:.7446 62.430x 161 2.175x 10-3 1.902x 104 2.65 3.269 1926.1187 2.1883 2.6552 59.608 x.850 99.683 x10-2 1. 10_8 9.768 X 10 5 .106 X 104 4.226 X 10+ 1.6268 2.0118 36.6718 4..177X 10-3 1.1486 62.769x16 66.169x 19_z 1.131x16 1.168x 16_3 1.682x 10+ 2.1590 37.641x 16-1 2.883x 10_2 6 .38 6.812 x19-2 4.371x16 .292x 10-9 5.7683 28.039X10Z 73..385 X 19-3 3.529x 10 2.566 X 16_2 6.910x 10+ -8 6.195 X 10+ 2.676 x19fl 5.467 X 104 2.044x 10-6 3.672x 10 7.86 w:% 1.251x 10_3 2.68 4.975x 10_2 1.544x 10+ 1.155x 16-8 1.588x 10-2 9.836x 10-5 2.647 x16~.732 X 10-3 1.912x 10-1 1..3446 71.06 6.181x 16_1 6.905 225.350x 10+ 5.6523 64.7946 3.870 .738x 16-2 1.0.114x 16-1 4.269 X 10+ 2.332x 19 4.904 1.716x 10-3 I 3.96 176. 5.746 5.963x 10-7 3.3.952x 16_5 8.S29 X M_3 8.985x 16-3 1.00 154.467x 19-2 1.450 X 16:. 2.667 X 10_7 3.361x 10-2 ?.16 1.788x1O 7 .241x 10 T = 246.891x 10-1 9.4975 4.2623 57.185 x16-6 1.2706 4. 3.626x 10 T = 180.286 X 16_2 1.9645 34.526x 10_l 1.451x1o 5. 4.46 186.2390 3?.5180 2.007x 16+ 5.215x 104 1.21OX 16_7 1.645 X 10-2 1.885 1.144 x 10-7 1.890x 16_1 5 .447 x 10_7 3..{_. 1.146 143.516x 16+ l.501x 16-2 11.171 x10~.979x 16_3 5.2674 57.796x 10-5 3.6352 63.16 3.043X 16_5 6.818x Io:.766 719.5843 4.?511 32.060x 10:~ 5.716 X 10_l 8.93SX 19_1 11.486x 19_1 4. :-10 5.631x 10-2 7 .610 134.42 7.376x 10-6 1.262x 10_3 7 . 4.965x 10 4.346 X 16 4.152x162 125.5412 66.381x 16-2 7 .375x 10-1 3.061x 10_3 6.185x 10-7 2.295x 19-7 1.5920 60.5672 4.905x 10-2 11.735 x 10+ l.675 x 10 1.00 4.444 x 10-3 1.6234 76.787X 16 1.0236 7.565x 10 2.2624 52.720x 10-3 1 .5648 48.24s8 2.796x 10-1 5 .3496 44.222x 16: 5.1342 60.247x 10_2 6.716x 104 4.313x 10_l 1.622x 10_2 7.357 x 10_2 1.175 X 10-7 3.036x 10-2 1.694x 10-1 4.62 1.364x 16-2 4.61 162.768x 19-6 3.887 X 102 116.075x 16_9 2.10-7 1.1214 65. 10_2 3.157xio_1 6.949x16 97.287 X 16-1 2.494x 10_3 1.317x 104 2.8971 34.“~.953 1959.377 391.202x 10-3 8.:~2~fl+ .6165 56.084x 102 81.358 1.72 3.162x 10-1 I.5731 4.332x 16_8 4.251x 16_1 4.399X 10 3.11 . 1.16 5.1 4.661 x16-2 1.2126 2.727x 10_7 7.6732177.6860 21.114 65.96 -15 2.190 135.:y8.316.087 x16-2 8.022 1443.247 X 10-3 2.712x16:.263X 10-2 1.822x 16_7 1.818x 10-1 2.546 x 10-2 6..332 x 10-2 3.856 X 10-1 5.425x 16-5 5 .7244 65.613 164.2665 60. .5594 49.01 1.182x 10_l 1.414x 10-2 2.610 x 10_l 1.896 X 10_6 1.815 X 10-5 3.3163 3.751s 72.246 X 19-5 1.762x 16_3 1.646x 16-1 11.328 214.107x10 1.889x 10-2 11.621x 16-2 t917.604x 16-1 -11 2.329x 10_2 1.723x 10 3.5634 66.839 X 16-2 6 .976x 10 1.276 X 10+ 1.267x 194 2.411 .315x 10:.348x 10-6 9.912 1523.798x 10-3 2.65 1.0825 4.241x 10_l 6.8632 48. 1.176 1151.4148 5.4109 46.148x1O 2.185 x 10-1 4.030 126.402x 16:: .416x 10 T = 146.93 6.986X 16-2 1.462 246.476 x 16:. 1.456 x19-Z 1.18 9. 250% -2 -9 -6 -1 -11 -7 -4 1.2626 5.681x 10+ 2.x 10-2 1.526x 10 2.9324 74..601x 16-1 3.fi-11 2. 11.690 X 16-1 3. 74Z5XIO-1 .414x 16_9 6 .646 X 10-1 9.7971 66.148x 10~.578X 10_2 :() 1.176xl6 3.: f13.6525 46.441x 10 2.015 227.936 X 10_3 2.45 174.180x 19-1 8.5572 55.457 183.6s4 x io-3 i.731 x. 1.06 9.481 196.385 X 10 3.495 X 10_6 4.886 X 10-1 3.645x 10-7 1.28 66.534x 16_1 4.288 x 10-5 1.144x 104 9.69 2.3266 40.781 1.“~~.-l .763x 16_1 2.046% 10~ .762x 10-1 1.128x 19-3 5.392x1O 4.664 x10-2 2.564x 10 2.940X 10-2 2..266 X 10-5 2.863x 10 2.606 X 16-1 5 .620x 162 6.16 (C.994X1O 4.576 .402x 10_7 1.:&8.459 3.6066 3.233x 10-2 1.940x 16+ 1.995xl0 T = 101.1764 3.692x 16-4 3.1734 57.2037 40.08 1.66 3.661x 10 7. 460% -16 -13 -4 -2 -1 -2 4.6250 58.061 .632 X 10_2 3..074x 10-3 1.843x 16-2 16.746 X 16-3 8.269x 10_5 1.769x 10 7.S96 x 16-3 6.67 2.462x 16_5 16+ 1.6678 45.826 X 10-4 7.877 X 10_3 2.490 4.628x 16 6. :-11 1.8096 1.764x 16_1 5.5021 1. 7. 1.257 X 10+ 2.657 X 10+ 9.6530 44.3759 1.710 x 10+ 1.453 130.3466 5.896 X 10_2 4.438 96.169x 10-2 6.’716 X 10_l 1.503% 16+ 1.428x 10-1 4.776x 19 5.27 92.140x 10_l S.S467 59.7468 50.510 X 10-3 1.649 X 10-7 2.07 181.351x 10 6.473X 10-1 6.6804 34.126x 10-2 3.946 X 16-2 1.526 x 16-1 3.16-1 1.792x 10-7 4. .862 166.6704 5.455x 10-3 5.026x 10-1 11.2406 25.4486 4.4691 32.8590 51.868x 10+ 5.-16 3.265 207.260 x16-6 1.389 x 10-2 1.252 178.251X 10_3 1.86 4.344x 16 2.73 1.963x 10-5 4.822x 10-1 2.295 x 10_2 2.486 X 165 1.68 4..636x 16 1.232 x16_2 7.439 117.262x 10-2 1.10-2 3.116x 10 1.692x 16_8 2. 4.981 X 10j 3.1172 44.3.~+ S.664x 10. Table 7.8502 S.411x 10~.368 X 16-3 7.9600 31.0942 38.536x 10-2 5.380 x 10_3 4.936x 16-1 11.616 X 194 2.975x 10 4.582x 19-2 1.181x 10_5 5 .621x 16-3 .689x 10-3 6.771x 10-2 L476x1O 1. 7.466 137.3 7.594x 10 2.892 X 19-2 7 .378x 10-3 6.275x 16-2 1.690x 10:.540 2.592x 10-5 1.20 3.657 x16-2 7.412x 10-6 2.606x 10_l -6 4.68 2.099 X 10-L 10.325 X 19+ 4. 10.57 1.786 2612.6251 62.140x10 6 .621x 16_2 1. 3.028x 10_6 1.886x 10+ -7 1.680x 10:.960 5.97 8.956 x 10-1 2.378x 16-1 4.236x 10 7.1621 57.809x 10:.557 x 10-5 3.436 2.224 6.493x16 7 .0123 76.056x 10+ 3.488x 10j 2.6883 2.4376 46.120 144.909 x10-1 66.374x 16_2 6.

17. Table 7.86) or the equivalent form zP. These are reproduced in Tables 7.4 Collected Results Using the various sources as described in the preceding sections.11 gives the pressure for various temperatures and densities. a number of tables were made by Hirschfelder and Magee which present the data in a form convenient for use. Table 7.13 gives various properties after expansion to 1 atm.16 give properties along the adiabatic.5 2 . Table 7. g(s) L Po Po() P + h(S) To (7. The quantity y in that table is defined by (7. These regions have probably not a very marked effect on the propagation of the shock at large distances and it appears therefore justified to smooth the primary data. so that only tables of one variable need be given. Table 7. it is unfortunate that there are regions of rapid change in the various thermodynamical quantities.87) (Text continues on page 289) -253- . Tables 7.85) It should not be confused with the adiabatic y defined as (din p/din p)s. Table 7.5 Approximate Form of Adiabatic for IBM Run of Nuclear Explosion For the purpose of numerical integration of the hydrodynamic equations for the blast wave. For the procedure used on the IBM machines we require furthermore that the equa- tion of the adiabatic be given in semi-analytical form.11 through 7.12 gives various quantities along the Hugoniot curve.14 and 7. 7. =b(S)(X + X1*5) (7.17 gives values of d[ln @S/PO)] / d[ A(S/R)l.15 gives various properties as function of temperature and entropy. Hirshfelder and Magee assumed the equation of the adiabatic in the form 1.7.

074.904 300.1 140.640.000 189.11 PRESSIJRE VS TEMPERATURE FOIt VARIOUS COMPRESSIONS (pressure is in atmospheres) P/P.932.365.000 3.8 1.263.999.4 8.0 90.000 433.8 3.000 19.303 550.58 35.854 600.000 4.000 29.793 750.99 195.3 160.000 5.2 100.081 46.000 1.071 350.559.000 524.000 1.29 50.000 269.49 .7 6.000 21.033.26 30.3 5.95 849.43 281.000 24.798 900.000 34.000 46.000 12.840 32.519 26.938 15.545 21.754.476.000 345.000 14.2 80.9 2.000 621.1 200.470 650.65 25.564.000 31.037.00 445.573.000 16.013 24.391 450.91 641. \T 10 — 8 — 5 — 1.159.62 201.8 5.000.4 1.3 180.039.909.739 800.000 26.14 663. Table 7.186 19.6 70.640.000 8.000 1.71 277.632.674.58 540.000 40.2 3.37 355.346.17 198.117 400.000 1.000 821.277 34.088 29.950 17.897 250.790 500.140 40.273 700.8 1.000 2.0 1.254 - .7 4.9 120.7 60.804 12.13 209.000 10.270.22 40.000 5.811 10.80 45.310.

30 59.33 1.14 42.65 .838 20.582 28.358 49.07 101.33 3.481 17.34 32.500 20.967 700.19 61.37 16.859 23.000 77.037 38.000 11.04 3.000 33.44 141.733 500.53 141.565 26.339 35.60 27.83 16.32.22 23.000 23.47 18.935 25.11 (Continued) P/P.000 42.00 5.36 18.34 2.84 3.91 7.000 40.500 6.914 37.500 3.83 4.68 5.000 17.000 8.877 19.75 22.8 \T’ 4 — — 48.217 34.104 750.08 101.18 20.01 9.86 100.286 20.000 125.78 11.000 57.478 1.255 - . 20 11 10 8 — 5 — \T — — — 24.70 13.22 20.241 35.34 8.87 6.500 26.000 30.918 51.01 10.325 22.74 12.06 62.500 10.000.000 29.65 90.66 6.000 108. 1 0.000 18.000 37.82 8.000 22.000 75.000 P/P.65 10.000 20.198 600.36 28.21 15.000 186.00 1.000 158.159 800. Table 7.92 24.61 5.000 27.302 31.038 43.70 142.23 18.844 .75 60.40 78.000 24.393 550.037 650.500 13.639 1 900.6’7 2.310 29.13 4.208 18.61 32.67 6.000 15.86 32.000 140.135 31.53 102.000 44.54 147.325 450.94 21.000 5.

500 22.288.5 5.155.06 6.776.35 12.223.362 15.46 25.0 4.95 66.000 56.519 250.412.62 5.68 7.571.69 780.000 11.36 35.459 11.000 908.57 17.943 16.000 115.6 6.000 5.480.047.49 5.98 724.000 6.4 160.93 22.000 574.2 6.3 5.13 15.840.8 400.000 26.166.48 103.144.40 20.31 10.7 180.000 :1.6 5.4 90.336 13.97 426.000 3.0 4.1 1.96 968.9 2.939.302.032.000 194.20 156.000 148.3 1.03 -256 - .6 70.96 244.32 9.2 3.40 419.8 100.07 500.81 80.26 57.7 2.53 105.419.31 27.272 11.272.000 19.000 4. \ T 4 — 2 — .000 64.36 48.981.433.653 15.000 226.23 106.5 4.615.0 1.45 18.31 311.000 137.84 35.17 328.679.084 11.84 766.815.1 1.500 16.000 15.570.000 682.2 1.39 165.71 32.04 652.120 13.327.66 20.62 23.000 8.17 45.8 2.000 102.54 527.91 30.0 80.000 46.648.01 4.1 120.010.7 140.757.000 79.8 3.1 0.553 13.29 163.6 3.7 9.64 37.76 65.037 350.84 398.80 8.2 6.051.884.047.09 642.341.12 24.5 200.9 9.405.54 1.36 64.514.3 2.758.000 376.93 39.6 1.06 227.1 6.622 300. Table 7.11 (Continued) P/P.926.000 214.000 13.77 16.4 1.000 294.02 239.000 :1.4 2.000 2.500 30.000 473.028.926.143.000 33.1 9.3 50.9 4.03 333.023.000 2.97 40.99 536.13 608.206.9 3>950.53 6.235.9 1.099.6 60.000 :1.

7 120.05 863.07 14.690.772 22.33 3.33 p/p.038.000 11.9 1. Table 7.327 16.8 1.32 367.785. 399.2 80.399.689 19.54 822.225.712 13.838 14.8 50.2 4.5 3.852.398.000 5.592.000 249.302.4 2. 30.000 7.055 14.750.30 591.750.220 450.458.176. \ T 0.500 8.97 283.296.597 11.272 300.000 4.502.1 7.953.23 564.2 160.908 350.2 4.000 667.854.3 9.7 1.914.5 6.421.89 720.8 2.5 2.34 “ 2.0 3.1 500.3 7.618 16.8 9.078 21.000 1.166.5 90.8 70.1 1.92 40.195.90 45.6 0.03 269.01 24.8 4.0 5.000 21.416 400.000 9.000 2.663.67 6.082 250.71 619.769.500.7 2.00 1.5 2.895 12.9 9.286.000 1.3 1.3 6.6 100.60 .000 797.45 350.283.000 10.000 435.253.708 11.157 16.08 2.34 8.052 19.374.13 384.000 1.804.11 (Continued) P/P. 582.00 5.000 18.103.93 12.06 686.000 14.000 340.429..33 3.107.86 448.66 905.733.7 140.86 754.000 267.7 7.000 6.574.8 5.072.000 230.540.0 5.500 11.6 60.79 .02 3.000 3.000 548.06 10.2 1.257 - .5 3.476 18.543.03 491.7 i.673.9 1.2 200.10 22.21 35.000 6.5 1.133.625.02 25.325 21. \T & 2 — ~ 0.000 13.8 6.000 3.46 470.500 5.464.1 2.4 0.2 0.4 180.50 257.67 1.4 4.131.000 16.000 2.

336.01 0.18 16.000 83.000 57. Table 7.4 5.517 12.84 4.02 0.05 0.8 80.06 5.54 110. \T 0.056.3 2.000 65.500 26.67 PIP o \T 0.000 12.5 2.555.000 2..22 10.409.849. 90.000 31.869.000 1.396.76 171.002.5 1.063.4 2.4 4.28 5.847.9 7.000 107.24 42.2 4.09 12.8 1.19 .000 66.000 10.91 67.346.704 250.005 300.73 44.000 8.333 200.000 21.92 41.9 5.608.059.233.2 8.407.23 9.925.42 108.978.2 3.500 37.5 1.668.000 4.99 182.627.31 3.25 7.7 180.34 8.2 70.5 100.721.269 12.7 120.9 7.500 8.2 3.394.000 150.292.251 .000 2.3 140.000 39.95 3. 141.6 0.930.16 2.000 6.2 0.419.000 9.0 5.357.5 6.24 4.6 6.769.619.4 .89 18.500 18.6 2.1 6.000 121.973.2 2.663.258 - .466. QOO 14.1 20.000 166.79 109.000 7.0 2.60 15.4 0.000 4.018.34 2.75 6. 178.4 10.8 8.158 10.190.2 4.0 160.11 (Continued) P/P.000 3.000 5.500 12.76 6.4 .70 66*78 66.1 3.591.

00001 140. \T 0.9 1.259 - .002.8 .41 40.001 0.748.000 86.000 307.005 .82 24.93 710.500 19.79 30.57 9.500 28.5 45.79 7.000 513.55 3.43 737.68 313. Table 7.500 12.000 111. \T 0.000 647.02 325.1 120.07 15.01 456.8 4.49 6.483.1 1.46 218.25 1.22 584.000 15.364.002 0.000 34.000 947.3 5.000 3.66 563.000 1.96 5.8 50.1 4.0 1.000 5.27 22.75 6.000 23.38 51.9 6.34 18.358.000 45.819.000 789.65 901.17 541.11 440.02 212.34 2.000 128.000 72.92 20.93 35.000 266.4 3.732.67 P/P.000 191.55 4.4 1.95 12.07 833.566.000 162.00 203.02 112.000 6.07 682.89 8.11 (Continued) P/P.044.58 16.500 8. 60.05 0.58 5.51 3.65 867.068.000 65.000 10.41 4.55 25.10 10.83 423.45 114.500 37.000 295.992.877.086.8 1.424.02 O*O1 0.000 4.286.0001 0.23 2.000 400..40 68.04 76.6 100.96 338.000 67.

98 187.9 50.968.500 8.89 369.6 1.001 0.62 427.02 496.30 20.000 946.630.80 124.32 82.8 40.266.5 70.000 1.80 6.67 6.5 2.0001 0.15 801. 116.000 347.89 241.)036.24 3.70 36.17 375.79 22.12 48.50 12.48 15.07 71.000 10.00001 90.8 3.500 31.183.000 303.622.000 80. Table 7.34 27.65 892.49 706.18 16..1 3.000 89.40 7.34 8.000 38.000 6.000 774.142.81 17.43 45.11 (Continued) p/+ \T 0.260 - .39 260.3 1.000 2.94 4.54 141.67 .000 16.000 612.500 20.33 46.34 2.5 2.685.02 9.002 0.34 8.000 82.22 ‘5.87 35.75 13.9 45.09 551.000 355.35 980.94 94.85 24.99 25.000 2.000 134.44 387.000 25.43 86.06 91.000 1.67 6.000 119.37 10..500 41.44 3.2 1.500 12.10 91.562.05 87.05 339..90 10.19 33.383.528.01 147.30 10.140.5 2.092.000 58.50 1.94 8.000 174.92 634.0 1.53 93.000 479.37 422.38 199.44 2.33 65.78 16.90 18.322.000 74.4 60.10 4.01 5.6 80.86 91.64 21.64 42.65 129.48 30.000 221.000 3.819.90 6.00 13.14 28.84 23.1 2.

89 7.3495 0.0 1.0080 X 105 1.1101 0.1607 x106 5.250 9.000 3.100 10.21739 28.6288x 105 3.12 96?>750 340.7 1.000 1.2 4.02 4.19504 17.000 1.17986 22.37037 140.24692 89.5736 0.4 1.8925 0.4654x105 1.21 30.7733X106 3.6034x 106 1.68 10.0 8.6173 0.000 47.8 2.24999 64.2 2.0561 0.35087 158.7 2.7156x105 7.24891 31..000 6.1 4.7757X105 1.9900 0.24390 41.’000 8.250 69.600 10.82 328.200 9.4851 0.9800x105 9*9750X 105 2.8250 x105 4.2834x105 1.7250 x105 2.500 210.000 6.000 9.000 7.430 20.500 128.8130 0.87 712.1338x107 1.300 92.000 32.31 101.000 7● 4 1.1721 X107 5.33 492.000 4.4882x107 9.25000 51.000 9.26667 102.20 20.0768 x105 2.9095 X106 7. Table 7.5179X107 12.71 50.12 PROPERTIES OF AIR ALONG THE HUGONIOT CURVE .5459x107 3.39 25.7549 0.30990 124. AS/It T P~/Po P/P.7690 x104 0.24390 77.000 11.7027 0.40 140.2 2.03 1.1096 x105 2.1091 x107 10.5 3.2 5.32258 -261 - .23529 36.9953 0.000 9.300 9.000 2.64 246.2574 0.0611 x106 6.4187x106 1.8433 X 104 5.9822 0.5390 X107 2.0 7.000 8.07 15.28571 112.5283 xJ05 1.4854x 106 7.68 40.0589 x106 5.1586 0.21046 25.5 5.0000 0.000 727 12.56 71. E/R H/R a Y –1 — - 11.5373 0.4391X107 11.500 9.1062 x107 8.000 6.541OX 106 3.73 180.1893x105 0.000 347 11.

33 71.60 20.2291 X 104 4. -2 18.13826 .4952x105 1.3144 0.1539X 105 5. 86.2326 0.5036 0.6457 X 104 3.576 X 10 1.008 x 10 9.600 5.252 X 10-2 1.13 .10 $0.18152 -2 17.097 50.19031 .9398x105 2.7’2 7.2024 X 105 3.16149 .0692 0.16964 -4 175.52.400 8.958 X 10-2 2.1988 0. 127.1953 X 104 0.73 30.1274 0.15921 -4 .200 5.52 4.19808 L 14.5127 X 106 1.0502 0.600 7.T3 25.68 4.42 4.000 1. .000 8(415 X 10 2.0236 0.1568x105 3.15133 -3 ‘m.0208 0.9801 0./ -3 .7532x 105 1.1374X106 3. — 3.16847 .87 4. Table 7.05 3.755 x 10 3.58 5.20765 -2 13.? T P IPO E/R H/R a Y -1 .800 4:.8212x 104 0. .22009 .000 3.000 2.9120 x104 0.9609 X 104 3.1022 x 106 2.5408 X 104 1.2890 X 105 1.837 X 10 5.1661 0.000 2.3723 X 104 0.000 1(.15905 .8996 0.000 4.4589x106 6.134 x 10 3.719 x 10 3.15318 -3 40.23594 -2 3.5042 X 104 0.1331 0.223 X 10 9. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF AIR AT A PRESSURE OF 1 BAR .13944 -3 h 65.7414 x 104 4.532 X 10 2.2704 0.446 X 10 4.9388 X 104 1.3659 0.9034 x 104 0. -2 13.967 X 10 2.3548 X 104 2.1000 0.16863 .16 15.0736 X 104 2.000 6.7535X106 5. -’2 30.18317 -2 4.6581x105 1.432 X 10 2.5033 x 104 0.393 x 10 4.1345X105 1.14252 34.907 x 10 6. -3 .000 6.457 x 10-2 1.246 X 10 1.400 5.5551X106 8.1429 X 105 7.1492x 104 0.7993 x 104 2.8803x 106 5.9063 X 104 0.800 6.1323 0.000 2. -2 15.9770 0.2194 X 104 3.000 4:.

272 X 105 .458 X 105 23 0.841 208.723 294. 3.110 x 105 5.4542 18.000 1. 1.03 10. 13.8515 f 4.817 117.000 1.77 8.021 X 104 1.000 8.0396 1.0378 1.3355 14.272 X 105 0.00 5.000 8.0095 22 0.699 149.000 8.230 70.7074 <.677 x 104 1.399 5.3 10.470 x 105 0.354x105 1.055 x 105 1.130 x 105 0. 9.6 12.957’7 21 0.000 1.3916 66.5.392 1.000 9.07 993. —— — — \ 20 0.636 x 104 0.8074 31.858 86.942 x 104 0.263 - .72 1094.000 1.527 664.9 9.000 1.0414 1.7917 .6125 24.8883 8.8 12.51 7.167 X 105 0.389 x 104 1. 1.075 x 104 0.40 7.000 1. Table 7.14 PROPERTIES OF AIR ALONG THE ADIABATIC .6$ 9.232 x 105 0.897x104 . 2.8.673x 104 1.001 x 105 1.563 5.631X 105 1.000 1.000 7.9 9.048 x 105 1.476 X 105 0.461x104 8.000 1.103 401.47 900.240 X 105 1.9448 “ 11.104 198.8127 ( 6.3 12.67’26 .259 x 105 10. 11.000 9.8469 .01 7.727 6.49 8.838x 104 4 0. ‘ 14.237x105 1.0360 1.000 5.008 x 105 0.234 4.576 288.135 x 105 .4970 0.779 x 104 .665 x 104 0.00 5.308 x 104 0.000 5.024 1.53 7.000 7.083 X 105 1.9 10.6489 409.045 x 105 0.364 X 104 7.920 1.5 10.0. TERMINATING IN THE HUGONIOT CURVE ASIR p/p.088X 10 1.3.000 1.7512 .4428 0.000 1.785 101. ‘ 12. P/P.031 x 105 3.

7984 53.10 1763.1159 24 0.0999 4.0307 1. 0.718 X 105 1.3240 21.391 x 105 1.480 X 105 1.000 1.9 20.000 1.412 X 105 1.526x 105 0.000 1.2 15.4864 257.929x104 1.914 500.706x 105 1.264 - .5711 38.0 21.752 X 105 1.169x105 1.000 1. P/P.660 X104 9*930X 104 0.000 8.000 8.215 x 105 2.153X105 1.695 7.000 1.0008 1.349 x 105 0.643x 105 1. 0.000 1.0350 10.4 15.222 7.338 X 104 0. Table 7.8571 :*” 0.000 6..080 X 105 0.4513 116.893 6.0 15. .486 1.50 7.370 x 105 1.2732 11.3477 27 0.718 X 104 9.21 10.818 x 105 1. 23 7.6595 0.761 844.8221 0.513X105 1.435 x 105 1.189x 105 1.65 10.9929 4.000 1.157 121.336 x104 8.9665 ‘ 2.0098 4 2.722 X 105 1.43 10.488x105 1.238 X 104 0.097 7.1 19P680 2.000 1.00 5.0717 5.0325 1.2445 .0705 10.791 x 105 1.9183 J.23 11568. 0.0973 1.000 6.6 12.409 x 105 1.0022 2.198 x 104 1.7137 .121 x 105 2.3 .93$ 801.000 2.8040 \ 1.211 x 105 1.14 (Continued) AS/’l3 P/P.561 X 105 1.083 70.052 X 105 0.000 9.2 15.239 X 105 1.083 1. T E/R H/R a —— .785 X 104 0.0108 .6 16.778x104 8.253 2.395 X105 1.000 1.022 x 105 0.3 18.39 1408.034 x105 2.291 x 105 1. .000 1.253 179.7679 .287x105 1.0342 1.8235 0..998x 105 $.838x 105 2.000 6.189 X 104 9.058 7.450 x 104 1.1545 6.2000 .: 26 0.471 7.1802 % 25 0.98 10.55 1:248.0288 1.2138 9.000 1.387 8. 15.680 x 104 0. 10.23 12.531 x 105 1.0193 10. — .060 209.000 9.

096 0.498 X 105 1.954x 105 1.65 15.80 15.9270 0.734 x 104 1.197 .200 7.717 9.221 x 105 1.389 2.0235 1.1143 12.059 x 105 0.8762 0.0121 0.901 x 105 1.7862 83.0271 1.384 x 105 1.249 1.14 (Continued) P/P.01384 1.813 10.693 x 105 3.56 15.592 xN14 1.0741 3.191 x 105 1.810 10.888 x 105 2.4 20.101 x 105 0.000 1.000 2.888 X 105 3.430 x 105 1.5551 59.000 1.552 8.335 7.749 555.0296 1.5407 9.000 1.604 x 105 1.5 x d 1.2220 9.0484 2.000 6.2154 14.9672 0.600 x 104 1.511 x 105 1.123 x 106 0. Table 7.982 x 105 1.422 X 105 1.854 3.000 1.2680 1.0253 1.000 2.878 x 105 1.4310 46.974 1966.92 20.317 x 105 4.7008 30 0.000 2.000 6.76 15.095 x 105 0.9460 0.8 20.736 2412.49 25.660 x104 1.603 x 105 1.74.000 2.228 X 105 1.4605 28 0.9304 0.2504 9.561 x 105 3.110 x 105 0.498 X 105 2.000 9. T E/It I&hi a! — — 27 3.443 x 105 1.983 X 105 1.424 X 105 2.1313 8.832 X 105 1.000 1.8810 0.629 2678.000 2.2986 3.550 390.000 2.5 24.8358 35 0.000 1.5883 9.1280 2.5 x 105 1.821 2.554 x 105 1.2 27.40 10.0832 5.106 X 105 1.59.081 2.849 2170.000 1.4211 3.305x 105 2.000 10.438 X 105 1.5733 29 0.0182 0.1531 2.238 X 105 1.130 X 104 1.361 7.849 X 105 1.000 6.000 9.377 x 105 2.8519 298.881 9.840 X 105 3.286 x 105 1.388x 105 2.0138 0.794 803.000 9.2 20.850 x 104 1.2 26.013 x 105 0.2337 697.994 449.8 22.3 25.

991 0.6661 362.000 9. T E/R H/It a .106 .633 1. P/P.01789 2.865x105 5.028x 105 3.484 2.000 2.982 9.929 5.964 1.000 7.782x 105 6.000 5.974 x105 3.000 4.444x105 2.04054 5.377x105 2.000 2.866 0.202 X105 1.335 15.000 3.093 15.389x105 I.909 X105 5.3 25.29 20. — 0.000 9.307 9.3 36.353 0.716 0.914X105 2.5 50.541 1.98 30.513 0.000 3.01166 1.623x 105 3.032 x105 1.000 4.256 x106 3.’7535 2’70.018 2.000 8.3 25.610 0.245 x105 2.054 X106 2.30 20.42 20. 46.355x 105 1.2677 75.363x105 4.14 (Continued) A&’%. P/P.1219 24. Table 7.1216 36.000 4.2896 110.600 7.210 x105 9.362.63 25.1 50.895x 105 2.583 5.000 4.007318 1.000 4.139 28%.612x105 1.000 3.832 0.4 30.000 3.000 4.155 X106 3.186 478.070 x105 3.089 x105 4.889 0.468x 105 1.336 40 0.502 x105 1.671x105 1.368 0.000 3.023 3333.36 20.000 7936.13 25.001 X105 2.989x105 1.316 x105 6.135x105 6.621 536.253x 105 2.266 - .014 1.398 x105 5.613x105 1.321 X 105 5.393 11637.2173 41.947X105 2.410 X105 3.729 x105 4.885x105 4.000 13.326 0.5694 94.009239 1.420 x105 2.292 4:039.05064 11.068 5688.1 30.818 ’45 0.168x105 8.009491 1.801 x105 1.815x 105 3.430 15.7 57.81 40.769x 105 2.625 4.000 14.720 x105 2.383 0.399 X105 1.005X 106 I.000 11.237x105 2.000 5.856 1.085 2.614 0.0 30.402 2.084 x105 1.

44 40.000 10424.000 6.006112 1.858 0.581 x105 3. Table 7.01080 2.495X106 1. T E/R 13/R CY — —.219 x105 2.008044 2.141 1.148x106 4.022 X106 4.906 x105 2.000 5.226x105 2.6 40.695 0.000 5.988 0.01977 8.515 0.000 5.104 XI06 I.948 25.674 1.296 60 0. 50 9.733 65 0.836 55 0.238 0.000 6.489 0.99 50.000 17.000 4.000 8.695 .785x106 2.637 x105 3.765 20.625 x105 2.1647 98. 1.022 x105 7.568 0.02423 5.207 40.925 0.128 x105 5.891 0.341X105 4.507 x105 2.04709 19.82 25.000 7.000 1.860 X106 4.09942 39.510 X105 5.16 30.989x105 2.158 x105 3.143 2*112 X106 2.259 3863.773x105 6.189 x106 4.225 0.784 2145.105 9.7 71.352 30.419 X106 3.146 9.oo3975.650 X 106 3.000 1.000 16.861x.778x105 3.616x105 4.054 13574.917 4.14 (Continued) P/P.040 X106 3.172 0.64 30.405 X105 7.18qxlo5 2.754 0.05696 17. 67.057 3.730 6780.132 17025.000 1.000 1.777 5.873x105 5. 79.000 L636 x106 2.5143 386.888X105 8.838 x105 2.210 1.6998 559.448x105 1.9 71.242x106 1.345X106 3.525x105 6.1198 20.34612 195.000 1.067 x105 5.691 25. P/P.759 0.5 50.000 4.014 0.172x106 1.000 9.02124 6.797 5.499 xlo6 4.069 0.605 x105 1.000 5.000 6.133 xlo6 3.3123 238.0000 19.004316 1.692 x106 4.8 50.005043 1. 91.427 9.706 20.1040 64.140 x 105 2.237x105 6.320 x106 1.950 3.5 71.722x106 2.

118.14 (Continued) AS/R P IPO P/P.572x 106 6.488x105 8.436x 106 1.000 20104 X106 3.000 1.006446 2.396 8.446 2.495 -268 - .116 x106 1.430 2.227x105 9.385 0.566 75 0.000 1.84 50.974 35163.1385 149.214x 106 5.06202 40.621 0.000 1.226x106 3. 140. .093 x105 8.376 9.003030 1.541X106 5.8 50.200 X106 1.255 9.282x105 3.1 101.000 1.261x106 5.939x106 3.725x106 4.4 71. 148.000 2.000 1.108 0. T E/R H/R a —.003243 1.4579 648.450 0.04105 27.435 4.000 8.201 x106 3.741x106 3.02271 16.7 71.000 1.098 0.01030 4. — 1.196 3.06142 58.08 40.600x 105 3.162 3.002667 1.003642 1.000 7. 132.413X106 4.6 71. 101.355 0.000 24.707 8412.109 0.663x106 5.885x105 1.195 20633.430 2.546x105 3.030 X106 1.516 30.897 8.320 x106 4. Table 7.998x 105 3.409X$06 5.000 27.002386 1.621x106 3.000 4.205 x106 2.928 3.082x 105 7.5 101.3505 484.165 70 0.311 0.999x 105 6.305 X106 6.157 25216.31 40.912 30.776 0.632 x106 5.987x106 5.137X 106 3.449X106 5.177x105 9.349 5.9689 1236.031X 106 3.266 11721.713X106 5.000 1.926 5.282 26457.000 6.463 2.966 80 0.02 40.430 3.592x106 4.334 7.319X106 1.612 x106 4.741 0.383x106 4.672 7.781x106 4. 103.517 0.000 8.039 X105 3.902 0.624 0.1023 95.854x 106 5.962x106 2.000 26.725 30.380x 106 I.149 5103.118 29800.111 25.805 x105 3.58 50.

01904 19.430 3.565x106 6.000 6.640 3942.487 x106 1.495 0.966x106 7.415 40.799 0.904 X106 7. 207.026 0.296 55981.348x106 I.884 18297.000 2. — — 8.01441 10.000 1.247x106 2.142 90 0.8 71.438x106 5.512 5.270 x106 5.820 x106 5.576x106 I. 180.7440 1878.430 3.474X106 5.711x106 5.346x106 1.000 31.553x106 3.130 2781.782x106 4. Table 7. 140.000 I.882 x106 5.001479 1. 101.466 2. 140. T E/R H/R a —.044 7.200 x106 6.3 101.000 1.459 9.437 29792.945 x106 8.002320 1.007 X106 6.688 1.4 71.430 3.781 95 0.639 x106 4. 140.72 50.009 X106 8.627 8.004772 3. 181.000 4.277x106 1.556x106 7.000 5.008556 6.315 9166.538 1.199x106 7.702 -269 - .5 0.385 5.067 x106 1.000 I.565 x106 4.09 50.709 1.14 (Continued) AS/R p /p.967 0.000 2.757 4.335 12861. u P/P.866x106 8.83 50.289 8.158 0.179 8.000 36.046 x106 5.109 XI06 3.680 x106 4.345x106 2.361x105 1.002105 1.917 3.937 1.730 41246.905 0.407 X106 1.502 x106 4.4 101.03767 37.001678 1.655 5.000 4.919 0.07389 119.092 x106 3.1621 246.888 0.000 29.319X106 3.256 100 0.01293 14.43 40.537X106 1.142 30.474X106 6.000 342323 1.682 40.000 9.838x106 5.214x106 7.243x106 4.000 1.430 0.560 x106 7.614x105 1.573X106 4. 164.489 47460.000 2.2236 334.404 X106 4.743X106 5.657 0.7 71.001876 1.208 x106 1.000 1.109 0.497X106 4.

2 101.488 0.033 X107 8.050 x106 5.002922 3.137x106 5.678x106 7.899x 106 3.837 42325.270 x106 1.430 4.240 x106 8.279 0.883 xN36 8.001384 1.02720 47.169 2.05280 87.006 0.247x106 5.913 0.809 x106 2.906 x106 7.053 X106 4.898x106 7.050 1. 232.762 50.293x106 6.000 1.614 x106 8.000 5.068 X107 1.731 105 0. 180.702 8. 308.000 2.248x106 8.628 X106 I.308 5420.000 5.232x106 6.551 x106 8.529 1.929 X 106 5.2074 591.0 101.199 X107 9.1 140.397X107 9.000 7.550 1.7 140.009 40.03569 61.928 11479.9654 4112.761 x106 I.127 7.596 0.000 6.4 140.527x106 7.001167 1.001280 1.102 64501.3581 974.978 x106 8.598 .198 50.2828 783.845 16395.416 0. Table 7.430 3.416 x106 6.544 86488.002549 2. 180.619 X 106 1.729 x106 2.618 50.250 8.599 X106 6.198 0.000 39.109 40.808 3.635 1.112 x106 I.651 6727.897 ‘7.568 0.688 6.430 4.238 0. 266.006988 9.188 x106 8.053 x106 1.7 101.39 71.118 x106 7.854 74607.695 X 106 4.871 x106 8.000 41.836 21679.728x106 3.000 6.726x106 4.000 3.591X106 6.270 - .204 x107 9.000 1.974 0. 246.000 2.505 X106 1.000 1.004455 4.949 1.947 4. 180.33 71.000 5. 246.430 8.891 x106 5.180 110 0.14 (Continued) AS/R P /Pfl P/’PO T E/R H/R Q! — — 100 0.000 1.059 X106 3.10’7 0.459 x 106 1.133 X107 8.817 58299.000 1.13 71.254 9.250 9.190 1.745X106 5.860 x106 4.489x106 1.

000 3.2732 1698.430 4.8 180.905 X106 2.761 115020.174 X107 1*557 XIOT 10.013 2.586 50.53 71.000 1.00088:1 1.417X106 9.219 x106 3.229x106 5.000 46. 300 1.1505 439.000 6.009964 18.885 x107 10.6 101.000977 1.430 4.478x106 5.023 0. 328.941 1.325 0.000 44.628 1.304 1.204 21970.000 49.073 0.7598 3328.343X106 9.381x106 ‘?.782 .051 0.242 50.906 0.215 0.967 120 0.698 0.9 180.250 I. 115 0.924 7.79 71.000 2.000 3. 328.139 50. Table 7.089 x106 7.906 x106 9.300 1.190 x106 9.3 140.000 6.111 6.483x106 7.734x106 8.979 X106 2.X66 0. 246.000 3.419x106 6.066 x106 2.895 0.931X106 6.057 X 106 5● 499 0:002000 2. 180.729 0.4109 2085.058 x106 I. P/P.17 101.146x107 1.006 x107 9.OO1 x107 1. 433.001380 1.627x107 9.223x106 5.746 1.080 x106 7.385 30458. 246.761 0.523 x107 9.000 7.430 4.281 x107 9.769x106 I.508 x106 4.324x106 5.250 9. — .224x107 1.184 53543.044x 106 2.030 75880.000968 1.684 15688.001072 1.685x106 9.8252 5483.645x106 8.01872 33.658 1.891 6. 246.01264: 23.6440 4322. 364.2 140. T E/R H/R a —.292 125 0.893x106 2.07240 225.888 0.177 100030.000 7.766x106 6.09358 288.14 (Continued) AS/R P/P.7 101.445x106 1.393X107 1.250 9.492 71.766 x 106 2.454x106 8.803 2.029 4.000 6.291 8051.301 1.839x106 8.706 x106 9.3 140.370 X106 3.213x107 9.249 x107 10.394 0.000 8.894x106 5.710 x106 5.000 I.271 - .389x106 6.704 3.

086 71.500 1.351 x107 10.000 52.000 7. 492. Table 7. 634.229x106 7.561 0.295 86914.430 x106 L042 x107 9. 328.130 x107 10.000818 1.213 0.163 x107 10. 328.061 x107 1.646 3.000 8.552 4.3608 2435.231 x107 10625x107 10.272 - .534 x 107 2.7 180.820 1.503 156110.167 x107 10.1837 916.300 1. 492.249 11900.189x107 2. 567.529 1.07 101.13 101$430 5.300 I.387x106 7.195 . 328.567x107 2.967x107 11.250 10031X107 I.376 0.8 180.3 140.04338 139.064 x107 10.917 1.000 3.0599 63018.4628 3162.778 0. 246.632 x106 1.521 0.947 25911.000 3.500 1.441 2.154 x106 6.264 2.300 1.000776 1.584x107 10.007290 14.609 x107 10.423 2.269 x106 2.904 135 0.198x107 1. 492.565x107 10.14 (Continued) AS/R PIP(-J P/P. T E/R H/R 0! — — 125 2.316 x107 10.412 131320.975x106 8.201 X107 10.033 x106 8.218 x107 I.8144 8112.294 6.645x106 6.005514 1.600 6.500 I.184 123960.434 0.918 6.557x106 2.547 0.966 38!580.298x106 8.000 6.807 x106 9.580 x107 2.430 !5*077X106 6.275 0.O25 1.792 x106 4.77 140.2552 1256.250 1.000 53.809 6.7 246.087 71.143 0.05127 163.613 130 0.646 x106 4.884 x107 2.000 8.124x106 8.594 180900.597 X107 2. 501>412 1.5463 20744.261x106 9.966 x106 6.

095 x 105 29 4.677 X 104 6.899 9.000 11 1.074 X 10 3.759 x 102 4.695 9.374 X 104 15 4.243 2.200 9.759 X 104 2.455 X 104 7.15 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF AIR T AS.088 x 104 9.275 X 10 7.485 X 104 1.389 X 104 9.344 x 102 5.144 x 104 1.642 X 104 24 -1 2.401 x 10 8.570 x 104 5.930 x 104 25 -1 2.450 x 104 1.732 X 10 1.417 x 10-2 3.170 x 105 19 8.965 5./R P/P.361 9.988 X 104 14 5.965 X 10 1.471 9.598 X 102 5.565 X 102 9.860 X 102 4.024 X 103 9.123 X 105 10.636 X 104 21 -1 6.150 x 10 8.180 X 104 8.660 x 104 9.461 X 104 8.051 x 105 27 -2 9.528 X 104 1.924 X 104 1.263 X 104 12 1.613 X 104 5.206 X 105 .138 X 10 9.845 X 10-2 2.942 X 104 22 4.335 9.989 X 10 4.022 x 105 26 -1 1.925 X 10 6.817 X 104 7.821 X 10 6.319 x 10 6.745 x 104 6.000 17 1.531 x 104 1.122 x 105 18 1.850 X 104 1.097 8.024 X 105 1.316 x lo4 23 -1 3.734 x 104 1.— H/R 7.007 3.099 X 104 7.406 1.816 X 10 7.542 X 10-1 1.457 5.145 x 104 5.440 x 10 7.442 X 102 1.125 X 10 2.079 x 105 28 7.317 x 104 -1 8.413 x 10 4.592 X 104 1. P/P.3 8.151 x 10 7.853 X 10 8.355 x 10 1.924 X 104 1.929 X 104 1.773 x 10 1.198 X 104 1.779 x 104 8.908 6.911 x 10 5. E/Ii — . Table 7.031 1.545 x 10 6.110 x 105 30 -2 2.765 X 102 “5.

551 x 10 5.273 X 105 1.104 1.821 X 10 1.574 X 102 1.477 x 105 33 2.722 X 105 27 1.083 X 105 1. Table 7.221 x 105 1.000 20 6.576 2.346 1.461 X 105 -2 1.613 X 105 22 1.15 (Continued) T AS/R P IPO $ E/R EI/R — 10.395 x 105 1.752 x 105 -1 28 7.580 1.358 X 105 1.092 x 102 1.666 x 105 25 2.976 x 10 1.020 2.288 X 105 1.042 X 103 1.654 X 105 24 4s522 4.484 1.327 X 10 -2 34 1.083 7.000 21 1.409 x 105 1.189 X 105 1.817 1.048 X 105 1.614 X 105 23 5.391 x 105 -1 27 3.553 x 105 1.343 x 10 1.228 X 105 1.347 x 105 1.319 X 10 5.258 X 105 1.430 x 105 -2 30 8.511 x 105 1.302 x 105 23 1.313 x 10 8.025 5.438 X 105 -2 31 5.002 1.169 X 105 1.449 x 105 32 3.878 X 105 -274 - .165 X 10 1.213 X 102 1.711 x 10-1 3.232 X 105 21 4.649 4.308 X 105 1.486 2.350 x 105 -1 25 7.154 X 10 1.157 1.137 x 102 1.493 x 105 15.308 X 105 1.813 1.862 x 10 8.093 x 102 1.153 x 105 1.163 X 10 3.110 x 105 1.179 x 102 1.032 1.435 x 105 1.139 x 103 1.832 X 105 -1 29 5.984 x 10 5.413 x 105 -1 28 2.467 x 10-2 2.440 x 10 1.127 1.706 X 105 26 2.422 X 105 -1 29 1.880 X 102 1.135 x 105 1.272 X 105 22 3.098 x 10 1.211 x 105 1.247 X 105 1.985 X 102 1.365 X 10 1.330 x 105 24 1.809 1.618 X 102 1.236 X 105 1.240 X 10 2.468 X 10 1.370 x 105 26 5.

Table 7.947 X 1# 45 1.438 X 10-2 4.490 2.025 3.383 X 105 38 5.467 X 105 2.644 2.170 2.697 X 105 42 3.190 x 105 3.155 2.335 3.536 X 105 ‘ 40 4.446 X 10-2 1.888 x 105 2.119 x 105 47 1.991 x 105 32 -1 2.430 2.544 X 105 2.946 X 105 3.157 x 10-2 1.615 X 105 41 3.769 X 105 2’110 x 105 34 -1 1.595 x 10-1 3.8S3 X 10-2.704 X 105 3.109 x 105 3.789 X 10-2 2.462 X 10-2 8.15 (Continued) T AS/R P/P.162 X 10 1.863 X 105 44 -2 2.865 X 105 1 3.880 2.109 x 10 1.468 X 105 51 -3 8.239 X 10-3 1.293 X 105 49 1.680 X 10 1.644x 105 .091 X 105 2.932 X 105 3:L 3.165 X 10 2.623 X 105 3.450 x 10 1.000 30 4e3io x 10-1 4.346 X 10-2 1.032 X 105 46 -2 1.880 2..125 X 10 2.921 X 10 1.380 X 105 9.905 X 10 1.569 X 10 -2 3.390 X 105 2.916 2.093 2.604 X 105 1.164 X 105 2.205 X 105 48 1.955 x 105 2.356 2.051 X 105 33 -1 2.567 X 10 2.180 3.310 X 105 37 7.832 2.659 X 105 1.313 X 105 2.968 X 10 6.072 x 10 1. E/R — H/R 15.238 X 105 36 9.403 X 10 1.644 X 10 1.457 X 105 39 -2 4.131 2.237 X 105 2.041 x 10-2 1.275 - .169 X 105 35 1*143 x 10-1 0.014 x 10-2 3. 7.557 x 105 52 -3 6.714 x 105 2.327 X 10 1.780 X 105 43 2.784 X 105 3.022 x 105 2.053 x 10-2 5.880 X 10 3.028 X 105 3.404 2.824 X 105 2.

070 x 105 3.219 X 10 2.1’?6 x 105 3.254 X 105 -1 33 8.184 X 102 2.492 X 102 2.147 x 10 3.124 X 105 32 1.961 X 10 3.127 x 10 1.140 x 10 1.081 X 10 6.745 X 105 28 2.601 X 105 4.363 X 10 4.860 X 105 3*374 x 105 -1 34 7.603 1.901 X 105 30 1.429 X 10 3. Zo. P/”PO E/It H/R .989 X 105 -1 41 1.121 x 105 2.449 X 102 2.282 X 105 -1 45 1. 000 24 1.3’?2 x 10 1.454 x 10 3.908 X 102 2.55 X 105 3.498 X 105 2.668 X 102 2.502 X 105 -276 - .538 X 105 4.477 x 10 3.857 X 105 4.377 X 105 2.825 X 10 5.665 X 105 4.426 X 102 2.732 X 105 -1 37 3.085 X 103 2.429 X 105 -2 47 8.135 x 105 -1 43 1.994 4.173 X 10 4.209 X 105 -1 44 1.300 x 105 3.305 X 105 2.277 X 105 25 7.410 x 10 2.327 2.729 X 105 4.965 X 105 3. Table 7.694 X 10 9.7.491 X 105 26 5.982 X 10 3.410 x 105 3.15 (Continued) T AS/R P/P.793 x 105 4.062 X 105 -1 42 1.849 X 10 3.430 X 10 3.136 X 10 3.791 x 10 3.493 x 105 -1 35 5. .561 X 105 27 3.771 X 10 3.915 x 105 -1 40 2.314 x 10 5.612 X 105 -1 36 4.611 X 103 1.749 5.112 X 10 3.761 8.975 x 105 2.849 X 105 29 2.355 x 105 -1 46 1.028 X 10 2.989 X 102 2.650 X 10 1.852 2.065 X 105 2.795 x 10 3.550 3.554 x 102 2.855 X 105 -1 39 2.748 X 10 3.424 X 105 2.244 X 105 3.017 1.161 X 102 2.600 X 10 3.635 X 105 3.803 X 105 -1 38 2.346 X 105 3.474 x 105 4.983 X 105 31 1.089 X 10 3.

186 4.677 X 10 7.814 X 105 -2 52 3.277 - .860 X 105 -3 65 4.872 4.909 x 105 53 -2 3.000 25 8.080 X 10 2.370 X 10 1.625 X 105 -3 61 9.470 x 105 -2 .513 x 10 4.139 2.783 X 102 3.388 X 105 -2 58 1.814 x 10 9.755 x 103 2. E/R H/R — —— 20.234 6.128 X 105 5.045 4.097 x 105 -2 55 2.690 X 10 1.038 X 105 5.813 X 102 3.134 4.906 X 105 -3 66 3.503 4.188 X 10 7.261 X 10 4.064 X 10-2 1.003 x 105 4.145 X 10 5.765 4.367 X 105 2.962 X 105 25. 4.953 X 105 30 3.226 X 105 -2 56 2.352 5.805 X 105 5.000 -2 46 6.720 X 105 51.498 X 105 35 2. Table 7.706 4.867 X 10 4.206 X 10 2.084 X 105 40 1.669 4.241 4.975 x 102 2.398 X 105 5.510 x 105 5.873 X 105 5.345 x 105 5.885 X 105 4.563 X 10 6.671 X 105 -1 45 2.086 X 105 5.626 X 105 5(I 5.120 5.260 X 105 4.921 5.584 X 105 5.938 4.439 x 10-2 1.658 X 105 5.920 X 105 4.15 (Continued) T AS4R P/P.632 5.311 x 10 3.508 X 105 -2 60 1.003 x 105 -2 54: 2.731 x 105 5.930 x 105 5.576 X 105 -2 49 5.423 X 10 5.838 1. 59 1.241 X 10 1.752 X 105 -3 63 6.533 x 10 0.023 X 10 4.307 x 105 -2 57 1.808 X 105 -3 64 5.165 X 105 5.142 X 10 4.316 X 10 1.465 X 10 1.246 X 105 .406 X 10 3.840 X 105 3. P/P.363 X 105 4.089 X 105 4.322 4.589 X 10 3.174 x 105 4.988 X 105 5.857 4.614 X 10 1.431 x 105 5.689 X 105 -3 62 7.

040 X106 -1 65 1.237x105 6.000 50 6.912 8.283 1.488x105 8.805 x105 -3 75 6.168x105 8.216 X 10 3.240 X 10 1.691 5.253x105 40 1.647x1O I.038 x105 30.202x I0 4. P/P.956 x102 7.648x1O 9.977 x 10 8.177 x105 9.114X105 5.420 x105 -1 50 2.909 X105 5.421x1O 9.885 x103 4.885 x105 1*031 X106 -3 85 2.844x1O 8.621 5.189x106 -1 40.005 X105 35 4.111 6.461x1O I.124 X 10-2 6. E/R .516 7.OO9X1O 1.778x105 -3 ?0 3.022 x105 7.897 X 10 1.605 X105 1.321 x105 5.964x I0 6.448x105 1.895 x105 -2 55 9.865x105 5.362x103 4.782x1O 5.773 X105 6.948 5.158 x105 -2 70 1.815x105 -1 55 3.219x105 -2 60 4.15 (Continued) T ASIR p/p.226x106 278 - .110 X102 5.947X105 -1 45 7.109 X106 -3 -1 90 1.406 x105 7.32OX1O 1.O4OX1O 6.446 X 10 2.030 x 10 4.726 8.507 x105 -3 65 8.186 X105 60 2.942 X 10 3.614 x105 1.044x 10 2.142 9.541 1. H/R — 25.133 X106 -2 70 6. Table 7.663x1O 4.782x105 6.030 X106 1.316x105 6.769x105 -2 55 5.501X1O 7.082 x105 7.696 X 10 1.525x105 6.000 -1 50 1.700 x102 5.637x105 -2 65 1.546x105 -3 80 3.861 x105 %581x105 -1 60 I.916x1O 6.642 X 10 1.709 x 10 I.535 x 10 2.352 6*888X105 8.628x102 7.035 X106 1.000 30 6.661XI0 3.361 x102 4.

009 1.023 3.592 X 106 -1 ‘?5 1.142 x 10 5. 105 1.050 X 106 -3 110 2.198 1.497 x 106 -3 90 8.498 X 102 1.441 x 10 1.393 1.415 1.023 X 10 9.293 X 10 1.772 X 10 3.271 X 10 1.893 X 106 2.242 1.505 x 10° 1.155 x 106 -1 55 6.380 X 106 1.682 1.487 X 106 1.172 X 106 1.576 X 106 1.922 X 10 3. P/P.407 x 106 1.884 X 10 1.638 X 103 9.000 75 4.116 X $06 1.333 x 103 8.472 X 10 1.320 X 106 -2 80 2.558 X 10 1.385 X 10 1.558 X 10 6. Table 7.319 x 106 1.043 x 10 1.767 X 10 3.573 x 106 -3 95 4.618 1.380 X 10 1.229 X 106 -3 120 1.838 X 106 -2 95 1.200 x 106 1.109 1.809 X 106 2.586 1.662 X 106 -2 80 6.15 (Continued) T AS/R P/P.729 X 106 2.998 X 10 5.413 x 106 -2 85 1.385 X 10 1.595 x 102 101Q4x 106 1.389 X 105 1.436 X106 1.123 X 10 2.000 45 5.602 X 10 1.419 x 106 -1 65 3.537 x 106 1. E/R H/R —— -2 40.106 x 10 2.137 X 106 -3 115 2.549 X 10 2.983 X 10 1.277 X 106 1.346 X 106 1.782 X 106 “2 90 1.725 X 106 -2 85 3.242 X 106 1.501 X 105 1.000 x 10 2.619 X 106 1.499 x 106 -1 70 1.731 X 10 1.695 X 106 -3 .639 X 106 -3 100 2.709 x 10 1.459 x 106 1.870 X 102 1.929 X 106 -3 105 4.882 X 106 -3 100 6.345 x 106 -1 60 5.324 X 106 -279 - .988x 10 9.143 x 10 3.745 x 106 50.054 x 106 ~ol 2.904 x 10 1.388 X 102 1.455 x 10 4.762 1.979 x 106 2.

899 X 106 3.389 X 10 1.942 X 106 4.348 X 102 2.930 x 106 -3 125 9.387 X 106 -3 140 4.113 X 10 2.730 6.940 X 10 6.080 X 106 130 7.766 X 106 -2 120 1.669 X 10 6.219 X 106 3.259 3.495 x 106 1.353 x 10 3.229 X 106 135 5.553 X 106 3.217 X 10 2.349 X 10 3.646 X 106 4.233 X 106 -2 105 3.711 X 106 -1 90 1. Table 7.315 X 10 4.864 X 103 1.933 4.236 X 10 3.046 X 106 .146 X 103 1.591 x 106 -2 115 1.964 x 10 1.640 X 106 5.784 2.823 X 10 1.820 X 106 -2 95 7.962 X 106 2.467 X 102 2. E/R E@ — -4 50.059 x 106 3.199 x 10 8.087 X 10 3.205 X 106 2.720 X 10 4*733 x 10 3.298 X 106 .0!50 4.740 X 10 2.15 (Continued) T Mm P/P.781 X 103 1.419 X 106 71.580 4.236 X 103 1.104 X 106 2.505 x 10 4.860 x 106 60 3.383 X 106 -1 75 4.514 x 10-3 1.487 X 102 2.846 X 102 2.579 x 10 6.879 X 10 3.636 X 106 2.264 X 10 2.194 x 102 2.621 X 10 2.247 X 106 2.409 3.089 X 106 4.416 X 106 -2 110 2.409 x 10 3.280 - .815 4.861 X 106 -3 155 1.373 x 106 5$014 x 106 -3 160 1. P/P.689 X 10 1.066 X 106 2.626 4.290 x 10-3 1.677 X 10 1.9 -2 100 5.000 125 9.728 x 106 3.709 x 106 -3 150 2.691 x 10 3.548 X 106 -3 145 2.139 2.160 X 106 -4 165 8.722 X 106 4.511 x 106 5.280 X 10 8.231 X 106 4.541 X 106 -1 80 3.785 X 106 2.022 x 106 65 1.872 X 10 3.189 X 106 -1 ’70 9.370 x 106 3.345 X 106 2.508 X 106 4.663 X 106 -1 85 2.000 55 5.

152x102 5.199x106 100’ 1.000 $(j 7.552 X 10 1.104 8.964 7.747X102 3.148x106 -3 190 2.149 5.023 x106 -4 220 4.581 X 10 9.549 x 10 1.502 x106 4.202X1O 7.678x106 -1 110 2.186 7.667 x 10-3 3.234 X 10 1.651 6.860 x106 4.759X106 5.409 X106 80 2.547X106 101.710 X106 5.547X106 8.130 2.118x106 -2 120 9.335 1.585x106 6.156x1O 8.074 X 10 5.232x106 6.000 170 6.408 x106 -3 200 1. P/P.201 7.741x106 3.445 4.077 X106 6.O23X1O 6.247x106 5.172x104 2.781x103 3.267x106 8.710 x106 -4 210 7.166x103 50007 X106 6.315 9.786x106 7.270 x106 -1 100 3.023 4.286x104 40743 X106 5.127 X 10 1.342x106 170” 4.312x 10-3 1.514x 10 1.243x106 140.305 X106 85 4.837x106 9.912x102 4..104 X103 3.596x106 160 8. -4 ’71.282 2.059 X 10 6.269x106 7.526x106 -281 - .631 x102 5.214x106 -2 150 2.646x104 4.430 70 5.033 x106 -2 140 3.882x102 4.904 X106 95 2.897xlO 5.352x1O 1.425x106 -4 175 4.583x1O 6.137X106 3.888x106 -3 180 3.15 (Continued) T AS/R P/P.884 1.645x106 -2 13(1 5.727x103 5.043 x106 9. Table 7.363x I0 5.438x106 5.873x106 5.854x106 90 1.214x106 5. E/R H/R —.266 1.353 x 10 2.499X1O 2.293x106 6.026 x106 8.830 x104 4.564x106 9(II 3.

928 1.866 X 106 100 3.052 x 103 7.005 x 10 5.995 x 106 9.328 X 103 6.027 X 107 -2 17’5 1.154 X 106 9.598 X 10 3.557 x 102 8.168 x 102 7.732 X 10 1.871 X 106 8.420 X 103 5.312 x 106 9.967 X 10 1.417 x 106 9.214 x 106 7.089 X 106 7.150 x 10 4.291 8.975 X 106 8.685 X 106 9.440 x 10 4.837 X 10 9.994 X 104 6.088 x 102 8.308 5.256 X 102 7.020 x 106 1.698 X 103 6.901 x 106 1.640 X $04 6.883 X 106 -1 110 9.474 x 102 8.654 X 10 4.437 2.576 X 106 -2 155 6. P/P.210 x 10 6.454 x 106 -1 120 4. 140.039 x 102 7.551 X 106 8.031 X 102 8.776 X 106 1.614 X 106 110 1.109 x 10 2.179 X 102 7.483 x 103 7.467 X 10 8.085 X 103 6.751 x 106 -2 160 5.734 X 106 8.623 x 106 1.188 X 106 8.168 X 104 6.706 X 10 5.691 X 102 8.010 x 107 170 2. Table 7.037 x 10 2. -1 120 8.323 X 103 8.261 X 106 -1 135 1.836 2.585 X 106 9.189 X 106 -1 130 2.007 x 107 -282 - .058 x 106 1. E/R WR ..256 X 103 6.252x 10 5.15 (Continued) T AS/R P/P.906 X 106 7.600 X 106 6.154 X 10 8.852 X 10-2 1.863 X 10 9.553 X 10 1.747 x 10-2 2.845 1.148 x 104” 7.343 x # .706 X 106 -1 125 6.5!34 X 10 3.070 x 107 180.978 X 106 115 1.483 X 106 7.298 X 106 8.113 x 103 5.000 105 1.192 X 106 -2 145 9.043 x 107 -2 180 1.240 x 106 -1 115 7.248 X 106 105 2.401 x 106 -2 150 8.057 x 107 -2 185 1.472 X 106 1.807 X 106 -1 140 1.000 95 5.906 X 106 -1 125 2.926 X 106 165 3.836 x 106 9.

165 X 106 1.064 X 107 140 -1 2.503 x 10-1 1.276 X 102 9.311 x 106 1.628 X 106 1.860 x 106 1.764 X 106 1.979 x 10 1.432 X 102 9.027 X 10 7. Table 7.609 X 10 4. P/P.699 X 102 9.628 X 10-1 3.684 x 102 9.191 x 107 180 1.725 X10-2 1.15 (Continued) T AS/R p/p.130 x 107 155 -1 1.701 x 106 1.283 - .042 X 107 135 -1 3.436 X 103 8.000 130 4. E/R H/R .700 x 10 2.422 X 106 1.529 X 106 1.647 X 10-2 1.077 x 103 9.947 x 103 8.091 x 102 9.430 X 106 1.111 x 107 150 1.608 X 10 2.— 180.916 X 102 9.172 X 107 1’10 -2 3.148 X 107 160 7.633 X 106 1.410 x 103 9.094 x 107 1’45 -1 1.163 X 103 8.161 X 107 165 -2 5.018 X 106 1.198 X 107 .183 X 107 175 2.764 X 10 1.850 X 10-2 5.

2154 0.23514 3.21125 0.23586 1.16903 0.21450 0.736 0.07 0.16334 9.14934 2.14383 4.19384 .?23 0.230 0.24390 2.14202 3.16399 10.994 0.23 0.761 0.18935 1.14575 0.284 - .13980 10.4513 0.55 0.0325 0.041’4 0.14210 11.17115 0.15364 2.15132 3.10 0.7984 0.17623 26 0.0396 0.785 0.0741 0.17056 9.0360 0.000 0.17286 28 0.15693 1.14582 3.13994 7.14195 5.14212 8.253 0.55 0.3240 0.14152 0.104 0.550 0.914 0.103 0.18866 0.72 0.22526 4.699 0.15889 5.18677 0.749 0.0288 0.648!9 0.21209 0.0296 0.849 0.16328 25 0.0235 0.16866 10.817 0.8519 0.14428 2.6125 0.18582 30 0.20175 0.3916 0.676 0.4310 0.16 PR(>PERTmS OF AIR ALONG THE ADIABATIC AS/R ‘Y–1 AS/R P/P.4864 0.17154 29 0.1545 0.21717 6. Table 7.39 0.16647 10.21231 0.7862 0.2138 0.14296 1.21923 0.18983 0.14133 21 0.18611 1“.57’11 0.8074 0.4542 0.0342 0.0999 0.16146 2.0378 0.5551 0.24506 1.935 0.14781 1.19864 0.20783 24 0.14063 10.20745 2.18755 0.22263 3.15068 0.0307 0.14252 11.16604 22 0.16467 9.47 0.16479 23 0.18965 0.1313 0.527 0.22055 1.083 0.0271 0.841 0.17436 27 0.21001 0.0832 0.0484 0.0253 0.858 0.157 0.20356 0.2732 0.15421 25 0.794 0.19280 1.33. y’-l 20 0.974 0.

22552 0.259 0.13879 0.18571 9.15176 1.18402 0.6661 0. ‘Y-1 AS/R p/p.007318 0.157 0.2677 0.12:19 0.19037 50 0.292 0.15058 1.22784 55 5.23418 0.19882 0.7535 0.20660 0.15669 0.5143 0.19145 0.006446 0.2173 0.16572 9.393 0.005043 0.01789 0.006112 0.16 (Continued) AS/R P/P.16851 0.05696 0.20210 0.20220 70 0.14314 0.20867 9.132 0.24490 0.19867 9il18 0.786 0.24793 0.16547 5.008044 0.02124 0.05064 0.17921 3.01384 0.23813 9.2337 0.21118 3.19059 4.16633 5.195 0.21565 80 0.19514 0.12:16 0.22005 0.707 0.1647 0.04105 0S8308 0.003030 0.000 0.23991 0.15532 1.9689 0.16042 9.003975 0.04054 0.16182 0.4579 0. 30 3. Table 7.784 0.054 0.00!3239 0.01030 0.1040 0.17455 0.20829 0.66 0.24439 9.639 0.16890 9.62:L 0.13902 0.69!98 0.28!)6 0.16751 65 0.068 0.24245 0 .730 0.24336 0.19877 45 0.3123 0.16008 -285 - .22796 75 0.21866 0.023 0.14508 0.00!1491 0.23146 0.15428 0.21445 0.15823 0.20696 0.0111.1143 0.17383 9.01977 0.19073 0.20794 0.002667 0.14085 0.06202 0.266 0.003243 0.02423 0.24677 0.09942 0.20377 55 0.003642 0.13!1 0.541L 0.004316 0.17568 0.04709 0.01080 0.14301 9.34612 0.23552 40 0.16169 2.21726 0.15522 60 0.000 0.5694 0.24361 35 0.17760 2.24741 0.1385 0.24542 0.002386 0. Y -1 —.1023 0.

1621 0.177 0.27818 0.030 0.544 0.730 0.16211 0.640 0.01872 0.03767 0.20578 6.20496 $5 0.27801 1.24060 0.24571 0.002922 0.16559 8.20034 115 0.19381 1.17773 8.22408 0.3581 0.28119 0.25006 0.29239 0.437 0.3505 0.001878 0.21573 0.06142 0.26589 120 0.19855 7.296 0. Table 7.25911 6.24909 0.282 0.07389 0.761 0.31071 3.7598 0.489 0.01293 0.001380 0.20173 0.335 0.004455 0.001384 0.15868 0.002105 0.002 0.19376 3.385 0.18154 4.0047’72 0.09353 0.01904 0.2828 0.8252 0.4109 0.006988 0.00855S 0.854 0.17827 8.20530 90 0.15428 0. 0.2236 0.18554 7.21753 2.16979 95 0.23800 7.17380 8.001167 0.15624 0.817 0.19845 0.21953 0.17703 100 8.20659 110 0.32699 5.286 - .7440 0.308 0.01264 0.25977 0.001072 0.15328 0.000977 0.651 0.16486 0.001479 0.884 0.05280 0.23297 4.27368 0.928 0.149 0.184 0.836 0.20756 0.17212 6.16304 3.974 0.00128 0.20111 105 0.130 0.315 0.22927 0.26697 0.102 0.02720 0.03569 0.02271 0.83’? 0.15349 2.22588 0.01441 0.20650 0.35124 .16 (Continued) AS/R P ho ‘Y-1 AS/R P/Pn .24467 0.16619 0.25380 0.30627 1.28395 0.845 0.291 0.9654 0.002320 0.001678 0.2074 0.002549 0.16074 1.17420 100 0.25303 .31294 2.19603 4.15383 1.15963 2.204 0.16811 1.20249 7.18497 0.1505 0.27342 0.25781 0.> 80 0.19141 0.

184 0.00729 0.947 0.31059 3.16840 0.15701 0.19326 0.412 0.005514 0.30950 6.26758 1.2552 0.18816 0.35884 135 0.20676 0.16 (Continued) .009964 0.04338 0.684 0.503 0.249 0.16757 0.3608 0.15719 0.16295 0.295 0.23236 0./ AS/R P/P.07240 0.26333 1.21170 0.35344 .37115 6.1837 0.23103 1.000818 0.37243 6.6440 0.000881 0.000776 0.000968 0.15993 0.36854 130 0.4628 0. Y –1 125 0.287 - .21609 0.05127 0. Table 7.26524 2.17118 0.966 0.0599 0.31137 4.23741 1.5463 0.18848 0.8144 0.36754 6.594 0.2732 0.

04885 3.2163 100 0.03044 8 0.4 1.3481 80 0.1 4.5 0.9226 30 0.02902 16 0.1210 145 0.0297 12 0.4347 65 0.11028 0.10750 -288 - .6723 45 0.10429 0.0 0.17 RATE OF CHANGE OF SHOCK PRESSURE WITH ENTROPY AS/R [d In (p/po)]/d(AS/R) AS/Ii [~ ~ Q@Q]/W@R) 0.7583 25 0..0816 28 0.03654 4.5134 55 0.3842 ?5 0.02970 11 0.2657’ 90 0.5 1.2583 95 0.3 1.02984 9 0.1992 105 0.10840 0. Table 7.07265 1.0 0.09037 20 0.10330 0.8553 35 0.5843 50 0.2385 27 0.5 0.4680 60 0.11217 0.2877’ 85 0.1238 140 0.02970 10 0.03252 6 0.02961 15 0.03437 5 0.05456 2.6 1.7 1.2 2<.04025 4.1474 130 0.0021 29 0.06027 2.9 0.0299 14 0.02843 17 0.4115 70 0.0298 13 0.4474 26 0.5 0.1537 125 0.10065 0.04396 3.09471 21 0.8169 40 0.3603 24 0.06484 1.>4458 23 0.0 0.1079 150 0.0 0.10195 22 0.8 0.11305 0.1351 135 0.1691 110 0.09789 19 0.5 0.03103 7 0.10656 0.02784 18 0.

they obtained the constant a by asserting that to a good approximation P/P. Hirschfekler and Magee used the following scheme to determine the constants. This pressure raises the entropy by 5.89) From the tables of Brinkley. For shock pressures below 80 atm. Alternatively they can be considered as functions of the shock pressure.4 R. a and b as func- tions of the entropy were still rough and had to be smoothed considerably. b.4 and it was sufficiently ac- curate to assume that gamma varies linearly with po/ps between y = 1.88) Here a. g. and we require the adiabatic for these entropies from the given pressure down to somewhat below 1 atm. and Ri@ardson. we require the adiabatic only from the shock pressure down to somewhat below 1 atm. This procedure was satisfactory except for small values of the shook pressure where the above equation becomes essentially indeterminate. which raised the air to the given entropy. They checked this assumption by determining gamma independently from the shock tem- perature and the thermochemical properties of air.289 - . In the interior we have mass elements at lower pressures (down to 39 atm) and higher entropies. The IBM run was started when the shock pressure had dropped to shout 80 atm. The agreement was quite good. (7. Having obtained gamma as a function of po/pS.3966 at po/ps = 0. For these small values of shock pressure. and h are functions of the entropy. gamma is very close to 1. The constants a and b were therefore chosen in such a way as to get a good fit in this region.52 (or P<po = 2. According to the Hugoniot relationship between shock pressure and shock density (7. they computed the value of gamma for different values of the shock pressure. ==(g + h)(p/po)7 (7.578) and standard conditions. Kirkwood.90) Expanding @/po)y in the vicinity of p/p. = 1 . The values of gamma obtained in this way were quite smooth and needed only the slightest changes to eliminate small fluctuations.

= ~&”5 (p /po)l”5 + WPO)] (7.96) .+ po/Ps 1 PSPO = ‘IL 1 (7*94) .18.1)] (p/po)} (7. P/P.91) so that 2(7 – 1) +=— 1–2(7-1) But P/pO can also be written P/P. = (g + h) {2(7 .93) Keeping PO/ps as t“e independent variable.y i~ + polp~ [ “1 Then the constant b is determined by the equation b = (P~fPo)/ [ a1*5 (P~/Po)1”5 + a(PS/PO)l (7.472 x 104 cm/see.2(7 . by the relation C/Co =415[14 abJZ3 (7.l)(p/pO)1*5 + [1 . - . In using this formulation for the equation of state.92) and a . we can express the shock pres - sure in the form r l– POIPS $/y + ~ .+=2 ()[ 2(7 – 1) 1-2(7-1) 1 2 (7.Po{ ‘s _ ~. the velocity of smmd c can be expressed in terms of the normal velocity of sound. co = 3.95) The values of the constants are given in Table 7.

15004 0.0001966 310.22537 0.850 0.06300 0.06305 0.29870 0.012500 1.05881 0.39936 0..985 0.0001066 308.8 1.24556 0.865 0.7 1.0000127 304.0002779 312.17731 0.39982 0.012780 1.012655 1.012939 1.06267 0.06289 0.39996 0.06434 0.!)90 0.0014905 321.06322 0.870 0.2 1.0000086 303.39883 0.28776 0.39897 0.013003 1.39972 0.5 1.012624 1.012671 1.012955 1.0000052 303.39950 0.06311 0.9 1.0 1.06384 0.39933 0.1 1.06261 0.06345 0.0000179 304.3 1.0016500 322.39961 0.2 1.2 1.012827 1.39894 0.840 0.012907 1.0001320 309.940 0.06440 0.012987 1.39890 0.03608 0.865 0.012796 1.012547 1.06367 0.875 0.935 0.0000841 308.8 1.06339 0.14119 0.3 1.012843 1.012531 1.18666 0.13246 0.39922 0.0006692 316.06278 0.06250 0.012578 1+04356 0.39965 0.950 0.!980 0..39968 0.09866 0.0005867 315.955 0.6 1.7 1.0 1.8 1.012764 1.39912 0.12384 0.!960 0.0 1.830 0.01469 0 .860 0.0007593 317.0004435 314.012891 1.895 0.06294 0.0008569 318.06401 0.890 0.5 1.39919 0.012733 1.5 1.012973 1.910 0.06333 0.06283 0.9 1.06406 0.945 0.012923 1.06658 0.39929 0.965 0.39989 0.0012057 320.0009631 318.39979 0.2 1.06395 0.1 1.39940 0.20574 0.39915 0.013019 1.291 - .012593 1.18 SMOOTHED EQUATION OF STATE OF AIR LQ/P~ AS/R T~ Y I/a b —— 1.39954 0.0003812 313.2 1.012686 1.8 1.0002358 311.012609 1.39958 0.920 0.06412 0.012812 1.06328 0.23539 0.39908 0.07445 0.2 1.0003275 312.9 1.06373 0.6 1.0000012 302.00000 1.0001631 310.4 1.05114 0.06389 0.25588 0.835 0.06256 0.40000 0.06429 0.880 0.39887 0.0000386 306.0005111 315.16810 0.885 0.012859 1.0010792 319.08242 0.39947 0.15900 0.06423 0.0000288 305.012718 1.06356 0.0018216 323.975 0.012875 1.19613 0.845 0.012562 1.0013432 321.0000006 301.9 1.6 1.970 0.39993 0.26635 0.0000501 306.02138 0.5 1.10695 0.21548 0.02869 0.0000005 301.39986 0.39926 0.930 0.013036 .012749 1.09049 0.012516 1.000 o 300.00704 0*:395 0 300.39975 0.06350 0.39901 0.39904 0.06317 0.915 0.39943 0.27697 0.4 1.905 0.5 1.900 0.06417 0.2 1.0000680 307.012640 1.012702 1.39880 0.11534 0.6 1.06361 0.--vy Table 7.925 0.06272 0.06378 0.

Table 7.18 (Continued)

P~/Po Poi%s N@ 7 b

**1.30981 0.825 0.0020054 324.2 1.39876 0.06446 0.013052
**

1,32109 0.820 0.0022025 325.0 1.39873 0.06451 0.013068

1,33254 0.815 0.0024135 325.8 1.39869 0.06457 0.013085

1.34417 0.810 0.0026396 326.6 1.39865 0.06463 0.013102

1.35598 0.805 0.0028801 327.5 1.39862 0.06468 0.013118

1.36798 0.800 0.0031363 328.3 1.39858 0.06474 0.013135

1.38017 0.795 0.0035907 329.2 1.39855 0.06480 0.013152

1.392549 0.790 0.0037013 330.0 1.39851 0.06485 0.013169

1.405130 0.785 0,0040108 330.9 1.39848 0.06491 0.013186

1.417915 0.780 0.0043146 331.8 1.39844 0.06497 0.013203

1.430910 0.775 0.0046872 332.7 1.39841 0.06502 0.013220

1.444119 0.770 0.0050563 333.6 1.39837 0.06508 0.013237

1.457548 0.765 0.0054475 334.5 1.39834 0.06514 0.013254

1.471205 0.760 0.0058666 335*4 1.39830 0.06519 0.013272

1.485088 0.755 0.0063001 336.4 1.39827 0.06525 0.013289

1.499210 0.750 0.0067621 337.3 1.39823 0.06531, 0.013307

1.513575 0.745 0.0072484 338.3 1.39819 0.06537 0.013325

1.528190 0.740 0.0077638 339,3 1.39816 0.06542 0.013343

1.543061 0.735 0.0083064 340.2 1.39812 0.06548 0.013361

1.558195 0.730 0.0089052 341.2 1.39809 0.06554 0.013379

1.573598 0.725 0.0094804 342.3 1.39805 0.06559 0.013398

1.589278 0.720 0.0101136 343.3 1.39802 0.06565 0.013416

1.605244 0.715 0.01107816 344.3 1.39798 0.06571 0.013435

1,621502 0.710 0.0114826 345.4 1.39795 0.06577 0.013454

1.638061 0.705 0.0122209 346.4 1.39791 0.06582 0.013473

1.6.54928 0.700 0.0129951 347.5 1.39788 0.06588 0.013492

1.672114 0.695 0.0138420 348.6 1.39784 0.06594 0.013512

1.689626 0.690 0.0S46616 349.8 1.39781 0.06600 0.013531

1.707474 0.685 0.0155567 350.9 1.39777 0.06605 0.0135.51

1.725669 0.680 0.0164959 352.0 1.39773 0.06611 0.013571

1.744220 0.675 0.0174865 353.2 1.39770 0.06617 0.013592

1.763137 0.670 0.0185367 354.4 1.39766 0.06623 0.013612

1.782432 0.665 0.0195931 355.6 1.39763 0.06628 0.013633

1.802117 0.660 0.0207265 356.8 1,39759 0.06634 0.013654

1.822203 0.655 0.0219128 358.1 1.39756 0.06640 0.013675

- 292 -

,“- .,, .,, .

. ,. ..

Table 7.18 (Continued)

P~/Po Po/P~ AS/R ‘Y l/a b

——

1.842702 0.650 0.0231549 359.3 1.39752 0.06646 0.013697

1.863627 C}.645 0.0244848 360.6 1.39749 0.06651 0.013719

1.884994 Cl.640 0.0258153 361.9 1.39745 0.06657 0.013741

1.906813 0.635 0.0272371 363.2 1.39742 0.06663 0.013764

1.929101 0.630 0.0287266 364,6 1.39738 0.06669 0.013787

1.951874 0.625 0.0302825 366.0 1.39734 0.06675 0.013810

1.975146 0.620 0.0319103 367.4 1.39730 0.06680 0.013834

1.998934 CI.615 0.0336113 368.8 1.3972’7 0.06686 0.013858

2.023256 CI.61O 0.0353892 370.3 1.39724 0.06692 0.013882

2.048130 0.605 0.0372486 371.7 1.39720 0.06698 0.013907

2.073576 0.600 0.0391917 373.2 1.39717 0.06704 0.013932

2.099611 0.595 0.0412199 374.8 1.39713 0.06709 0.013958

2.126259 0.590 0.0433891 376.3 I..3971O 0.06715 0.013985

2.153540 0.585 0.0456708 377.9 1.39706 0.06721 0.014012

2.181478 OIo580 0.0478674 379.6 1.39703 0.06727 0.014039

2.210096 al.575 0.0502831 381.2 1.39699 0.06733 0.014067

2.239420 01,570 0.0528108 382.9 1.39696 0.06739 0.014095

2.269476 01.565 0.0554426 384.7 1.39692 0.06744 0.014125

2.300292 0.560 0.0581956 386.4 1.39688 0.06750 0.014154

2.331897 01.555 0.0610700 388.3 1.39685 0.06756 0.014185

2.364321 0.550 0.0640718 390.1 1.39681 0.06762 0.014216

2.397598 (j .545 0.0672062 392.0 1.39678 0.06768 0.014248

2.431761 (l).54(I 0.0704810 393.9 1.39674 0.06773 0.014281

2.466845 0.535 0.0738457 395.9 1.39671 0.06780 0.014314

2.502890 ().53() 0.0774729 398,0 1.39667 0,06786 0.014349

2.539934 ().525 0.0811402 400.0 1.39664 0.06791 0.014384

2.578021 0.520 0.0850969 402.2 1.39660 0,06797 0.014420

2.617909 01.515 0.0898540 404.5 1.39656 0.06803 0.014458

2.657494 (lle510 0.0934026 406.6 1.39653 0.06809 0.014497

2.698979 01.505” 0.0978513 408.9 1.39649 0.06816 0.014538

2.741698 01●500” 0.1025353 411.2 1.39645 0.06822 0.014580

2.785708 01.495 0.1073368 413.7 1.39641 0.06829 0.014623

2.831067 01.490” 0.1124028 416.2 1.39637 0.06835 0.014669

2.877839 01 ●

Lj&) 0.1176608 418.7 1.39633 0.06842 0.014716

2.926090 () ●

480 0.1232320 421.4 1.39629 0.06849 0.014766

2.975892 (II .475 0.1290190 424.1 1.39624 0.06856 0.014817

- 293 -

Table 7.18 (Continued)

PJPo Pohs AS/R T Y b

—. s

**3.027320 0.470 0.1350707 426.9 1.39620 0.06863 0.014870
**

3.080454 0.465 0.1414009 429.7 1,39615 0.06871 0.014926

3.135380 0.460 0.1480221 432.7 1.39611 0.06879 0.014984

3.192190 0.455 0.1549506 435.7 1.39606 0.06887 0.015045

3.250984 0.450 0.1622031 438.9 1.39601 0.06896 0.015109

3.311865 0,445 0.1697973 442.1 1.39596 0.06904 0.015176

3.374948 0.440 0.1777438 445.5 1.39590 0.06913 0.015246

3.440355 0.435 0.1860712 449.0 1.39585 0.06922 0.015319

3.508211 0.430 0.1947959 452.6 1.39579 0.06932 0.015396

3.578655 0.425 0.2039431 456.3 1,39573 0.06942 0.015477

3.651833 0,420 0.2136190 460.1 1.39567 0.06953 0.015563

3.727903 0.415 0.2277592 464.4 1.39560 0.06964 0.015656

3.807035 0.410 0.2341280 468.3 1.39553 0.06977 0.015755

3.889405 0.405 0.2454080 472.6 1.39544 0.06991 0.015862

3.97!5215 0.400 0.2568153 477.0 1.39535 0.07006 0.015977

4.064681 0.395 0.2690200 481.7 1.39525 0.07024 0.016101

4.158038 0.390 0.2818436 486,5 1,39514 0.07042 0.016235

4.255542 0.385 0.2932255 491.5 1.39502 0.07063 0.016380

4.357409 0.380 0.3094965 496.7 1.39488 0.07087 0.016541

4,463938 0.375 0.3239 502.2 1.39472 0.07114 0,016720

4.575454 0.370 0.3391 507.9 1.39454 0.07145 0.016916

4.692314 0.365 0.3549 513.8 1.39434 0.07179 0.017131

4.814908 0.360 0.3715 520.0 1.39412 0.07217 0.017366

4,943583 0.355 0.3890 526.5 1.39387 0.07261 0.017627

5.078802 0.350 0.4073 533.3 1.39359 0.07309 0.017918

5.221069 0.345 0.4266 540.4 1.39328 0.07364 0.018234

5.370947 0.340 0.4469 547.8 1.39294 0.07423 0.018584

5.529059 0.335 0.4683 555.7 1.39257 0.07489 0.018963

5.696101 0.330 0.4910 563.9 1.39217 0.07560 0.019384

5.872843 0.325 0.5150 572.6 1.39174 0.07637 0.019840

6.060152 0.320 0.5403 581.8 1.39128 0.07720 0.020336

6.258999 0.315 0.5673 591.5 1.39079 0.07810 0.020876

6.470481 0.310 0.5960 601.8 1.39027 0.07905 0.021463

6.695832 0.305 0.6265 612.7 1.38972 0.08007 0.022102

6.936290 0.300 0.6591 624.3 1.38913 0.08118 0.022803

7.193415 0.295 0.6940 636.6 1.38850 0.08237 0.023573

- 294 -

Table 7.18 (Continued)

P~/’Po Po/PE AS/R Y I/a b

.

7.468993 0.290 0.7314 649.8 1.38783 0.08365 0.024419

7.765072 0.285 0.7715 663.9 1.38712 0.08502 0.025345

8,084018 0.280 0.8147 679.1 1.38637 0.08649 0.026364

8.428321 0.275 0.8614 695.3 1.38557 0.08808 0.027494

8.801106 0.270 0.9120 712.9 1.38472 0.08979 0.028745

9,206045 0.265 0.9656 731.9 1.38382 0.09162 0.030134

9.647125 0.260 1.0225 752.5 1.38286 0.09361 0.031688

10.129009 0.255 1.0841 774.9 1.38183 0.09578 0.033437

10.657185 0.250 1.1498 799.3 1,38072 0.09816 0.035419

11.238590 0.245 1.2222 826.0 1.37953 0.10075 0.037669

11.880092 0240 1.3021 855.4 1.37823 0.10365 0.040261

12.589677 0.235 1.3848 887.6 1.37679 0.10693 0.043286

13.377246 0.230 1.4754 923.0 1.37519 0.11066 0.046846

14.253156 0.225 1.5736 962.1 1.37339 0.11498 0.051089

15.229965 0.220 1.676 1005.2 1.37136 0.11999 0.056194

16.323461 0.215 1.790 1052.9 1.36908 0.12538 0.062373

17.550159 0.210 1.915 1105.7 1.36652 0.13263 0.069909

18.935429 0.205 2.049 1164.5 1.36366 0.14056 0.079371

20.505376 0.200 2.193 1280.3 1.36050 0.14974 0,090301

22.292772 0.195 2.344 1304,1 1.35700 0.16042 0.104804

24.335644 0,190 2.516 1387.1 1.35316 0.17287 0.122639

26.681095 0.185 2.699 1480.8 1.34893 0.18743 0.145230

29.384061 0.180 2,904 1586.7 1.34430 0.20450 0.174111

32.511013 0.175 3.121 1706.8 1.33924 0.22456 0.211371

36.139438 0.170 3.359 1843.1 1.33373 0.24823 0.259893

40.358840 0.165 3.620 1997.8 1.32774 0.27625 0.323653

45.268966 0.160 3.888 2172.9 1.32126 0.30955 0.408141

50.975052 0.155 4.176 2370.3 1.31427 0.34929 0.520926

57.57373 0.150 4.483 2590.8 1;30675 0.39693 0.674805

. 65.131941 0.145 4.811 2833.2 1.29868 0.45431 0.876315

73,646167 0.140 5.164 3093.1 1.29007 0.52391 1.J.5U58

.. 94.73 7.684 6 3606 0.7937 2.3797

0 124.89 8.374 7 4248 1.2270 5.0657

161.17 9.134 8 4812 1.6667 8.8022

224.49 9.753 9 5451 2.0000 14.3488

250.79 10.258 10 6021 2.3256 18.3394

-295 -

Table 7.18 (Continued)

I@Jo AS/R ILj ‘Y

—

b

**301,03 10.700 n 6648 2.5641 23.7077
**

352.63 U.060 12 7050 2.6316 27.5087

410.00 11.395 13 7530 2.5316 29.1810

491.11 11.703 14 8001 2.2727 29.1733

532.50 11.885 15 8475 2.0408 26,?892

602.14 12.033 16 8838 1.769!3 24.5515

671.14 12.083 17 9537 1.4925 21.!5594

747.86 11,984 18 10254 1.2658 19.3758

820,07 11.77’7 19 11004 1.0417 16.6271

899.17 11.4’73 20 12012 0.8658 14.6232

993*O 11.068 21 13392 0.6944 12.4802

1094.0 10.72 22 14920 0.5435 10.1931

1248.6 10.55 23 16486 0.4132 8.0798

1408.3 10.39 24 18083 0.3384 ‘?.0126

1’568.1 10.23 2’5 19680 0.2890 6.3749

1763.0 IO*.IO 26 21253 0.2513 5,9750

1966.8 9.974 27 22821 0.2247 5.7834

2170.5 9.849 28 24389 0.2033 5.6264

2412.2 9.736 29 26081 0.1866 5,6207

2678.2 9.629 30 27854 0.1736 5.7164

4039.3 9.292 35 36929 0.1300 5.9799

5688.0 9.068 40 46600 0.1048 6.3829

- 296 -

[J

and the Fiiemwlan variable u = p dp

is given by the equation

~

Po 1 s=constant

dco = 41qimq-m (F=-

+ (=j+jb+j}

—. .

(7097)

**Here ~ is the value of X when p/p. = 1, keeping the entropy constant, or
**

X0 is the solution to the equation

3+2

+xo=~ (7.98)

‘o b

7.6 Approximate Form Used for IBM Run of HE Explosion

**It was necessary to begin this calculation immediately after the blast
**

wave left the explosive charge, when the shock pressure was about 575 atm.

It was felt that the approximate form described in the last section was not

quite good enough at these higher shock pressures; for this reason, tid to

remove some irregularities in the low-pressure region, new calculations

using a different form of approximation were made by Skyrme.

The primary data used were taken from the report of Brinkley, Kirk-

wood, and Richardson; 3 however the derived tables (Hugoniot curve and

adiabatic) given in that report were not used. The equation of state

PV=(l+a)RT (7.99)

**was used throughout, combined with the values of a and E/RT given by
**

the above authors.

At temperatures T < 1800”K, a = O and E is a function only of T

independent of the density, in a sufficiently good approximation. The data

given could be represented by the empirical formula

/

E

= 2.5 + 0.0444 (In X)2 + 0.0464 (In X)3 (7.100)

KT

- 297 -

To = flOO°K.000800185 Z6 (7 . The equations of the adiabatic were fitted into the form 1..0464 X (b X)3 (7.where x = T/To.4 1.100 holds and the shock conditions lead to the equations Ps Vs Ts (x) ~ —=— V.105) . .00317668323 ‘o + 0.3 1.0612 (ln X)3 + 0.2 p = A(S)p + B(S)p + c(s) p (7.0191332 Z2 – 0.101) The Hugoniot curve was recalculated from the primary data. and Richardson.0444 (Lu X)2 + 0.104) from that This newly determined Hugoniot curve does not differ significantly obtained from Table 7.171128 -0.5 h :x+ 0. Kirkwood.102) Above 35 atm the Hugonio~ curve was determined by quadratic interpolation from the primary data in Brinkley.103) Ps Z=ln H—-p 35 0 (7. were represented by the empirical formula Vs — = 0. for shock pressures between 35 and 750 atm. The results. Eq. To = x +(?1)G5=25(x-1)+000444(1 + 0.18.0116 (ln X)4 (7.298 - .02322615 Z4 – 0.007111593 Z5 + 0. For shock pressures less than 35 atm. Combined with the equation pV = RT this leads to the following expression for the entropy —= s R () lIJ- ‘o + 2. 7.0463787 Z + 0.

The coefficientsa and B were determined by calculatingtheir values from the above conditions for a number of values of ps/po (an expansion was used ‘or ps/po = 1 when the conditions lead to indeterminate equations). 7.106) 1 —= &!L (7. which is less sensitive than a and ~. All other quantities used were derived from these to ensure consistence y. it was found that a = O was a sufficiently good approximation for ps/pO < 5.107) Y ‘r. Po where A.299 - . and 6 are functions of the entropy. C.107 with the values of a and B already determined. These conditions were chosen with regard to the particular problem on hand. a and (1 as functions of PS/Po is given in Table 7919. B.or the equivalent form (7. ~. and then interpolating graphically. These three con- stants of entropy were determined for each adiabatic by the conditions (a)p = ps w~en V = V (correct at shock pressure) s (b) P = PO when v = VI (correct at normal pressure) VI (c) pdV=Es-E1 (correct energy change) ‘/Vs where the subscript 1 refers to values at a pressure of 1 atm. was found by applying condition (a) to Eqs. A condensed table of the values of Vs/Vo. . a. The value of 6.106 and 7.

00 1. v~/vo a! P 1.28895 0.36202 0 0.75 0.00 0.38479 0 0. Table 7.819 35.17462 0.6453 3.300 - .804 27.5 0.4030 1.39818 0 0.61494 0 0.818 30.0 0.49907 0 0.25 0.5121 2.7529 45.0 0.772 25.7409 4.16026 0.2975 1.8017 5.00 0.5015 1.3261 1.25 0.0 0.15803 0.00000 0 0.4777 2.2268 1.23495 0.0 0.17852 0.5 0.85289 0 0.824 32.5 0.7144 50.50 0.0122 1.443 15.5457 3.0 0.1576 1.2845 1.19 VALUES OF V~/Vo.74984 0 0.3330 1.7722 .8310 7.3685 1.5792 3.2620 1.7910 40.20089 0.67362 0 0.44994 0 0. a.50 0.6777 4.56837 0 0.7335 47.7716 4.25 0. AND ~ AS FUNCTIONS OF p~/po P@.00 0.3667 1.22039 0.0 0.35226 0 0.25579 0.6948 .807 37.071 10.0929 1.00 0.1241 1..16801 0.0639 1.75 0.43036 0 0.573 17.4052 2.16264 0.53049 0 0.16521 0.20948 0.41326 0 0.50 0.1919 1.19387 0.4702 1.5 0.4370 1.18293 0.75 0.47258 0 0.5 0.18798 0.15592 0.0 0.17113 0.5 0.6125 3.0368 1.25 0.5 0.275 12.5 0.0 0.75 0.728 22.50 0.5315 1.668 20. 42.37281 0 0.5608 1.0 0.4421 2.5 0.7096 4.

08353 2.08659 2.238 725 0.12699 1.08286 2.655 250 0.08753 2.972 500 0.09682 2.634 -2.08300 2.973 475 0.08281 2.09464 2.13900 0.08981 2.930 200 0.617 -2.212 350 0.814 1.10656 2.08298 2.673 -2.348 0.19 (Continued) P~/Po lyro o! — 76 0.102 125 0.586 -2.645 -2.448 100 0.620 -2.029 425 0.11160 1.188 .624 -2.055 1.564 -2.521 275 0.08446 2.280 225 0.128 -0.10260 2.635 ~ .035 175 0.191 600 0.08395 2.702 -2.224 625 0.528 -1.515.608 –2.591 4. Table 7.08285 2.712 +0.251 700 0.628 -2.545 -2.008 525 0.09120 2.566 –2.510 -1.08323 2.243 650 0.995 450 0. -1.301 - .08577 2.252 675 0.728 -2.299 325 0.638 150 0.09943 2.596 -2.523 -2.142 575 0.08356 2.08506 2.402 300 0.09279 2.216 750 0.075 400 0.137 375 0.075 550 0.554 -2.08860 2.11819 1.638 4.08321 2.

. ‘k. . . ...

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