Latin Grammar

Nouns
Page 2 Cases: their uses & meanings Page 30 Numbers
Page 3 1st declension Page 31 Time Expressions
Page 4 2nd declension
Page 5 3rd declension Appendix 1
Page 6 Neuter nouns Pages 32-35 “King’s words”
Page 7 4th declension
Page 7 5th declension Appendix 2 – test
yourself
Adjectives
Page 8 Rules of agreement Pages 36-37 Definitions
Page 8 2nd declension Pages 38 Catches & irregulars
Page 8 3rd declension Pages 39-40 Latin Grammar
Page 9 Comparatives & superlatives Questions Help sheet
Page 9 Irregular comparatives & superlatives

Page 10 Adverbs

Pronouns
Page 11 Personal pronouns
Page 12 Relative pronouns
Page 12 Reflexive pronouns
Page 13 Pronouns

Page 14 Demonstrative adjectives

Page 15 Prepositions

Page 16 Question words

Verbs
Page 17 Persons
Page 17 Conjugations
Page 18 Present tense
Page 19 Imperfect tense
Page 20 Perfect tense
Page 21 Pluperfect tense
Page 22 Common irregular verbs
Page 23 Verbs with irregular perfects

Parts of verbs
Page 24 Infinitives
Page 24-25 Imperatives
Pages 25-26 Participles
Page 26 Gerundives

Page 27 Subjunctives
Pages 28-29 Uses of subjunctives

1

Nouns

In Latin nouns are divided into declensions. A declension is simply a posh
word for a group of nouns.

There are 5 declensions but you only need to know the first 3 well.

All nouns have genders: masculine, feminine, neuter.

Nouns have different case endings.

A case shows the role a noun plays in the sentence.

Cases

Nominative: Subject of the sentence (person or thing doing the
verb)

Vocative: Addressing or calling someone by name or title

Accusative: Object of the sentence (person or thing after the
verb having the verb done to it)
After a preposition
Time Expression (THLAC)

Genitive: of, ‘s, s’ (Jenny’s case)

Dative to, for
Following certain verbs

Ablative by, with, from
After a preposition
Time Expression (TWAB)

To remember the order of case, think of New Vans Are Generally Driven
Awfully.

You may want to write your own version here:

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2

1st Declension nouns

1st Declension nouns end in –a in the nom sing and –ae in the gen sing.
Almost all 1st Declension nouns are feminine.

They take the following endings:

Sing
N puella
V puella
A puellam
G puellae
D puellae
A puella

Pl
N puellae
V puellae
A puellas
G puellarum
D puellis
A puellis

Exceptions:

The following nouns are masculine, even if they look feminine.

agricola, nauta, poeta

The following have dat & abl pl endings in –abus.

filia (daughter) filiabus
dea (goddess) deabus

This is to avoid confusion with deus (god) and filius (son)

3

2nd Declension nouns

2nd Declension nouns end in –us or -er in the nom sing and –i in the gen
sing.
2nd Declension nouns are masculine (with the exception of neuter ones:
see page 6.)

Sing
N servus puer
V serve puer
A servum puerum
G servi pueri
D servo puero
A servo puero

Pl
N servi pueri
V servi pueri
A servos pueros
G servorum puerorum
D servis pueris
A servis pueris

Exceptions:

Although vir (man) ends in –ir, it is a 2nd declension noun and declines like
puer.

Magister (and the nouns which go like it) go like puer but drop the final
“e” after the voc sing; e.g. (magistrum, magistri etc.)

The following nouns have irregular vocative singulars:

Filius fili
Deus di

4

3rd Declension nouns There is no common model for the nom & voc sing of 3rd declension nouns. The best we can say is that any noun which does NOT end in –a. 5 . -us. Some 3rd declension nouns take –ium in the genitive plural. Sing N actor V actor A actorem G actoris D actori A actore Pl N actores V actores A actores G actorum D actoribus A actoribus Exceptions: Some 3rd declension nouns take –i in the ablative singular. um is probably 3rd declension.

Here are the endings: Sing 2ND Dec 3RD Dec N um ? V um ? A um ? G i is D o i A o e/i Pl N a (i)a V a (i)a A a (i)a G orum (i)um D is ibus A is ibus 6 . Neuter nouns in the 2nd declension all go like templum. The rule with neuter nouns is as follows: Whatever the ending of the nom sing. the voc sing & the acc sing will always be the same. voc & acc pl ALWAYS end in –a. Neuter nouns exist in the 2nd and 3rd declensions. Latin has a 3rd gender called neuter. The nom.Neuter nouns Unlike French.

4th dec 5th dec Sing N portus (harbour) dies (day) V portus dies A portum diem G portus diei D portui diei A portu die Pl N portus dies V portus dies A portus dies G portuum dierum D portibus diebus A portibus diebus 4th & 5th declension words 4th dec 5th dec exercitus army dies day domus house / home fides faith / loyalty manus hand res thing / matter metus fear spes hope portus harbour 7 . You do need to know the meaning of a few 4th and 5th declension nouns which are also below.4th & 5th declension nouns You do not need to know these ending but they are listed below.

Adjectives Adjectives agree with (match) their noun in 3 ways: Number (Sing. / Pl. If the adjective does not agree in all 3 ways then you have made a mistake !  Many adjectives are 2nd declension. F.) Case (Nom. multi mercatores also looks wrong but… both words are nominative. dominus bonus Sometimes it does not. agricola bonus looks wrong but… both words are nominative. they take the same endings as templum.) Gender (M. In the neuter. so they agree. they take the same endings as servus. masculine. plural. Other adjective are 3rd declension and they have the same endings as 3rd declension nouns in the masculine & feminine (which are the same endings) and neuter. N) Often the adjective will have the same ending as its noun e. they take the same endings as puella. Voc etc. 8 . singular so they agree.g. In the masculine. masculine. This means that: In the feminine.

g. sing. But do take endings to agree with the noun e. –iorem. most…. bigger. big.g. Superlatives They have 3 types of endings: -issimus (longissimus) -errimus (pulcherrimus) -illimus (facillimus) Irregular comparatives & superlatives VERY IMPORTANT Positive Comparative Superlative Bonus (good) melior optimus Malus (bad) peior pessimus Magnus (big) maior maximus Parvus (small) minor minimus Multus (much) plus (plures) plurimus 9 . comparative & superlative.Comparison of adjectives Adjectives can exist in 3 forms: positive. iores. biggest. more… e. Positive is the “normal” form e. most big. ioris. masc. bad Comparative means: -er. more big Superlative means: -est. small. They decline like 3rd declension nouns.g.g. happy. very big Comparatives They end in –ior in the nom. very… e.

rursus again lente slowly magnopere greatly mox soon non not numquam never nunc now olim once paene almost quoque also saepe often semper always sic in this way statim at once subito suddenly tandem at last tum then 10 . Latin English bene well celeriter quickly diu for a long time forte by chance fortiter bravely frustra in vain heri yesterday hodie today iam now. already iterum.Adverbs There is no rule about what adverbs look like but below is a list of the most common ones on which you are tested – especially on the grammar sections which asks you to find adverbs.

you etc.Pronouns There are 4 types of pronoun you need you need to know: Personal pronouns Relative pronouns Reflexive pronouns Pronouns (general) Personal pronouns A personal pronoun is a word which replaces a person’s name or title. you.g. we (us) I You (s) We You (pl) Nom ego tu nos vos Acc me te nos vos Gen mei tui nostri / nostrum vestri /vestrum Dat mihi tibi nobis vobis Abl me te nobis vobis You will quite often find the ablative for with me. However the cum (with) is on the end of the pronoun not before it as with nouns. mecum – with me nobiscum – with us vobiscum – with you 11 . tecum – with you e. These ONLY refer to: I (me).

which M F N Sing N qui quae quod A quem quam quod G cuius cuius cuius D cui cui cui A quo qua quo Pl N qui quae quae A quos quas quae G quorum quarum quorum D quibus quibus quibus A quibus quibus quibus Reflexive pronouns These only refer to himself. themselves. You have to work out from the sense of the sentence whether it refers to himself. itself. her(self). A se G sui D sibi A se Again you will see the cum (with) on the end.g. herself. themselves. itself. secum – with him(self).Relative pronouns These mean who. herself. They have no nominative and the ending for sing & pl are the same. them (selves) 12 . it(self). e.

Pronouns (general) Is. she. ea. id These little words mean: he. it Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom is ea id Acc eum eam id Gen eius eius eius Dat ei ei ei Abl eo ea eo Plural Nom ei eae ea Acc eos eas ea Gen eorum earum eorum Dat eis eis eis Abl eis eis eis 13 .

Illud That / those Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom ille illa illud Acc illum illam illud Gen illius illius illius Dat illi illi illi Abl illo illa illo Plural Nom illi illae illa Acc illos illas illa Gen illorum illarum illorum Dat illis illis illis Abl illis illis illis 14 . Illa. hoc This / these Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom hic haec hoc Acc hunc hanc hoc Gen huius huius huius Dat huic huic huic Abl hoc hac hoc Plural Nom hi hae haec Acc hos has haec Gen horum harum horum Dat his his his Abl his his his Ille.Demonstrative adjectives These are adjectives which demonstrate which noun is being talked about. haec. Is it this (these) one or that (those) ones? Hic.

from ante Before.Prepositions Prepositions are small words which come before a noun (pre-) often showing where the noun is (position). ab Italia You will almost always see sine followed by mora meaning without delay THE BELOW IS A HUGE EXAM CATCH. behind sub under prope Near Propter On account of super Above trans across NB “a” becomes “ab” and “e” becomes “ex” when the word following it starts with a vowel. e.g. on 15 . “In” is the only preposition which can be followed by ablative and accusative…BUT… In + acc = into. onto In + abl = in. in front cum With of circum around de About. on behalf of per Through. among pro In front of. down from contra Against e (ex) Out of inter Between. along sine Without post After. towards a (ab) By. In Latin prepositions can only be followed by two cases: ACCUSATIVE or ABLATIVE Prepositions Accusative Prepositions Ablative + + ad To.

Question words -ne (on end of 1st word) Simple question (like est-ce que in French) nonne Surely…? num Surely…not? ubi where? quo to where? unde from where? quis who? quid what? cur why? quo modo how? quot how many? 16 .

auditum When you look up a verb in the back of your book or a dictionary. audire. In Latin there are 6 tenses but you only need to know 4: present. portavi. tractum 4th: audio. she. audivi. docui. it 1st pers pl we 2nd pers pl you 3rd pers pl they Tenses A tense tells you when a verb is done. 1st: porto. 1st person sing I 2nd pers sing you 3rd pers sing he. imperfect. There are 4 conjugations. perfect and pluperfect 17 . you will see it laid out as above. trahere. doctum 3rd: traho.docere. The 4 parts of the verb are called principal parts. A conjugation is simply a posh word for a group of verbs.Verbs In Latin verbs are divided into conjugations. traxi. portatum 2nd: doceo. Persons Just like in French a verb has 6 persons. portare. These show: present tense Present infinitive Perfect tense Perfect passive participle To find out which conjugation a verb is in you need to look at the present tense and the infinitive.

I am carrying.Present tense This means: I carry. it -t We -mus You -tis They -nt 1st conj 2nd conj 3rd conj 4th conj porto doceo traho audio portas doces trahis audis portat docet trahit audit portamus docemus trahimus audimus portatis docetis trahitis auditis portant docent trahunt audiunt Note that: the 1st conj keeps the a the 2nd conj keeps the e the 4th conj keeps the i 18 . she. The endings are: I -o You -s He. I do carry.

Keep your eyes open for –ba- The endings are: I -bam You -bas He. I used to carry. it -bat We -bamus You -batis They -bant 1st conj 2nd conj 3rd conj 4th conj portabam docebam trahebam audiebam portabas docebas trahebas audiebas portabat docebat trahebat audiebat portabamus docebamus trahebamus audiebamus portabatis docebatis trahebatis audiebatis portabant docebant trahebant audiebant Note that: the 1st conj keeps the a the 2nd conj keeps the e the 4th conj keeps the i 19 .Imperfect tense This means: I was carrying. she.

u The endings are: I -i You -isti He. s. I have carried Very often. it -it We -imus You -istis They -erunt 1st conj 2nd conj 3rd conj 4th conj portavi docui traxi audivi portavisti docuisti traxisti audivisti portavit docuit traxit audivit portavimus docuimus traximus audivimus portavistis docuistis traxistis audivistis portaverunt docuerunt traxerunt audiverunt Note that: the 1st conj keeps the a and adds a v the 2nd conj changes to a u the 3rd conj changes its stem (main part of the verb) the 4th conj keeps the i and adds a v 20 . she. before the ending you will see: v. ss.Perfect tense This means: I carried. x.

The endings are: I -eram You -eras He. s. it -erat We -eramus You -eratis They -erant 1st conj 2nd conj 3rd conj 4th conj portaveram docueram traxeram audiveram portaveras docueras traxeras audiveras portaverat docuerat traxerat audiverat portaveramus docueramus traxeramus audiveramus portaveratis docueratis traxeratis audiveratis portaverant docuerant traxerant audiverant Note that: the 1st conj keeps the a the 2nd conj changes to a u the 3rd conj changes its stem (main part of the verb) the 4th conj keeps the i 21 . she.Pluperfect tense This means: I had carried You take the perfect stem (often v. ss) (which is used to make the perfect tense) and add the endings (which are the imperfect of sum). x. u.

(3) Eo is the verb which looks like an ending without a verb to stick to! (4) This has got to be the most largest change in stem from the present tense: fero becomes tuli! 22 . This was shortened to nolo as it was easier to say. The t appears when the following part of sum starts with an e. The non remains when the part of volo does NOT contains an o. This explains why there is a t. Irregular verbs These are the key Irregular verbs which you will need to know. Esse – To be Posse – To be able to (can) Velle – To want Nolle – To not want Ferre – To bring/carry Ire – To go Present sum possum (1) volo nolo (2) fero eo (3) es potes vis non vis fers is est potest vult non vult fert it sumus possumus volumus nolumus ferimus imus estis potestis vultis non vultis fertis itis sunt possunt volunt nolunt ferunt eunt Imperfect eram poteram volebam nolebam ferebam ibam eras poteras volebas nolebas ferebas ibas Perfect fui potui volui nolui tuli (4) ii fuisti potuisti voluisti noluisti tulisti iisti fuit potuit voluit noluit tulit iit Pluperfect fueram potueram volueram nolueram tuleram ieram (1) Possum was originally potens sum (I am powerful). (2) Nolo was originally non volo. (nolo but non vIs). (potEst). This was shortened to potsum which became possum as it was easier to say.

remained rideo ridere risi I smiled. laughed ago agere egi I did. brought 23 . departed duco ducere duxi I lead gero gerere gessi I waged. drove cogo cogere coegi I forced curro currere cucurri I ran dico dicere dixi I said discedo discedere discessi I left. wore mitto mittere misi I sent pello pellere pepuli I drove pono ponere posui I put rego regere rexi I ruled scribo scribere scripsi I wrote trado tradere tradidi I handed over traho trahere traxi I dragged vinco vincere vici I conquered capio capere cepi I took. captured facio facere feci I did.Common verbs with irregular perfect tenses do dare dedi I gave sto stare steti I stood iubeo iubere iussi I ordered maneo manere mansi I stayed. made iacio iacere ieci I threw interficio interficere interfeci I killed fero ferre tuli I carried.

Run! Stop! Attack! Conjugation Singular Plural 1st -a -ate 2nd -e -ete 3rd -e -ite 4th -i -ite There are 4 “comedy” irregular imperatives: fero fer (bring) dico dic (say.g. tell) facio fac (make.Parts of verbs Infinitives This is the part of the verb which means “to…” It always ends in –re 1st conj portare 2nd conj docere 3rd conj trahere 4th conj audire There are 4 exceptions: sum esse possum posse volo velle nolo nolle Imperatives An imperative is an order or a command. do) duco duc (lead. e. They come at the start of the sentence not at the end and are followed by an exclamation mark! In English we simply say the verb. take) 24 .

The negative imperative This means Don’t… You use the imperative of nolo: noli (sing). These decline like a 2nd declension adjective.near the end e. um 2nd conj doctus. um 4th conj auditus. e. This means that it is part of a verb but acts like an adjective which means that it agrees with its noun in number. The endings you must look for are: -ans. um 25 . -entes. nolite (pl) and follow it with the infinitive. These decline like a 3rd declension adjective.g: -antem. –ens. 1st conj portans. Present participle It means: -ing. nolite oppugnare Don’t attack Participles A participle is a verbal adjective. a. a. -entis Perfect passive participle (PPP) This means: having been …-ed It is also the last of the principal parts when you look up a verb. or –nt. a. um 3rd conj tractus. a. -antis 2nd conj docens. -entis 4th conj audiens. -entis 3rd conj trahens.g. 1st conj portatus. -antes and -entem. case and gender.

g. egressus – having gone out) adeptus having obtained conspicatus having caught sight of hortatus having encouraged locutus having spoken passus having suffered profectus having set out precatus having prayed secutus having followed suspicatus having suspected versus having turned Gerundives This is a part of a verb which means “necessary / must” The verb will always end in: -ndum est.g. -gressus having gone ( this could take lots of prefixes.g. mihi laborandum est I must work (it is necessary for me to work) servo hic manendum est The slave must stay here (it is necessary for the slave to stay here) 26 .Perfect active participle (PAP) This means: having …-ed Very few verbs have a PAP. These decline like a 2nd declension adjective. laborandum est fugiendum est The person who is having to do the gerundive is always in the dative case. as what Latin is literally saying is: It is necessary for me to work (I must work) e. e. e.

(See below).Subjunctives At your level of Latin. It is formed by taking the perfect stem (3rd principal part without the ending) and adding the following endings: -issem. -issetis. Pluperfect subjunctive You will only see this after cum (and very rarely in an indirect question). The most common one is the imperfect subjunctive. -issent 1st conj portavissem 2nd conj docuissem 3rd conj traxissem 4th conj audivissem 27 . 1st conj portarem 2nd conj docerem 3rd conj traherem 4th conj audirem There are NO exceptions. you simply take the present infinitive and add the following endings: -m. It will always be part of a clause / construction. Imperfect subjunctive To form this. You will meet 2 tenses of subjunctive. -mus. -issemus. -isses. -nt. -isset. you will never see a subjunctive on its own. -tis. -s. -t.

Use of subjunctive There are 5 clauses or constructions where you will see a subjunctive. e.g. 28 . When the Romans HAD attacked the enemy You can also find cum + the imperfect subjunctive (When/while something was happening) NB cum can still mean with. Cum Romani hostes oppugnavissent.g.: I asked her where she lived. 1 Cum + Pluperfect subjunctive This means when something had happened. when it is followed by the ablative case (and not the subjunctive) 2 Indirect questions An indirect question is a sentence which contains a question word but does not have a question mark. e. Question words in Indirect Questions Quis who Quid what Quo modo how Ubi where Cur why In an indirect question the verb (after the question word) will always be in subjunctive (imperfect or pluperfect).

3 Purpose Clause This is the most common of the constructions. This will always be followed by a Subjunctive (imperfect). 4 Indirect commands This is exactly the same as a purpose clause (ut/ne + imperfect subjunctive) EXCEPT Before the ut/ne you will see a verb of ordering or commanding. In this construction ut means that. It means : (in order) to e. So words adeo (so with a verb) tam (so with an adverb or an adjective) tantus (so great / big) tot (so many) 29 . ut (ut non) and an (imperfect) subjunctive. I went shopping to buy some eggs.g. In Latin you will see ut (negative ne ( in order not to)). impero I order moneo I warn / advise persuadeo I persuade oro I beg rogo I ask 5 Result clause This is a sentence which contains a so word.

a. a. um 10 decem 10th decimus. 3rd etc) Cardinals Ordinals 1 unus. a. a. um 11 undecim 12 duodecim These ordinals decline like 2nd 13 tredecim declension adjectives 14 quattuordecim 15 quindecim 20 viginti 30 triginta 40 quadraginta 50 quinquaginta 60 sexaginta 70 septuaginta 80 octoginta 90 nonaginta 100 centum 1000 mille. a. tria 3rd tertius. um 2 duo 2nd secundus. a. Cardinals are “normal” numbers. Ordinals are when you want to put things in an order (1st. milia 30 . um 9 novem 9th nonus.Numbers Numbers are divided into 2 groups: cardinal and ordinal. um 6 sex 6th sextus. a. a. a. a. um 7 septem 7th septimus. a. um 1st primus. um 3 tres. um 8 octo 8th octavus. um 4 quattuor 4th quartus. 2nd . um 5 quinque 5th quintus.

g. “on” or “at” (This is the answer to a “When” question. How long are you going to Spain for? For 10 days. When are you going to Spain? In 10 days / on Monday. duas horas for 2 hours multos dies for many days Time When ABlative When the time expression is in the Ablative. e.g. septem diebus in 7 days secunda hora on the second hour 31 . we translate with the word “For” (This is the answer to a “how long” question e.g.) e. e.Time Expressions Time expressions exist in only TWO cases: Acc & Abl Time How Long ACcusative When the time expression is in the Accusative. we translate with the words “in”.g.

too. habito habitare habitavi habitatum I live habeo habere habui habitum I have Remember: An inhabitant lives somewhere. advise maneo manere mansi mansum I stay. When you trade. (ad)iuvo (ad)iuvare (ad)iuvi (ad)iutum I help audio audire audivi auditum I hear audeo audere I dare Remember: Someone who is audacious is daring moneo monere monui monitum I warn. 32 . you have to hand something over A tractor drags a plough. are ways to help remember some of them: do dare dedi datum I give trado tradere tradidi traditum I hand over traho trahere traxi tractum I drag Remember: You give a donation.Appendix 1 “King’s Words” Below is a list of words which King’s boys find very difficult to remember. remain Remember: You want to stay in a manor or a mansion. Included.

capio capere cepi captum I take. An invention helps you find an easier way of doing something. depart venio venire veni ventum I come advenio advenire adveni adventum I arrive invenio invenire inveni inventum I find Remember: A venue is a place to which everyone comes. you have to seize it first. contendo contendere contendi contentum I hurry curro currere cucurri cursum I run Remember: After a curry you might well need to run! descendo descendere descendi descensum I go down discedo discedere discessi discessum I leave. An advent calendar shows when Christmas is going to arrive. To occupy somewhere. capture cupio cupere cupivi cupitum I want. tell duco ducere duxi ductum I lead Remember: A Duke leads an army 33 .pugno pugnare pugnavi pugnatum I fight oppugno oppugnare oppugnavi oppugnatum I attack occupo occupare occupavi occupatum I seize Remember: Someone who is pugnacious always wants to fight. desire dico dicere dixi dictum I say.

by iter (itineris) journey itaque and so iterum again 34 . away adsum adesse I am present. missum) ad to (You ad(d) one thing to another) a. ab from. here quam how (with an adjective). you are afraid but a terrorist frightens you dormio dormire dormivi dormitum I sleep dominus master donum gift Remember: You sleep in a dormitory. than (with a comparative adjective. mittere. a donation is a gift and a master dominates absum abesse I am absent. who / which (relative pronoun) quamquam although numquam never postquam after antequam before tandem at last tamen however miser wretched miserunt they sent (mitto.fugio fugere fugi fugitum I flee effugio effugere effugi effugitum I escape timeo timere timui I am afraid terreo terrere terrui territum I frighten terra land Remember: If you are timid. misi.

us noster our totus whole tutus safe carus dear clarus clear. patris father ira anger iratus angry via road. when mox soon nox night 35 . brave forte by chance fortiter bravely ibi there ubi where. famous fortis strong. homeland pater.Remember: An itinerary is the plan of a journey filius son filia daughter deus god dea goddess patria country. street vita life quis? who? quid? what? nos we.

... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Case………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… Subjunctive………………………………………………………………………………………....……………………………………… Infinitive………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36 .……………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… Participle………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… Person…………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Adjectives Positive……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... Comparative……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… Imperative………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… Nouns Declension………………………………………………………………………………………….Appendix 2 Use the notes above to help you fill in definitions of the words below: Verbs Conjugation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………… Gerundive……………………………………………………………………………………………......……………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Gender……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………… Tenses…………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Quam words…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Demonstrative adjectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Prepositions………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Time expressions………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Agreement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Conjunctions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Odds and Ends Pronouns…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Reflexive pronouns……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….... Personal pronouns………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...Superlative……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Adverbs…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Relative pronouns……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... Constructions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37 ..

.... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................. Verbs with irregular imperatives …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............... …………………………………………………………………… 38 ........................................................................................... Neuter Nouns...... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... Verbs with irregular infinitives ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....... Prepositions................... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………......... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............................ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................ Adjectives with irregular comparatives and superlatives....................... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............. Common adverbs.......................... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….............. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........ Why subjunctive ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2nd Declension Nouns........Use your notes to fill in below any notes about what might be a catch or irregular about the titles below................. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................ 1st Declension Nouns................................................................... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

in). 8 A cardinal number Write a number from 1-1000. SS. mox. de. eras. eras. a. X. U appear just before the ending) 3 A verb in the pluperfect tense Look for PP3 (often with a V. bene. cum. erat etc. X. It will always be in speech marks. Latin Grammar Questions Help Sheet These notes are designed to help with the eight questions on the paper which ask you to find an example of a certain grammatical feature. Also look out for subito. U just before the ending) + eram. erat etc. ab. It often has a comma on one or both sides of it. 1 A verb in the imperfect tense Look for BA in the ending (eram.. ex. The noun after it will be ablative. 9 An ordinal number Write a number from 1st-10th. 10 An adverb Top answer is non. S. SS. The noun after many prepositions will also be accusative. You expect the 1st noun in a sentence to be nominative. 7 A noun in the ablative case Look for one of Clara’s prepositions (e. 5 A noun in the vocative case This is someone being spoken to. 6 A noun in the accusative case This is the object and will usually be in the middle of a sentence. aderam and poteram are the only verbs without BA) 2 A verb in the perfect tense Look for 3rd Principal Part (PP3) (often the letters V. 4 A noun in the nominative case This means the subject of a sentence. S. aberam. 39 .

11 A conjunction Top answer is et.(before the ending) 18 A personal pronoun Look for part of ego. 12 A preposition followed by the ablative case Write one of Clara’s prepositions (e. ‘cum’ can also have a subjunctive after it instead of an ablative noun. ab. esse. 20 An infinitive Look for 2nd Principal Part (verb ending in –RE) N. quod. 16 A superlative adjective Look for –SS.in an adjective. velle. Also look out for sed.B. posse. 19 A relative pronoun Look for part of qui. 14 A subjunctive verb Give the verb after ‘ut’ or ‘ne’. -E. cum. nos or vos. NB irregulars (maximus. de. tu. minimus.in an adjective. optimus. quae. -I or –TE. plurimus) 17 A present participle Look for a verb with the letters –NS or –NT. An imperative will always be in speech marks and often comes 1st word (unusual for a verb) and often is followed by ! 22 A gerundive Look for a verb with –ndum at the end. 15 A comparative adjective Look for –IOR. ex. pessimus. 40 . a. in) 13 A preposition followed by the accusative case Write a preposition which isn’t one of Clara’s. nolle 21 An imperative Look for a verb ending in –A.