Velocity in pipe

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Some fire sprinkler design authorities such as EN 12845 limit the velocity through pipes and valves in fire
sprinkler systems; this is the case with EN 12845 however NFPA and FM do not have any restriction. The case
for limiting velocity is that the Hazen-Williams formula is less accurate outside its normal range and equivalent
pipe lengths for fittings, which are generally used, start to lose their validity. Some authorities believe that velocity
is self-limiting as pressure losses increase exponentially as velocities increase, so pipe sizes must be increased
to make use of available water supply pressure.

EN 12845 limits velocity to 6 m/s through valves and flow switches and 10 m/s at any other point in the system.
Velocity in pipe can be calculated using the following formula:-

The following table lists the maximum flows in litres per minute which can be obtained
through steel pipework to EN 10255 specifications for both 6 m/s and 10 m/s.

Maximum flows through pipes for EN 12845 fire sprinkler systems

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