INFOTEH-JAHORINA Vol. 16, March 2017.

Hardware Implementation of Measuring System of
Resonant Electromagnetic Vibratory Conveyor
Željko V. Despotović, Đorđe Urukalo and Aleksandar I. Ribić
University of Belgrade, Mihajlo Pupin Institute
Volgina 15, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia,
zeljko.despotovic@pupin.rs, zdespot@etf.rs

Abstract — Vibratory conveyors with electromagnetic excitation For standard power stages for control of REVC are used
belong to a group of mechatronic devices that in an efficient way SCR devices (thyristors and triacs) [4],[9]-[12]. This implies
provides conveying bulk and particulate materials. They have an using the phase angle control (PAC) and constant frequency of
important role in the process industries such as: food processing, vibration. In this way control circuit must be synchronized to
pharmaceutical industry, agriculture industry, etc., and
the mains frequency 50 (60) Hz. PAC can only accomplish
represent a very important element of technological production
line. Particularly, the vibratory conveyors that operate in the tuning amplitude of vibration, but not vibratory frequency.
resonant mode are well used in industrial applications because of Application of transistor (IGBT or MOSFET) switch mode
energy efficiency. The relatively small input energy causes high power converters enables accomplishing the amplitude and
vibrations of load carry element (LCE). The intensity of the (or) frequency control of REVC [4], [12], [13]-[20]. Their use
vibrations directly affects mass flow and therefore the implies the excitation of an REVC independent of the mains
productivity of vibratory conveyors. To ensure a reliable and frequency. In addition, the frequency control ensures operation
energy-efficient operation of vibratory conveyors, it is necessary in the region of mechanical resonance. This operation is
to have a reliable and accurate measurement of electrical and highly energy efficient, because large output displacement is
mechanical quantities. A hardware implementation of the
provided by small input power.
measurement system and data acquisition platform is presented
in the paper. The measuring experimental results obtained on a However, their performance is highly sensitive to different
specific resonant vibratory conveyor are also shown. kind of disturbances. For example, as the conveyor vibrations
occurred at its resonance frequency, vibration amplitude is
Key words - Vibratory conveyor, measurements, vibration, highly dependent on a damping factor. On the other hand,
current, voltage, LEM module, sbRIO board damping factor depends on the mass of material on the feeder
trough, type of material, and the vibration amplitude [13],
I. INTRODUCTION [21]. These disturbances can reduce drastically (up to 10
times) the vibration amplitude, thus reducing the performance
Resonant electromagnetic vibratory conveyors (REVC) are
of REVC.
widely used device for conveying and feeding of particulate
and bulk materials in various processing industries (food, Due to the complex phenomenology of the vibratory
conveying process [22]-[26] is very difficult to theoretically
pharmaceutical, agriculture, etc.). There are compact, robust,
determine some parameters of REVC. This primarily refers to
reliable in operation and easy for maintenance. This
the damping of certain elements of the REVC, and for cases
electromagnetic drives offer easy and simple control the mass
where it is empty and when filled with bulk material of
flow of conveying materials. In comparison with other drives
(pneumatics, inertial, centrifugal, etc...), these have a simpler different granulation. This paper presents one possible
construction and they are compact, robust and reliable in hardware implementation of the power converter drive, based
on IGBT switch and measurement system based on
operation.
sophisticated sbRIO board National Instruments [27]-[30],
The absence of wearing mechanical part, such as gears,
with whose would be possible to identify all the relevant
cams belts, bearings, eccentrics, etc., makes this conveyor
parameters of the conveyor. The experimental results obtained
drives as most economical equipment. Vibrations of trough or
load carry element (LCE) in which the material is placed on a realized REVC are shown in this investigation.
induce the movement of material particles, so that they II. THE IMPORTANCE OF MEASURING
resemble a highly viscous liquid, and the material becomes ELECTROMECHANICAL QUANTITIES OF REVC
easier to transport and to dose. The conveying material flow
depends directly on the average value of particles throw The REVC represents a very complex mechatronic system
movements. This average value, on the other hand, depends on where exists a certain relationship between electrical (current
the amplitude of the trough oscillation [1]-[4]. Optimal and voltage of electromagnetic driving actuator) and
transport is obtained for frequency within the range mechanical quantities (driving force of electromagnetic
5Hz  120Hz and vibratory width range 0.1mm  20mm , for actuator; displacement, velocity and acceleration of LCE and
other moving parts). To ensure a reliable and energy-efficient
the most of particulate materials [5]-[8].
operation of REVC for the purpose of correct modelling and

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The two digital inputs.). analog inputs and sensors’ circuits. Figure 1.parameters identification [4]. which is connected on sequentially stored in board’s internal RAM memory as small power grid network of 230V. Displacement of empty vibratory trough relative to the base resonant electromagnetic vibratory conveyor (REVC) based on platform sbRIO-9636 National Instruments .e. protocol. FPGA. Memory packages are then restored on the PC as Control pulse signal with range of frequency (5÷150Hz. This measure must be measured with contactless inductive sensor Ni10-18-LiU- electrically isolated and must have a relatively wide H1141 of 1÷7 mm range together with an amplifier [40] that bandwidth [37]-[40]. sequentially transferred to the PC via TCP/IP communication with adjustable frequency. [12]. In both the cases. All data captured with sbRIO board are [4]. [15]-[17]. Sensors’ communication with target board is realized via REVC is provided from controllable AC/DC power converter I²C digital interface.5A. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS control AC/DC power converter. data of interest. Control signal of ±16g.The driving force of electromagnetic device can be easily and simply adapt to various types of vibratory actuator is very difficult to measure directly.. [13]-[14]. The special power module In this section are presented and discussed obtained RIO-power (AC/DC) is used for supplying of microprocessor. there is a relationship between the force and the the microprocessor. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION Accelerometers have ADXL345 [41]. [12]. as shown in experiments are carried out: the first experiment where Fig. Displacement and acceleration provides output of 0÷10V range. [13]. REVC is excited with triangular current. there are several signals of current of the electromagnetic actuator [4]. interest that are acquired with sbRIO board: analog signals- thus measurement of electrical current is important in these vibratory trough displacement (p) and electrical current (i) of applications. 50Hz. to satisfy steady-state of the system.1. memory packages. corresponding electronic transmitter that is design to provide output of 0÷10V range suitable for sbRIO board analog input. digital signals-accelerations in XYZ A certain care should be taken into account while operating directions of the base (ACC1) and the ground (ACC2) of with the electromagnetic actuator regarding high voltage REVC construction. In our case. [32]-[36]. Block diagram of power and acquisition-control system of Figure 2. and measuring resistor and done. III. The crucial parameters of ARM architecture and very robust and powerful hardware- vibratory conveyor are the damping and stiffness of elastic programmable and reconfigurable electronic device i. [31] it is necessary to have The board has a powerful 32-bit microprocessor based on reliable and accurate measurements.17 - . After storing. amplitude and time duration. electrical sensors and peripherals devices to communicate with However. 1. vibratory trough is empty and the second one where the vibratory trough is filled with granulated material-sugar. REVC vibratory actuator. Vibratory trough displacement is supplied from the power converter. Measuring of REVC current measurements are possible to achieve with the appropriate is realized with LEM current sensor LA-25N [36]-[38] with sensors.[19]. 3-axis modules with Block diagram of power converter and acquisition-control ultra-low power and high 13-bit resolution measurement at system of REVC is depicted on Fig. the memory packages are The output of power converter provides the driving current. typically 20%) is generated with NI sbRIO-9636 board and this signal IV. 1. where scaling levels and signals filtering need to be measuring range of -5A. and after that REVC is deactivated by setting current to very small value. elements (composite springs) and equivalent damping of made in of company Xilinx-FPGA. measurement signals on real system (Fig. enables the easy whole vibratory system (mechanical load carrying element implementation of the most complex access points so that this plus particulate material). typically 50Hz) and duty-cycle range (1%÷50%.

i. can be determined stiffness of supported fiberglass composite springs of REVC. (2) for full filled vibratory trough γ2=1/0. 5 depicted oscilloscopic records of accelerations’ Figure 6. quantities of interest are measured during experiments. For m0=1kg mass of LCE and the angular frequency ω0 = 2π·49. has damped where damping time constant is about Td1 = 0. with high resolution and bandwidth.e. relative to the base. and actual current of electromagnetic vibratory actuator’s Based on this experiment. 3). Figure 4. and Fig. 2 is depicted displacement of empty vibratory smaller displacement of the vibratory trough relative to the trough relative to the base. mass of empty vibratory trough m0. The accelerations' difference between the base and the ground for full vibratory trough formed as a result of filling the trough with a vibratory bulk material (food sugar).3=3. 4 are shown the oscilloscopic records of accelerations’ difference between the base of REVC and its the ground (foundation).33s-1. Displacement of full trough (with sugar) relative to the base In this case.2Hz. Displacement of empty vibratory trough relative to the base and difference between the base and the ground of filled vibratory excitation current of the REVC . We can see lower accelerations in all direction regarding On Fig. This is 49. Z directions. Y. 5 clearly shows the difference comparing to oscilloscope. Based on the known mass of the moving part i.18 - .e. it is concluded that the bulk (EVA) coil. In this case. where blue.2=309 rad/s. the measured value of resonant frequency was 49. On Fig. This increase in the total mass is Figure 5. The frequency of excitation current pulses is set to material (food sugar) contributes to increased damping. 3 is shown displacement of vibratory trough filled with granulated material (food sugar).48N/mm.Also. where damping time constant is approximately Td2 = displacement of the empty vibratory trough relative to the base 0. the result of phenomenological and physical processes occurring in the material during the vibratory conveying. from this experiment can be determined resonant frequency of REVC. the mechanical resonant frequency of REVC. The acceleration’s difference between the base and the ground for empty vibratory trough Figure 3.1 sec.2Hz. The Fig.3 sec. respectively. in a simple way is obtained the total stiffness of the supporting elements of LCE i. Several measurements depicted on Fig. On Fig. because of compensation resulting from the movement of the vibratory trough. 4. The smallest acceleration difference is in X direction (blue record). Fig. fiberglass composite springs kΣ = ω²0·m0=95481N/m=95.1=10 s-1. higher damping is caused with increased total mass of vibratory trough. All measurements were performed on a digital storage trough.It can be observed that the system base (see Fig. red and yellow records represent accelerations’ difference in X.e. 2. It can be observed that the system has On Fig. 6 is shown the oscilloscopic records of waveforms: damped. The estimated values of damping coefficient γ=1/Td for the previous two cases are: (1) for empty vibratory trough γ1=1/0.

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