DOI: 10.

1590/1809-2950/17160324022017

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Anthropometric profile, physical activity level,
degree of anxiety, and posture in college students
Perfil antropométrico, nível de atividade física, grau de ansiedade e postura em universitários
Perfil antropométrico, nivel de actividad física, grado de ansiedad y postura en estudiantes
universitarios
Deborah Cristina Gonçalves Luiz Fernani1, Giovana Mendes Cortez1, Isabelle Amaral Santos1, Francis
Lopes Pacagnelli1, Thais Massetti2, Talita Dias da Silva3, Denise Cardoso Ribeiro Papa2, Íbis Ariana Peña
de Moraes4, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro5, Maria Tereza Artero Prado6

ABSTRACT | The objective of this study was to evaluate Oeste de São Paulo. Peso, altura, circunferência da cintura e
the anthropometric profile, level of physical activity, anxiety índice de massa corporal foram coletados. Também foram
level, and posture of graduate students in the health aplicados o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física,
field. This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 college o Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado e o Instrumento
students from health courses at a university in the western de Avaliação Postural. Os resultados deste estudo mostram
state of São Paulo. Weight, height, waist circumference, que 67% dos estudantes têm IMC médio de 22,12±4,84 kg/
and body mass index data were collected. We also m² e 38% são regularmente ativos. Acerca dos níveis de
applied the International Physical Activity Questionnaire ansiedade, a amostra obtida (média IDATE E 40,6 pontos
for physical activity; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory e IDATE T 40,05) pode ser classificada como moderada.
for anxiety; and the Postural Assessment Instrument for Além disso, 50% da amostra tem concavidade lombar.
postural defects. The results of this study show that 67% Portanto, a maioria dos estudantes demonstrou valores
of students have an average BMI of 22.12±4.84 kg/m², and antropométricos normais, eram regularmente ativos,
38% are regularly active. Regarding anxiety levels, the tinham nível moderado de ansiedade e nenhum defeito na
sample obtained (mean STAI E 40.6 points and STAI T postura corporal.
40.05) can be classified as moderate. In addition, 50% of Descritores | Ansiedade; Postura; Condicionamento
the sample have lumbar concavity. Therefore, most health Físico.
care university students displayed normal anthropometric
values, were regularly active, had a moderate level of RESUMEN | El objectivo de este estudio fue evaluar perfil
anxiety and had no postural defects. antropométrico, nivel de actividad física, grado de ansiedad
Keywords | Anxiety; Posture; Physical Fitness. y postura de estudiantes universitarios de la salud. Este es
un estudio transversal de observación envolviendo 100
RESUMO | O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o perfil estudiantes universitarios de cursos de la salud en una
antropométrico, o nível de atividade física e a postura em universidad del Oeste del estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Datos
universitários da área da saúde. Este é um estudo transversal como peso, altura, circunferencia de la cintura y índice de
envolvendo 100 estudantes de uma universidade na Zona masa corporal (IMC) fueron recogidos. Nosotros también

Study carried out at Universidade do Oeste Paulista – Presidente Prudente (SP), Brazil.
1
Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Oeste Paulista (Unoeste) – São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
2
Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP) – São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
3
Graduate Program in Cardiology, Escola Paulista de Medicina (Unifesp), Universidade Federal de São Paulo – São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
4
Graduate Program in Physical Activity Sciences, Escola de Artes, Ciências and Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo (EACH-USP) –
São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
5
Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP); Graduate Program in
Cardiology, Escola Paulista de Medicina (Unifesp), Universidade Federal de São Paulo; Graduate Program in Physical Activity Sciences,
Escola de Artes, Ciências and Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo (EACH-USP) – São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
6
Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Oeste Paulista (Unoeste) – Presidente Prudente (SP), Brazil.

Corresponding address: Thais Massetti – Rua Cipotânea, 51, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo (SP), Brazil – Zip Code: 05360-000 – Email: thaismassetti@gmail.com – Finance
source: Universidade do Oeste Paulista (Unoeste) – Conflict of interests: Nothing to declare – Presentation: Nov. 2016 – Accepted for publication: May 2017 – Approved by the
Research Ethics Committee on advice no. 1475.

191

which are physical activity2.6 puntos y Idate-T Palabras clave | Ansiedad.8. and feet together with the occiput. and with arms undergraduate courses in the health area and consider positioned straight along the body. Por para ansiedad. Postura. Los resultados de este estudio mostraron presentan valores antropométricos normales. The objective of this research was to evaluate the barefoot. causing pathological disorders of the musculoskeletal system fatigue. This new phase may arouse fears. wall. waist circumference. Enrolled students were included in the study once they When the individual starts this cycle. this The proposal was presented to the coordinators of is often the case when starting university life as the the courses in order to seek support and dissemination student does not know how they will adapt to this new throughout the healthcare department. students4.05) puede ser clasificado como moderado. and Nutrition. Considerándose los grados de defectos posturales. However.38±1.Fisioter Pesqui. Fatigue is a power outage caused by maintenance were excluded. which requires adaptation to this new students with an average age of 19. Physical therapy.24(2):191-197 aplicamos el Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física para de 40. stressful and physically exhausting experience. (weight.12±4. el ejemplo obtenido (Idate-E de 40. y el Instrumento de Evaluación Postural para lo tanto. Subjects stress excessively increases muscle contraction. all full-time courses.5515. age) and anthropometric data position can be defined as body position and attitude. which was fixed on a smooth modify bad postural habits and anxiety levels7.71 years. and the back of the heel region in level. son regularmente que 67% de los estudiantes tienen IMC medio de 22. Consequently. if these conditions are related. digital scale with a maximum capacity of 160  kg and Therefore. Aptitud Física. students interested tends to worsen the painful condition. Además.0000. height. or strength failure during repeated muscle contractions. Medicine. The individual was placed in orthostatic position. this study is justified because it seeks to a resolution of 100 g. Each student was dressed in gym demonstrate the level of anxiety. el Inventario de Ansiedad Trazo-Estado (Idate) de los estudiantes del ejemplo presenta concavidad lumbar. It is a This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 college time of transition.0. anxiety girdle. 2017. the diagnosed previously with postural changes or other muscle cannot generate adequate relaxation. being selected in the order. and clothes (shorts and shirt) and positioned standing in level of physical activity in college students attending the center of the scale platform. This relationship could Height was measured in meters (m) using a tape be important to clarify if physical activity can positively with a resolution of 0. the western state of São Paulo. courses were Dentistry. Pharmacy. the state of agreed to sign the informed consent form.1 m. following the Anxiety combined with inadequate physical activity dissemination of information. 192 . Data collection began with the identification of the This makes it difficult to maintain a stance5. insecurities. sex. enrolled in courses in the health field at a university in uncertainties.84 kg/m² activos. pelvic girdle. Weight was obtained using a Plena® to maintain balance and harmony6. barefoot. 50% actividad física. The study was approved Anxiety is an emotional state experienced by many by the Research Ethics Committee with the number people and can be triggered by tension caused by a CAAE: 32315314. bad postural habits. level of physical activity. the chosen lifestyle and have to take responsibility for themselves. and anxiety1. This individuals (name. tienen grado moderado de ansiedad y no presentan y 38% son regularmente activos. lifestyle. and body mass the relative arrangement of various body parts in order index (BMI)9. which can trigger in participating were asked to enroll in the Physical a vicious cycle of adversely affected posture in university Therapy Clinic for one week. that can be relieved by the practice of Biomedicine. and posture of undergraduate students in the contact with the wall and the head remaining in the health field. shoulder anthropometric profile. INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY New challenges arise when one starts college. Frankfurt horizontal plane.3. la mayoría de los estudiantes de la salud analizados defectos de postura. ansiedad.

using a tape measure with a parts.00 to 0. and not at all anxious analysis. Anthropometric profile. • Irregularly active: one who performs physical activity insufficiently to be classified as active as the activity does not meet the recommendations RESULTS regarding frequency or duration.0 was used. a bit anxious (2). The percentage. and 1% Inventory (STAI)13. or moderate exercise or walking ≥5 days/ correlation.50 to 0. the height minutes during the week. relating to 25.0 to 34. often (3) sometimes (2) and rarely (1). >0. correlation. high (50-64 points) when measuring ≥94 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women. each has 20 questions. ≥40. or vigorous activity ≥3 data.08 cm. and BMI was 22. physical activity. anxiety. 1% obesity II. for this anxious (3). reasonable correlation. The first part was resolution of 0. moderate correlation to good. 18.5 to 24. Anxiety arms along the body10. or any added >0. we used the chi-square test. SPSS 15. shoulders and trunk16. To evaluate the vigorous activity ≥5 days/week and ≥30 relationship between categorical and numerical minutes per session.84 kg/m². anthropometric profile of the students is represented • Sedentary: one who does not carry out any as mean and standard deviation. anxiety and stress17.00. the results are presented in frequency and World Health Organization (1998) – was applied12. and the measurement physical activity for at least 10 continuous of body weight was 62. BMI was classified this study used only those items pertaining to the as <18. moderate (35-49 points). little or no session. The activities (walking + moderate+ vigorous). the Instrumento de at risk of metabolic complications increased substantially Avaliação Postural (IAP) by Liposcki16 was used.9 – normal weight. the Spearman correlation test was used. To assess the level of physical activity. IDATE is a active. was1. positioned on the umbilicus of evaluated as follows: exceedingly anxious (4). and very high (65-80 points)15. The correlation magnitude • Active: one who fulfills the criteria of vigorous parameters were recorded using those given by activity ≥3 days/week and ≥20 minutes per Portney and Watkins: from 0.9 – overweight. we used the moderate exercise or walking ≥5 days/week and Pearson test for parametric data and Spearman test ≥ 30 minutes per session. According to the BMI classification. activity ≥5 days/week and ≥150 minutes/week good correlation to excellent. 35. 67% normal weight. perfect (walk + moderate + vigorous). CA was 77±9. This Questionnaire was self-administered. To analyze the association between the categorical • Very active: one who fulfills the criteria of data. continuous data is presented International Physical Activity Questionnaire – the as mean and standard deviation and. for the days/week and ≥20 minutes per session + relationship between numerical data. The second part was evaluated as follows: always position. the individual was placed in the standing (1).91  kg. for categorical 8-question short version (IPAQ) proposed by the data. Regarding the results of the IPAQ. and Lushene and translated and validated subjects were classified as sedentary. Fernani et al. levels were scored as follows: low anxiety (20-34 The abdominal circumference is considered obese points).12±4. 38% as irregularly in Brazil by Biaggio and Natalicio.0 to 29. 17% as active and 25% as very active.65±0. The significance level for all tests was 5%. with feet together and a relaxed abdomen and (4).9 – obesity I. and posture in students The abdominal circumference (AC) was measured self-assessment questionnaire and consists of two in centimeters (cm).9 – obesity II. 2% obesity I. 30. and the distribution IPAQ consists of three levels: of the data was assessed by the Shapiro-Wilk test.25 to 0. Anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety 20% overweight. alignment of head. Already For an analysis of posture.75.50. the For statistical analysis.14.45 cm. 193 .25.0 the posture symmetry impairment and affected by to 39. developed by Spielberg.05±12. increasing the risk of metabolic complications. 20% of Gorsuch.75. The accomplishment of this rating adds to the Table 1 shows the evaluation findings that frequency and duration of different types of characterize the sample of individuals. 9% of the sample had low weight.16.0 – obesity III11. a lot the individual and parallel to the ground and. and ≥102 for men and ≥88 for women. for nonparametric data. and 1.1  cm.5 – underweight. obesity III. week and ≥30 minutes per session. >0.

Regarding overweight individuals. For very high ratings IDATE trait (classification) <0. (I. 8% had no change. because of Regarding the STAI findings. it was observed that there was little women were moderate when compared with men. and 3% very active. we observed associations with BMI classification (2%) and obesity I (2%. the in irregularly active individuals. 194 .33 hours.0001 10% active. in which 51 (62. IDATE state (classification) <0.641). the same number was regularly active (p=0. demonstrates that the concavity had a higher incidence p=0. no students were active.042). totaling 12%. and 10% very active.0001 active Female 82 (82) Hiperlordosis 12 18 8 12 50 Male 18 (18) Rectified 0 1 1 2 46 Body mass index (BMI) <0. and 2% had which 36 (43. 4% active. II.Fisioter Pesqui. 15% active.816). Active 17 (17) 5% were irregularly active. and 8% very active. which significantly correlated only with time students (r=0. with concavity (32%) and no change with normal In relation to the level of physical activity. 10% irregularly active.024). with a higher incidence in Lumbar concavity 50 (50) women (p=0.034).2%) evaluation of the IAP. 2%) women had moderate anxiety and depression.211. 10% difference was found between genders (p=0. Very high 2 (2) 3% active.9%) women were regularly active and only rectified lordosis. Thus. and Very active 25 (25) 4% were very active.0001 Without changes 8 19 8 12 4 Under weight 9 (9) Total 20 38 12 25 100 Normal weight 67 (67) Overweight 20 (20) When combining IDATE with the IPAQ.347). (p=0. postural changes were to excellent correlation (r=0. Of Irregularly active 38 (38) those with a high score in IDATE. 15% were sedentary.816) was found. 20% irregularly active. As for the classification of obesity 6 (33.350). In the low index rating. of Obesity II 1 (1) which 23% are irregularly active. and 12% inactive.641). it was shown that 55% had a moderate High 15 (15) index of anxiety. IPAQ (p=0. Low 23 (23) 4% were sedentary.24(2):191-197 Table 1. Distribution between IPAQ test and evaluation IAP General characteristics N (%) p-value Regular Sedentary Active Very active Total Sex <0. 3% were sedentary. only difference compared with normal weight individuals 4 (22. p=0. In the high anxiety index. in of them had concavity. When considering there was a significant difference between the sexes in the association between the BMI classification and the respect to STAI traits (p=0.6 points and IDATE T 40. a good and STAI E (p=0. 50% of the Without changes 46 (46) students showed concavity. 13% very Obesity III 1 (1) active. the sample mean score the full college schedule. 2% active. By linking the IPAQ test evaluation IAP.31±4. totaling 15% (p=0.0001 of 2%. a total of 23%. the Obesity I 2 (2) highest rate found was a moderate rating of 63%. and Moderate 63 (63) 12% very active. In relation to the lower rate IPAQ (classification) 0.183). 8% irregularly active.3%) men were active.001). IDATE T (p=0. Low 30 (30) When the IDATE T was combined with the level of Moderate 55 (55) physical activity. which indicates that the higher the value.016 of anxiety. 8% irregularly Sedentary 20 (20) active.05 Regarding the profile of anxiety and depression. General characteristics of health care students Table 2. One can justify this high incidence Lumbar rectification 4 (4) of concavity for individuals without change and link this Chi-square univariate test to the fact that the average number of hours they spent sitting during the day was 8. no significant weight (33%). High 12 (12) 1% of the population was sedentary.720). we found 5% to be sedentary. reached by IDATE 40.0001 Associating sex and the findings of IAP. 2017. IPA (classification) <0. more likely the individual is to present postural changes. III) there was a total of 4% of individuals with By analyzing the changes in the postural health of concavity who were distributed across obesity II and III students. totaling 30%. and is classified as moderate anxiety.

which is similar to the The results of this study demonstrate the study by Miranda et al.3% as overweight and results of the IDATE showed a higher prevalence of obese and 75.9 for anxiety state and 38. which is associated with the their level of physical activity. this means that college the study by Baroni et al. the IDATE showed that a level of anxiety. 195 . their study found AC with an average of 77. and differences exist in correlations of physical activity in resilience and it acknowledges that athletes and former adolescents16. concavity was presented in 65. psoas ilium. university students22. recent evidence suggests that gender Cevada et al. Ceschini and Júnior18 compared the level athletes are less anxious than sedentary people. what according to the classification. cardiovascular diseases. perhaps because the of exercise. Anthropometric profile. which is similar to the findings of In relation to time spent sitting. The between high BMI and a high level of anxiety in an explanations for these findings may be due to the new individual27. and more advanced age obesity26. 20% of students were overweight and 67% were normal weight. This fact of physical activity according to sex among young people shows that physical activity contributes to the physical in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. 75% had no shoulder elevation. which also shows a higher students spent 8. The IPAQ found that the highest prevalence was in By associating the level of anxiety with the practice irregularly active individuals (38%). imposition of a new lifestyle. young people respond similarly to physically less active than their male counterparts19.24.72 hours on weekdays. we found that regardless of the Female adolescents are often described as being level of anxiety. and sitting averaged 8. The study by However.1±0.28 evaluated phase that these students are experiencing and to the this on 136 students of a Physical Education course. The highest prevalence disorders. and posture in students DISCUSSION In this study. IDATE shows that which resembles the study by Almondes and Araujo21. endocrine disorders. A study by Rocha reported no association 37.25. or back head projection.30. it was shown that 63% of students were health benefits and improved quality of life with regular classified as having a moderate level of anxiety and 51% physical activity are well-known12. physical activity. according to the BMI classification. sleep disorders. quality of life. engaged in some kind of physical activity. when As already discussed. All this postural change may result in pressure As estimated by Farias et al.62 cm. justifying the lack of time – especially taking into with the highest incidence: 50% of college students with account internships and other activities – for physical a prevalence in women (45%). as obesity activity showed that 20% of the subjects were sedentary is a risk factor for the development of psychosocial and 38% were regularly active. 45.45 cm.33 hours sitting. 94% had no forward musculoskeletal disorders.2% as normal weight24. the accumulation of time shortening of the quadratus lumborum. adductors.3 related sport to anxiety. which evaluated 685 college anthropometric profile of health care students.23.29 individuals.03%).05). which is a figure prevalence of concavity in female students and active similar to that found in the work done by Raddi et al. when relating anxiety level categorized by sex. A study by Hainzenreder et al. (average STAI E 40. The 535 students and verified 18. In the current study.31±4. The justification for this prevalence in which evaluated 186 third year students at the Faculdade women may be explained by the female anatomy and de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo and the presence of anteversion. which can develop into other 98% of subjects had no side nods. The highest and emotional well-being.7% of of 77±9. Fernani et al. with no difference between the sexes. In a study using analysis of computed which is similar to the average AC found on this study photogrammetry.1% of women were physically active. of postural changes (50%) was concavity. This fact is reinforced in activity. exercises of different intensities with a decreased As for this study. having a lower body mass index can provide a higher who evaluated anxiety and obtained an average of level of anxiety. which affects physical and associated moderate level of anxiety was found for both ratings emotional well-being25.6 points and IDATE T 40.92±8. Although there moderate levels of anxiety in both tests (T and D). prevalence was regularly active individuals (44. When correlated with BMI. which evaluated overweight. is a prevalence in the category of normal weight. with students and found the prevalence of overweight to be 67% of college students with normal weight and 20% 16% and the study of Miranda et al. to physical exercise. The level of physical stands out are those with excess weight.20. this study shows that: overload on the lower back. the average time was this study in which concavity was the postural change 6 hours.84 for trait anxiety. anxiety.

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