Integrated Marketing Communication mix

Within the context of marketing, we see that marketing communication plays an
important role in the dissemination of information. Marketing communication is a term
used in a broader sense for promotional strategy. So it is more of a planned promotional
Within this we have the following tools:
• Advertising: Which is any paid form of non-personal communication of ideas, products
and services by an identified sponsor.
• Sales Promotion: Short term direct inducement to encourage sales of products and
• Publicity: Non-personal stimulation of demand for a product / service or business
organization as a whole by putting commercially significant news in media to create a
favorable image. The sponsor does not pay for it.
• Personal selling: For making sales, a salesman interacts orally with the buyer or buyers
in the form of sales presentation.

• Public Relations: Marketers engage in public Relations to develop a favorable image of
their organizations in the eyes of the public – public at large, customers, suppliers,
government, media, competitors, shareholders, employees and the society.

IMC can be defined as:
A concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a
comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication
disciplines. In other words, the message and approaches of general advertising, direct
response, sales promotion, public relations, and personal selling efforts are combined to
provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communications impact.

Advertising is but a part of this integrated marketing communication.
1. One such tool within IMC is Direct or Database Marketing. This involves not just
direct mail but also telemarketing & direct response advertising on T.V and radio and
other media, in which ad aims to generate an action response (eg. Call center
number). Direct marketing has two advantages over mass advertising.
• The ability to target specific individual consumers with an offer that is tailored to that
• The ability to directly measure response.

The goal of direct marketing may not be to generate awareness or change preference but
it generates some action. It could be to get an order or request for some information, a
visit to a dealer or a store and so on.
So direct marketing encompasses the following:
• Targeting
• Customization ability
• Measurability
This has become a major tool since many advertisers are combining direct marketing
efforts with their regular advertising efforts. Primarily to retain loyalty of existing
customers, to cross sell new products and services to these existing customers, and to
increase the amount or frequency of usage.
2. The second important tool within the context of IMC is Sales Promotion. They are of
two types:
• Consumer promotion (coupons, samplings, premiums, sweepstakes, low-cost financing
deals and rebates)
• Trade promotions (allowances for featuring the product in retail advertising, display and
merchandising allowances and the like)
These are used to get the consumer to try or to repurchase the brand and to get the retail
trade to carry and to ‘push’ the brand. Retails in turn use promotions to clear their
inventory of slow moving, out of season, shelf-unstable products (such as fresh produce).
Price cuts, displays, frequent shopper programs and so on are few of the sales promotions
done by the retailers.
So how does it play a role with IMC or advertising? There are 3 ways in which it plays a
• It is a key element in inducing trial or repurchase in many communication programs in
which advertising creates awareness and favorable attitudes but fails to spur action. The
action comes about due to the limited duration of the program so the consumer must act
quickly. The consumer may perceive this as a value for money purchase.
• In many retail outlets the companies are able to make out through scanners as to which
brands are moving fast off the retail shelves and also try to understand as to which shelf
does not receive much sales so that they could reduce the hiring or the display of
merchandise from the shelf. This is done in order to be cost effective.
• In order to keep the brand equity of the brand intact especially for high involvement
products and ‘feeling’ products, the advertising and sales promotion efforts must
complement each other.
Other action related marketing communications are as under.
Retail Advertising
The retails in order that the consumer can see the product and buy it are those that
provide the consumer with lots of information. So listing the size, color and prices of
various shirts in a store make a buyer more action inductive. Appropriate behavioral
aspects are used in case of durables and automobiles. The advertisement used here must

create a strong sense of desire, curiosity and urgency to get the reader or viewer to make
the store visit.
Cooperative Advertising
Here a manufacturer offers retailers an advertising program for the later to run. The
program may include suggested advertising format, materials to be used to create actual
advertisements, and money to pay a portion of the cost. Certain merchandise quantity is
also suggested for the retailer to stock and perhaps display. There are 3 types of co-op
1. Vertical: When the upstream manufacturer or service provider pays for a downstream
retailers ad.
2. Horizontal: When local dealers in a geographic area pool money for advertising.
3. Ingredient producer co-op: When the producer of an ingredient pays part of an ad run
by the user product.
The intention of this type of communication is to stimulate short-term sales. The
advertising is specific to the product, the place as to which it can be purchased and the
price. To maintain the brand image and to reinforce the company’s leverage with the
retailers are important long-term considerations. The need should also be to expand the
distribution coverage by allowing allowances to the retailers.
Reminder, point-of-Purchase and Specialist Advertising
Reminder ads serve to stimulate immediate purchase and/or use to counter the inroads of
competitors. It is basically reminding the consumer about its existence. ‘Shelf talkers’ or
point of purchase materials placed in stores at or near the place where the brand is on
display. You might have seen sachets of shampoos hanging right in front of the shop and
they hit you on the face that could be taken as point of purchase material. Here the
product itself acts as the material. Top of the mind awareness is the basis of the reminder
and point of purchase material. Specialist advertising is useful in circumstances when
certain free products like diaries, pens and calendars bearing the name of the
manufacturer are given to the consumers for greater brand awareness. Pepsi and Coca
Cola often paint the entire shop with their logo, this is to remind the consumer of their
existence in that area.
Sales promotions
Sales promotions are different from advertising, in that they do not involve the use of
mass media. Many sales promotions are designed to encourage the immediate sale of
goods, while others have longer-run goals of keeping customers loyal to the store, aiding
salespeople, or attracting customers into the store. The term promotion is used to refer to
all communication efforts made on an impersonal basis, including sales promotions,
publicity, and advertising.
Personal selling
Personal selling involves individual, face-to-face communication, in contrast to the
impersonal mass communication involved in advertising. Effective personal selling is
quite often, the most important and effective element in retail communication.

Two factors distinguish publicity from advertising – cost and control. When a newspaper,
magazine, TV or radio features a retailer’s store, personnel, product or events and the
retailer does not have to pay for it, the retailer receives publicity. The retailer cannot,
however, control the time, direction, or content of the message.
Retailers cannot directly control what customers say to friends about their stores, services
and products. However, they should be aware of this channel of information because
potential customers often rely on what customers of a store say about it. Unfair treatment
of one customer can create an ever-widening web, as more people are told about that
customer’s experience. Fortunately, fair treatment and real value are also discussed
among customers, although positive aspects may not have as much influence as negative
ones do. The point is, customers are going to talk about how they are treated in a store.
Proper product packaging protects the product as well as provides a message that
facilitates its sale. Unfortunately, in most cases, retailers purchase products already
packaged and, therefore, have little control over the communication on the package.
However, the retailer should always consider the image and message projected by
packaging as a part of the total communication mix. The retailer does ‘package’ many
goods with paper and plastic bags, boxes, and wrapping paper. Such packaging, carefully
designed, can prove to be an effective yet inexpensive element within the complete
communication programme
Merchandising and In Store Advertising
Of late it has made a lot of inroads in outlets. With Bennetons with their color scheme in
various shelves, Raymond’s with their window display play a major role in attracting the
consumer base. This is so because most decisions about brands are made when you enter
a particular shop. So the use of displays, signs, and positioning of the particular brand in
the store is an important decision making exercise.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Another important tool within the marketing communication is the Customer
Relationship Management (CRM). Relationship management is emerging as the core
marketing activity for businesses operating in fiercely competitive environments. On
average, businesses spend six times more to acquire customers than they do to keep them
(Gruen, 1997). Therefore, many firms are now paying more attention to their
relationships with existing customers to retain them and increase their share of
customer’s purchases.
Advertising management
Advertising is multidimensional. It is a form of mass communication, a powerful
marketing tool, a component of the economic system, a means of financing the mass
media, a social institution, an art form, an instrument of business management, a field of
employment and a profession.

Now, let us say that a firm has developed a product, which will satisfy the market
demand. So essentially he has to reach out to the public or to his target market and inform
them about his product. For optimum exposure he has to make sure that he reaches out to
the maximum number of people. So mass communication would be the best way to reach
out to the people hence the medium of advertisements to reach out to the masses. It
should be however understood that advertising itself couldn’t sell the product it merely
assists in the selling process. Advertising also cannot rejuvenate or restore a poor product
it only helps in the selling process through the means of communication.
Matrimonial advertisements, recruitment advertisements, tenders, classified
advertisements, notice, public announcements are also examples of advertisements.
Basically you must understand that adverting is an announcement to the public of a
product, service or idea through a medium to which the public has access. The medium
may be print (newspapers, magazines, posters, banners and hoardings), electronic (radio,
television, video, cable, phone, internet) or any other. An advertisement is usually paid
for by an advertiser at rates fixed or negotiated with the media.

The American Marketing Association, Chicago, defines advertising as “any paid form of
non personal presentation of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor.”
So a form could be a presentation. It may be sign, a symbol, an illustration, an ad
message in a magazine or newspaper, a commercial on the radio or on television, a
circular dispatched through the mail or a pamphlet handed out at a street corner; a sketch
or message on a billboard or a poster or a banner on the Net.

Non-personal would mean that it is not on a person-to-person basis.
Goods, Services, Ideas for action would mean making a consumer’s work easy in
knowing about the product of the firm. It could be a television, or a banking service or
filing your tax returns, which the firm or the marketer wants the consumer to know about.
An idea could also be political parties letting the people know about their party and why
they should vote for their party. Adult education, beware of AIDS, donate your eyes are
but a few examples of ideas.
Paid by an identified sponsor would imply that the sponsor has control over the form,
content and scheduling of the advertisements. The sponsor could be identified by the
company name or the brand of the particular product.

Advertising as a communication process
Advertising is a communication process. You have a certain message and that is
‘Decoded’ by a party (Sender) to be ‘Encoded’ by another (Receiver). We must
understand that the message so encoded should be so clear that the person should not
distort the meaning of it. This means that what you are trying to say and what the other
person makes out of the message should be the same. You should not make the other
party confused. So it means that the message should:
1. Gain attention of the receiver.
2. Be understood.
3. Be able to stimulate the receiver and suggest appropriate method to satisfy their needs.

Secure Interest 3. Obtain Action The above has been formulated as the AIDA Model. Action would normally mean the acquisition of the product. Within the AIDA framework. When you feel that you want to posses the particular product or be associated with it. the colors used. The advertisement. Desire would mean the buying motive. both Interest and Desire would relate to the affective stage and Action would be a behavioral activity. Within the framework of advertisements the following should be kept in mind: • Understanding the Objective(s) of the advertisement (MISSION) • Defining the Target Audience (MARKET) • Understanding the Budget (MONEY) • Understanding the Message (MESSAGE) • The Media used for putting the advertisement (MEDIA) • Seeing whether the advertisement was Effective (MEASUREMENT) The above would commonly be termed as the 6 M’s of Advertising. Attention could be the form of the layout of a print advertisement or the way an advertisement is made in the form of moving pictures. the movements used and the contrasting element used. Attention would refer to the cognitive stage. LECTURE 3 Communication Model As we have understood that the sender identifies the receiver(s) and develops a message. So what makes an advertisement effective? Below are the key points on the effectiveness of a message. the basic of the sender is that the customer or the target audience should buy the product or the service. We are bombarded by so many advertisements that there are a few we see and while a few we don’t. Advertising And Its Types  Retail Marketing  Political Advertising  Product Advertising:  Service Advertising  Corporate Advertising  Public Services Advertising  Financial Advertising . 1. For this we must understand whether a particular message so created has been effective in reaching out to them. the models used and the copy written. Build Desire for the product 4. is what an advertiser looks at. It basically means to catch the eye of the public. Attract Attention 2. which arouses interest in us and provokes us to think or feel about a product.

generating more sales leads. Johnson’s baby oil and baby cream were originally targeted to mothers. Milkmaid was originally promoted as a substitute for milk. increase in market share and return on investment) and communication objectives. Similarly. Some of the broad advertising goals are explained as per the following: 1. Similarly new brands of existing product categories are also promoted quite aggressively. It is now being . a great deal of advertising has to be done over an extended period of time to make people aware of “What the product is” and What it does” and “How the customers would find it useful”. The same products have now been directed towards the adult market for their personal use. the introduction of new products and brands can give the seller a tremendous opportunity for increasing his sales. Two recent examples are the launching of “Pepsi Blue” soft drinks during the world cup and launch of “Mountain Dew” in subsequent period. Another way of expanding the consumer base is to promote new uses of the product. The next stage and the one that preoccupies most advertisers. The communication objectives of advertising can be grouped in to the following • Building awareness (informing): The first task of any advertising is to make the audience appreciate that the product or service exists and to explain exactly what it is • Creating favorable attitudes (persuasion). In the case of innovative products (totally new to the market) such as Laptop Computers.  Global Advertising LECTURE 4 Objective Setting Advertising is a method of communication with a specified objective. increasing repeat purchases and supporting the personal selling efforts. 2. is to crate the favorable attitude to the brand which will eventually lead the consumers to switch their purchasing pattern • Maintenance of loyalty (reinforcement) One of the tasks which is often forgotten is that of maintaining loyalty of existing customers who will almost always represent the main source of future sales There are general objectives of advertising that covers goals like encouraging increased consumption of a product by current users. increasing brand awareness. the advertisement also carries information about the availability of the product and facilities for demonstration/trial etc. Launch of New Products and Services: In a saturated market. In addition. Expansion of the Market to Include the New Users: Advertising can be used to tap a new segment of the market. The Objectives of advertising as explained before are grouped as sales objectives (measured in terms of increase in sales. security systems and educational purposes. hitherto left unexplored. For example. For example TV and Video Camera manufacturers who have been concentrating on domestic users and professionals can direct their advertising to the government institutions and large organization for closed circuit TV networks.

It can also be used to educate the people about an improved product e. Dealer support is critical. 5. advertising is used to make a special offer. declining sales. to encourage selling of stocks and to urge action on the part of readers. space may be taken to list the names and addresses of stockiest and dealers. offer off-seasons discounts to promote sales. “Surf Excel” gives the impression of an advanced detergent powder. . advertisements discourage the consumption of liquor and drugs.advertised as an ingredient for making sweet dishes and also as a sandwich spread for children. The campaign of “Dil Maange More” during television breaks of cricket matches is to have a top of mind recall. Hotels offer special rates during off.g. The advertisement is aimed at remaining the customer to ask for the same brand again. cigarettes. 6. 7. To Sought Dealer Cooperation and Motivation: A successful retail trader depends upon quick turnover so that his capital can be reused as many times as possible. although there may be no tangible difference between the earlier brand and the new one. In this type of advertisement. “improved”.g. air-conditioners. 9. which are bought frequently e. which gives the brand a distinctive ‘image’. 3. is used as prefixes to the brand name. For example. Similarly many products like room heaters. To Announce Location of Stockiest and Dealers: To support dealers.season. which have a high rate of repeat purchase. apart from helping the retailer with local advertising.g. the product or brand acquires a ‘personality’ associated with the user. Advertisers send “display” material to dealers for their shops. 8. soft drinks. blades. Sometimes societal advertising is used to educate people on the usefulness or harmful effects of certain products. “a new refill pack for might perceive a minor packaging change Nescafe” 4. Sometimes the customer as a modified product e. or those products. Other uses of advertising could include recruiting staff and attracting investors through “Public Issue” advertisements announcing the allotment of shares etc. Campaigns against unsafe sex and AIDs are sponsored by government and voluntary agencies.Few other objectives: Advertising also helps to boost the morale of sales people in the company. The second type of advertising also known as ‘comparative advertising’. Announcement of a Special Offer: Because of competition.Announcement of a Product Modification: For such advertising. It pleases sales people to see large advertisements of their company and its products. Similarly. For example. the terms “new”. and they often boast about it. generally. “Excel” etc. Colgate Dental Cream campaign about 20% extra was to increase volumes through a sales promotion campaign. slack season. To Create Brand Preference: This type of advertising does two things: (I) it creates a brand image or personality (ii) It tells the target audience why Brand X is better than Brand Y. . For example. fans. etc. etc. etc. particularly for those who have limited shelf space for a wide variety of products. To Educate Customers: Advertisement of this type is “informative” rather than persuasive”. This technique can be used to show new users for a well-established product. 10. takes the form of comparison between two brands and proves why one brand is superior. Pearl Pad odor free jars and bottles.Reminder Campaigns: This type of advertising is useful for products.

Income. 3. It must concentrate on this unique claim or the Unique Selling Proposition (USP). you get answers like. perfect campaigns insist on an attainable objective as a prerequisite . Occupation. So. Successful advertising campaigns have the same kind of criteria. 1.You must understand that an Advertising Objective is a Communication Objective "An Advertising goal is a specific communication task. They start with objectives. The Competition. The segment of the Market aimed at all of which should be set down in the marketing objective. Attitudes to Product. The Product and its virtues. Issues like Social class. It must be a distinctive – unique claim. Then you know when the campaign is over and whether you have won or lost. you set an objective like "Capture the Kargil back" or "March through McMohan Line". Defining Advertising Objective you must proceed from: a. so you can tell how the campaign is going and whether you are winning or losing. you need parameters that can be measured. What do consumers like about Brand? What do they dislike? This is where you need research into consumer attitudes: Step IV: Define the product promise or claim. to be accomplished among a defined audience to a given degree in a given period of time". "All of our people like it very much" or "It's a bit early to tell. "Advertising is the art of getting a Unique Selling Proposition into the heads of the most people at the lowest cost" Step V: Define the Brand Image: What will be the brand's 'Personality?' i. It must be meaningful and of value to consumer 2. In a military campaign. c. you ought to be able to tell with a much greater degree of accuracy what it is doing for you.e. If you ask them how their campaign is going. To do this. but we think it's going to be very successful". Step I: Define the audience. Advertising campaigns are in one sense like military campaigns. such as increasing advertising objectives with specific goals. Step II: Define the Stage of the Communication task. What is the Specific Communication task? Communication is a process of acting on the mind of your audience. Values and ambitions. share of mind or brand awareness. Step III: Define Consumer Preference or Resistance. or you shouldn't be spending it. The important thing to understand about setting advertising objectives is that most advertisers do not set sensible ones. What character or association does it evoke? After you have answered the above questions it is then that we are moving ahead where the setting of objectives are concerned. But then these same advertisers are not sure if their advertising is paying off either. “We must create a state of mind conducive to purchase". b. The truth is that if you are spending Rs 10 lakhs or Rs 10 crores.

In addition I see a person to be confident and knows what he / she wants out of life. Tell me can I look at you to be my target audience? Of course I can. So does that mean you are to be my target audience for the pair of jean? . The price of the jeans is Rs.Determining Target Audience Let us say that I want to market a brand of jeans. 1000/ and I would like college-going people to wear that jeans.

then disinvestment may be an option. 4. here the firm puts an amount of advertising expenses on the unit as add on. Historical Method: In this method last year’s advertising budget is adopted for the year with a view that practically no change has taken place in the market and market growth is slow. For every product there is a specific people. In order to tailor your marketing and advertising strategies to appeal to the tastes and interests of your market. In such a case only marginal advertising budget is sufficient to clear the stock. In order to do this. industry norms or on the basis of the prevailing market conditions. It will provide the correlation between the competitive sales and advertising effort. the more information you have about your target market. . Percentage of Sales Volume: The percentage is worked out on the basis of a firm’s historical budget. Following this method without considering market conditions may create problem. firms can be proactive in their approach by planning their own goals of marketing and then the advertising budget will emerge. distribution pattern and advertising. rather. the better able you will be to develop a successful marketing plan. While it mostly works out same as a sales percentage. Instead of reacting to competitor advertising results. Keep in mind. Last year’s budget could be multiplied by a factor to cover media rate increase. which are to be kept in mind while marketing the product. 2. LECTURE 5 Advertising Budget There are various methods of deciding on advertising budget. This decision will be largely influenced by the objective that we set for the campaign. Depending on the firm’s strategy of increasing market share or steadying the share. decision can be made to have a bigger or smaller budget than competition. we are manufacturing what the needs of the people are about. Unit of Sale Method: Consumer durable firms make use of this method as a variant on sales percentage. If the firm realizes that at the decline stage the competitors are moving out then the firm can decide to take the leadership position through aggressive advertising. Competitive Parity Method: the firm must carefully study Competitive information regarding their sales.You must understand that we are not merely manufacturing and selling. If the product is in the disinvestments stage. you it is necessary to conduct thorough research of the consumer marketplace. If the market has started an upward trend then one percent extra amount will be put for advertising budget. 3. The most commonly used advertising budgeting method include 1. For example if there is a new product launch then the advertising campaign will have to be high where as for launching a repeat campaign one would like to spend less. you must first identify your customer. If the firm’s market share is in a downward trend then the firm may decide to increase the advertising budget. which does not justify any addition to the budget.

increasing market awareness by a certain percentage over the figure obtained from the brand tracking study. efficiency level of sales personnel. 11. These kinds of firms follow a method of affordability and spend what is left after managing the details of the official expenses involved in paying to the factors of production. market trends and results of advertising and marketing. This method takes in to consideration the demand and supply situation and is more used in industrial products. Operational Modeling: Market research gives advertising expenses. Elasticity Method: This method takes in to account the seasonality of business and the periodicity in the purchase cycle of consumers in to consideration. future sales projection. Percentage of Anticipated Turnover: This method is useful in dynamic markets and budget can be fixed on the estimated demand pattern than the current year sales. they add up the amounts needed for each activity. Objective and Task Method: Marketing people follow this method more often as this is a scientific method where the advertising goals are explicitly stated and the cost to achieve the target is also spelt out. changing media scenario and changing media impact on the target market segment. Taking each activity like increasing geographic sales area. 6. a total amount is decided as advertising and each strategic business unit receives a share according to their needs. 8. market response and sales per advertising figures and the modeling is done to explain the budget. Total Group Budget: In case of multi location and multi product line firms .5. 9. 7. sales problems. . seasonality of the market. This method helps the group to segregate some amount for corporate group advertising for building the image of the organization. Affordability Method: Some firms believe that advertising is tactical and not strategic and hence does not need much attention. 10. Composite Method: This method takes in to consideration several factors in formulating the advertising budget which include indices like firm’s past sales. market environment. production capacity. regional considerations.


Incite them to act. What would you like your consumer to perceive this brand as? What position would it take? The answer to these questions is given by marketing research and by the advertiser and his agency. the message is an idea.e. Thus there are tonics in the market. the objectives could be: 1. Confirm the legitimacy of their choice after the purchase is made. The objectives tend to vary with audience. Marketing. 1. Prior to that. the Creative Director of Clarion made a landmark campaign of Maggie 2. Walter Mendez. we have to decide what we have to say. to cook aimed at children to begin with. Who are the competitors? What is their promise? 5.. 3. When we communicate with consumers. What is the nature of the product: its generic category. a pleasantly flavored tonic containing Lysine – a growth factor from Lederle has been promoted as ‘ a tonic for growing –up children’ to stimulate their growth in terms of height.the tonic for growing children. and the ‘how’ part is the development of the message. to purchase the product 4. Is the product different from the other available products? How? Is it a technological breakthrough? 6. Message Design and Positioning Our advertising message consists of the idea together with other relevant information. . LECTURE 6 Creative Strategy The print ad appears in the media. There is a set of tonics for children and expectant mothers. The audience sets the agenda of marketing objectives. The broadcast ad goes on air. and includes its execution as well. for the aged and for the persons recovering from illness. good to eat and fast. There are haematinic tonics of iron for anaemic individuals. On which occasions will the product be used? How often? 7. The following question gives a good insight. Passing on information 2. What are the special characteristics of the product? How is the consumer going to be benefited? 4. The ‘what’ part is the design of the message. For whom it is meant: the segment. Incremin. image etc. Create brand awareness 3. 2. meant for the intended target. i. Along with perhaps other relevant information – attitudes. The visual of a giraffe eating leaves off a tall tree. The creativity of the agency matters most here. and then how do we say that. emphasing its tall neck re-enforces the concept of growth. Design and Marketing Objectives As we have seen. The idea spots the uniqueness of the product to win a place in the consumer mind. It is easier said than done. Message design identifies the consumer’s perceptions about the products.minutes Noodle a positioned as any time snack. Incremin found a strong vacant position and just sat on it.

i. The following points are to be kept in mind while communicating with the audience: 1. 7. social needs and psychological needs of the audience. Make use of question to involve the audience. At the end the ads provoke the consumer to act. Instead of building a wall around the product. The objectives when we communicate with the trade could be: 1. where the audience is provoked to complete and close it by pondering over it. It compares advantages and disadvantages of a product. 9. Make use of Zeigarnik effect. Let them know the implications of these conclusions. Arouse the audience. 2. Use familiar words and build up points of interest. The consumer profile in terms of their education.the-counter 3. 4. Use rhyme and rhythm.e. To make them buy our raw material 2. 12. for instance when Waterbury’s compound is advertised they say ‘when vitality is low. Peripheral presentation provides pleasant association. Messages are represented either centrally or peripherally. A central message takes a direct route to persuasion. This central presentation provokes active cognitive information processing. 5. and favorable inferences about the product. These ads are consistent with the self. and give it a reason for listening to you. It is a well – documented ad. markers make use of several appeals – appeal to the basic needs.’ 10. interests. 8. Empathize with your audience. Message Presentation Messages are to be structured keeping the objective of the communication and the audience in view. 6.image of the respondents. scenic background. Use specific and concrete words. To push the product on. To convince them about rational product benefits 3. Convince the audience by sticking to facts. The discussion on different kinds of appeals has been postponed to a subsequent chapter. To induce them to stock the product 2.. To convince them about cost aspects. Repeat key points. The objectives when we communicate with manufactures could be: 1. LECTURE 7-10 Ad-Appeals In order to attract the attention and create interest of the target audience. experience also has a bearing on message buy the product. Voltas refrigerators incorporating rational appeals is an example. The consumers must understand the message. . To provide strategic shelf-space to the product. 11. leave the message incomplete. 3. the message should create a bridge to the target audience by being persuasive. Ask the audience to draw conclusions. The messages are designed keeping the marketing objectives in mind. Waterbury’s brings back the glow.

two-sided arguments. the ad was resented. a repeated message increases awareness and knowledge on the part of the prospect. (ii) Repetition: Repeating an ad message is often beneficial. In many instances.. The rational ads appeal to logic. Moreover. Advertising Message Structure Advertising communication effectiveness not only depends on the message content. and the order of presentation. It does not add anything extra to the persuasive quality of the advertisement. though it is no doubt an important component. It is seen however that most ads are a bend of rational and emotional message. give straightforward facts and figures. e. the audience may resent the communicator’s interference in drawing a conclusion. for it develops a continuity of impression in the minds of the target audience. Moreover. and falls off quickly when repetition is abandoned. Baby’s ideal solid food for rapid all.” . one – versus. The relationship of repetition and advertising effectiveness has been dealt with in detail in the chapter on “Advertising Effectiveness. since conclusion drawing at best assists in an easy comprehension of facts and not in the process of attitudinal change. However. and may increase the predisposition to think and act favorably towards the products advertised. When the issuer involved is simple and the audience. if the communicator is perceived to be unworthy. it will not affect very much the persuasive quality of ads that aim at a change in attitude. it is best to let the receivers of the promotion message draw their own conclusions. but on its structure as well. an ad for a fire extinguisher. Everything else being equal.round growth. starting with a sensational headline: “ Your baby is born with a 3- month gift of iron. promoting the use of eggs among vegetarians. and much criticism was published against it in the Reader’s Opinion column in popular dailies. milk alone cannot give him the iron he needs. After 3 months. Such consumers feel that the message which draws a conclusion is over-aggressive and an attempt at forcefully influencing their choice. The important aspects of message structure are: Drawing conclusions. these were not accepted. A typical example of this is the recent ad campaign sponsored by the PoultryFarm Association in Gujarat. repetition.” The ad closes with the conclusion: “Doctors recommend Farex. Since this touches a highly personal issue concerning religious attitudes. When the issue is highly personal. Eggs from the poultry farms were given a new name the “Veggs” and recommended for consumption in that segment of society which is fully vegetarian. the receiver may resent the attempt on his part to draw a conclusion for him and influence his choice.” A long body copy goes on to explain that Farex is ideal baby solid food. This has been discussed again in detail in the subsequent lessons on appeals. rational and emotional appeal ads. (i) Drawing Conclusion: The question often raised is whether definite conclusions should be drawn for the audience in the ad for quick understanding or should they be left to them.g. The emotional appeal ads make use emotional and symbolic clues. We shall discuss them in detail one by one. Thus. but rather resented.These are distinct. even though promoters sought the sale of the product in a new segment by drawing specific conclusions. Audience retention improves with repetition. The Farex baby food ad. conclusion drawing is favored where the product is a complex or specialized one.

A two-sided communication produces the greatest attitude change when people are opposed to the point of view presented. for it is difficult for the advertiser to refer to the product’s shortcoming and still effectively persuade prospects to buy it. Two. a two. it is factual. Captain Cook has translated its technological superiority into product superiority. While doing so. When coke took over Thums Up. especially when new brands in parallel categories are springing up at a rapid rate. Pepsi retaliated by calling it Thoke.sided message tends to be more effective with educated audiences capable of sound reasoning. Salvon. In car marketing. the competitive product should not denigrate. comparisons do not confer artificial advantages on the advertiser.(iii) One –versus. Instead. the consumer is unlikely to be misled. However. a two-sided communication is effective in maintaining the belief level against a counter-attack by competitors. However. Captain Cook. Even definitive plus is no guarantee that the disparaged brand will not be taken as the hero of the commercial. There is a tendency for viewers to come away with the impression that the brand which you disparage is the hero of your commercial. Pepsi was branded by Thums Up as gulab-jamun-like or as a drink kept out in the rain. This trend has been seen more and more in some recent campaigns. Most prominent among these have been the Pepsi. compare ads are usually a tool for a smaller brand trying to build business. the free-flowing salt has been compared to Tata salt that is moist enough to stick. (iv) Comparative Advertising (CA): Here a product is directly or indirectly compared with a competitive product to show the advertised product to advantage. and verifiable. we see Hyundai Santro campaign directly never compare itself to No. There are hits and counter hits in this game. . The most common approach in sales and advertising is a one-sided approach. relevant. Captain Cook Salt and Pepsodent and Colgate campaigns. it is found that one-sided messages tend to work best with the audiences that are initially favourably predisposed to the claims made in the ad message. The ultimate aim here is to create brand distinction. particularly when they are exposed to counter propaganda.” – David Ogilvy. Unless there is a definitive plus it is not advisable to disparage the other brand.two-sided Communication: This raises the question whether the advertiser should only praise the product or should also mention some of its shortcomings. in Ogilvy on Advertising. it is the single-side communication that is commonly used. CA is permissible if it is objective. Also. In the USA the Federal Trade Commission encourages truthful non-deceptive CA. In fact. Besides. substantial. In UK. Also. The recent Rin-and-a-look-alike-Ariel campaign is also a pointer. there is no unfair denigration of the competing product. 2. specifies that comparative advertising (CA) – direct and implied – is permissible if the aspects of products compared are clear. Continued warfare in ads gets boring for consumers. on deep analysis. ASCI.sided arguments go well when audiences have an unfavorable opinion about the communicator’s position. Whisper sanitary napkins have also been introduced on comparative grounds of absorbance. Negative Advertising: “Studies conducted by O & M found that commercials which name competing brands are less believable and more confusing than commercials which don’t. there is no end to competitive advertising.

logically and rationally. a baby food item. to start with the other side’s argument and slowly disarm the audience which is opposed to the communicator’s position. the claims made about the superiority of the advertised product." The headline has highlighted the problem of necessarily giving iron to the baby 3 months after its birth. and evidence in support of. explains. sketches. the remaining parts of the ad are wasted. There is no right or wrong length or form for an effective headline." The supportive sub-heads say. for it will result in better attention and interest. it is better. it systematically develops the benefits and promise offered by the product. Many copywriters use both pictures and words to put across their creative ideas. Facts and figures about the product. illustrations and visual symbols. or it may have pictures with a short message or a slogan. In a one-sided argument. features and product values. we invariably have ads in print with picture. which is enriched with iron. However. This is done with the objective of achieving the primary effect. A perfectly worded headline can create the required excitement. a sensational" scene most appealing to prospects. the job of the sub-head is easier.(v) Order of Presentation: Whether to put the strongest argument first or last in the advertiser’s presentation is equally important. Copy of Ads in Print The most important copy element is the headline idea. milk alone cannot give him the iron he needs. a dramatic or provocative picture or photograph can effectively create an emotional or tragic scene. and thus become a good grabber of the prospects' attention. and the to conclude the message with the strongest argument. The ad copy may be a word-message. testimonials. Sub-heads should further carry the idea of theme and should help readers to have more knowledge of the product and services. when an audience necessarily required a two- sided communication. Sometimes this is considered a part of copywriting strategy. and gives convincing arguments in favor of. Give him Farex enriched with iron. Each headline must relate clearly and specifically to the intended audience and to the rest of the advertisement. guarantees of satisfactory . is the right solution of the problem. It stimulates liking and preference for a product. has its headline: "Your baby is born with a 3-months' gift of iron. If the headline has already rightly suggested the product's value to the consumers. product attributes. since pictures get better attention than the words in the headline above or below the picture. it is advisable to present the strongest point first. and statements from celebrities. highlighting the product features and its USP. However. Moreover. Farex. news flashes. Several such examples may be given of the headline and its supportive subheads.they may be questions. The words and pictures should be complementary to each other. its test results. for they (subheads) generally expand or amplify the headline idea. One of the ads of F AREX. After the headline come the sub-heads. warnings and appeals. In the body copy. at least initially. and the sub-head suggests that the product. both emotional and rational reasons are put forward to persuade consumers to buy a particular brand. If the headline idea fails to attract the prospect to the message and the product. After the sub-head comes the body copy. "After 3 months. Headlines may be in many forms .

it should be closed with enough information and motivation for the buyer to act. the product attributes are described. and more details can be presented in it to the reader. it is incorrect to say that either the short or the long copy enables us to make the right approach in an ad. . which mostly concentrates on one strong selling idea. But readers may not often like. The copy uses direct active sentences. There are varying types of closing an idea "call to action. a particular place in the classified columns. It looks very commonplace announcement. it has a high impact headline. or have the time to read. It is not read the way your favorite magazine is read." "visit today our dealer/ stockist. E. Newspaper ads are generally placed in. and a reference list of customer patronizing the product all these are given in the body copy. The copy of such ads has to be different from that of magazine ads even for the same product. Moreover.g. it is mainly filled with news. minimum words. Copywriting for newspaper ads is different from copywriting for magazine ads because the newspaper has a different editorial environment. depending upon the nature of the product. Sometimes you communicate better by writing short copy instead of being verbose.) • Descriptive copy: In a non-technical manner. . Therefore. Due care should be exercised while handling emotional appeals. the investment page." "send enquiries immediately to." "buy now. The copy of a newspaper ad is generally short.' A short copy may not be fully communicative at times. but not the least. High involvement goods or durable goods or industrial goods. There are short and pithy sentences. A rational appeal is appropriate for industrial goods. Emotional appeals are generally useful when advertising "convenience or style goods" rather than consumer durables. the lengthy body copy of an ad unless the headline is so attractive and persuasive that they automatically begin to read it. etc.performance. the market and competition. Our body copy should contain the required reasoning to convince the customers to spend their money on our product. The length of the body copy should be just enough for you to say all that has been promised in the headline. Nothing more and nothing less. Below are the different types of copy • Scientific copy (Technical specifications are specified. Since an ad is a one-way communication. The appeals may be both objective and emotional. it may be mentioned here that the closing idea in an ad copy is as important as closing the sale in personal selling. if over done. you have to tie up your copy with the current news event. facts." "announcement of festival discount. LECTURE 11 Long Copy versus Short Copy: A long copy looks impressive. information and local gossip. there is the possibility that the entire credibility of the ad message would be lost. Abram Games advocates 'maximum meaning. We should always be able to make the right emotional appeal." etc. It is primarily a source of news and information. and is hardly read for entertainment. Last. on the sports page. It should come sentence by sentence to fulfill the promise made in the headline.

and its benefit to the consumer. • Humorous copy: Humor has been heavily used in advertising-especially in TV commercials. Only a distinguished and favorable atmosphere is created for the sale of the product. . each time an occasion is given to justify it. It is just as heavily suspect. e. • “Reason Why” Copy It is known as an explanatory copy where the reasons for a purchase are explained. • Prestige Copy The product is not directly advertised. Otherwise they are totally wordless. it has strong appeal. Or else.• Narrative copy: Here a fictional story is narrated.g. the narrative is humorous. • Disruptive copy comes about when there is a disruption in the way of thinking or conventional thinking. • Intentional copy comes about when advertisers copy elements from rival creatives in the same product category in order to create dissonance with a view to secure competitive foothold. The cola war can be an excellent example of this type. Liril Vs Cinthol ads both emphasizing lime freshness. • Colloquial copy: Here informal conversational language is used to convey the message. several questions are put forward not to seek answers but to emphasize a certain attribute. • Wordless Advertisements There are at times billboards with only an inscription like Amul. Wordless advertising is an example of non- verbal communication (NVC) and are pictorially. I shall be discussing this at length in a later lecture. • Comparative copy here two brands are compared either in good light or in a way to belittle the other. But effective humor makes the advertisement noticeable. • Topical copy comes about when a copy is integrated to a recent happening or event. Each reason illustrates a particular attribute. you had ads like – ‘Britannia Khao. The benefits of the product emerge from the story. • Endorsement copy here a product is endorsed by an opinion leader who has a large following. It should make an imprint on our memory. The copy is used to build an image. • Questioning Copy: In this copy. Maybe. In many TV advertisements. It could even become a dialogue. One attribute may be chosen and repeated for several times. World Cup Jao’. Especially during the world cup days. • Advertorial is a newspaper or magazine feature that appears to be edited but is really an ad. we find the colloquial copy.

Most good copies are designed as if they were meant for a single prospect. Short Copy Copies are addressed to a right target audience. While doing so. Long Vs. which is not our creation. . The litmus test is to sleep over the copy overnight. a story or a novel. and see whether the same copy is worth retaining. asking an aspiring copywriter to convert a photograph using different copy styles is a good test. Targeting Words in the copy need crafting like a diamond so that they sparkle. Write to the Point Who likes a lingering copy? It is not advisable to beat around the bush. LECTURE 12-15 LESSONS IN COPY Crafting Anything that is relevant and readable is read .whether short or long. Personal Presentation A copywriter has to go and sell his work to the client rather than relying on anyone else. Copy Style Copywriting is a versatile art. A copy can be written in the style of a personal talk. we must remember that spontaneity is at stake. Perhaps this means writing and re-writing a number of times. should not be killed for that reason. We have to get to the point. A campaign should be consistent with the brand personality. In fact. Body-copy needs as much attention as the headline. Ego to be sidelined A great campaign.

The making of a TV commercial involves huge ad expenditures for the client. choose the voice of the person for the ad. which starts the design of the advertisement and results into the development of a finished ad layout in print. It is a process. This involves choosing the location and sets of the ad. reminder of an existing product in a new way to the target audience. This involves a lot of editing until the final spot is ready for release on air. This process begins with the client sending in his/her requirements (called a ‘brief’ in ad terminology) stating if it is for the print medium or television or radio. A writer’s role begins at this stage. Knowledge of the different departments of an advertising agency will be helpful in understanding the nature of work of a copywriter. But who are the people behind such creative advertisements and how are they made? Who directs these ads and writes dialogues for them? If these questions plague your mind. In case of radio advertisements. An advertising agency is divided into the following departments: Creative. then here’s some information that will help you understand this creative field better. working with photographers and renowned directors. pack promos. actors/ actresses and models. where he thinks of ways and means to communicate this message to the target audience. it is the process of designing the ad. Visualization & Layout In developing an ad. Direct Marketing and PR.Case Study on Copy “Thanda matlab Coca Cola. who belong to the creative department of advertising agencies. Writers work together with directors and producers on the ad budget. Secondly he works with the art director if it is a press ad. Thereafter. Copywriting provides an array of opportunities in the field of media. What are the areas that a copywriter can enter and name any 2 qualities required of him. One can even switch to filmmaking from writing copies for ads. The ultimate outcome of the process of visualization is the layout. The copywriters belong to the creative department of an agency. Write a copy of 100 words promoting a Resort in a hill station of your choice and give suitable ‘punch line” to the resort called – ‘Country resort”. Product specifications that are necessary for making the ad and a profile of the target audience is also sent along with it other than the deadline for submission. it completely depends on the ability of the writer to ideate and visualize his thoughts and express it on paper. In the case of a TV commercial. The people behind such ads are called copywriters. the most important activity is visualization. When we talk of visualization. Client Servicing. Media Planning. Together they decide the images and visuals and the font and typography for the copy text of the ad. Account Planning. Firstly the writer presents the ideas to the client to get the idea approved in order to begin the process of making the ad. and work with the recording people in the studio on the sound effects and final radio spot.” resounds in the background even after Aamir Khan ropes out a bottle of Coke for the three city gals who come to him asking for “Thanda”. writers make scripts for the ad. we talk about the art in advertising. Copywriters have to work in tandem with several people in an agency to get an ad released. In terms of print ad. product promotions etc. Writers work on the conceptualization of ideas for different brands. The ads are normally made for the launch of a product/ store. the writer calls the shots in directing the ad. who are the consumers of the product. .

he foresees how all these elements will be appearing in the copy. Headline lettering is done carefully. They indicate the elements and their positions. As copy matter. 50 p. which gives a finished advertisement complete with printer's instructions from which the plates. At the second step. Headline. so that they can be made into larger sizes called roughs or visuals. The various possibilities are drawn separately.g. Package 5. Roughs are forerunners of comprehensiveCl. Seal of approval 6. Quality marks etc. Many thumbnails when made. I . depending upon its overall significance.we call them thumbnail sketches or first roughs. Comprehensive comes very close to final artwork. Comprehensives or comps are more finished form of roughs. the shape of layout begins to emerge. only rough lines are put. Price 4.c. for the copy. The body copy 3.1i Roughs give an exact idea about the proportions and placement of elements. for the headline. All elements here are scribbled. There is visual evidence on paper. Each element is assigned a weight. The basic elements with which a visualizer works are: 1. give us an idea which one or more will best suit us. e. His questions are: • Whether my advertisement will have headline? • Whether there will be a sub-headline? • Whether there would be a body copy? Whether to have illustration or a photograph? • Whether to include slogan? Etc. sub-heads 2. It is very difficult to say where the process of visualization ends and where the shape of layout begins. The body copy is pasted. body copy and the visual.. Look any ad in print and see the basic percentage of space allotted to the headline. Coupon 3. Photos and illustrations (actuals) are used. Logo signature There may be elements like: 1. 30 p.c.A visualiser decides about the inclusion of different elements at the beginning of his work. The illustration 4. Border 7. the stereos or electrotypes are made. LECTURE 16&17 Transformation from Visualization to Layout Once a visualiser exercises himself mentally and puts his pencil to paper. It is a smooth transition however. and we are moving from abstract ideas to concrete shapes. These are made in actual ad sizes. for the visual and 20 p. Each element is positioned.c. Slogans 2.

There -can be some brain waves from the copywriter. first greeking is done in which copy is pasted into position. Creative persons are gifted or can be trained. We can pin down the problem and develop the advertisement copy accordingly. Then the conscious mind shou1d be switched off from the problem and the subconscious mind is allowed to take over. (v) Accommodation: The original idea is modified.. strolling in a leisurely fashion or in some such state of relaxation. open mindedness. reframed or polished and made to practical use. Creative Director. Clarion says: "I visualise an advertisement first before I write it. He sets problems for himself and seeks their solutions. we have to create first a script with a series of TV screens (frames) that can accommodate thumbnail visuals. We do meditation from analysis and synthesis of ideas. LECTURE 18 Creative Process in Visualization The following are the five principal stages in creative process: (i) Saturation: The manager becomes very intimate with the problem and its environment. driving a vehicle. we require a flow of ideas . Very often this happens while sitting in a cafeteria. For idea visualisations for radio and TV. He is independent in thought and action." Once the final copies are made.Q. group understanding and lack of conditioned thinking. We can have a good database or briefing before visualization. which vary from rough stick figures to photographs and comprehensive drawings suitable for client's approval. (iii) Incubation: The subconscious activity precedes a fresh approach.those ideas are obtained from many sources and using many techniques. The creative mind forms a pattern of the problem by combining the scattered data. (ii) Deliberation: A perfect knowledge of the environment and attendant data is essential for creativity. which are of interest to the conscious mind. We can employ Osborn's Brainstorming technique. This topic is further elaborated in the chapter on copywriting. The test of all good advertising is that you should be able to see the end product. When the conscious mind is relaxed the subconscious mind works to give some of the best ideas. The conscious mind is the seat of logic and the subconscious mind directs itself to problems. keeping the objective of the communication and the audience in view. Secondly. application of imagination to problems. . Visualization and Creativity In the visualization process. Walter Mendes. Creative process demands free exchange of ideas. The steps in the visualization process are those involved in any creative process. uninhibited personality with a sensitivity and flexibility. (iv) Illumination: Here an idea actually flashes across the mind of the decision-maker. a presentation is made before the client. there is copyfitting in which typed copy is converted into typography. These presentations should be structured.In copy comping. They have ideational fluency. high I.

This is done through layout. It is normally on the right hand side keeping in mind that most people are right handed. Coupon: This is a part of the advertisement that enables a consumer to get in touch with the advertiser. Both rectangular and triangular ones are in popular use. Border: Is the frame of the advertisement. Words in the heading should be short and verbs should be used to attract attention. hence the key lies in the differentiating the offer. Decoration: Greater interest for the applicability of decoration is in the fact that it should supplement or emphasize the message of the advertisement as a whole. It is a focused identity. visualization. Caption: Used to describe the sub-title. You should remember that the competitors can copy the USP. Mascot: It is also known as the ‘Trade Character’ or ‘Trade Figure’. The name and postal address is an integral part of any coupon. but could be four. brand image gives a rather diffuse identity. I need to tell you as to how we should integrate the above in the advertisement. for example. The offer or the request must follow in close heal. Dove soap. Heading: This is the title of the ad. But this very association is the benefit. Background: Could have picture. It tells the story quickly. The obligation of the customer is given by their signature space. Should be short. a USP is: • The creation of a distinct Brand position in the mind • The product differentiator becomes the Brand differentiator • Each ad must make a proposition to the customer. LECTURE 19 USP or Unique Selling Proposition USP makes the consumer identify the brand with a particular benefit. It established itself via the rational and logical appeal way. headline and message. a narrow identity. blocks. open textured identity. But it is an important part of the layout. So I ask you what is this USP? According to Rosser Reeves. Since we have discussed copy. Hence the benefit offered is that the skin will not dry up. and graphics but should not overshadow the foreground. Perhaps. The following are the ingredients of a good layout. clearly and decisively. The company was the first to do it. It may be defined as an illustration of either real or an imaginary figure or personality introduced into the . Sometimes difficult to locate. contains ¼ moisturizer. Although in most of the advertisements it normally lies at the end. Marlboro gave a cowboy image via USP. • The competitors should not have made that promise or proposition. Which is basically arranging the various elements of an advertisement to give it an essence. five or even six decked. Heavy or light would be at the discretion of the layout person. The benefit to the consumer should be said in the message. No hard and fast rule is there regarding the position of the coupon in the layout. Brand stimulates an association of the benefit. tiles.

Key issues in establishing corporate identity for a starting or small business rest in establishing goals. There is pride in ownership. Product: It refers to the representation of the product for sale. etc are a good example. Its importance is in relation to the advertiser’s message. It is especially important in outdoor advertising. Slogan: As described earlier it is a ‘Tabloid’ sales argument. The image is that of the letter ‘T’ and seems to engulfing the entire world. Ownership logically follows. thrown up against heavy or futuristic background or by decoration. Care free white surf across the bottle with red background. It may be employed to either supplement and support the heading or to ‘pick out’ the various selling points contained in the text. 2 . Toyota. Mercedes Benz. You should remember what the logo does for the company.. The consumer should look at other features in the layout that will make it desirable for him to look at the price naturally and would not associate negatively with it. it often means the difference between the success of your business or that of your competitor. Whether it is half a page or it is 30-second spot on television. Corporate signature reinforces the pride of the company. It represents the personality of the company and its products. A number of photographs could be so put so as to form a well laid out composition. But most tend to sway away or forget that the first realization of your business is brought upon by the company logo. The inclusion of the company’s name and address is not always important hence the logo or a specially designed image of the brand or the company can replace that. ‘Applying Thought. A logo is the image your business portrays. Logo or Name Plate: This is the signature of the advertisement. It sets the potential clients position and interpretation of your company The impact of a logo can be so powerful. business plans and image.advertisement to personalize the sales message or the name of the product or service. Coca Cola: It is the complete name with a wave like image.’ Tata: It is solidity. Maharaja of the Air India is a suitable example. Wipro name is beneath it. But it is advised to show it in practice. except when a discount or sale is mentioned. Few examples of logos are as below: Wipro: Sunflower with five colors of rainbow. Space: It goes on to describe the entire space that the advertiser has bought for sale. The popular logos of Tata. It could be featured in isolation. Sub-heading: It is a secondary heading. The difference and distinction aid recognition. Small Business Challenge Small businesses today face the ultimate challenge to create a long lasting solid first impression. It is more or less associated with the cheapness of the product when a price is shown in the advertisement. The usage of price should be as minimal as possible. The other issues in the layout that you must look upon are: Price: Price is seldom the dominating feature in a layout. Star TV network. This important consideration in creating a corporate identity will enable the small business birth an existence in its field of choice and will show others that the company cares about its image. followed by a phrase.

Trademark: It is the word or design by which the commodity is defined. . Firstly. Lower case letters are better that capitals. It should not be too wide neither should it be too narrow.guidelines should be followed for the inclusion of sub-heading. You must understand that a particular balance must be brought out in the layout so that there is a flow in the sequence of the various elements of the layout. it may dominate the heading or the nameplate. to use them sparingly and secondly. expanded letters better than condensed and roman letters better read than italic. The consumer should be able to read the copy with ease. Text: The copy or the reading matter is termed as text. Spacing is very critical. to use them to pick out the selling points in the text only when the text is too ‘heavy’ to invite attention otherwise. It may form the background or be embodied in the border. A registered trademark should always be included in the layout.

it can serve as not only a communications channel but also a transaction and distribution channel. magazines. a viz. billboards. The Internet has emerged as a medium for marketing and advertising since 1994. The wide coverage of the mass media makes them ideal vehicles for advertisers who need to reach a large audience. Brochures can contain a great deal of information if designed well. television and radio are considered mass media because they deliver messages to a widespread. For example. Consumers can get information and make purchases and payments all through the Internet. the advertising objective could be driving saliency. Second. Advertising is used to communicate certain information to the prospects in order to attain the marketing objectives. After the advertising objectives are identified the media objectives are decided. without resorting to other means. This analysis is done to get a bird's eye view of the market in which the brand is operating and its relative position viz. This involves taking the following decisions: • Media Selection • Calculating Reach • Frequency of Exposure or OTS • Cost Efficiency Media Selection The Media Major Methods of Advertising (Repeatedly Getting Message Out) Brochures or flyers -. reinforcement of existing perceptions. LECTURE 20 The Media Planning Process In advertising the term media refers to communication vehicles such as newspapers. television. changing perceptions. they are defines to avoid the possibility that different criteria are used by everyone involved right from Managing Director to the executive in the creative department of the agency. and they are becoming a common method of advertising. improving the brand image.5 inch by 11-inch sheet folded in thirds) brochures. No other medium can accomplish these marketing functions instantly. direct mail. radio. magazines. The media are usually classified into either mass or niche media. and the media depend to different degrees on advertising revenues to cover the cost of their operations. inducing certain behaviour and trials. which carry this communication to the target audience.Many desktop publishing and word-processing software packages can produce highly attractive tri-fold (an 8. The starting point for a media plan must be the marketing situation. Advertising media such as cable television and direct mail are often viewed as “niche” media because they reach a narrowly defined audience with unique demographic characteristics or special interests. its competitors. anonymous audience. Media are the means. the Internet is by nature interactive. . Newspapers. The Internet is different from conventional advertising media in several respects. and the Internet. This is followed by defining the Advertising Objectives. increasing awareness. Advertisers’ use media to convey commercial messages to their target audiences. First.

Newspapers (neighborhood) -. and many people still listen to the radio.As with e-mail. Note that some businesses and municipalities have regulations about the number of size of posters that can be placed in their areas.This can be powerful means to conveying the nature of your organization and its services. Find out if there's a magazine that focuses on your particular industry.this depends on the buying habits of your customers. Posters and bulletin boards -- Posters can be very powerful when placed where your customers will actually notice them. Newspaper is often quite useful in giving advice about what and how to advertise. Reporters are often on the look out for new stories and sources from which to collect quotes. Know when to advertise -. You can get your business in the newspaper by placing ads. Consider using a consultant for the initial design and layout.Direct mail -. the length of ads and when they are put on the air. Newspapers (major) . Newsletters -. Ads are usually sold on a package basis that considers the number of ads. for example. Note. You may want to build a mailing list of your current and desired customers. Today's desktop publishing tools can generate very interesting newsletters quite inexpensively. If there is one.Magazines ads can get quite expensive. This should be used carefully and it can incur substantial cost. Mailing lists can quickly become out-of-date. however. then the magazine can be very useful because it already focuses on your market and potential customers. A major consideration with radio ads is to get them announced at the times that your potential customers are listening to the radio. etc. When you join a group. when in their cars. Collect addresses from customers by noticing addresses on their checks.These can be wonderful means to getting the word out about your business. always check with the moderator to understand what is appropriate. . and always refresh your posters with new and colorful posters that will appear new to passers by. But think of how often you've actually noticed posters and bulletin boards yourself. Many e-mail software packages will automatically attach this signature line to your e-mail. . Advertising can get quite expensive. Magazines -. On-line discussion groups and chat groups -. you don't want to inundate your stakeholders with information so make the most of your message. Consider placing an ad or writing a short article for the magazine. Your best bet is to place the posters on bulletin boards and other places which your customers frequent. E-mail messages -. yet the neighborhood newspapers are often closest to the interests of the organization's stakeholders. Notice mailings that get returned to you.Almost everyone reads the local.A major advantage of radio ads is they are usually cheaper than television ads.Ironically. Radio announcements -. that many groups have strong ground rules against blatant advertising. Contact a reporter to introduce yourself. if you prefer. major newspaper(s). Keep the list on-line and up-to-date. Design your e-mail software to include a "signature line" at the end of each of your e-mail messages. you can gain frequent exposure to yourself and your business by participating in on-line discussion groups and chat groups.Mail sent directly from you to your customers can be highly customized to suit their nature and needs. writing a letter to the editor or working with a reporter to get a story written about your business. asking them to fill out information cards. these are often forgotten in lieu of major newspapers.

However. burning your company name and image into the minds of your audience. Newspapers. information about your products. is bolded. in a large box on the page. etc. Many boards on highways reach hundreds of thousands of people every day. including getting a computer. Television ads usually are priced with similar considerations to radio ads. etc. . buying (usually renting) a Web site name. and the name of your business is descriptive of your services and/or your ad stands out (for example. They usually have special packages where you get a business phone line along with a certain number of ads. Businesses are developing Web pages sometimes just to appear up-to-date. directories. the length of ads and when they are put on the air. Using the Web for advertising requires certain equipment and expertise. etc. They are more expensive than most of major forms of advertising. etc.Billboards are huge landmarks on the road that people notice. Billboards -. Editorials and letters to the editor -. Outdoor is commonly know among ad professionals as the very best at creating awareness--it’s known as an "awareness medium. designing and installing the Web site graphics and other functions as needed (for example. advertising and promotions on the World Wide Web are almost commonplace. commentary from happy customers.). that is. The kit usually includes information about your business.This kit is handy when working with the media or training employees about working with the media.Telemarketing -. Using eyecatching colors and copy can make your Billboard memorable. an on-line store for e-commerce). so staff should regularly offer articles (of about 200 to 900 words) for publication. The phone company will offer free advice about placing your ad in the Yellow Pages. Press kits -. If you want to generate awareness of your company.Is there something in your industry or market about you have a strong impression? Consider writing an article for the local newspaper or a magazine. Billboards reach an incredible number of people. with the increasing number of television networks and stations. Yellow Pages --The Yellow Pages can be very effective advertising if your ads are well placed in the directory's categories of services.The use of telemarketing is on the rise.) and maintaining the Web site. remember. the number of ads. newspapers often take strong interest in information about these needs.Many people don't even consider television ads because of the impression that the ads are very expensive. pictures. promoting the Web site (via various search engines. use the opportunity to describe what you're doing to address the issue through use of your business. Web pages -." Promotional Activities Through the Media (Reporters. imagine how aware of your presence people will be if hundreds of thousands of people see your huge landmark billboard everyday with our simple clear message. businesses might find good deals for placing commercials or other forms of advertisements.Often. In your article. program providers are experts at their service and understanding a particular need in the community.You probably would not have seen this means of advertising on a list of advertising methods if you had read a list even two years ago.) Articles that you write -. Television ads -. getting an Internet service provider. Now. and TALK about.

etc. announcing a major program or service or campaign. Our fates are bound as those returns affect our customer's bottom line and ultimately our own. by doing more to demonstrate that effective media planning & buying delivers quantifiable returns. suppliers. If Media Specialist Agencies ever hope to break themselves out of the downward slide in remuneration then demonstrating our value is critical. It's up to the media industry to prove that media is an investment rather than a cost.They alert the press to a major event or accomplishment and requesting. They include. It's amazing that one can send out 500 brochures and be lucky to get 5 people who respond. for example. they explain who. coffee cups. And there is nothing more accountable than one's bottom line. Networking . Yet. challenges and financial status. and can include. We have called into question the adequacy of our lawn mowers and the nature of lawn upkeep. an open house. accomplishments. e. Only comprehensive performance measures leading to heightened accountability will determine that value.Spread the word to peers.It seems more common to find ads placed on pens and pencils. Collaboration or strategic restructuring . where. print T-shirts.. you can give a presentation to 30 people and 15 of them will be very interested in staying in touch with you. etc. The Bottom line Advertising works like grass: you don't see it grow. T-shirts. quotes.These tend to attract attention.Identify at least one representative from each major stakeholder group and take them to lunch once a year. Usually. Find ways to give even short presentations.Press releases or news alerts -. for example.If you're organization is undertaking these activities. Other Promotional Activities and Events Annual reports . some include pictures. informal exchanges can cultivate powerful relationships of interest and concern.We see these offers all the time. to make it easier for the reporter to develop an announcement or story. sales. these PSAs are free. etc. coupons.Many radio and some television stations will provide public service announcements for nonprofit efforts. This condition often implies additional costs to mail novelties. etc.You're probably an expert at something. Special offers -. trade shows. etc. but you need to mow the lawn each week. Public service announcements (PSA)s -.g. Novelties -. seminars. etc. Presentations -. educators. granting a special award. e. discounts. e. Chamber of Commerce meetings. What seem as short. Both advertisers and media professionals remind us of Oscar Wilde's definition of a cynic: a person who knows the cost of everything and the value of nothing. at local seminars.g. it get included in the newspaper. . professional organizations and those with whom you interact outside the organizations. celebrate it publicly. consultants. what. Special events -. Relationships with key stakeholders -. Advertisers should ask themselves whether they are sure their media planning & buying is as good as it should be …or could be. sweepstakes..g. etc. These can be powerful means of advertising if indeed current and potential customers see the novelties. clients. conventions. they're ripe with information if they include an overview of your year's activities.Disseminate these to key stakeholders.. why and when.

Test customer awareness of brand recognition and perceived values Build customer loyalty and relationship .Test customer awareness .” is deception involved when many (particularly other Milwaukee brewers) argue that other beers are superior? What does “finest” mean? One advertisement claimed that a hair dye would color hair permanently. This second area is much more difficult to measure Answer to “how effectiveness of an advert be judged?” Depends on what objectives or tasks were set for the advertisement. and it is heavily determined by political attitudes. is the . The Sales Effects . .Number of enquiries converted into sales Remind customers of the existence of a product . One central issue is definitional.what is deception? One ad claimed that “Milwaukee’s finest the intended message being communicated effectively and to the target audience 2. a host of issues need to be addressed.Levels of repeat purchase . Others who believe government has a role to play tend to want more legislation and government regulation.Measure type of goods ordered by new purchaser.Test customer awareness both before and after the advertising campaign . The table below sets out some possible objectives/tasks and how the effectiveness of the advertisement might be measured: Advertising objective How success can be measured Stimulate an increase in sales . To understand advertising regulation.Number of enquiries Inform customers .Measure demographic profile of purchases .Number of requests for further information Build a brand image .Sales .Number of enquiries from advert . If someone exposed to the advertisement believed that the dye would hold for hair not yet grown and thus a single dye would last for decades.Levels of customer retention Change customer attitudes .Analyzing the effects of campaign The evaluation of an advertising campaign should focus on two key areas: 1.Compare with previous data LECTURE 21 Regulation In Advertising Advertising regulation is a fascinating subject. Those who believe in less government and think that business should be left alone to regulate itself tend to favor less advertising regulation.has the campaign generated the intended sales growth. The Communication Effects .

Incorrectly implying that an endorser uses and advocates the brand. omission. The more difficult and perhaps more common case. Puffing takes two general forms. 7. The practice is material and consumer injury is possible because consumers are likely to have chosen differently if there was no deception. Identifying the advertising 11. . to which we now turn. is when the input. Implying that a benefit is needed or that a product will fulfill a benefit when it will not. A basic issue in the enforcement of these laws against deceptive advertising. is how to define and identify deception. “Try something better” (J&B Scotch). They all involve some measure of exaggeration .” and “Super Shell” are examples. There is a misrepresentation. or practice that is likely to mislead. “You can’t get any closer” (Norelco). Using an ambiguous or easily confused phrase. None of these statements has been proved to be true. A disclaimer may not pass through the attention filter or the message may be misinterpreted. 8. Implying that a product benefit is unique to a brand. it states that deception will be found if 1. 2. A Misrepresentation or omission There are a variety of ways in which misrepresentations or omissions can occur: 1. Implying a benefit that does not fully or partially exist. is not obviously false. Making a claim without substantiation 9. “State Farm is all you need to know about insurance. but the perceptual process generates an impression that is deceptive. Dividing the definition into its three major components. The first is a subjective statements of opinion about a product’s quality. but neither have been proved false. the advertisement. Nearly all advertisements contain some measure of puffery. 4. 3. The consumer is acting responsibly (or reasonably) in the circumstances. Bait and switch 10.claim deceptive? Coming to Indian experience. Telemarketing 12. Artificial product demonstrations 3. Suggesting that a small difference is important. The input itself may be determined to contain falsehoods. 6. using such terms as “best or greatest”. “ Live better electrically” (Edison Electric Institution). Conceptually. “ Gas gives you a better deal” (American Gas Association). however. deception exists when an advertisement is introduced into the perceptual process of some audience and the output of that perceptual process (1) Differs from the reality of the situation and (2) Affects buying behavior to the detriment of the consumer. put brand X fairness cream and you will get married. 5. Intellectual property Puffery A rather well-established rule of law is that trade puffing is permissible. 2.

The second form of puffery is exaggerations extended to the point of outright spoof that is obviously not true. and even if he were real. Based on stated definitions and policy. he wouldn’t be talking the way he does. A Green Giant is obviously fictitious. In the 1927 Ostermoor case. the court pointed to the puffery argument in denying that a mattress company was deceptive in using an illustration appearing to depict that the inner filling of a mattress would expand to 35 inches when in fact it would expand only 3 to 6 inches. . puffing has been narrowed to the point where no deceptive claim can properly be termed puffery.


when used as a noun. Brands are a means of differentiating a company’s products and services from those of its competitors. term. symbol or design. There is plenty of evidence to prove that customers will pay a substantial price premium for a good brand and remain loyal to that brand. a product name. These craftsmen used their initials. feel loyal to such brands that the mere sight of their logo has us reaching into our pockets to buy their products?ctional benefits. or some combination that identifies the products of a firm. sign. or marked. can refer to a company name. So we can say that branding today is used to create emotional attachment to products and companies. Brand image is defined as consumers’ perceptions as reflected by the associations they hold in their minds when they think of your brand. therefore. or a unique identifier such as a logo or trademark. ranch owners branded. symbol. therefore. A product mix relates to the total set of brands marketed by a business. sign. The width of the product mix can be measured by the number of product lines that a business offers. much more than just creating a way to identify a product or company. their cattle so they could later identify their herd as their own. term. or another unique mark to identify their work and they usually put these marks in a low visibility place on the product. design. BRAND MANAGMENT Can you Define Brand Now? One complete definition of a brand is as follows: “A name. LECTURE 22-24 Brand concept The word “brand”. A good example would be the range of desktop and laptop computers manufactured by Dell. and an aura of intangible qualities that surround the brand name. So we can say in short: Brand is a name. So what exactly is the definition of “brand”? Let’s cover some definitions first before we get too far into the branding process. In a time before fences were used in ranching to keep one’s cattle separate from other people’s cattle. contain several or many product lines. It is important. A product line is a group of brands that are closely related in terms of their functions and the benefits they provide. Today’s modern concept of branding grew out of the consumer packaged goods industry and the process of branding has come to include much. to understand what brands are and why they are important. Branding efforts create a feeling of involvement. They normally fall within a business’ product line or product group. Three other important terms relating to brands should be defined at this stage: As we discussed earlier it is very important to be clear about the difference between Brands and products Brands are rarely developed in isolation. mark. . a symbol. a sense of higher quality. or symbol. as consumers. that is intended to identify the goods and services of one business or group of businesses and to differentiate them from those of competitors”. or a combination of these. A product mix could. Do you know the concept of branding also developed through the practices of craftsmen who wanted to place a mark or identifier on their work without detracting from the beauty of the piece. Why do we.

Brand awareness is when people recognize your brand as yours. This is the easiest aspect for competitors to copy and consequently successful brands have added values over and above this at the expected level. which is the ability of consumers to confirm that they have previously been exposed to your brand. buyers and users become more sophisitated.g. Nestle shifted their brands to the potential level by developing software for retailers to manage confectionery shelf space to maximize profitability. Within the expected level. Characteristics of Brands Our definition of a brand adheres to a model which shows the extent to which a product or service can be augmented to provide added value to increasing levels of sophistication. For example.· local communities. with added values satisfying non-functional (e. emotional) as well as functional needs. This model. the brand would evolve through a better matching of resources to meet customers’ needs (e. such as functional capabilities. stock/share holders. grocery retail buyers once regarded the Nestle confectionery brands as having reached the zenith of the augmented stage. to the benefit of your key stakeholders. or some other similar cue. With even more experience of the brand. and brand recall. views a brand as consisting of four levels · generic · expected · augmented · potential The generic level is the commodity form that meets the buyer. so the brand would need to be augmented in more refined ways. or associate any superior attributes to your brand. Brand awareness consists of both brand recognition. attach a high value to. This does not necessarily mean they prefer your brand (brand preference). especially current and prospective· employees. Top-of-mind awareness occurs when you ask a person to name brands within a product category and your brand pops up first on the list. customers. and therefore with a greater tendency to be more critical. To counter the threat of their brands slipping back to the expected brand level.g. When you think about fast foods and Luxury cars. With increased experience. Branding is the business process of managing your trademark portfolio so as to maximize the value of the experiences associated with it.· opinion leaders.· suppliers. for example the car satisfying a transportation need. Mc Donald’s and Mercedes Benz come to mind? These brands enjoy strong top-of-mind awareness in their respective categories. Experienced consumers recognize that competing items are often similar in terms of product formulation and that . which reflects the ability of consumers to name your brand when given the product category. promotions might be directed to the user’s peer group to reinforce his or her social standing through ownership of the brand. etc. or user’s basic needs. As more buyers enter the market and as repeat buying occurs. and therefore’ having to fight on price. it just means they recognize your brand and can identify it under different conditions. category need. the commodity is value engineered to satisfy a specific target’s minimum purchase conditions. Aided awareness occurs when you show or read a list of brands and the person expresses familiarity with your brand only after they hear or see it.· intermediaries. For example.· purchasers and licensees. it is only creativity that limits the extent to which the brand can mature to the potential level. availability. pricing. enhanced’ customer service).

Without brand equity. A brand is nearly worthless unless it enjoys some equity in the marketplace. connecting emotionally with your brand. a color scheme. the intangible value associated with the product that can not be accounted for by price or features. but they also understand the distinctive qualities that make it better than the competition. understanding what is unique about your brand. and a catchy tag line. Once that type of differentiation is established in the market’s mind. but are addressing the potential level of brands. Brand preference occurs when consumers prefer your brand to competing brands. What you need to do in branding is to communicate what the brand distinctively stands for using as few words or images as possible. Many marketers experience confusion on this point. you will start building equity for your brand. strategic awareness. making a decision that your brand is superior to others for some reason or combination of reasons. they are simply tactical tools that help establish and build the brand. and the perceived quality attributed to the product independent of its physical features. . Establishing a Brand Public relations are the way a strong brand is truly established and advertising is how the brand is maintained. Strategic awareness occurs when not only does the person recognize your brand. branding is all about creating singular distinction. The Benefits of a Strong Brand Here are just a few benefits you will enjoy when you create a strong brand:  A strong brand influences the buying decision and shapes the ownership experience. you simply have a commodity product. and differentiation in the mind of the target market-not just awareness. So remember. advertising can help maintain and shape the brand. You cannot build a strong brand solely through advertising. Brand Equity Brand Equity is the sum total of all the different values people attach to the brand. Your USP tells your target market what you do and stand for that is different from all of your competitors.brand owners are no longer focusing only on rational functional issues. people will want to tell others about it and word- of-mouth advertising will develop naturally-not to mention writers in the press will want to write about the brand. Brand Awareness is not everything: Brand awareness is vitally important for all brands but high brand awareness without an understanding of what sets you apart from the competition does you virtually no good. Brand preference might be considered “the holy grail” of branding because it is the result of consumers knowing your brand. or the holistic value of the brand to its owner as a corporate asset. This distinction as to why your brand is unique in your category is also referred to as your Unique Selling Proposition or USP. While these all are important components in branding. but unbranded product. If a brand is successful in making a connection with people and communicating its distinct advantage. Brand equity can include: the monetary value or the amount of additional income expected from a branded product over and above what might be expected from an identical. When you have been successful. Branding is also more than a logo. Strategic awareness occurs when you have differentiated your brand in the mind of your market. and choosing it over competing brands.

How is it that we can feel such a connection with complete strangers? The answer lies in the psychological connection people have with a particular brand. You may keep buying a brand of soap or toothpaste because of its availability with regard to a specific stock- keeping unit which he can afford (50 grams or 75 grams package is the specific stock . A strong branding campaign will also signal that you are serious about marketing and that you intend to be around for a while.  Branding creates trust and an emotional attachment to your product or company. but your brand will live on and continue to be uniquely yours. In this way. BRAND LOYALTY Brand loyalty is the repeat purchase made by the consumer out of commitment to the brand. In a commodity market where features and benefits are virtually indistinguishable. a strong brand will help your customers trust you and create a set of expectations about your products without even knowing the specifics of product features. In many cases of loyalty. at least in part.  Branding will help you “fence off” your customers from the competition and protect your market share while building mind share.not necessarily just for logical or intellectual reasons. Competitors may be able to copy your products. not necessarily to capture an immediate sale but rather to build a lasting impression of you and your products. a strong brand name may be your most valuable asset.  Branding builds name recognition for your company or product. upon emotion.  A strong brand signals that you want to build customer loyalty. Once you have mind share. marketers may do well to check if the repeat purchases are made out of commitment or if they are inertia purchases. consistent message about the value of your company. This attachment then causes your market to make decisions based. trade secrets will leak to the competition. A solid branding strategy communicates a strong. In fact. your proprietary manufacturing plant will eventually become obsolete. Brands help people connect with one another.  A strong brand can make actual product features virtually insignificant. not just sell product.  A brand will help you articulate your company’s values and explain why you are competing in your market. your patents will someday expire. she will have instant rapport with her and immediately begin talking about their experiences with the brand. A brand impresses your firm’s identity upon potential customers. your customers will automatically think of you first when they think of your product category. branding delivers a very important benefit.  Branding helps make purchasing decisions easier.  A brand is something that nobody can take away from you. A strong brand helps you sell value and the intangibles that surround your products.  A strong brand can command a premium price and maximize the number of units that can be sold at that premium.  Have you ever witnessed the obvious bond between people using the same brand of product? If a person wearing a Benetton T-shirt finds another person wearing a Benetton product.

com may be important because of the benefits offered by the Web site. is an example of how passion among consumers has been instrumental in reflecting the loyalty to the brand. The linkages involved in brand visibility and the display of loyalty results in a positive rub-off on the equity of the brand. Though there is a great deal of similarity/overlap between habit and loyalty. You may become advocates of the brand by the positive word of mouth. music and groceries. which is into financial services.keeping unit referred in this context). Loyalty across toothpastes. This is because the consumer feels that the time invested in learning about the brand has resulted in a positive outcome. Under certain conditions. consumers may initially become loyal to a particular brand because of its functional benefits. Fabmart. If you spend significant time in choosing a readymade apparel brand and find that it gave you high level of satisfaction. which is into books. This is because the time invested in learning about the category and the brand has resulted in a positive outcome which is likely to discourage you from experimenting with other brands during your subsequent cycles of the category purchase. There is even research evidence to show that brand loyal consumers may even actually avoid advertisements of competitive brands. cola drink. Recently there has been research which reflects that brand loyalty could be enhanced if the product tried results in a high degree of satisfaction. jewellery. banking services and books clearly show that a brand has to score on functional aspects whenever consumers use ‘search- . cars. There is a need to investigate you as a consumer learn about a product category and brands as this would be useful to provide the learning experience (besides providing a good product or service) which may also have an impact on loyalty. Brand loyal consumers may try out other offerings (other categories) brought out by the brand. music and airline and the brand is doing well in all the categories. You may not go through a decision process to select a brand when you are brand loyal. Bajaj. The members get together and go out on adventure trips on the bikes wearing special garments created by the brand. Brand loyalty is indicated when the consumer deliberately chooses a brand from a set of alternative brands. the Internet store. Brand loyalty offers a number of advantages to the marketer. Virgin is a brand in the US. there is a high degree of probability that you would become a loyal consumer of the brand. the motorcycle brand in India.this indicates store loyalty. When you develop loyalty towards a brand you develop a favourable attitude towards the brand resulting in commitment. Is Brand Loyalty Built on Functional or Symbolic Aspects? Drawing upon several theories and models associated with consumer loyalty and learning processes. “Brand loyal consumers may become passionate about the brand and form clubs which results in further strengthening the brand”. the repeat purchase made out of convenience can be classified under habit whereas purchases made out of commitment is loyalty. consumers may also transfer their brand loyalty across product categories. the experience of logging on to Amazon. Loyal consumers may also be prepared to try out the variants of the brand and in certain categories may even be prepared to pay a premium (high priced cigarettes and perfumes may be examples). For instance. “Brand loyal consumers start building a relationship with the brand”. has consumers who are loyal to the brand and are likely to order several categories from the store .

A brand’s communication revolving around symbolism (status or snob appeal or group affiliation or a personality trait) adds to the gratification inherent in the product and results in loyalty. The equity of this brand could be realized from the fact that it is perhaps the only brand to command a respectable second hand value in a scooter market which is registering negative growth. improvements in functional qualities of offerings would strengthen and sustain the loyalty of the brand). But even when symbolism triggers loyalty. . Raymond which has positioned itself for the ‘complete man’ may attract a certain degree of loyalty from its target segment (but in this kind of product category. A hotel or an airline could bring in appealing symbolism in its advertisements but the ‘experience’ would prove to be the final dimension which would trigger loyalty. a brand name known for safety and reliability for several decades (around the world) may launch campaigns which centre around psychological appeals which reinforce the safety image – the advertisements may show beautiful scenic spots which provide a break for the pressurised urbanites and the advertisement could present how such consumers could reach these spots safely with their Volvo (See chart). Volvo. trust and reassurance also matters in business-to business marketing as they provide the basic platform for CRM. Such symbolic brands (like Bravo or Classic from the same company) should be promoted without the association of Bajaj ‘Chetak’ given its presence in the Indian scooter market is the “vehicle for the masses” and such exclusive symbolism may not be in tune with the mindset of a loyal brand of consumers. Symbolic associations may also play an important role in strengthening loyalty to a brand (gel toothpastes are advertised on the symbolic aspects and this trigger a certain kind of loyalty because of peer group associations . Bajaj has a strong value for money family-oriented and a very Indian (ethinocentric) image. symbolism could enable consumers try the service. Loyalty on such search oriented products gets initiated when the consumer experiences the benefits of functional attributes. A brand has to adapt itself to the changing environment over a period of time (while using symbolic imagery consistent with its brand proposition). Experience related services are those which could be evaluated only after the consumer goes through the consumption experience.this could happen after the brand is established). The basic assumption in this kind of an approach is that the brand would constantly update I ts offerings (or product line) with improvements which would result in a competitive advantage over competing brands.oriented’ products (search-oriented products are those which could be evaluated by consumers even before they buy/try the product). For instance. In categories which are highly ‘experience related’ like hotel services or airline services. The psychological factors like reliability. An ideal approach for a brand would be to use the functional route to loyalty and then use appropriate symbolic communication to strengthen the loyalty over a period of time. It may be a good strategy for Bajaj to strengthen these associations rather than get into an otherdirected trendy mode (the TV commercial lady for Chetak being driven by a modern lady). Symbolism can have an impact on loyalty related to products which are consumed for sensory gratification – such as beer. perfumes and cigarettes. Symbolic or psychological appeals should strengthen loyalty rather than create a feeling of alienation from the existing loyal base of consumers. a certain degree of benefit should be an outcome of the brand usage. a consumer may go through the ingredients of Colgate Total and derive inferences about the benefits (evaluate it to a certain extent) and try the brand.

An airline like Jet Airways or Indian Airlines would certainly like to retain 100 per cent of its customers in the top segment (perhaps Business class). In this context. increased competition through product introductions and store brands. This price differential is the monetary value of the brand name. prioritizing target markets and creating short-term brands. The same companies produce the branded and unbranded products. but unbranded product. and the fragmentation of advertising and market segments are just a sample of the pressures being faced by companies in today’s highly competitive environment. The increasing brand variety in the Indian Market is eroding brand loyalty per se and the multiple-brand loyalty brand bouquet is witnessing greater variety-seeking behavior. besides it may be worthwhile to analyse the purchase pattern of these price. Children and adults want to consume their products to feel some association with these stars. Price-sensitive customers may shift to another brand which offers them more freebies.sensitive customers . But there is a vast segment which is highly price sensitive and several dimensions are to be analysed before a decision is taken to retain these price-sensitive customers with rewards and freebies. these are necessary evils marketers have to contend with. As India speeds on the road to modernization.what is the potential profitability of retaining these customers? The Brand Loyalty Challenge: An Indian Perspective Indian consumers have always exhibited Multiple Brand Loyalty (MBL). It is not the ingredients or the features .Retention As stated earlier 100 per cent retention may not be a very practical retention strategy. For example. The most important factors contributing to this phenomenon are the growth of organized retailing. Intangible. grocery stores frequently sell unbranded versions of name brand products. changing consumer preferences and increasing media clutter. building strong brands and stablishing brand equity is becoming more and more challenging. Store brands sell for significantly less than their name brand counterparts. Increased pressures to compete on price. but they carry a generic brand or store brand label like Hawkins. The intangible value associated with a product that cannot be accounted for by price or features. combating brand variety entails creating need-based customer value propositions. even when the contents are identical. The amount of additional income expected from a branded product over and above what might be expected from an identical. There are many different definitions of Brand Equity. The relevance of brands in future will be decided not on their emotional imagery. but they do have several factors in common: MonetaryValue. Pepsi and Coke have created many intangible benefits for its products by associating them with film stars. but perceived value. LECTURE 25-28 Understanding Brand Equity In today’s environment.

lost marketing budget and lost promotions. · Maintain higher awareness of your products. and significantly lower awareness and trial rates for their new brand. . This includes lost sales. Coke is one of the most recognizable brands in the world and Pepsi in India. its name and symbol that add to or subtract from the value provided by the product or service to a firm and/or to that of firm’s customers. product quality and features. image building. One of the best examples of Brand Equity is in the soft drink industry. However. additional marketing costs to promote a new brand. meaning that potential customers have such low perceptions of the brand that they prescribe less value to the product than they would if they objectively assessed all its attributes/features. or better. The overall perceptions of quality and image attributed to a product. of dollars. · High Brand Equity makes sure your products are included in most consumers’ consideration set. Consumers are likely to perceive Mercedes and BMW as providing superior quality to other brand name automobiles. luxurious automobiles. brand nurturing and quality manufacturing has lead consumers to assume a high level of quality in everything they produce. which may offer the same. Without a brand name and all of the marketing money that has gone into. Brand Equity is a set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand. Due to the company’s long-term marketing efforts and protection. Coke would lose hundreds of millions. Buyers are willing to pay extremely high price premiums over lesser-known brands.that drive demand for their products.g. Years of marketing. Coca-Cola would be nothing more than flavored water. if not billions. even this marketing giant has trouble capitalizing on its own Brand Equity when handled improperly (e. If someone suddenly took their brand name and Brand Equity away from them. Perceived Quality. · Strong brand names simplify the decision process for lowcost and non-essential products. independent of its physical features. How Do I Use Brand Equity to My Advantage? Brand Equity can provide strategic advantages to your company in many ways: · Allow you to charge a price premium compared to competitors with less brand equity. This added value can be used to your company’s advantage to charge price premiums. A badly mismanaged brand can actually have negative Brand Equity. So overall we can say Brand Equity incorporates the ability to provide added value to your company’s products and services. but the marketing image that has been created. · Brand name can give comfort to buyers unsure of their decision by reducing their perceived risk. · Your brand can be linked to a quality image that buyers want to be associated with. lower marketing costs and offer greater opportunities for customer purchase. New Coke). Can lead to greater loyalty from customers. even when such a perception is unwarranted. In short. Mercedes and BMW have established their brand names as synonymous with high-quality. Offer a strong defense against new products and new competitors. Often interpreted as an indicator of quality. enhancement and nurturing of their brand name. · Use as leverage when introducing new products.

and these can be used for putting personality into brands. Specifically. this information provides a more complete picture of the relative value of each Brand and allows you to understand the major forces driving Brand Equity: product features. how would you describe them?” their replies were: . An example of a characteristic is confidence. Together with utility estimates. When asked the question: “If these two companies were people. protected and nurtured to maximize their long- term value to your company. Brand Value and personality People’s personalities are determined largely through the values and beliefs they have.· Can lead to higher rates of product trial and repeat purchasing due to buyers’ awareness of your brand. many values/beliefs and characteristics that a person may have. trustworthiness. contributing factors such as current awareness levels of each Brand. In other situations. Examples of these include dependability. advertising and promotional expenses for the major Brands in the market. This is not a belief. There are. The difference between total utility and the utility of the product features is the value of the brand. and Brands currently used should be measured. caring. and fun-loving. approval of its image/reputation and trust in its quality. but there are some that are particularly likeable. Brands have many of the same implications as capital assets (like equipment and plant purchases) on a company’s bottom line. An example of a value or belief is honesty. To illustrate how people think in personality terms when making judgments about brands. we attempt to measure the value (utility) of a product’s features and price level and also measure the overall utility of a product when including brand name. and other personality characteristics they develop. market perceptions and expenditures to build and support those Brands. There are about two hundred words that describe personality characteristics. Besides utilities. market awareness. but more of a behaviour. including the ability to be bought and sold and the ability to provide strategic advantages. overall perceptions of each Brand. here are the results of consumer research into how people feel about two companies. of course. honesty. Many people believe in being honest in everything they do and say. Brand names are company assets that must be invested in. price. friendliness. It is to these likeable values and characteristics that people are inevitably attracted. the utility of the brand is measured directly and added to the feature utilities to produce an overall utility for the product. reliability. How Do You Measure Brand Equity? Most evaluations of Brand Equity involve utility estimation. It is also useful to obtain estimates of marketing.

It is also easy to conclude that if consumers consistently experience these differences between the two companies. the greater will be the willingness to buy the brand and the deeper the brand loyalty. want and like · build a consumer personality profile · create the product personality to match that profile This type of approach is favored by companies such as Levi Strauss. or to those whom they admire. If you were asked which of these two companies you would like to be your friend. The process will be · define the target audience · find out what they need. And they tend to like personalities that are similar to theirs. Thus. you as a manager have to decide what personality traits your brand is to have.These two companies are actually competitors in a service industry. The closer the brand personality is to the consumer personality (or one which they admire or aspire to). There are various ways of creating brand personality. It is not surprising that the service level of Company B can be a better experience for customers than that of Company A. One way is to match the brand personality as closely as possible to that of the consumers or to a personality that they like. as did 95% of other respondents. creating brands with personalities similar to those of a certain group of consumers will be an effective strategy. then the brand image of Company B will be much better than that of Company A. Everyone has views about themselves and how they would like to be seen by others. you would probably choose Company B. A further point of interest arising out of this research is that people tend to prefer brands that fit in with their self-concept. who research their target audience fastidiously. Creating Brand Personality Whether a brand is a product or a company. For Levis the result is a master-brand personality that is: · original · masculine · sexy · youthful · rebellious · individual · free · American .

would their feelings and sensory function. but it is also happening at several other levels. that of Rasna with the lovable child offering her tired daddy Rasna and that of Onida evoking the hidden devil in us or Lalitaji insisting that it makes better sense to buy Surf because of good logic developed on her own. images. Marketers are concentrating on building Brand Values.their self esteem. personified by Kren Lundl with the effervescent image of the water nymphet. as every encounter with the customer gives the opportunity to put across the brand personality. power and authority centered around customers . Also look at the personalities of our local brands. as is the case with Levis. Charms be younger. how could he be? Do you not picture him as being more suave? More successful? More gracious? What kind of personality do we attribute to Charms and Coke? Would not Mr.. This profiling approach aims to reinforce the self-concept of the consumers and their aspirations. Adding personality is even more important if the task is to create a corporate as opposed to a product brand. Coke not be smart. It is at the totality of the image that brands create in the minds and hearts of their customers.A related product brand personality (for a specific customer group) such as Levi’s 501 jeans is: · romantic · sexually attractive · rebellious · physical prowess · resourceful · independent · likes being admired Both profiles appeal mostly to the emotional side of people’s minds .whether the fight is between Coke and Pepsi. we find hundreds of examples. and can be extremely successful if a market segment has a high degree of global homogeneity. The approach is ideal for brands that adopt a market- niche strategy. Camel brands’ Camel Cartoon Mnemonic has captured such a strong “I am cool” personality that in US children recognize this cartoon far more than even Mickey mouse. HLL and P&G. bright. Brand and Brand Users Galore! Branding is Image Building Today. more fun-loving? Would he not be like your college-going son? For that matter. If Gold Flake were a person. The Marlboro Cigarette gave birth to the Marlboro man – the ultimate specimen of manhood from the Marlboro country. businesses are fighting out their marketing warfare not merely at the product attributes level or at the advertising campaigning level. Consumer Brands and Brand Personalities Consumer Brand creators concentrate around creating brand personalities around their products. LECTURE 29-32 Brand Positioning . their dreams and aspirations . Siemens and L&T. the strong associations of Liril. fun-loving. full of spirit and success? If we look around.

It is a new approach to communication and has changed the nature of advertising. needs. It is important to note that what a marketer does is to find a position for its brand in the perceptual space of the consumer and place it at the most lucrative point. In realizing the benefits of brand positioning. the brand’s target audience. experience and environment. The difference lies in positioning. Hence. or there may be a brand that simply does not stand out to the consumer and it is passed up. In this scenario the company culture & values become a crucial factor in the solution: finding and harnessing what’s there already or setting out to create values and practices which support and manifest the positioning. promotion & packaging) were fine tools for implementing packaged goods brand positionings . Let us see how this magical concept plays a major role in making any brand a success or God forbid a failure!!! The concept of positioning was introduced by Al Ries and Jack Trout in 1969 and was elaborated in 1972. and who its main competitors are. The perception of a consumer is a function of consumer’s values. Positioning is the heart of competitive strategy. it is what you do to the mind of the prospect. it is important to understand that not all brands are competitors. service. Why is Defining the Positioning So Important? Running a brand is like conducting an orchestra.and the basic formula still has its role in FMCG assignments.The famous ‘5 p’s’ of marketing folklore (product. What this leads to is the perception of the consumer. price. it is necessary to research in-depth the market position (or lack thereof) of the brand. This concept of perceptual space forms the theoretical basis for brand positioning. To understand the concept of positioning we can consider the human mind as consisting of a perceptual map with various brands occupying different positions in it. The positioning statement is therefore a focusing device which helps brand management to keep everything sharp and relevant. Position Or Perish!!! Have you ever thought what makes Kelloggs different from Maggi. Identifying where a specific brand is placed within the marketplace and its relationship to competitive brands. a point which is determined by that consumer’s perception of the brand in question and in . place. opportunities for which the brand is best suited. or us to achieve the benefits of brand positioning. company or oneself. beliefs. It can be of a product. single-minded definition of what the brand is about the messages rapidly become discordant and confusing. Thus as per Subroto Sengupta “the core thought behind brand positioning -the idea that each brand (if at all noticed) occupies a particular point or space in the individual’s mind. Positioning is not what you do to the product. brand positioning is determined by defining the brand’s benefits to the consumer. Brand maps and forms are created to profile the brand positioning. The consumer may have encountered a negative experience with a specific brand and may never consider purchasing it again. comparing the results with competitive brands. But today we are entering the era of customer brands where ‘company’ and ‘brand’ are one and the same. which decides the positioning of any brand. The messages transmitted by everything from the advertising to phone calls with your customer care department all need to be kept in harmony and on-brief. A consumer may be presented with six brands of one product and only consider three out of the six as a purchasing choice. Without a clear.

Perception it brings about in the mind of target consumer. In the positioning era as stated earlier. the spatial distance between the points on which brands are located reflects the subject’s perception of similarity or dissimilarity between products or brands. The companies who have a high position in the minds of the prospect i. The basic approach of positioning is not to create something new and different but to manipulate what’s already up there in the mind. 2. Positioning a company:. The image era: . and changing customer needs have eroded their brands’ positions of strength. but those of competitors as well. Functional and non-functional benefits associated with the product. a position takes into consideration not only the companies own strengths and weakness. positioning is a function of 1.its relation to other brands”. Thus if a new soft drink is to be introduced. Similarly companies visit only those campus who have a high position in the mind of the company (the company becomes the prospect in this case. you must be the first to get into the prospect’s mind. the product was no longer the Unique Selling Proposition.You can also apply Positioning to an organisation in general. Thus speaking comprehensively. Brand Repositioning Many marketers are rethinking their brand’s positioning because competitive pressures. With technology being easily available. However. the product ladder position. in the perceptual map. increased marketing expenditures to reposition brands often fail to .e. we generally have Coke followed by Pepsi followed by Thumsup. In soft drinks. new channels. The ladders in the mind: .g.) The whole concept now boils down to creating a perception for your brand in the prospect’s mind so that your brand stands apart from the competing brands and provides the consumer with what he wants. The positioning era: . 3. the students mind absorb the cream of the crop from institutes. The easy way to get into a person’s mind is to be first in a particular category. the company must decide upon the way it will position itself viz.The product features and customer benefits were of importance.In this phase the reputation and image of the company became more important than the product. people have learned to rank the products and brands in the minds e. as in architecture. The only answer to the problems of an over communicated society is positioning. less is more. In communication. Positioning is an organized system for finding a window in the mind. The origin of positioning comes from two preceding phases: The product era: .To succeed in today’s over communicated society a company must create a position in the prospect’s mind. Thus. If you are not the first then you have a positioning problem. But the similar companies sprung up and this advantage was no longer a distinct one.In a particular category. Perception of the competing brands held by the target consumer. to retie the connections that already exist.

Secure the customer’s “permission” for the positioning. Changing customer needs are often eroding the brand’s established position. Deliver on the brand’s new promise. 2. · Recognize that permission amounts to a reasonable and logical extension of the brand in the customer’s eyes. nd themselves displeased with the results of their repositioning efforts. It has become a fashionable thing to use celebrities when you want your brand to jump into a point of contemporaneity that would otherwise take a great deal of effort to . the celebrity in question assumes a larger than life image that overshadows the brand and its delivery appeal. Increased marketing expenditures devoted to repositioning brands in the minds of consumers often fail to produce any improvements in either overall image or market share. It is pretty easy to divorce celebrity from brand. increasing competitive pressures created by new entrants and product innovations. Many CEOs and CMOs. In the case of a Coke or a Pepsi. Too often. At the same time. · Adopt an “interim positioning” to establish brand credibility and performance. In tactical initiatives that embrace celebrities. Our experience has shown that companies should focus on achievable rather than aspirational positioning. Celebrity endorsement of products can fulfill either a strategic or a tactical purpose. and yet retain brand sanity. and the proliferation of new channels and promotional campaigns. · Identify the pathway of performance “signals” that will convince customers of the new brand positioning. An array of factors is requiring marketers today to rethink their brand positioning. At times. are driving marketers back to the drawing board. · Be fully aware of the brand’s “frame of reference” so that a repositioning strategy will resonate with customers. Ensure relevance to a customer’s frame of reference. · Track and assess performance against customer signals prior to launching the new positioning. and that three steps can help ensure success: 1. · Develop product/service programs to ensure consistent performance on these signals. however. the name of an individual who is the flavor of the month is pretty much of an incidental issue. the celebrity is pretty much a tactical initiative that is run for a period of time to plug a particular proposition. 3. companies often fail to focus on achievable brand positioning rather than aspirational brand positioning. Zakir Hussain fulfills a strategic role. Why do these well-intentioned efforts turn into marketing failures? While there are many causes. · Look at a combination of customers’ attitudes and the situations in which the brand is used to obtain the most powerful customer insights. Distancing such celebrities from the brand at hand is a tough task. An intrinsic part of the brand itself in many ways. · Leverage a brand’s unique emotional benefits to carry customers from their current brand perception to the intended one. their efforts target an ambitious goal that outstrips the actual ability of the brand to deliver on what it has promised to customers.produce any improvements in either overall image or market share. He is a brand ambassador. In the case of Taj Mahal Tea.

But celebrity testimonials can never be an easy way out if you are looking at some long-term brand building. as their rating points go up so does their advertising appeal. baseball. and by logical transference of this peek into the celebrities behind-the scenes life... For that you need a creative idea and a celebrity is no substitute for an idea. The celebrity is an easy route! It hits back at you at times. all for a neat sum of money. to sell their products. make it relevant to our own. And the star system is working out of the film star circuit as well. “this is my planet” for Reebok.. like a beauty cream for film stars. Celebrity testimonials work when your product makes logical sense in the celebrity’s life. This is advertising’s very own star track. The consumer like the public is discerning. Internationally tennis. Why do we choose celebrities to endorse products when it costs an arm and a leg to put a celebrity under contract? Why do we deal with celebrity managers and the whole gamut of celebrity management to get the star of our choice. whose choice does the star finally represent. If you are a multinational it helps you project an Indian face and often a popular Indian face. shooting a Chinkara worried many a wildlife enthusiast. Cricket has created its own ad stars. Rahul Dravid. A later violent image on the sets dampened it more. One to bring quick memorability. Sachin Tendulkar. Amitabh Bachchan hamming it as himself and his screen characters in a corporate film for a consumer electronics in the good old way. Azhar. To go on with more examples. Michael Jordan recommending his signature line from Nike. Shaquille O’ Neill in the Pepsi commercials. on lime freshness. a pair of shoes for a famous player. recall and recognition for your brand which helps when your brand is fairly new so you can cash in on the linkage. to make a film with their favourite star. A much later accident in a drunken state drove in the nail further! I am sure now we have got a hold on the subject matter.. basketball and soccer stars command millions in endorsement money while film stars have always plugged their choice of brands. a range of tough wear for a tough guy. There are clients who come in from small towns with wads of cash looking for an ad film script and with a clear agenda. The other Akshaye on a speedboat surfing in his father’s footsteps. Akshay in Ruf and Tuf jeans. The film star celebrity is naturally first choice. a star-struck client’s or the consumer’s? What happens to a brand if it becomes indistinguishable from the celebrity endorsing it. a memory supplement for an aging prime minister. Air Jordan and players coming together to claim. like the Nawab of Pataudi and Gwalior suitings? What happens when in an ironic twist a spokesperson becomes a celebrity because of brand advertising and then becomes larger than the brand like Lalitaji in the old Surf commercials? What happens when you run out of celebrity testimonials or endorsements can actually work two ways... But the film star route is not restricted to small towners alone flip through the ads and you will notice as many multinationals using star power. A film with an all-starcast can still flop if the script and story don’t deliver... What makes a celebrity testimonial work at a point of time when words like brandbuilding and realism . there’s young Chandrachur Rocky Singh flaunting his choice of suitings and there is Raveena singing of love and a ballpoint pen. Andre Agassi in Nike ads. In Indian advertising the celebrity is hot property. Look at all the money that went with Hansie Cronje and our very own Salman Khan! In the case of our very own Mr Khan.

Shah Rukh Khan-Pepsi. And forms the fertile ground for clutter-bursting ideas. thereby adding refreshing and new dimensions to the brand image. professor of economics at U. transfer of meaning from celebrity to brand and finally from brand to consumer. Creates oppurtunities for advertising promotions and events. Sourav Ganguly-Britannia. featuring real people with real emotions. its activities and its image.S. The rewards of using celebrities for your brands Associating a brand with a top-notch celebrity can do more than perk up brand recall. This phenomenon is reflected in the recent market research finding that 8 out of 10 TV commercials scoring the highest recall were those with celebrity appearances.and real people are the current buzz. A film star in a beauty soap ad is acceptable. It can also create media and promotion opportunities that sweep the consumer off her feet. Right from Kapil Dev’s ‘Palmolive ka jawaab nahin’ to the most recent sensational association of Hrithik Roshan with Tamariind. the use of celebrity advertising for companies has become a trend and a perceived winning formula of corporate image-building and product marketing Associating a brand with a top-notch celebrity can do more than perk up brand recall. Instead of just listing grocery items. So what exactly is the right personality? It’s one that can personalise your brand. There is a three-stage process of meaning transfer which involves the formation of the celebrity image. Online Branding Successful online branding means drawing in customers through value-added features. The one that puts buzz into your brand. has revealed that celebrities or ‘higher status agents’ can get people to make a better choice but cannot influence ‘people to make a foolish choice’. But the consumer is willing to see category differentiation. and if used effectively could have a lasting impression on the brand. Celebrity endorsement is a serious business. the use of celebrity advertising for companies has become a trend and a perceived winning formula of corporate image building and product marketing. is in sync with the product/service and is the perfect match for it. This is what leads to effective celebrity advertising. Hampstead. really using the brand in question and subscribing wholly to brand values. thereby adding refreshing and new dimensions to the brand image. Farah says. celebrities have done wonders for brand recall. A few examples: Sachin Tendulkar-Adidas. It can create linkages with the star’s appeal. Virginia Tech. but a film star endorsing a dish washing powder may require an unimaginable suspension of belief. Research conducted by Katherine Eckel. Strangely the same climax that has thrown up a host of real commercials. The same consumer who is exposed to Surf Excel advertising is also exposed to Govinda in the doodh-ganga ad and Madhuri in the Lux commercial. the site could allow customers to order all the items necessary on the recipe once they . such as recipes on an online grocery site. It can create linkages with the star’s appeal. The effectiveness of the endorser depends upon the meaning he or she brings to the endorsement process. Leander Paes and Mahesh Bhupati-J. In India today. In India today. Sushmita Sen-Epson and Aishwarya Rai-Coke.

and satisfying. Ensure sufficient ad frequency. Is Online Branding Effective? Results of brand effectiveness studies illustrate how online media can effectively embed a product’s message into the minds of consumers. 3. and ensure able to meet every visitor’s needs. Develop clean.print it out. A transportation company whose message is speed of delivery should not have a pokey Web site. Several studies also show that increased ad exposure generates a higher impact on key brand metrics. interactive ad formats. 2. uncluttered creative with large logos. or to focus on visual appeal. ad format. it’s clear that more than one exposure is beneficial. and DoubleClick) all conclude that larger ad sizes can significantly enhance online branding effectiveness.” Farah noted. A common mistake is to separate traditional marketing departments from the design and execution of a Web site. Following is a small sample of the many available studies proving that the online medium can produce positive shifts in consumers’ brand perceptions and purchase intent. effective. . learning about the company. Farah also stresses the need for a consolidated branding strategy that crosses all media channels. Businesses should focus on their Web site design and implementation. Incorporate consumer behavior trends into marketing strategy. Leverage large. Dynamic Logic. · IRI and Procter and Gamble generated a study-based on surveys and actual buying patterns of consumers-showing that banner advertising bolstered sales for a Procter and Gamble snack food brand by 19 percent. Several studies sponsored by various organizations (including the IAB. The aim is convenience. 4. Online Branding Tactics Besides presenting an engaging consumer offer. “Once users’ interaction with your site is quick. . they will be able to appreciate brand messages being presented.” he says. “Have a single brand guardian who reviews all channels against a corporate brand strategy. and earning customer loyalty. for example. what tactical steps can marketers take to increase the effectiveness of online branding campaigns? 1. or processing a transaction. Ensure these channels and their associated technologies can deliver your brand strategy. While the optimal number of exposures for any given campaign vary with the creative. bolstering brand equity. rather than ensuring fluid transactions and Web functions. and type of product offered. whether it be accessing specific product information.