SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE

POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy./Chem./Bio.)
SSC INDIAN POLITY CAPSULE 2016
Framing of the Constitution: 2. British Constitution – Parliamentary System, Rule of law,
a) The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Lagislative Procedure, Single Citizenship, Cabinet System,
Assembly which was set up under the Cabinet mission plan Prerogative Writs, Parliamentary Privileges &
(1946). Bicameralism.
b) The Constituent Assembly took almost 3 years (2 years, 11 3. US Constitution – Fundamental rights, independence of
months, & 18 days) to complete its historic task of drafting judiciary, judicial review, impeachment of president,
the Constitution for an Independent India. removal of Supreme court & high court judges & post of
c) During this period it held 11 sessions covering a total of vice president.
165 days. Of these, 114 days were spent on the 4. Irish Constitution- Directive Principles of State Policy,
consideration of & discussion on the Draft Constitution. nomination of members of Rajya Sabha & method of
d) As for the composition of the Assembly, members were election of president
chosen by indirect election by the members of the 5. Canadian Constitution- Federation with a strong centre,
Provincial Legislative Assemblies, following the scheme vesting of residuary power in the centre, appointment of
recommended by the Cabinet Mission. The total state Governor by the centre & advisory jurisdiction of
membership of the assembly thus was to be 389. Supreme Court.
e) However, as a result of the partition, a separate Constituent 6. Australian Constitution- Concurrent list, joint sitting of
Assembly was set up for Pakistan & representatives of two houses of Parliament.
some provinces ceased to be members of the Assembly. As 7. Constitution of Germany- Suspension of fundamental
a result, the membership of the Assembly was reduced to rights during emergency.
299. 8. French Constitution- Republic & ideals of liberty, equality
& fraternity in the Preamble.
The Cabinet Mission 9. South African Constitution- Procedure for amendment of
World War II in Europe came to an end on May 9,1945. Three the constitution & election of members of Rajya Sabha.
British cabinet ministers were sent to find a solution to the 10. Japanese Constitution- Procedure established by Law.
question of India's independence. This team of ministers (Lord 11. Constitution of former USSR: Procedure of five-year plan,
Pethick Lawrence, Stafford Cripps, A V Alexander) was called fundamental duties, ideals of justice in Preamble.
the Cabinet Mission. The Mission was in India from March 1946
to May 1946.The Cabinet Mission discussed the framework of PARTS DESCRIBED IN THE CONSTITUTION
the constitution & laid down in some detail the procedure to be Part Subject Articles
followed by the constitution drafting body. The Assembly began Part I The Union and its Art. 1 to 4
work on 9 December 1946. territory
Part II Citizenship Art. 5 to 11
First Interim National Govt. Part III Fundamental Rights Art. 12 to 35
The Govt. was constituted on 2 September, 1946. It was leaded Part IV Directive Principles Art. 36 to 51
by Pundit Nehru. All the members of the interim Govt. were Part IVA Fundamental Duties Art. 51A
members of Viceroy's Executive Council. The Viceroy continued Part V The Union Art. 52 to 151
to be the head of the Council. Pundit Jawahar Lal Nehru was Part VI The States Art. 152 to 237
designated as the Vice-President of the Council. Part VII Repealed by Const. (7th Amendment) Act,
1956
The Constituent Assembly
Part VIII The Union Territories Art. 239 to 242
a) The people of India elected members of the provincial
Part IX The Panchayats Art. 243 to 243O
assemblies, who in turn elected the constituent assembly.
Part IXA The Muncipalities Art. 243P to 243ZG
b) Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community.
c) Dr. Sachidanand Sinha was the first president of the Part IXB The Co-operative Art. 243ZH to
Constitituent Assembly. Later, Dr.Rajendra Prasad was Societies 243ZT
elected president of the Constituent Assembly while B.R. Part X The Scheduled and Art. 244 to 244A
Ambedkar was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting Tribal Areas
Committee. Part XI Relations between the Art. 245 to 263
Union and the States
Sources of our Constitution Part XII Finance, Property, Art. 264 to 300A
The Indian Constitution is borrowed from almost all the major Contracts and Suits
countries of the world but has its own unique features too.
Part XIII Trade, Commerce and Art. 301 to 307
Major sources are:
Intercourse within the
1. Government of India Act of 1935 - Federal Scheme, Office
Territory of India
of Governor, Judiciary, Public Service Commission,
Part XIV Services under the Art. 308 to 323
Emergency provisions & administrative details.
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SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE
POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy./Chem./Bio.)
Union and the States Court. They can be suspended during the operation of a
Part XIVA Tribunals Art. 323A to 323B National Emergency except the rights guaranteed by
Articles 20 & 21. More, the six rights guaranteed by Article
Part XV Elections Art. 324 to 329A 19 can be suspended only when emergency is declared on
Part XVI Special provisions Art. 330 to 342 the grounds of war or external aggression.
relating to certain
classes
Part XVII Official Language Art. 343 to 351
Part XVIII Emergency Provisions Art. 352 to 360
Part XIX Miscellaneous Art. 361 to 367
Part XX Amendment of the Art. 368
Constitution
Part XXI Temporary, Art. 369 to 392
Transitional and
Special Provisions
Part XXII Short title, Art. 393 to 395
commencement,
authoritative text in Originally the Constitution provided for seven fundamental
Hindi and repeals rights:
1. Right to equality [Art. 14-18]
IMPORTANT SCHEDULES IN THE CONSTITUTION 2. Right to freedom [Art. 19-22]
Schedules 1 to 12 3. Right against exploitation [Art. 23-24].
First schedule contains the list of states and union territories 4. Right to freedom [Art. 25-28]
and their territories 5. Cultural & educational rights [Art. 29-30]
Second schedule contains provisions as to the President, 6. Right to property [Art. 31]
Governors of States, Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the 7. Right to constitutional remedies [Art. 32]
House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy
Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the However, the ‘right to property’ was deleted from the list of
Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman fundamental rights by the 44th Constitutional Amendment
and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State, Act, 1978. It has been made a legal right under Article 300- A
the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts and in the Constitution. So, at present, there are only six
the Comptroller and Auditor-General of Indiathe list of states fundamental rights.
and union territories and their territories
Third Schedule contains the Forms of Oaths or Affirmations. Part-IV: Directive Principles of State Policy [Article 36 to
Fourth Schedule contains provisions as to the allocation of 51]
seats in the Council of States. The phrase ‘Directive Principles of State Policy’ denotes the
Fifth Schedule contains provisions as to the Administration ideals that the State should keep in mind while formulating
and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes. policies & enacting laws. It includes the legislative & executive
Sixth Schedule contains provisions as to the Administration of organs of the central & state governments, all local authorities &
Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and all other public authorities in the country. The Directive
Mizoram. Principles are non-justiciable in nature, that is, they are not
Seventh Schedule contains the Union list, State list and the legally enforceable by the courts for their violation. Therefore,
concurrent list. the government cannot be compelled to implement them. They
Eighth Schedule contains the list of recognised languages. aim at providing social & economic justice of the people.
Ninth Schedule contains provisions as to validation of certain
FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES
Acts and Regulations.
A list of ten fundamental duties was included in the Indian
Tenth Schedule contains provisions as to disqualification on
Constitution by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 in the form
ground of defection.
of Article 51 A. For this a new part was created in the
Eleventh Schedule (73rd amendment) contains the powers,
Constitution in the form of Part IV-A. It is based on the
authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.
Japanese model. The idea of including a separate chapter on
Twelfth Schedule (74th amendment) contains the powers,
duties was recommended by the Swam Singh Committee in
authority and responsibilities of Municipalities.
view of the fact that duties & rights are inseparable. Moreover,
subsequently 11th duty has been added by Constitution (86th
Amendment) Act, 2002 in the form of 51 A (k). It reads:
Fundamental Rights "It shall be the duty of every citizen of India “who is a parent or
They are justiciable, allowing persons to move the courts guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or,
for their enforcement, if & when they are violated. as the case may be, ward between the age of six & fourteen
They are defended & guaranteed by the Supreme Court. years."
Hence, the aggrieved person can directly go to the Supreme

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SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE
POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy./Chem./Bio.)
CITIZENSHIP Qualification for election as President
A citizen is a person who enjoys full membership of the (a) He must be a citizen of India.
community or State in which he lives or ordinarily lives. The (b) He must have completed the age of 35 years.
State demands extra duty from its citizen which cannot be asked (c) He must be qualified for election as a Member of the House
to non-citizens. 42nd Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1976 has of the People.
inserted 10 Fundamental Duties in Article 51-A. (d) He must not hold any office of Profit under the Govt. of
Ways to acquire Indian Citizenship India or the Govt. of any State or under any local or other
Constitution of India under Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 1986 authority subject to the control of any of the said Govt.
provides five ways to acquire citizenship of India. These However, following persons are not deemed to be holding
five ways are: any office of profit & hence they cannot be disqualified for
a) Citizenship by Birth election as the President: A sitting President or Vice-
b) Citizenship by Descent President of India/Governor of any state/A minister of
c) Citizenship by Registration the Union or of any State.
d) Citizenship by Naturalization
e) Citizenship by incorporation of Territory Eligibility for re-election
A person, who holds or who has held office as President shall be
THE UNION EXECUTIVE eligible for reelection to that office.

The President Impeachment of the President [Article 61]
Article 52 – There shall be a President of India. (1) The President can be removed from his office before the
Article 53 – The executive power of the Union shall be vested in expiry of his term by the process of impeachment.
the President. (2) The President can be impeached only for the violation of the
Thus the President is: Constitution.
(1) Executive head of the Republic. (3) It is a quasi-judicial procedure.
(2) All the executive actions are taken in his name. The (4) The impeachment procedure can be initiated in either
executive power vested in the President is to be exercised House of the Parliament. The resolution must be signed by
on the aid & advice of the Council of Ministers [Article at least 1/4th of the total membership of the House. Before
74(1)]. It is obligatory on the part of President to accept the the resolution could be passed, a 14 day notice must be
advice of the council of ministers as per the 42ndand 44th given to the President. Such a Resolution must be passed
Constitutional Amendment Acts. by a majority of not less than 2/3rd of the total membership
(3) He is the first citizen of India & occupies the first position of the House.
under the warrant of precedence. Warrant of Precedence (5) Then, the other House of Parliament called the
indicates the hierarchy of positions occupied by various “Investigating House” investigates the charges by itself or
dignitaries attending a state function. cause the charge to be investigated.
(4) He is the Supreme Commander of Armed Forces. (6) The President has the right to appear & to be represented
Election of the President at such investigation to defend him.
The President of India is elected by indirect election. He is (7) If, as a result of the investigation the other House also
elected by an electoral college in accordance with the system of passes a resolution supported by not less than 2/3rd of the
proportional representation by means of the single transferable total membership of House, the President stands removed
vote & the vote being secret. from his office from the date on which the investigating
House passed the resolution.
Article 54 – Note:
The Electoral College consists of: (a) The elected members of the legislative assemblies of States
(a) The elected members of both houses of Parliament have no role in the impeachment proceedings, while they
(nominated members are not the members of electoral elect the President.
college) (b) The nominated members of the Parliament have the right to
(b) The elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the deliberate & vote when the resolution of impeachment is
States (including National Capital Territory of Delhi & the under consideration while they have no vote in the election
Union Territory of Pondicherry) of the President.

Manner of Election of the President Vacancy filled up with Acting President
The provisions dealing with the manner of election of the (1) In case the office of the President falls vacant due to death,
President of India are provided in Article 55. He is elected resignation or impeachment the Vice-President or in his
following the system of proportional representation by means absent. Chief Justice of Supreme Court or on his absence,
of single transferable vote. senior most Judge of the Supreme Court becomes President
Article 62 of the Constitution provides that an election to fill a till the fresh election for the Post & new incumbent assumes
vacancy shall be held as soon as possible after, & in no case later office.
than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy (if (2) If the President is not able to discharge his duties due to
such occurrence of vacancy is caused by resignation or death or sickness or absence due to any other reasons, the Vice-
impeachment or otherwise). President discharges the functions of the President & is

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He or she can dissolve the Lok Sabha its character according to the advice of the Council of Ministers headed by the PM. 4. When The President is the supreme commander of the defense forces after reconsideration. All bills passed by the Parliament can become laws only Cabinet (especially the Foreign Minister).temporary suspension of the sentence Commutation . The President can declare war or conclude peace. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Vice President of India The Vice-President is elected by an electoral college consisting Executive powers of President of members of both Houses of Parliament. Vice-President consists of all members of both Houses of The President is responsible for making a wide variety of Parliament. The President appoints a finance commission every majority (more than 50% of total membership) & agreed to by a five years. is qualified for election as a member of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha). after receiving the assent of the President. feels the need for immediate action. the President then appoints single transferable vote & the voting in such election is by secret the other members of the Council of Ministers. President can state & financial.co. the bill is passed & presented to the of India. 2. President is subject to the approval of parliament.in | www.) entitled to the same salary. distributing ballot. simple majority (50% of voting members) of the Lok Sabha (Article 67(a)). Union Public Service Commission/ Ambassadors & High A person cannot be elected as Vice-President unless Commissioners to other countries. The President appoints a finance commission every five by a resolution of the Rajya Sabha passed by an absolute years. contracts are made in president's name. capacity. These include: The Vice-President should not be a member of either House of Governors of States/The Chief Justice. if it is not a money bill or Military powers a constitutional amendment bill.awarding a lesser sentence on special ground 1. with or without amendments. Govt. or any subordinate local authority. President inaugurates the Parliament by addressing it after All international treaties & agreements are negotiated & the general elections & also at the beginning of the first concluded on behalf of the President. All money bills originate in Parliament. The President can return a bill to the Parliament. she/he- 3. President. death or person. The President dismisses the judges if & only if the two 1. of India or a State 1./Bio. 3.reducing the amount of sentence without changing & prorogues them. remit or commute the death sentence of any the President due to his resignation.completely absolves the offender are available to the President under the constitution.sscadda. When both Houses of the Parliament are not in session & if The President can declare three types of emergencies: national. in practice. The Electoral College to elect a person to the office of the portfolios to them on the advice of the PM. but only if the Govt./Chem. Financial powers Holds any office of profit under the Govt. other judges of the Parliament or of a House of a Legislature of any state. President recommends it. The President appoints the PM. However.in 4 .careeradda. he is Election Commissioner & other Election deemed to have vacated his seat in that House on the date Commissioners/The Chairman & other Members of the he/she enters his office as Vice-President. He acts as President when a vacancy occurs in the office of suspend. negotiations are usually carried out by the PM along with his 3. in accordance with The executive powers of President are as follows: the system of proportional representation by means of the 1. He or she causes the Annual Budget & supplementary Removal of Vice President Budget before Parliament. Speaker of Lok Sabha. Reprieve .com | www. appointments. otherwise. He/she has the right to grant pardon. The President summons both the Houses of the Parliament Remission . such session each year. promulgate ordinances which have the same force & effect as laws passed by Parliament.careerpower. He can act as President only for a maximum www. for reconsideration. his powers & functions are similar to those of the thirds majority of the members present. Diplomatic powers 2. allowances & privileges which Pardon . Judicial powers 1. The functions of Vice-President are twofold: 2. Emergency powers 5. The President can 2. The Constitution states that the Vice President can be removed 3.com | www.bankersadda. The president appoints the Chief Justice of the Union Powers & functions of a VP Judiciary & other judges on the advice of the Chief Justice.substitution of one form a punishment for Legislative powers of President another form which is of a lighter character The legislative Powers of President are as follows: Respite . removal. He acts as the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. All important treaties & obliged to assent to it. The President is the Commander in Chief of the Indian is a citizen of India has completed the age of 35 years Armed Forces. The President can also withhold his assent to the bill thereby exercising pocket veto. If a Supreme Court & High Courts of India/The Attorney member of either House of Parliament or of a House of a General/The Comptroller & Auditor General/The Chief Legislature of any state is elected as Vice-President. In this Houses of the Parliament pass resolutions to that effect by two.

Parliament (by election/ nomination). minister who is member of one House has the right to speak & take part in the proceedings of the other House but cannot vote PM in the House of which he is not member. illness or any other also become a minister but he cannot continue as minister for cause. Article 75 says that the PM shall be appointed by the President. when the sitting President is unable to Lok Sabha. even if the Rajya Sabha rejects Central Council of Minister such a resolution. the Lok Sabha in a special sitting can State Council & National Water Resources Council. National Integration Council. tenure.) period of six months. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Further. oath & salaries & allowances of the ministers. All the members of this House are popularly elected. the Minister may be taken from members of either House & Chief Justice Md. So long as the PM enjoys the majority support in the Lok Sabha. In case of a Money Bill. during the 15-day visit of Dr. has extended this freeze in the Lok Term Sabha seats till the year 2026 by Constitution (84 th Amendment The term of the PM is not fixed & he holds office during the Act. They are not members of  For the first time.careeradda. The Govt. 2. 88] In the scheme of parliamentary system of government provided by the Constitution. the President is the nominal executive PARLIAMENT OF INDIA authority & PM is the real executive authority. Development Council. Under Art. www. then the President may exercise his personal more than 552 (530 from the States. Money & Financial Bills can only originate in the Lok Sabha. normal tenure. responsibility. including the PM. 4. office of the chairman of Rajya Sabha. disapprove the continuance of a national emergency proclaimed by the President. Hidayatullah acted as President. The Council of Ministers are responsible only to the Lok President at any time.in 5 . 352.  He can recommend dissolution of the Lok Sabha to the 3. As the Constitution of India provides for a parliamentary system of government modelled on the British pattern. Rajendra Deputy Ministers: The deputy ministers are not given Prasad to the Soviet Union in June 1960. defence.com | www. 2003] 1./Chem. in 1969. the life of the Lok Sabha can be extended by qualification. Inter. be a citizen of India. During this period. The President appoints the leader of the majority party in the who can be nominated by the President. the council of Tenure of the Lok Sabha ministers headed by the PM is the real executive authority. But the House Article 74 deals with the status of the council of ministers while can be dissolved by the President even before the end of the Article 75 deals with the appointment. within which a new President has to The council of ministers shall be collectively responsible to the be elected. be not less than 25 years of age. 81 to be not the Lok Sabha.in | www. except not more than two from the Anglo-Indian community. A person who is not a member of either House can discharge his functions due to absence. he cannot be dismissed by the Special Powers of the Lok Sabha President. 2. Territories & 2 may be nominated from the Anglo-Indian community).bankersadda. Sabha & hence the Confidence & No-confidence motions can  He is the chairman of the NITI Aayog. the Lok Sabha as the PM. 1. Radhakrishnan acted as the President. vacant by reason of death. when the President Dr. & deputy ministers. legislative jurisdiction over the passage of the Money Bills.com | www. the Cabinet or State Minister or both. Zakir the cabinet & do not attend cabinet meetings. The Lok Sabha is the popular house of the parliament because its members are directly elected by the common electorates of Appointment of the PM India. But. [91st Constitutional Amendment Act.co. independent charge of ministries/departments & always assist President Dr. Also. when no party has a clear majority in strength of the Lok Sabha is provisioned under Art. in the Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Qualifications for the membership of Lok Sabha Lok Sabha. The President is The House of the People (Lok Sabha) the head of the State while PM is the head of the government.V. ministries of the Central government like home. 352. However. ministers of state. attached to cabinet ministers. 2001). 75(5)] While acting as President or discharging the functions of The council of ministers consists of three categories: Cabinet President.careerpower. [Art./Bio. finance  If the offices of both the President & the Vice-President fall & external affairs. [Art. he must resign or the President can dismiss him. The total number of ministers. the Parliament beyond the five-year term during the period of Note: national emergency proclaimed under Art. removal etc the Ministers of State: The ministers of state can either be given Chief Justice of India or in his absence the seniormost judge independent charge of ministries/departments or can be of the Supreme Court acts as President. The normal tenure of the Lok Sabha is five years. pleasure of the President. In the Constitution.sscadda. Hussain died & the Vice-President V. those Cabinet Ministers: The cabinet ministers head the important duties are performed by the Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha. the Vice-President discharges his functions until the more than six months unless he secures a seat in either House of President resumes his office. resignation. Giri resigned. the Rajya Sabha has only the right to Powers & functions of PM make recommendation & the Lok Sabha may or may not  He recommends persons who can be appointed as accept the recommendation. National be introduced in this House only. if he loses the confidence of the Lok Sabha. the Vice-President does not perform the duties of the ministers.  For the first time. the then Vice. 20 from the Union discretion in the selection & appointment of the PM. Lok Sabha enjoys exclusive ministers by the President.

The Rajya Sabha meets in Special powers of the Speaker continuous sessions and. (c) not be holding any office of profit under the central or state Govt.in | www. Rajya Sabha can take steps to create All India in this regard. The Vice President of Speaker & his decision in this regard is final & binding. unlike the Lok Sabha. Rajya Sabha 1. 2) The Speaker presides over the meetings of the House & his His main duty is to administer oath to the new members. & social services. 3) The Speaker & Deputy Speaker may be removed from their RAJYA SABHA offices by a resolution passed by the House by an effective The Rajya Sabha (RS) or Council of States is the upper house of majority of the House after a prior notice of 14 days to the Parliament of India./Bio. Hamid Ansari) is the ex-officio Chairman of the 2. The Speaker. Should not be insolvent the newly elected Lok Sabha.com | www. Rajya Sabha has the exclusive right to initiate a Inter parliament Union. should not hold any office of profit Sabha vacates his office immediately before the first meeting of 5. in the national interest. The Leader has a seat next to the Chairman. the Speaker of the last Lok 4. takes 3.co. House till a new Lok Sabha is constituted. nominated by him. the lower house 1.in 6 . the Deputy Speaker. Whether a Bill is Money Bill or not is certified only by the of Parliament.bankersadda. Chairman who is elected from amongst the RS's members. in case of a tie i. a member of the Lok Sabha as the Pro tem Speaker. there is also a function called Leader of the House.the PM if he is a member of the House. who presides over its sessions. Group which in India functions as the national group of Thirdly. This is a cabinet minister . The Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13 May 1952. The President himself administers oath to the Pro tem Speaker. or in his absence. he has no powers. www. As provided by the Constitution. This resolution gets due attention from the Parliament. The committees of parliament function essentially under the care of the day-to-day matters of the house in the absence of the Speaker & their chairpersons are also appointed or Chairman. may by a special majority of proceedings but also acts as the Head of the Lok Sabha two-thirds votes adopt a resolution asking the Parliament to Secretariat which continues to function even after the make laws on subjects of the State list. under Article 249. science.e to remove a deadlock & this is known as The remainder of the body is elected by the state & territorial the Casting Vote.careeradda. Members of the Rajya Sabha are also present in some of these committees. (b) be 30 years of age on more. is not subject to dissolution. or local body & (d) possess all other qualification prescribed by the act of parliament from time to time. This becomes the exclusive right of the Rajya Sabha because the Vice- President happens to be its Chairman & draws his salary as such. The 3. Speaker & Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha The Pro tem Speaker has all the powers of the Speaker. The Speaker is ex-officio President of Indian Parliamentary in the national interest. rulings on the proceedings of the House are final. The Deputy over the joint-sittings of the parliament. 12 of whom are nominated by the President of India for their 4) The Speaker. Speaker certifies a Bill as Money Bill & his decision is final Secondly. Membership is limited to 250 members. continues to hold his office even after the dissolution of the 2. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Powers of Rajya Sabha It enjoys co-equal power with the Lok Sabha in respect of all Special position of the Speaker bills other than money bill. Therefore. He 1) Chief presiding officer of the Lok Sabha. House is dissolved. to maintain impartiality of his office. resolution for the removal of the Vice-President.careerpower. India (currently. The Speaker presides over the joint sitting of the two resolution remains valid for one year only which however can Houses of the Parliament be extended further in terms of another one year. or another nominated minister. presides Rajya Sabha. Leader of the House 4. In case of Money Bills. Though he is an elected member of the Lok Sabha. Services by adopting resolutions supported by special majority 5. be a registered voter in any of the Parliamentary Pro tem Speaker constituencies in India. Besides the Chairman (Vice-President of India) & the Deputy officio chairman of such a committee. with one third of the members retiring every two years. 4. in the front row. presides over the first sitting of the newly elected Lok Sabha. Chairman./Chem.com | www. literature. If the Speaker is a member of any committee.sscadda. This is because he Exclusive Functions of Rajya Sabha not only presides & conducts the parliamentary The Rajya Sabha. the President appoints 6. legislatures. Qualifications for the membership of Rajya Sabha (a) be a citizen of India. he is the ex. Should not be mentally unsound. them. Members sit for six-year terms.) 3. votes only contributions to art.

It does not need the occasions: recommendation of the President for its introduction in (i) For resolving any deadlock over the passage of a Bill. A bill that deals exclusively with money matters that are Within the next few days. Parliament. It is passed by a (ii) Special address by the President at the commencement of simple majority by both the Houses. This is a short recess within a session of the Parliament. when the business of a session is completed.careeradda. Any money bill shall bear the Article 102(1) (c): If he is a discharged insolvent declared certificate of speaker that it is a money bill.in | www. The Speaker’s by court of law. Fund of India. (2) The borrowing of any money or giving any guarantee by the d) Adjournment Govt. Article 102(1) (a): A Member of Parliament shall be A money bill can be introduced only in Lok Sabha on the disqualified from being a member of House. It is passed by a simple office of profit under state other than an office declared by majority by both the Houses of Parliament.co. Parliament.bankersadda. Houses of the Parliament. There are five grounds for disqualification of Member of (7) Any matter that is incidental to the above matters. Financial or Constitution Amendment bill is called an Ordinary bill. (1) Imposition. for Dowry Prohibition Bill. Though both are governed by the b) Joint Sitting same general procedure & pass through the same stages in the Under Article 108. regarding “Money Bill” & “Constitution Amendment Bill”.com | www. & private bills (also known as government bills & private members’ bills respectively). (4) The appropriation of the money out of the Consolidated e) Adjournment sine die Fund of India. The period between the prorogation of a House & its Bills introduced in the Parliament are of two kinds: public bills reassembly in a new session is called ‘recess’. It can be introduced Joint sitting of both Houses can be convened on two in either Houses of the Parliament. There Legislative procedures in Parliament are usually three sessions in a year: The legislative procedure is identical in both the Houses of  the Budget Session (February to May). (6) The receipt of money on the account of consolidated Fund Grounds for disqualification of members of Parliament of India or Public Account of India. deadlock over the bill it can be resolved in a joint sitting of both Note: Joint sitting cannot be called for resolving deadlock the Houses of Parliament./Bio. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.in 7 .sscadda. prorogation of the session. If there is a Sabha. www. they differ in various respects. Its duration may be from a Contingency fund of India or deposition or withdrawal of few minutes to days together. Money Bill They are as follows: Financial Bill (i) In May 1961. The Lok Sabha Parliament by law not to disqualify its holder. When the House is adjourned without naming a day for (5) Declaring any expenditure as charged on the Consolidated reassembly. However. an act or law when duly enacted. 1959. any money from any such funds. Every bill has to pass through the same stages in  the Monsoon Session (July to September).) Article 102(1) (d): If he is not a citizen of India or has DIFFERENT TERMS RELATED TO PARLIAMENT acquired the citizenship of a foreign state or is under any a) Summoning acknowledgement of allegiance to a foreign state. Any bill other than Money. A bill is a proposal for legislation & it becomes  the Winter Session (November to December). Constitutional Amendment Bill (ii) In May 1978 for Banking Services Commission.careerpower. enjoys overriding legislative power in the passage of a money Article 102(1) (b): If the Member of Parliament is of bill & Rajya Sabha cannot reject or approve a money bill by unsound mind & stands so declared by the court of law virtue of its own legislative power. abolition or alternation of any tax. c) Prorogation The presiding officer (Speaker or Chairman) declares the House Money Bill adjourned sine die. In other words. Ordinary Bill (iii) In 2002 for POTA (Prevention of Terrorism Act)./Chem. called (3) The custody of the Consolidated Fund of India or by the presiding officer of the House. The President from time to time summons each House of Article 102(2): If a person is disqualified being a Member of Parliament to meet. sessions of Parliament cannot be more than six months. the Parliament should meet at least twice a year. They enjoy equal legislative the first session after each general election of the Lok powers over the passage of an ordinary bill. if he holds any recommendation of the President. The Lok Sabha speaker presides over the joint sitting [Art.com | www. First Session of each year (the Budget Session). BILLS IN PARLIAMENT 118(4)]. of India. the maximum gap between two Parliament under anti-Defection Law (Tenth Schedule). and each House. The four kinds of bills mentioned in the Constitution are: There are only three occasions in the history of Indian Ordinary Bill Parliament that the joint sessions of the Parliament took place. But. the President can also These Money matters are: prorogue the House while in session. the President issues a notification for mentioned in Article 110 in Constitution is called a Money Bill. there is a Provision of Joint sitting of both the House. it is called adjournment sine die. Parliament (except a bill under article 3).

The President can proclaim A bill introduced under article 368 to amend one or more National Emergency only on the written advice of the provisions of the Constitution is called a Constitutional Cabinet.careeradda.careerpower. The Constitution does not provide to be on the basis of Special Majority of not less than 2/3rd for a joint sitting of both the Houses of the Parliament if a of members present & voting & the majority of the House. from the date of approval. the President neither ratifies nor rejects nor returns deemed to have been passed by both the Houses. Such approval by Parliament is total strength of the House. he must approve within 1 month of its reconstitution./Chem. When a money bill is presents to the President. c) At the expiry of 6 months it ceases unless approved by Veto power of the President: Parliament again. armed rebellion. It can be introduced in either House of the b) The President has power to revoke or modify the National Parliament. it must be approved by the receives the assent of the President. The bill then ends & does not Sabha is not in the session. Then two cases: special session of Lok Sabha shall be convened within 14 a) With respect to private members’ bills. This power of the President not to take any action then goes back to the power House. Sabha rejects the amendment then the bill is deemed to have been passed in its original form. It is introduced in the same manner as that of National Emergency (Article 352) money Bill. i. it is passed in same manner an ordinary bill is emergency whether due to war or external aggression or passed. Since it contains non-money matters after its a) If the President is satisfied that there exist a grave introduction.in 8 .com | www. deadlock develop between the two Houses over the passage of a Emergency shall be imposed for not more than 6 months Constitutional Amendment Bill. it is obligatory for the President to (i) It also passes the bill. If Lok Sabha is dissolved then A bill passed by the Parliament can become an act only if it proclamation of Emergency./Bio. this veto is exercised in the following resolution for the disapproval of National Emergency. The Rajya Sabha can exercise any of again by the Parliament with or without amendments & again the following four options: presented to the President. However. the President has Rajya Sabha within 1 month & reconstituted Lok Sabha the veto power over the bills passed by the Parliament.sscadda. (iii) The Rajya Sabha does not pass the bill for 14 days. It does not require the recommendation of Emergency.in | www. the bill period. Amendment Bill. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.) decision in this regard is final & binding & cannot be questioned  Suspensive Veto in any court of law.bankersadda. If Lok Sabha disapproves continuance of National b) With respect to the government bills when the cabinet Emergency then President shall have to revoke National resigns (after the passage of the bills but before the assent Emergency. can withhold his assent to the bills. The President does not possess this (ii) It rejects the bill outright – upon being rejected the bill is veto in the case of money bills. the bill. Emergency provisions in India There is no deadlock between the Houses over the passage of a Emergency provisions are adopted in India from Weimar money bill. but simply keeps the bill pending for an indefinite (iv) The Rajya Sabha suggests amendments to the bill.com | www. It shall be passed by both the have to be sent to Parliament for approval & it ceases to be House of the Parliament sitting separately by majority of not operational if not approved within 1 month of the less than 2/3rd of members present & voting & a majority of proclamation of Emergency. d) Lok Sabha enjoys powers to disapprove continuation of Emergency at any stage. deemed to have been passed by both the Houses.co. The President exercises this veto when he returns a bill for A money bill is transmitted to Rajya Sabha after it has been reconsideration of the Parliament. Usually.e. All such proclamations of Emergency shall President for its introduction. then President can proclaim emergency to that effect. Such a proclamation can be made for the whole Constitutional Amendment Bill of India or any part thereof. In such case if not less than 1/10th  Absolute Veto of members (55) of Lok Sabha give in writing to the It refers to the power of the President to withhold his assent to a Speaker if Lok Sabha is in session or to the President if Lok bill passed by the Parliament. then on  Pocket Veto the expiry of 14th day after having received the bill it is In this case. provisions: (1) Article 352 – National Emergency Financial Bill (2) Article 356 – President’s Rule A Bill apart from dealing with one or more money matters if also (3) Article 360 – Financial Emergency deals with one or more non-money matters then it is called a financial Bill. under the Constitution he shall declare that he give assent or In Indian constitution there are three kind of emergency withhold assent. by the President) & the new cabinet advises the President not to give his assent to such bills. give his assent to the bill. If the Lok Sabha accepts (either positive or negative) on the bill is known as pocket veto. Emergency in States on President’s Rule (Article 356) Under Article 356 if the President is satisfied on the report of Governor or otherwise that there exists a grave situation in a www. & days. expressing intention to more become an act. if the bill is passed passed by Lok Sabha. However. one or more of the amendment then the bill is deemed to There is no time limit for the President to give comment on bills have been passed in that form on the other hand if Lok under this veto. Constitution of Germany.

the President cannot the Anglo-Indian community if he or she finds that community take over the powers conferred on the High Courts of State to not be adequately represented in the House. 2. The Legislative Council is a permanent body that cannot be All such proclamations: dissolved. & Zilla STATE LEGISLATURE Parishads. Delhi & Pondicherry. Jammu & Kashmir. She/he should also state an affidavit that there are no If Lok Sabha stands dissolved then Rajya Sabha shall have to criminal procedures against him. A person must be a citizen of India Parliament. arrangement parallels that for the Rajya Sabha. Karnataka.co. to decrease salaries allowances of She/he must be mentally sound. with terms staggered so that the terms of (b) Financial Emergency must be approved by the Parliament one-third of a Council's members expire every two years. She/he should be mentally sound & should not be bankrupt. concerned. & 1 month in second journey. While Election Commission is satisfied that under prevailing disagreement between the two Houses of the Union conditions general election to State Legislative Assembly of Parliament is resolved by “Joint Sitting”. months from the date of proclamation by the President.sscadda. The But under no circumstances. Vidhan Sabha is stronger as compared to Lok Sabha.) State where the administration of the State cannot be carried not more than 500 members & not less than 60. bodies such as corporations. the financial Emergency. of the Parliament of India. Once. In case of Bills other than money Bills the position of of the State concerned on in part thereof. Bihar. municipalities.in 9 .careeradda. The position of Vidhan Sabha is relatively stronger than Lok Sabha when it comes to the relation with the respective upper If it has to approve beyond 1 year then two conditions shall houses. each Member of the Legislative Council (MLC) serves (a) Can be varied or revoked by the President. The maximum size of Vidhan Sabha is www. Emergency shall be enforced for not more than 6 3. One-twelfth are elected by persons engaged for at least Each Vidhan Sabha is formed for a five year term after which all three years in teaching in educational institutions within seats are up for election. The following are differences in the legislative have to be satisfied. approved by 2. Members of a One-twelfth of the members are elected by the persons who Vidhan Sabha are direct representatives of the people of the are graduates of three years' standing residing in that state./Chem.careerpower. Sikkim (b) Notify that the Parliament shall exercise jurisdiction over & Mizoram. there is no such the State concerned cannot be held. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. to resume all the financial & She/he must be listed the voters' list of the state for which Money Bills passed by legislature for his consideration. Once it is approved. She/he must have attained 25 years of age. To extend it further. However. Qualification to be a member of Vidhan Parishad (2) President can issue directions to States to follow canons of She/he must be citizen of India financial propriety.com | www. If he is satisfied that a situation has arisen that financial stability & credit of India or any part Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) thereof is threatened he may proclaim emergency to that effect.e. The Governor can appoint one member to represent State subject for the State concerned. While the period for passing a Bill (other than money Bill) Financial Emergency from Rajya Sabha is six months is the case of Legislative Under Article 360 the President enjoys the power to proclaim Councils it is just three months.com | www. the out in accordance with provisions of Constitution. (1) President is empowered to suspend the distribution of financial resources with States.in | www. However. provision of solving the deadlock at the state level. 5. Such an approval by the Parliament needs only simple Majority. Parliament can extend it Vidhan Sabha via-a-vis Lok Sabha for a further period of 6 months only. Every proclamation made under Article 356 ceases to be in Qualification to be a member of Vidhan Sabha operation unless approved by both Houses of the Parliament 1. This within 2 months after its proclamation. Civil Servants & other Constitutional dignitaries. than he can: size of the Vidhan Sabha can be less than 60 members through (a) Takeover the administration of the State himself and an Act of Parliament. for a six-year term. Effects of Financial Emergency Maharashtra. To become a member of a Vidhan Sabha: within 2 months after its proclamation. She/he must have attained at least 30 years of age (3) He can direct State Govt. particular state as they are directly elected by the adult suffrage. the upper house it will remain till the President revokes it. President can issue directions for the reduction of salaries Election of members of Legislative Council & allowances of Judges of the Supreme Court & the High One-third of the members are elected by members of local Courts.bankersadda. procedures: There shall be National Emergency in force either in whole 1. constitutional maximum period of 4 months i. The he or she is contesting an election. of the union territories. approve it within 2 months & Lok Sabha shall approve it within 1 month of its reconstitution. She/he must not be a bankrupt (4) President can direct the Govt. Six states in India have a Legislative Council: Andhra Pradesh. State Emergency cannot be upper house at the state level can just delay the bill for the extended beyond 3 years. 4. & Uttar Pradesh. 3 months in first journey amendment is required. The State Legislature Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) One-third of the members are elected by members of The Vidhan Sabha or the Legislative Assembly is the lower Legislative Assembly from among the persons who are not house of the state legislature in the different states & for the two members of the Assembly. such is the case in the states of Goa./Bio.

In case of money Bill President may either declare his legislature & prorogues them. www.careerpower.co. The development of the village was the immediate problem When the state legislature is not in session & the Governor faced by our country after independence. there is no security the State to meet any unforeseen expenditure. Governor’s power of Veto The powers of Governors When a Bill is presented before the Governor after its passage Executive Powers by the house(s) of the state legislature. direct the session every year.bankersadda. of President The Governor appoints the judges of the District Courts. for reconsideration through the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992. arts.in 10 .com | www. Has the power to reserve certain bills for the President. assent or withhold his assent. science. including colleges & universities. then the Governor can Community Development Programme was launched in promulgate ordinances. Governor constitutes the State Finance Commission There is no impeachment process for removal of Governors as prescribed in constitution in the case of President./Chem. Discretionary Powers There are situations when the Governor has to act as per his/her own judgment & take decisions on his own. the co-operative movement & social Governor. 1952 with a view to carrying out the integral rural development work. Governor Further no demand for grant shall be made except on The Governor is merely appointed by the President which really his/her recommendation.) the state not lower than secondary schools. The Panchayati Raj System is the first tier or level of A bill that the state legislature has passed can become a law democratic government. He can be removed by the President at any time. only after the Governor gives assent. Governor also causes to be laid before the State Legislature the annual financial statement which is the State Budget. if it is not a money rural local self-government. The Governor's address on these occasions generally Panchayati Raj outlines new policies of the state Govt. Governor can reserve any Bill for the President. In the case of Bills other than money Bill the President assembly elections & also at the beginning of the first apart from declaring his assent or refusing it. The president may act in the Legislative Powers following manner: Summons the sessions of both houses of the state 1. the Governor may take The Governor appoints the Chief Minister who enjoys the any of the following steps: support of the majority in the Vidhan Sabha. The Governor can send a report to the President informing him or her that the State's constitutional functioning has been compromised & recommending the President impose "President's rule" upon the state. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. The term Panchayati Raj in India signifies the system of Can return a bill to the state legislature.sscadda. Such powers are called discretionary Powers: When no party gets a majority in the Vidhan Sabha. These powers are recommendations in such cases. Financial Powers One-sixth are nominated by the governor from persons Money bills can be introduced in the State Legislative having knowledge or practical experience in fields such as Assembly only on the prior recommendation of the literature. Hence the considers it necessary to have a law. The Governor then appoints the leader of the largest party to Chief Minister. Governor to return the Bill to the Legislature for Can even dissolve the Vidhan Sabha. Bill with a message He/she also appoints the Advocate General & the chairman 4.careeradda. formal & the Governor while using these powers must act according to the advice of the Council of Ministers headed Local Self-Governance by the Chief Minister. 1. It was constitutionalized bill. He may declare his assent to the Bill The Governor also appoints the other members of the 2.. by the Union Council of Ministers. He may declare that he withholds his assent to the Bill Council of Ministers & distributes portfolios to them on the 3.in | www./Bio. means.com | www. He may (in case of a Bill other than money Bill). Inaugurates the state legislature by addressing it after the 2. The Governor may also reserve a Bill for the consideration & members of the State Public Service Commission. the Governor can either ask the leader of the single largest party or the consensus leader of two or more to form the Govt. The President enjoys absolute veto in the case of Bills reserved for him by the Governors. return the advice of the Chief Minister. of his tenure. The Governor holds He can also make advances out of the Contingency Fund of office during the pleasure of the President. service.

officio members of the ‘Panchayat Samitis’. www. Constitution of a State Finance Commission after every by law for the procedure for the Presentation of an address & five years to review the financial position of the panchayats./Chem. Supreme Court. Courts in succession for at least ten years 2. distinguished jurist. Removal of judges of Supreme Court 4.careeradda. The Pradhans (Presidents) of the Gram Sabha are the It should be supported by not less than 100 member of Lok ex-officio members of the Gram Panchayat. holding fresh elections within six months in the event of supersession of any Panchayat. Chief Justice of India & not more than 6 other judges. Reservation of seats (both members & chairpersons) for Article 124(4) provides for the removal of a judge of the SCs & STs in Panchayats at all the three levels. supersession of any Panchayat. Establishment of Panchayats at the village. it also regulates the power it is called Judiciary act & the judge concerned does money distribution among all the Gram Panchayats.) Rajasthan was the first state to set up Panchayati Raj System in 1959 followed by Andhra Pradesh. 3. 1./Bio. Note: Gram Sabha Sabha. All a three member Judicial Committee to investigate into the Presidents of the Panchayats within the Block are the ex charges & provide proof of misbehavior or incapacity. a district levels. According to the Constitution of India. in the opinion of the President.com | www. The Court divided the entire process of removal of a judge  Zila Parishad actually makes developmental plans at the into two parts mainly Judicial Act & Political Act. Raj in the states namely: (i) Gram Panchayat at the Village level. Sabha. A person must be a citizen of India (iii) Zila Parishad at the District level. Panchayat at the village level. conducting elections to the Panchayats. for the investigation for proof of misbehavior or incapacity of a judge. Supreme Court of India Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum & final Main Provisions of 73rd Amendment Act court of appeal. It Under Article 124(1) the constitution originally provided for 1 contains 29 functional items of the panchayats.co. Organisation of Gram Sabha in a village or group of villages.careerpower. 21 years to be the minimum age for contesting elections to Panchayats. In addition. Second member can be a serving (iii) Zila Parishad at the District level judge of the High Court & the third member can be an  Zila Parishad is an apex body under the Panchayati Raj. The  Fixing tenure of five years for Panchayats at all levels & constitution authorizes the Parliament to provide by law in holding fresh elections withing six months in the event of fixing the Strength of the judges of the Supreme Court. a Constitutional Amendment Act in 2008 has for women in Panchayats at all the levels. means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral If it is to be introduced in Rajya Sabha it should be roles relating to a village comprised within the area of supported by no less than 50 members of Rajya Sabha.in | www. It eminent jurist.in 11 . the role  This act has added a new Part-IX to the Constitution of of the Supreme Court is that of a federal court & guardian of the India. 2. He/she must have been. Reservation of one-third seats (both members & by both the Houses of the Parliament supported by a majority of chairpersons) for women in Panchayats at all the three not less than 2/3rd of members present & voting & a majority of levels. The President shall pass the order of removal in the same 7. the presiding officer of that House shall appoint The Panchayat Samiti has many Gram Panchayats under it. increased the strength of Supreme Court to 31 (1 Chief Justice +  The Act provides for a three-tier systerm of the Panchayati 30 other judges).sscadda. Accordingly the Parliament passed Judges (Inquiry) Act Organisational Struture 1968 which states that a resolution seeking the removal of a (i) Gram Panchayat at the Village level judge of The members of the Gram Panchayat are elected by the Gram Supreme Court can be introduced in either House of Parliament. for at least five years. Constitution. a Judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession Compulsory Provisions for Panchayati Raj Institutions 3. Qualification to be a judge of Supreme Court (ii) Panchayat Samiti at the Block level. The judicial committee shall be headed by a serving judge of the Supreme Court. the authority concerned does not enjoy discretionary  With the help of Panchayat Samitis.bankersadda. total strength of the House on the ground of misbehavior or 6. Or an Advocate of a High Court or of two or more such 1. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.com | www. Once the resolution is initiated in either house of the (ii) Panchayat Samiti at the Block level parliament. the act has Composition of Supreme Court also added a new Eleventh Schedule to the Constitution. He is removed by the President upon an address 5. Whenever district level. Fixing tenure of five years for Panchayats at all levels & incapacity. not enjoy the right to be heard in such cases. intermediate & 4. co-ordinates the activities of the various Panchayat Samitis.  It is entitled as ‘The Panchayats’ & consists of provisions from Articles 243(A) to 243 (O). The Parliament passed the Supreme Court (Number of Judges)  Reservation of 1/3 seats (both members & chiarpersons) thus accordingly. Or the person must be. Article 124(5) confers the power on the Parliament to provide 8. Establishment of a State Election Commission for session in which the Parliament passed the resolution.

Supreme Court. The President seeks the Court’s advice on legal matters.careerpower. The first Chief Justice of India was H J Kania (1950 – 1951). A judge of the High Court shall hold office until he attains the Bombay) age of 62 years. Similarly. 5. The shortest tenure was for K N Singh (Nov 1991 – Dec 1991. The Supreme Court is the Court is duty-bound to give it. etc. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in 2. Some President of Indian from time to time. pension. there has been no female Supreme Court & the Governor of the state concerned./Bio. A judge may resign from his office by writing www. of misbehavior or incapacity. Appellate Jurisdiction means that appeals against judgements of lower courts can be referred to SC as the Supreme Court is the SUPREME COURT IN INDIA(JURISDICTION) highest court of appeal in the country. of affirmation in the form prescribed by the Constitution. 2. or Supreme Court of two or more such courts in succession. or are qualified to be appointed as a regular Judge of the (c) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court. the Parliament cannot take up the resolution b) Appellate Jurisdiction: process further. (b) has for at least ten yeas held a judicial office in the territory d) Only such persons can be appointed as ad hoc Judges who of India. The presiding officer appointing a three member judicial JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT: committee.co. a) Disputes between the Centre & one or more states.in 12 . the resolution even if the judicial committee establish proof c) Disputes between two or more states.careeradda. shall make & subscribe before the Governor of the state.) The judicial parts consist of: 1. The High Court for each state of the Indian union. Houses of Parliament passing the resolution. c) Advisory Jurisdiction: Articles 124 to 147 of the Constitution of India lay down the 1. The Chief Justice procedure for appointing other judges is the same except 2. the & Advisory jurisdiction. However. A person shall be qualified for appointment as a judge of the c) Serving(HC) & retired(SC & HC) judges of the Supreme High Court if Court (and High Courts) can sit & act as ad hoc Judges of the (a) he is a citizen of India. verdicts of the High Courts & other courts of the states & territories. the Indian Parliament to determine the salary. Court. Supreme Court has Original jurisdiction. UP) Removal of judges 6. if the Judicial d) Disputes regarding the enforcement of Fundamental Rights.00.000. Advisory Jurisdiction refers to the process where the composition & jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India.in | www. The number of judges is to be determined by the gets 90. Judicial committee investigating the charges. The first woman judge of the Supreme Court was Justice President in consultation with the Chief Justice of the Fatima Beevi in 1987. Important Points on SC 4) The Chief Justice of a High Court is appointed by the 1. Appellate jurisdiction 2. It is the highest judicial forum & final court of appeal as established by Part V. b) Ad hoc Judges are appointed by the Chief Justice after Qualification obtaining consent from the President. The President passing the order of removal of a Judge 1. Introduction of resolution in Parliament. an oath 4.com | www. Committee failed to provide proof of misbehavior or incapacity. 3. But the Supreme Court of India held its inaugural sitting on 28 January Indian Parliament is empowered to establish a common 1950. 2. particular state to another District Court of the other state. b) Disputes between the Centre & any state(s) on one side & The Court also clarified that the Parliament is not bound to pass one or more states on the other side.bankersadda. other allowances.000 & the Chief Justice gets a sum of 1. a) Original Jurisdiction: 3. The longest tenure was for Y V Chandrachud (1978 – 1985. If the President asks for advice from the Supreme Court. Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. Parliament can also reduce the area of jurisdiction of a High leave of absence.com | www. However. High Court for two or more states & to extend the Salary-Article 125 of the Indian Constitution leaves it to jurisdiction of a High Court to a union territory. However. the Parliament cannot alter any of these privileges & 3) The High Court consists of a Chief Justice & some other rights to the judge's disadvantage after his appointment. However. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. The 2) Art 214 of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Supreme Court has the power of Constitutional review./Chem. The Chief Justice administers the oath infront of the Every judge of the High Court before entering upon his office President. Original Jurisdiction means that certain types of cases can Whereas the political parts consist of: originate with the Supreme Court only 1. HIGH COURT The Supreme Court has the power to transfer the cases from 1) The High Court is at the apex of the judicial administration one High Court to another & even from one District Court of a of the state. HC JUDGE hold office until they attain the age of Supreme Court when there is insufficient quorum to 62 years & are removed from office in the same manner as a perform the judicial duties.sscadda. Ad hoc Judges: that the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned is also a) Ad hoc Judges are non-Supreme Court judges who sit in the consulted. it is not binding on highest appellate court which takes up appeals against the the President to accept the advice. A judge Judges. of the Supreme Court judges. judge of the Supreme Court.

citizen has right to move to the courts for securing the  The president can specify the designation of an fundamental rights. Types of Writs: which have their own local legislatures but the legislative 1. supported by a majority of the total (a) A writ of mandamus is an order issued by a superior membership of each house. Even though all the union territories This power is enjoyed under Art 227 of the Constitution. mandamus prohibition. may be exercised on the petition of the interested party or it can (c) The writ can be issued only when the proceedings are suo moto call for the records & pass necessary orders. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS BY EITHER SC or HC. inferior court from exceeding its jurisdiction.bankersadda. Writs are issued for enforcement of Diu & Lakshadweep. He can also be removed (c) If a person has usurped a public office. This power within a certain time. or orders including writs which are in the review the lower court’s decision.” An alternative Writ directs the recipient to courts. there is no uniformity in their administration of the state's judiciary is the essential function of administrative system.in | www. Writ of Habeas Corpus : assembly of both (Delhi & Puducherry) can also make laws (a) Habeas Corpus means ‘you may have the body’.sscadda. on any subject of the State List & Concurrent List. & to call for the records of any court to satisfy itself about the “return” the Writ. & certiorari or any of them for enforcement of fundamental (c) Granting a writ of certiorari means merely that at least rights conferred by part III of the constitution & for any other four of the justices have determined that the circumstances purpose. Writ of Mandamus : members present & voting. immediately act. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. A president & not head of state like a governor. with certification of its compliance. www. direction. even after establishing a local legislature for them. (b) It cannot be issued to compel an authority to do The High Court has Original jurisdiction in such matters as something against statutory provision. of Parliament or member of State Legislative Assembly 5. An Writs in Indian Constitution administrator of a union territory is an agent of the As per the Right to Constitutional Remedies-Articles 32-35. are under the supervision of the High Court.  Articles 239 to 241 in Part VIII of the Constitution deal with the union territories. This power of Parliament also extends to Puducherry & Delhi. high Courts for getting their fundamental rights enforced. pending in a court if the proceeding has matured into decision. & “Show Cause” why the directive should not be made permanent. the High Court is empowered Writ directs the recipient to immediately act. the High Court. writ will not lie.careeradda.  Every union territory is administered by the president acting through an administrator appointed by him. within its send all the documents in a case to it so the higher court can jurisdiction. or desist. Writ of Prohibition : or other local bodies can be filed in the concerned High (a) A writ of prohibition is issued primarily to prevent an Court.Tribunals dealing Union Territories with the Armed forces are not under the supervision of HC. detention lacking sufficient territories on subjects of the State List remain unaffected cause or evidence. 2) The High Courts have Appellate jurisdiction in both (b) These Writs are issued as “alternative” or civil & criminal cases against the decisions of lower “peremptory. it is Lieutenant Governor in the case of Delhi. court to a lower court or other entity commanding the lower court. Writ of Certiorari : their jurisdiction. It Puducherry & Andaman & Nicobar Islands & Administrator empowers the Courts to issue directions or orders or writs for in the case of Chandigarh.com | www.  The Parliament can make laws on any subject of the three lists (including the State List) for the union territories. or desist. all the provisions of the Constitution of India held by a particular person in an illegal manner. Accordingly. nature of habeas corpus. corporation or public authority to perform or Jurisdiction of a HC not perform specific acts.co. All Courts excepting tribunals dealing with the Armed forces. Every High court has the power to issue to (a) It is a writ (order) of a higher court to a lower court to any person or authority including any Govt. 2. qua-warranto (b) It is a writ seeking judicial review. correctness of the legality of the orders passed.in 13 .com | www./Chem. the Court may by the President of India on the ground of proved misbehavior direct him not to carry out any activities in the office or may or inefficiency if a resolution to that effect is passed by both the announce the office to be vacant. Thus belong to one category./Bio. writs & Appellate jurisdiction over all subordinate courts in 4. described in the petition are sufficient to warrant review by 1) Election petitions challenging the elections of Members the Court. Citizens can go to the Supreme Court or the administrator.) under his hand to the president of India. Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Daman & this purpose. Article 370 in Part XXI of the Constitution grants a special status (b) The writ shall be issued only when the public office is to it. A peremptory Under Revisory jurisdiction. Writ of Quo Warranto : (a) The meaning of the term Quo Warranto is ‘by what Special Status of Jammu & Kashmir authority’. This means (b) This ensures that a prisoner can be released from that the legislative power of Parliament for the union unlawful detention—that is.careerpower. Houses of Parliament by a two-thirds majority of the total 3.

3.  The elections to the Panchayats & the municipalities in the The important features of the special state are as follows: states are conducted by ‘State Election Commissions’.in 14 .co. To register political parties for the purpose of elections & 65 years (whichever is earlier). To grant recognition to political parties & allot election  The major laws are Representation of the People Act. It is also the only state in the Indian Union  The Election Commission is not concerned with the elections which has its own separate Constitution. 9. 1. The Parliament is not empowered to make laws on the subjects of state list (7th schedule) for the state of J&K under any circumstance. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. been fixed as six years. 1950. The Chief Election Commissioner is provided with the (Fundamental Duties) are not applicable to the state. to Panchayats & municipalities in the states. 8. To determine the code of conduct to be observed by the  The electoral system in India in borrowed from the one parties & the candidates at the time of elections. This also implies that provisions to safeguard & ensure the independent & impartial ‘dual citizenship’ principle is followed in this state. operating in Great Britain. 8. 4. 19(1) & 31(2) have not been abolished for this state & hen ce “right to property” still stands guaranteed to the people of J&K.in | www.sscadda. He cannot be removed from his office 4. which mainly deals with the preparation & revision of 5. GOVENRNMENT BODIES 1) Election Commission  The Election Commission is a permanent. (CEC) & two Election Commissioners. Presently. the residuary power lies with the legislature of the Jammu & Kashmir Independence of CEC (and not the Parliament).com | www. To act as a court for settling disputes related to granting of electoral rolls. security of tenure. 1951. To advise the governor on matters relating to the  The Commission works under the overall supervision of the disqualification of the members of state legislature. Article 324 of the 1.com | www. symbols to them./Bio.careerpower. The state has its own Constitution. To cancel polls in the event of rigging. provisions supplemented by laws made by Parliament. 6.  With the promulgation of the new Constitution for  The Chief Election Commissioner is not eligible for independent India on 26th January. To advise the President on matters relating to the Commission consists of one Chief Election Commissioner disqualification of the members of Parliament. & past election disputes. 1950. the Election 7. To prepare & periodically revise electoral rolls & to register vice-president of India shall be vested in the election all eligible voters. 7. This means that the National Emergency 2.  The tenure of the CEC & the Election Commissioners has violence & other irregularities. independent body established by the Constitution of India directly to ensure Powers & functions free & fair elections in the country.) do not apply to it. functioning of the Election Commission: 3. grant them the status of national or state parties on the  The Chief Election Commissioner & the Election basis of their poll performance Commissioners are placed at par in matters of salary & allowances & they are the same as those of a judge of Union Public Service Commission Supreme Court. commission.bankersadda. booth capturing. The Governor of the state is to be appointed only after consultation with the Chief Minister of that state./Chem. 6. Financial Emergency (Art 360) cannot be imposed on the state. To determine the territorial areas of the electoral Constitution provides that the power of superintendence. subject to the maximum age limit of 10. constituencies throughout the country on the basis of the direction & control of elections to parliament. & the Representation of the People Act. Service Commission was accorded a constitutional status as www. legislatures. the Federal Public reappointment.careeradda. Commissioner. Contrary to the case with the other states. the office of president of India & the office of 2.IV(A) 1. Article 324 of the Constitution has made the following 2. to the state of J&K. state Delimitation Commission Act of Parliament. 5. To notify the dates & schedules of elections & to scrutinise  Elections are conducted according to the constitutional nomination papers. Part-IV (Directive Principles of State Policy) & Part. Chief Election Commissioner. Art. recognition to political parties & allotment of election which deals in detail with all aspects of conduct of elections symbols to them. The Election Commissioner cannot be removed from office proclaimed on the ground of armed rebellion shall not have except on the recommendation of the Chief Election automatic extension to J&K. The National Emergency proclaimed only on the ground of except in same manner & on the same grounds as a judge of war or external aggression shall have automatic extension the Supreme Court.

State Public Service Commission  He holds office during the pleasure of the President &  A state public service commission consists of a chairman & receives remuneration as the President may determine.  He advises the Government of India on any legal matter.sscadda. of the advocate general for the states./Chem.  He is the head of the Indian Audit & Accounts Department & 3. of India & any amount of money can be deposited into this account. separate Consolidated Fund for each State.) an autonomous entity & given the title – Union Public Service 3. The Commission consists of a the Centre to President & relating to the accounts of a state to Chairman & ten Members. account called the Public Account of India.co. he enjoys the right to attend & speak in the Parliamentary  It is an independent constitutional body. whichever is earlier. requested by the President or Governor.in 15 .  He is entitled to all the privileges & immunities as a Member  A JSPSC can be created by an act of Parliament on the of Parliament. Thus. of India are deposited into a Fund called the financial system of the country at both the levels—the Consolidated Fund of India. deliberations & meeting (of both the Lok Sabha & the Rajya  The chairman & members of the commission hold office for a Sabha).  The chairman & members of the commission hold office for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 65 years. examinations. qualified to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court to  The main function of UPSC is Recruitment to services & posts be the Attorney General of India. 76 states that the President shall apoint a person who is  It is an independent constitutional body.careerpower. All the receipts received. without a right to vote. a JSPSC is a Note: The Constitution (Article 165) has provided for the office statutory & not a constitutional body. appointments to the services of the state.in | www. He is the highest law  The chairman of JSPSC is appointed by the President. term of six years or until they attain the age of 62 years. he is not a member of either House of Parliament. of India. He is appointed by the Governor of the state. of India are spent out of the office for a period of six years or up to the age of 65 years. It is a constitutional fund. more states. contingency fund of each state & the public account of each state. The Public Account of 2. 7. Contingency Fund of India www.  The UPSC has been established under Article 315 of the Note: He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of Constitution of India. Article 266 has also created a judge of the Supreme Court. governor.com | www. He can also be removed out of the Consolidated Fund of India without the prior by the President on same grounds & in the same manner as a sanction of the Parliament. Joint State Public Service Commission  In the performance of his official duties. Attorney General of India whichever is earlier. He audits all expenditure from the Contingency Fund of India is placed at the disposal of the President article 266 has India & the Public Account of India as well as the also created public account for each states. of India is deposited into an state.bankersadda. Main function of the CAG Public Account of India 1. No  He can resign any time from his office by addressing the money can be deposited into withdrawn or appropriated resignation letter to the president.  The CAG is appointed by the President of India. officer in the state. It is the largest fund of the Govt. It has been placed at the disposal of the Parliament./Bio. All expenditures of the Govt. Comptroller & Auditor General  The Constitution of India (Article 148) provides for an Parliamentary Funds independent office of the Comptroller & Auditor General of Consolidated Fund of India India (CAG).careeradda. 2. Thus he cooresponds to the Attorney General of India. Article 266 has established Consolidated Fund of India. of India. Consolidated Fund of India.  Art. under the Union through conduct of competitive  He is the fist legal officer of the Govt. the Attorney  The Constitution makes a provision for the establishment of General has the right of audience in all courts in the territory a Joint State Public Service Commission (JSPSC) for two or of India. loans raised & the income of the the guardian of the public purse & controls the entire Govt. whichever is earlier. other members appointed by the governor of the state. they can be removed only by the President. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. request of the state legislatures concerned. Centre & the state. loans & Consolidated Fund of India & consolidated fund of each the income received by the Govt. It is a regular fund of Govt. He holds 6. He audits the accounts of any other authority when Commission. But Although. He audits the accounts related to all expenditure from the Under Article 266 any money other than the receipts. 1. 4.  It is the supreme audit institution of India.  The term of office of the AGI is not fixed by the Constitution of India.com | www.  He performs any legal duties assigned by the President of  The main function of SPSC is to conduct examin ations for India.  He discharges any functions conferred on him by the Constitution or the President. Appointment & term 5.

admitted leads to setting aside the normal business of the House for discussing a definite matter of Urgent Public importance. sanction money out of Consolidated Fund of India to meet an (3) Starred & Unstarred Questions unforeseen expenditure.in | www./Chem. A grant made by Lok Sabha in advance in respect of the grants estimated expenditure of the Government of India for a part  Article 117 : Special provisions as to financial Bills of a financial year pending the voting of Demands for  Article 118 : Rules of procedure Grants for the financial year. which has created the The Private Member’s business includes Private Member’s Bills contingency Fund of India with an upper limit of Rs. votes of credit & exceptional 5. If it is recognized as state party in your states. A recognised political party has been classified either as a (5) Adjournment Motions “national party” or a “state party”.careeradda.) Article 267 empowers the Parliament to provide by law for the Motions in Parliament establishment of a public fund called the Contingency Fund of (1) Private Member’s business India.com | www. This motion is moved by a member if in his opinion any minister or any of the members commits a breach of privilege of the Important Points to look at House by withholding any fact. A motion for reduction of a demand for grant by or to a to estimates specified amount-Cut motion  Article 114 : Appropriation Bills 4. Answer to such a question may be Parliament for its approval subsequently. A Motion for Vote on Account is dealt with in the same way as if it were a demand for  Article 119 : Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in grant. 1. The money so sanctioned out of A starred question is one to which a member desires an oral contingency fund of India by the President is placed before the answer in the House. Normally. & in addition. Recognition to a party is An adjournment motion is an extra-ordinary procedure which if granted by the “Election Commission of India”. The period of notice for not a regular fund of Govt.careerpower. The estimate of expenditure in respect of a Ministry/Department not charged upon the Consolidated ARTICLES RELATED TO BILLS Fund of India. It is & Private Member’s Resolutions. placed for approval before the House on the  Article 107 : Provisions as to introduction & passing of Bills recommendations of the President -Demand for Grant  Article 108 : Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases 2. Thus the Contingency Fund is replenished by the thereon. Calls the attention of a Minister of any matter of 1.and urgent public importance & the Minister may make a brief these candidates are elected from three states. Economy cut & Token cut  Article 116 : Votes on account. Instead legislative assembly. The first hour of a sitting of the House normally allotted for  Article 120 : Language to be used in Parliament asking & answering of questions-Question Hour  Article 121 : Restriction on discussion in Parliament Article 122 : Courts not inquire into proceedings of Parliament www. It is placed at the allows introduction at a shorter notice. A Bill passed annually (or at various times of the year)  Article 109 : Special procedure in respect of Money Bills providing for the withdrawal or appropriation from & out  Article 110 : Definition of “Money Bills” of the Consolidated Fund of India of moneys by Lok Sabha &  Article 111 : Assent to Bills moneys charged on the Consolidated Fund for the services  Article 112 : Annual financial statement of a financial year or a part thereof-Appropriation Bill  Article 113 : Procedure in Parliament with respect 3. If it wins 2% of seats in Lok Sabha at a general election. No supplementary questions can be asked Fund of India.-Vote on Account relation to financial business 6. Fund of India (Misc. It is for the Speaker to Political Parties determine whether the matter is of real urgent nature or not. it wins four seats in the there exists a motion called ‘Motion for Papers. Conditions for Recognition as a National Party (6) Calling Attention A party is recognized as a national party if any of the following It is a notice by which a member with the prior permission of conditions is fulfilled: the Speaker.’ Lok Sabha from any state or states. be asked by members with notice shorter than the 10 days prescribed for an ordinary question. or statement or ask for time to make a statement at a later hour or 2. 50 Cr. the first hour of the business of a House everyday is devoted to questions & is called Question Hour (11:00 AM to The Fund is used when the Parliament is not in a position to 12:00 Noon). of India & it is used to meet on introduction of Bill is one month unless the Presiding officer unforeseen expenditures of the Govt. If it secures 6% of valid votes polled in any four or more date it is an Indian Innovation. of India. additional or excess grants cut.co. Accordingly. Provisions Act) 1950. states at a general elcetion to the Lok Sbha or to the There is no calling attention Notice in the Rajya Sabha.com | www. or (7) Privilege Motion 3. disposal of President who can provide the sanction for meeting (2) Question Hour an emergency expenditure out of contingency Fund of India. If the Parliament followed by five supplementary questions by other members. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. the Parliament enacted the Contingency Every member who is not a Minister is called a Private Member.bankersadda. approves the expenditure then the equal amount of money is An unstarred question is one to which written answer is desired transferred from Consolidated Fund of India to Contingency by the Member. Cut motion can be of three types ‐ Disapproval of policy  Article 115 : Supplementary.sscadda. Contingency Fund.in 16 ./Bio. The Parliament by law may increase the (4) Short Notice Questions upper limit of Contingency Fund either permanently or These are related to matter of urgent public importance & can temporarily.

Rise in price of substitute good. schedule. It means less demand at higher income and vice versa. Substitute Goods:. Fall in price of complementary good. 1) Change in Quantity Demanded: . commodities increases as the consumer’s income increases and other factors remain constant. Demand:. Demand Curve:.careeradda. 1. tea and Coffee Complementary Goods:. Note: Decrease in income causes Decrease in demand for Dx = f( Px. demand for normal goods They are of two types: also rises.Demand by an individual consumer. income. Demand Function:.Increase in the price of one good causes increase in demand for other good. MICRO ECONOMICS: It is a study of behaviour of individual and contraction units of an economysuch as individual consumer. Income of the consumer 2. B) Decrease in demand:. Increase in Income. of future price change 4. Unfavorable/Decrease in taste and preference 3.co.It is a tabular representation which shows 1.Quantity of the commodity that a consumer is able and willing to purchase in a given period and at a given price.Goods which are having negative relation with 2) Change in Demand (Shifts in demand) income.Petrol and Car Normal Good:.g. It means when income rises. Price of related goods4.a Giffen good is an inferior good which people Change in Quantity Demanded consume more of as price rises.bankersadda.in 17 .It is a graphical representation of demand 4. E. Such goods are A) Expansion of demand : More demand at a lower price called normal goods.Other things remains constant.Increase in the price of one good causes decrease in demand for other good. 1. Causes of Increase in Demand:- Demand Schedule:.com | www. T) normal good Law of Demand:. normal good Factors Affecting Individual Demand For a Commodity/ Causes of Decrease in Demand: Determinants of Demand:. good. MARGINAL OPPORTUNITY COST: MOC of a particular good Demand changes due to change in factors other than price of the along PPC is theamount of other good which is sacrificed for commodity. are of two types: production of additional unit of another good. 2. PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY CURVE (PPC): PP curve shows Increase and decrease all the possiblecombination of two goods that can be produced with the help of available resources and technology. Note: Increase in income causes increase in demand for Individual Demand:. demand of a Type of Goods good falls with rise in price and vice versa .in | www.sscadda.) ECONOMICS CAPSULE 2016 FOR RAILWAYS AND SSC EXAMS INTRODUCTION Due to price change → Movement will takes place → Extension 1. price remaining constant./Chem. Rise in price of complementary good. the income effect www.careerpower.. E. Decrease in price of substitute good.Goods which are having positive relation with Changes in Demand:. Normal goods . Y. In the Giffen good situation. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. B) Contraction of demand : Less demand at a higher price Giffen goods . the quantity demanded of such Demand changes due to change in price of the commodity alone. decreases as the consumer’s income decreases..less demand due to change in other DEMAND factors. Price of the commodity itself2. Increase/ favorable change in taste and preference. Pr. Decrease in Income./Bio. purchased. are of two types. Taste and Preference5.more demand due to change in other of units of one goodsacrificed to produce one more unit of other factors. 3. Expectations 3.g:. Due to other than price change → Shifting will takes place → 3. ECONOMY: An economy is a system by which people get their Change in Demand living. 5. MARGINAL RATE OF TRANSFORMATION: MRT is the ratio A) Increase in demand:. cheaper close substitutes are not available. the relationship between price of the commodity and quantity 2. price remaining constant. 1) Change in Quantity Demanded (Movement along the same demand curve) Inferior Goods:. Change in demand:- 4. Because of the lack of substitutes. violating the law of demand. producer etc.com | www.

It means a small change in complementary goods like pen and ink demand for good is price induces a significant change in. its supply contracts”.careeradda./Bio. utility becomes compromised. = Percentage change in quantity demanded/ Percentage change in price LAW OF SUPPLY Ed. as the price of commodityrises. The concept of elasticity of supply explains the rate ofchange in supply as a result of change in price. responsiveness of quantity demanded to change in its price. it is the Derived demand: Demand for goods and services made responsiveness ofdemand for commodity x to the change in the according to direct demand is called derived demand. or perfumes. “Other things remaining the same. its supply expands and as the price falls.bankersadda.com | www. In this case an insignificant change in price Income demand: Demand primarily dependent upon income is produces tremendous change in demand.The supply of a commodity at a given price may be defined as theamount of it which is actually offered for sale per unit of time at thatprice.Commodities x and y are not related. even as its Perfectly inelastic demand (Ed = 0) price rises. Elasticity of Supply The law of supply tells us that quantity supplied will respond to achange in price. The complementary goods In case of certain commodities the demand is relatively more and substitutes are called related goods. leading people to buy more of the good. showing perfectly elastic demand is a horizontal straight line. Firms will supply less at lower prices and more at higherprices. this is notbecause Inelastic (less elastic) demand (e < 1) the consumers are forced into buying more of the good due to In this case the proportionate change in demand is smaller than budgetary constraints(as in Giffen goods). Composite demand: Demand for a single commodity made in Measures of cross-elasticity of demand order to use for different purposes is called composite demand. The utility of such goods is associated Unitary elasticity demand (e = 1) with their ability todenote status. Infinity . In case of responsive to the change in price.in 18 .in | www. watches. Ed. However. It is the capacity and intention of the producers to producegoods and services for sale at a specific price. ec = Percentage change in the quantity demanded of commodity Joint demand: Demand made for two or more goods and X/Percentage change in the price of commodity y services to satisfy single need or want is called joint demand. price of commodity y.Commodities x and y are complementary. Veblen goods in price. The demand curve called income demand.Commodity x is nearly a perfect substitute for commodity y Price Elasticity of Demand (Ed): Refers to the degree of Zero . Decreasing their price When the percentage change in price produces equivalent decreases the quantity demanded because their status-denoting percentage change in demand. Direct demand: Demand for goods and services made by final Cross-elasticity of demand consumers to satisfy their wants or needs is called direct The responsiveness of demand to changes in prices of related demand.careerpower. inversely related to the prices of other goods but the case in substituting goods are just opposite. whatever be the price the Veblen good (aka ostentatious goods): Often confused with quantity demanded remains the same. goods is called cross-elasticity of demand (related goods may be substitutesor complementary goods).sscadda. For example guest of hotels make the demand for food. Rather. Veblen goodsare goods for which increased prices will increase quantity demanded. This is experienced when the demand is extremely sensitive to the changes in price. The law of supply establishes a direct relationship between priceand supply. Demand for substituting Perfectly elastic demand (e = ∞) goods is directly related to prices. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.com | www./Chem. The rectangular hyperbola as shown in the figure demonstrates this type of elasticity. TYPES OF DEMAND Cross demand: Demand primarily dependent upon prices of Elastic (more elastic) demand (e > 1) related goods is called cross demand.co. Giffen goods. demand. we have a case of unit elasticity. = P/q X Δq/Δp Supply means the goods offered for sale at a price during a P = Original price Q = Original quantity Δ = Change specificperiod of time. In other words. are high-status goods such as expensive wines. Negative . It is measured by theformula mentioned below www.automobiles. In other words.) dominates. This describes a situation in which demand shows no response to a change in price.

Free entry and exit of firms. FORMS OF MARKET AND PRICE DETERMINATION 3. Perfect mobility of factors of production. 2. Partial control over price. Production function is a long period production function if all 7. b) Monopoly market: Monopoly is a market situation What do you mean by patent rights? dominated by a single seller who has full control over the price. Very large number of buyers and sellers.K) 8. PRODUCTION 2. Features of perfect competition: 1. Few dominant firms who are large in size 2. Variable Factor: Those inputs which change with the level of 3. www. L: Labor. Single seller of a commodity.: Cost incurred by a firm for the promotion of sale is known industry. Production function is a short period production function if Features of monopolistic competition few variable factors are combined with few fixed factors. output.) Elasticity of supply = Proportionate change in quantity 4. Market: Market is a place in which buyers and sellers come into contact for the purchase and sale of goods and services.bankersadda.in 19 . inputs and output in a given state of technology. Fixed Factor: The factor whose quantity remains fixed with the Features of monopoly: level of output. Q= f(L. 3. Ans: It means close substitutes offered by different producers to c) Monopolistic Competition d) Oligopoly. 7. 5. show their output differs from other output available in the a) Perfect competition: refers to a market situation in which market. Absence of selling cost. Lack of perfect knowledge.It refers to charging of different prices from different consumers for different units of the same product. Price rigidity. Firms sell name etc to attract buyers. b) Monopoly. Large number of buyers and sellers but less than perfect Concepts of product: competition. Ans:. Ans: . Absence of transportation cost. Firm is a price taker and industry is price maker. 4. 3. Freedom of entry and exit. PRODUCTION FUNCTION AND TIME PERIOD 6.careerpower.careeradda. Large number of buyers and sellers.co. (Advertisement cost) product. 2. brand there are large number of buyers and sellers. Perfect knowledge. 1. Full control over price. Homogeneous or differentiated product. Difficulty of entry of a new firm. Homogeneous products. Features of pure competition 1.com | www. nature of competition between them and the nature of as selling cost.com | www. Main features of Oligopoly. 1. What are selling cost? Market structure: refers to number of firms operating in an Ans. 2. Total Product. Existence of abnormal profit. Selling cost. Barrier to entry. Free entry and exit of firm. Differentiation can be in colour. industry during a given period of time with given number of 3. d) Oligopoly: is a market structure in which there are few large What is price discrimination? sellers of a commodity and large number of buyers. High transportation cost. 6. K: Capital 9. Q is the output. supplied/Proportionate change in price 5. homogeneous products at a uniform price. Price discrimination exists 1. 1. differentiated products. Perfectly elastic demand curve (AR=MR) Production Function: It is the functional relationship between 7. Types of market What is product differentiation? a) Perfect competition. Homogeneous product. 5. Absence of close substitute of the product.Total quantity of goods produced by a firm / 2.Patent rights is an exclusive right or license granted to a c) Monopolistic competition: It refers to a market situation in company to produce a particular output under a specific which there are many firms who sell closely related but technology. the inputs are varied. 6.in | www. Negatively sloped demand curve(AR>MR) 5. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Mutual interdependence./Bio./Chem. 4. Production: Combining inputs in order to get the output is 4. production. Product differentiation.sscadda. size packing. inputs.

in | www. Returns to scale factors constant. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Three phases of returns to scale The changes in output as a result of changes in the scale can be Phase I / Stage I / Increasing returns to a factor. MPP initially increase then falls but remains positive then 3rd phase becomes negative. the output increases by · Decrease in efficiency of variable factors. increased in the sameproportion.bankersadda. Marginal product (MP): refers to addition to the total product.e. when one more unit of variable factor is employed. studied in 3 phases. TPP increases diminishing rate.in 20 . Here the marginal product is constant. n=no.careeradda. · Optimum combination of factors Reasons for diminishing returns to a factor · Indivisibility of factors.) Average product = output per unit of variable input. · Imperfect substitutes.Returns to Scale when only one variable factor is increased.e. it is called increasing returns to scale. If we increase all the factors (i. · Poor coordination between variable and fixed factor if all the inputs are increased by 5%. In this case the marginal product will be rising. TPP increases at an increasing rate. all the factors will result in an equal proportion of 5% increase in the output. then increases at a decreasing rate and finally changed. Long-run production function . www./Chem. TPP is maximum./Bio. Decreasing returns to scale Phase II / Stage II / Diminishing returns to a factor · TPP increases at decreasing rate · MPP decreases / falls · This phase ends when MPP is zero & TPP is maximum Phase III / Stage III / Negative returns to a factor · TPP diminishes / decreases · MPP becomes negative. An increase in scale means that all inputs or factors are TP decreases. output will increase in the same proportion i. all factors can be changed. by 10%. They are · TPP increases at an increasing rate (i) Increasing returns to scale(ii) Constant returns to scale (iii) · MPP also increases. a 5% increase in · When MPP is negative. the · When MPP is Zero. Reasons for increasing returns to a factor · Better utilization of fixed factor · Increase in efficiency of variable factor. APP = TPP / units of variable factor Average product is also known as average physical product.sscadda. scale) in a given proportion. the total product (TP) initially increases at an studiesthe changes in output when all factors or inputs are increasing rate.com | www. of units of variable factor MP = ΔTP / Δn We derive TP by summing up MP TP = ΣMP SHORT RUN PRODUCTION FUNCTION LAW OF VARIABLE PROPORTION OR RETURNS TO A VARIABLE FACTOR Statement of law of variable proportion: In short period. Relation between MPP and TPP · As long as MPP increases. more than 5% i.e.careerpower. TPP starts decreasing.com | www. keeping other In the long run. For · Limitation of fixed factors example. Increasing returns to scale If the increase in all factors leads to a more than proportionate Reasons for negative returns to a factor increase in output. MPn = TPn – TPn-1 MPn = Marginal product of nth unit of variable factor TPn = Total product of n units of variable factor TPn-1= Total product of (n-1) unit of variable factor.co. Constant returns to scale · When MPP decreases.

At zero level of output TC is equal to TFC. TFC and TVC The Cobb-Douglas production function can be stated as follows 1.  AR = (output / quantity × price) / Output/ quantity  AR= price Opportunity cost : is the cost of next best alternative foregone  AR and demand curve are the same. In this phase marginal product will be These costs are zero when output is zero. TFC is horizontal to x axis.These costs all the factors are increased by 5%. per unit total cost of production./Chem. 4. by (a+1-a).e.  AR = TR / Output sold Implicit cost : Cost incurred on the self . Since a+1-a =1. the output will increase by are also called “prime costs”. scale of output. C=f(q) Where f=functional relationshipwherec= cost of  When AC is rising MC also rises & lies above AC production q=quantity of product  MC cuts AC at its minimum where MC = AC Revenue Revenue:. output sold./Bio.These costs remain fixed whatever may be the selling an additional unit of output. These costs increase in output.careerpower.W.owned factors of  AR and price are the same. MCn = TCn-TCn-1 or MC = ΔTC / ΔQ Note : MC is not affected COST by TFC. Relation between TC. production. if both factors of 3. The simplest and the most widely used production function in It is obtained by summing TFC and TVC at various levels of economics is the Cobb-Douglas production function.co. AVC = TVC / output.TR n-1 · TR = Σ MR zero. the output (total product) will increase by the sum of the exponents of Average variable costis the cost per unit of the variable cost of labour and capital i. TC and TVC are S shaped (they rise initially at a decreasing Q = Actual output L = LabourC = Capitalb = number of units of rate. Douglas. cost of raw material etc. These costs are present in short run but disappear in the long run. quantities demanded at various prices. According to the above production function. the equation. It is a output. Explicit cost : Actual payment made on hired factors of TR = Quantity sold × Price (or) output sold × price production. Shows the various / sacrificed. when the inputs are increased by one percent. Total Revenue: Total sale receipts or receipts from the sale of given output. the sum of the exponents Average total cost (ATC) or Average cost (AC): refers to the shows the degree of “returns to scale” in production function.in 21 .com | www. if are incurred on the variable factors of production. interest on owners capital.) Decreasing returns to scale Total Variable Cost : TVC or variable cost – are those costs If the increase in all factors leads to a less than proportionate which vary directly with the variation in the output. a + b >1 : Increasing returns to scale a + b =1 : Constant returns to scale Marginal cost:refers to the addition made to total cost when an a + b <1 : Decreasing returns to scale additional unit of output is produced. decreasing. For example wages paid to the hired labourers. Relationship between AC and MC  Both AC & MC are derived from TC Cost function : Functional relationship between cost and  Both AC & MC are “U” shaped (Law of variable proportion) output. www. Fixed cost : are the cost which are incurred on the fixed factors Marginal Revenue: Additional revenue earned by the seller by of production. Cost of production : Expenditure incurred on various inputs to produce goods and services. statistical production function given by professors C.e.in | www. rent Average Revenue: Revenue or Receipt received per unit of paid for hired accommodation. rent of own  TR = Quantity sold × price or output sold × price building.bankersadda. Total cost : is the total expenditure incurred on the factors and The Cobb – Douglas Production Function non-factor inputs in the production of goods and services. For example. These costs are present even when the output is · MRn = TR n . In the above production function. Thus the Cobb Douglas Once the optimum level of output is reached AVC starts rising. it is called decreasing returns to scale i.sscadda. less than 5% i. salary for the services of entrepreneur etc.careeradda. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. the AVC falls with every increase in output initially. according to production. production function explains only constant returns to scale. Cobb and P.com | www.  When AC is falling MC also falls & lies below AC curve. production (labour and capital) are increased by one percent.e. “Direct cost” or “avoidable cost”. Q = bLaC1− ain which 2. then at a constant rate & finally at an increasing rate) due Laboura = Exponentof labour1-a = Exponentof Capital to law of variable proportions. TC and TVC curves parallel to each other. output also increases by one percent. a commodity or service. by 3%.Money received by a firm from the sale of a given Money cost : Money expenses incurred by a firm for producing output in the market.H.

1. constantly used up. Net domestic product at market price is the the presence of substitutes. Where Relation between TR and MR (When price remains constant P is market price and Q is final goods and services. territory of a country. NNP at FC is the total incomes earned by all the factors of production in the form of wages. Gross Domestic Product at factor cost refers to the value of all 7. Relationship between TR and MR. GNP at MP measures the money value of all the final products produced annually in a counter plus net Relationships between AR and MR under monopoly and factor income from abroad. the total revenue increases at a constant rate (MR is Gross national product at market price is broad and horizontal to X axis) comprehensive concept. In production of output capital assets are curve.4. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. interest etc./Chem. Thus net national product is the net money value of final  TR falls when MR is negative. This fixed capital consumption is called  TR increases as long as MR is positive. (When price is constant or perfect competition) and services produced in the domestic territory are multiplied by their respective prices.in | www. (5) Net Domestic Product at Factor Cost (NDP at FC):- Net Domestic product of factor cost or domestic income is the Shut down point : A situation when a firm is able to cover only income earned by all the factors of production within the variable costs or TR = TVC domestic territory of a country during a year in the form of wages. the sellers are price takers. constant or perfect competition) Under perfect competition. If depreciation or consumption of fixed www. Gross National the final goods and services produced within the domestic Product at Factor Cost. (When price falls with the increase in sale of output) (4) Net National Product at Market Price (NNP at MP):-  Under imperfect market AR will be downward sloping – Net National product measures the net money value of final which shows that more units can be sold only at a less goods and services at current prices produced in a year in a price.6. profit and rent etc.in 22 . depreciation. the seller can sell any quantity at (2) Gross National Product of Market Price (GNP at MP):- that price. Gross Domestic Product at Market Price. goods and services produced in the course of a year.com | www. plus net factor income from abroad. Firm will be earning normal profit. 5. Symbolically GDP at MP = PXQ. Important concepts of National Income profits. Depreciation constitutes loss of value of fixed capital. Net National Product GNP at FC. Break-even point: It is that point where TR = TC or AR=AC./Bio. As a value of the final goods and services produced within the result AR and MR curve will be horizontal straight line parallel country's own territory. Thus NDP at FC is a Formulae at a glance: territorial concept.  AR can never be negative.8. Net National Product (7) Gross Domestic Product at Factor Cost (GDP at FC): at Factor Cost. Net money  TR will be maximum when MR is zero value can be arrived at by excluding depreciation allowance from total output. Product at Market Price. (3) Net Domestic Product at Market Price (NDP at MP):-  AR curve is less elastic in monopoly market form because of Net domestic product. in question from the factor incomes earned by the market forms. Personal Income11. Net factor incomes is derived by competition) reducing the factor incomes earned by foreigners from the  AR and MR curves will be downward sloping in both the country. In other words NDP at factor cost is equal to  TR = price or AR × Output sold or TR = Σ MR NNP at FC less net factor income from abroad. Private Income. Net National Product at market price and net factor income  AR curve is more elastic in monopolistic market because of from abroad.careerpower. Net Domestic Product at Factor Cost. country. difference been GNP at market price minus depreciation and net factor incomes from abroad.  AR (price) = TR ÷ units sold  MR n = MR n – MR n-1 (6) Net National Product at Factor Cost (NNP at FC) Net national product at factor cost is the aggregate payments MACRO ECONOMICS made to the factors of production. Gross National NNP at FC is the NDP at FC plus net factor income from abroad. Single (1) Gross Domestic Product at Market Price (GDP at MP):- price prevails in the market.at market price is the difference between no substitutes.  AR lies above MR.co.bankersadda.sscadda. interest. Since all the goods are Gross domestic product at market price is the aggregate money homogeneous and are sold at the same price AR = MR.careeradda. So as to calculate GDP at MP all goods to OX axis.com | www.10. residents of that country from abroad. at Market Price.) Relationship between AR and MR (when price remains 9. NNP at FC can also be derived by excluding depreciation from 3.2. Disposable Income. or in perfect competition) When there exists single price. It is the gross national product at market price less  MR falls with every fall in AR / price and lies below AR depreciation. Net Domestic Product at Market Price. In short GNP is GDP plus net factor monopolistic competition(Price changes or under imperfect incomes earned from abroad. Gross Domestic Product at Factor Cost. rent.

 NNP Fc = GDP mp .Capital formation = Investment  NNP Mp = GNP mp . 2. includes the transfer payments where as they are not included  NDP fc = (1) + (2) + (3) in national income.I) = GDPMp (-) consumption of fixed capital and deduction.depreciation + Net factor income from abroad – Net indirect taxes Autonomous Investments: It is Investment which is made irrespective of level ofincome.com | www. (11) Disposable Income:.careeradda.in 23 . interest and rent received by the individuals. because personal income 3. Multiplier (k) =Δy/ΔI.  NNP fc = NDP fc (+) Net factor income from abroad salaries. real GNP. Government final consumption expenditure. from National Income. It is generally run by the Define nominal GNP government sector. payment. Examples are: donation.Intermediate consumption = Gross value from any source whether productive or unproductive. Gross domestic capital formation=Gross Domestic fixed purchasing power of the house hold.bankersadda. The deductions include (a) Income from property and entrepreneurship (b) savings of the non. Operating surplus. A worker gets the wages is the propensity to consume (MPC). There is direct relationship between k and MPC. Investment multiplier explains the relationship between Ans. nominal GNP. Thevolume of Ans. Investment multiplier is the ratio of change in income to change in investment. Income from property. Thus disposable income is that part of NNP fc = GDPmp . a part of it is paid in the GDPmp = (1) + (2) + (3) + (4) form of direct tax.  Change in stock = closing stock – opening stock Private income means the income earned by private individuals  Value of output .) capital is added to the net domestic product at factor cost. GNP measured in terms of current market prices is called autonomous investment is same at all level of income. Private final consumption expenditure. Income method: departmental undertakings (e) social security contributions. Tax Personal Income is the total income received by the individuals Savings (Net retained earnings) of country from all sources before direct taxes. I . Net Export. Personal  GNP mp = NDP fc + consumption of fixed capital + Net income is derived by excluding undistributed corporate profit indirect tax(Indirect tax – subsidy) taxes etc. Define Real GNP. Investment multipliers and its working. It refers to the 4.Net income.in | www. In 1.consumption of fixed capital + NFIA.careerpower. GNP computed at constant prices (base year price) is called increase in investment and the resultant increase in income. order to arrive at private income the above additions and subtraction are to be made to and from NNP at factor Cost. Corporate dividend. Personal income includes the wages.sscadda.co. Income from Entrepreneurship.depreciation  NDP Mp = GDPmp – depreciation INTRODUCTION TO MACRO  NDP Fc = NDP mp – Net indirect taxes (indirect tax – Autonomous consumption: The consumption which does not subsidies) depend upon income or the amount of consumption  GDP Fc = NDP fc + depreciation expenditure when income is zero. Expenditure method: 1. indirect taxes Note: If capital formation is given as Net domestic capital Concepts formation we arrive at NDPmp. factor payment because he worked for it. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.com | www. Mixed income of self-employed. it is Transfer payment: If there is no obligation involved to deliver called Gross domestic Product at Factor cost. The whole of disposable Capital formation+ Change in stock income is not spent on consumptions.PRODUCT METHOD (Value added method):  Sales + change in stock = value of output (9) Private Income:. Disposable income means the actual income which can be spent 3. rest of the world./Bio. Factor Payment: Factor payment is a payment made in lieu of The value of multiplier depends on the value of marginal providing goods and services. scholarship etc. which is left after the exclusion of direct tax. Personal income is not the same as National Income. The additions include (a) transfer earnings from (depreciation) Govt. (b) interest on national debt (c) current transfers from (+) Net factor income from abroad ( -) Net indirect tax. It is income inelastic. Gross national product at factor cost is obtained by deducting unemployment benefit./Chem. on consumption by individuals and families. 2. service or goods in return of the payments is called transfer (8) Gross National Product at Factor Cost (GNP at FC):. old age pension. www. Compensation of employees. It can be added (GDPMp) arrived at from NNP at factor cost by making certain additions  NNP Fc (N. the indirect tax and adding subsidies to GNP at market price or Gross national Product at factor cost is obtained by adding net METHODS OF CALCULATING NATIONAL INCOME factor incomes from abroad to the GDP at factor cost.Rent & Royalty Interest (10) Personal Income:.Profit.

In India.They are in the nature of economy.These contributes major chunk of the total taxes collected in India. Capital Gain tax as name suggests it is tax on gain in capital.com | www. These taxes are levied directly on the persons. it is known as Open Inflation. part of the Department of Revenue under the Ministry of Finance. Hoarding is an excess accumulation of basic commodities by The Indian Income Tax Department is governed by CBDT and is unscrupulous traders and black marketers. It has classified the money supply of our country into four Capital Gains Tax: components. central excise and service Hyperinflation: Hyperinflation refers to a situationwhere the tax are levied by the Central Government.g. of India.com | www. it is known as Suppressed individual or corporates directly or indirectly so as to generate Inflation. when prices rise above 1000% per annum Land Revenue. inflation occurs. becomes very difficult to measure its magnitude. aggregate demand and exceeds aggregate supply.careerpower. octroi/entry Hyperinflation. rise throughout the economy. Govt.  HOUSE TAX www. drainage etc. etc. Securities Transaction Tax Pull or Excess Demand Inflation. Profit Inflation: When entrepreneurs are interested inboosting their profit margins. The income a individual generate through the securities production of goods and services. The local (quadruple or four digit inflation rate). In a free market are usually referred to as bank notes.. If wages of workers are raised is taxed by the government of India and the same tax is called as then the unit cost of production alsoincreases. where prices are allowed to take its own course. INCOME TAX- This is a type of tax levied on the individuals whose income falls Scarcity Inflation: Scarcity inflation occurs due tohoarding. M1 is also known as  PROPERTY TAX narrow money . State Excise. It is sectional in nature. The state Government prices rise at an alarming high rate. leads to from companies. and tends to raise prices of goods and services. However. more Cost-Push Inflation: When prices rise due to growingcost of clearly. shares. As a result. Deficit Inflation: Deficit inflation takes place due to deficit DIRECT TAXES- financing. Note: Besides savings deposits. tax and tax for utilities like water supply. exploding population. bonds & precious material etc./Bio.in 24 . Debentures or any other security). Credit Inflation: Credit inflation takes place due toexcessive bank credit or money supply in the economy. under the taxable category (2.co. For e. prices of end-products orend-services being produced and supplied areconsequently hiked. It can be automatically collected by a The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the central bank of our central counterparty in the clearing or settlement process. the Securities Transaction Tax. Fiat Money: Currency notes in circulation are normally referred to as fiat money. Sporadic Inflation: When prices of only few commodities in few regions (areas) rise.  GIFT TAX M2 = M1 + post office savings deposits . revenue or to keep in check any black money activities in India. the Corporate Income tax rate is a tax collected factors like rising income. If They are : you sale property. For example.. quantitative terms.sscadda. it is termed as bodies have the authority to levy tax on properties. and Comprehensive Inflation: When the prices of allcommodities M4 = M3 + total post office deposits. Theprices rise so fast that it levies agricultural income tax (income from plantations only). one Rupee notes issued by the Open Inflation: When government does not attempt torestrict Government of India is Fiat money.in | www. in Value Added Tax (VAT)/ Sales Tax. and M1 = Currency with the public. notes + demand deposits of the public. it is knownas Cost-Push market be it through reselling of shares or through debentures (Supply-side) Inflation.The notes issued by the RBI inflation. Introduced in 2004. Banking Cash Transaction Tax A bank transaction tax is a tax levied on debit (and/or credit) Money supply entries on bank accounts. M3 is also known as broad money . Luxury Tax and Tax On Professions. It is also referred as Repressed Inflation. Stamp Duty. etc. TAX STRUCTURE IN INDIA Suppressed Inflation: When government prevents price rise Taxes are the amount of money government imposes on an through price controls.5 lakhs per annum). customs duties. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.) INFLATION TYPES M3 = M1 + Time deposits of the public with the banks.bankersadda. The tax on incomes. rationing. It manages the monetary system of our country. country.careeradda. It includes coins and currency earn profit on it then you are supposed to pay capital gain tax. people maintain fixed deposits of different maturity periods with the post office. STT is levied on the sale and purchase of equities (ie Shares. prices rise./Chem. Corporate Income Tax This is the tax levied on the profits a corporate house earned in Demand-Pull Inflation: Inflation which arises due to various a year. open promissory notes. This is known as Demand.

INDIRECT TAXES Ans: It is an annual statement of the estimated Receipts and You go to a super market to buy goods or to a restaurant to have Expenditures of the Government a mouthful there at the time of billing you often see yourself over the fiscal year which runs from April –I to March 31. that extra amount of money is called as VAT. What are the main items of Capital Receipts?  SERVICE TAX Ans: a) Market Loans (loans raised by the government from the  GST-GOODS & SERVICE TAX public) b) Borrowings by the Government Value Added Tax c) Loans received from foreign governments and International When we pay an extra amount of price for the goods and financial Institutions.com | www.in 25 .careeradda. One has to pay this duty.)  PROFESSIONAL TAX  DTC GOVERNMENT BUDGET AND THE ECONOMY 1. It provides for levy and collection of duty on imports and 9. these extra amounts are indirect taxes. In simple terms one can call it What are the main items of Capital Receipts? as Entry Tax. The service provider collects the tax and pays Ans: a) Budget Deficit b) Revenue Deficit the same to the government. Value Added Tax). Ans: i) Revenue Receipts ii) Capital Receipts Indirect Taxes:. Give two examples of Non-Developmental expenditures.bankersadda. 1962. Name the two broad divisions of the Budget. ii) Excise duties. ii) Interest Tax. iii) Sales Tax  ENTERTAINMENT TAX  TOLL TAX 6. a) Market Loans (loans raised by the government from the public) Excise Duty:- b) Borrowings by the Government An excise duty is a type of tax charged on goods produced c) Loans received from foreign governments and International within the country. Services Tax. This taxes is about to be replaced by Goods and 7.sscadda. Service Tax- Service Tax is a tax imposed by Government of India on services 10. What are the two Budget Receipts? common people. What are the four different concepts of Budget Deficits? provided in India. the ii) Interest payments basic law for levy and collection of customs duty is Customs Act. Ans: i) Tax Revenue ii) Non-tax Revenue Custom duty & Octroi (On Goods):- What are the two types of taxes? Custom Duty is a type of indirect tax charged on goods a) Direct Taxes: i) Income Tax. It is charged on all services except c) Primary Deficit andd) Fiscal Deficit the services in the negative list of services. iii) Sales imported from a foreign country into India Tax Octroi is tax applicable on goods entering from one state to another for consumption or sale. which are collected by the 2. Ans: A Surplus Budget is one where the estimated revenues are greater than the Estimated expenditures. What are the two types of taxes?  OCTROI Ans: a) Direct Taxes: i) Income Tax. Sales tax charged on the sales of movable goods. iii) Wealth  EXCISE DUTY Tax  ANTI DUMPING DUTY b) Indirect Taxes: i) Customs duties. ii) Excise duties. Ans: Plan expenditure of Railways and Posts Customs Duty 8. Another name of this tax is CENVAT (Central financial Institutions. iii) Wealth Tax imported into India.co. intermediaries and when govt tax the income of the Ans: i) Revenue Budget ii) Capital Budget intermediaries this extra amount goes in to government’s kitty. hence as the name suggests these are levied indirectly on 3./Bio. 4./Chem. Give two examples of Developmental Expenditure. Define Surplus Budget. robbed by some more amount than what you enjoyed of. Name the two types of Revenue Receipts. ii) Interest Tax. www.com | www. BUDGET Sales Tax :- Name the two types of Revenue Receipts.in | www. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. In India. services we consume or buy. Customs Duty is a type of indirect tax levied on goods imported Ans: i) Expenditure on defence into India as well as on goods exported from India. on goods that are b) Indirect Taxes: i) Customs duties. exports.careerpower. Define a Budget.  SALES TAX Ans: i) Tax Revenue ii) Non-tax Revenue  VAT(VALUE ADDED TAX)  CUSTOM DUTY 5.

These are the four different concepts of Budget Deficit.R (B.E= Budget Expenditure.in | www. STRUCTURE OF BALANCE OF PAYMENT ACCOUNTING What are the four different concepts of Budget Deficits? A balance of payments statement is a summary of a Nation’s a) Budget Deficit b) Revenue Deficit total economic transaction undertaken on international account. to States & Union Territories. item) 7. Formulae: B. the revenue receipts PLUS those Ans: Foreign exchange rate is the rate at which currency of one capital receipts which finally accrue to the government.It is the difference between the total that involve a resident of the domestic country changing his expenditure. payments.It is the excess of governments revenue expenditures over revenue receipts. international currencies are traded for one another. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. determined by the government of a country and only the d) Primary Deficit: . Budget EXCHANGE Expenditure B.E – R.R (B./Bio. What do you mean by Revenue Expenditure and Capital 1..) Give two examples of Developmental Expenditure. It includes both visible and invisible items. B. machinery. I. R. 3. the balance of trade./Chem. and loans and advances granted by the Central Government a country make without getting anything in return e. When R. building. The net value of balances of visible trade and of invisible trade and of unilateral transfers isthe balance on current account. Formulae: P. BALANCE OF TRADE AND BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 6.E > B.bankersadda.It is the fiscal deficit MINUS Interest government can change it.D – I.E= Revenue Expenditure.It is the difference between the total 1.It is the expenditure incurred for goods is called the balance of visible trade.g. Expenditure? a) Visible items of trade: The balance of exports and imports of i) Revenue Expenditure :. exchange market.B.in 26 .It consists mainly of expenditure on c) Unilateral transfers: Unilateral transfers are receipts which acquisition of assets like land. equipment resident of a country receive (or) payments that the residents of etc.D = B. = Revenue Receipts. Define Spot exchange rate. Formulae: F.D= Fiscal Deficit. the normal running of government departments and provision b) Invisible trade: The balance of exports and imports of of various services like interest charges on debt. F.R. record of all economic transactions between residents of a Ans: Flexible rate of exchange is that rate which is determined country and residents of foreign countries during a given period by the demand and supply of different currencies in the foreign of time. What is equilibrium rate of exchange? Ans: Equilibrium exchange rate occurs when supply of and BALANCE OF PAYMENTS: MEANING AND COMPONENTS demand for foreign exchange are equal to each other. resident. services is called the balance ofinvisible trade E. gifts. Hence Ans: i) Expenditure on defence ii) Interest payments the balance of payments represents a better picture of a country’s economic transactions with the rest of the world than Define Surplus Budget. CAPITAL ACCOUNT: It records all international transactions a) Budget Deficit:. c) Primary Deficit and d) Fiscal Deficit There are two types of account. P.R.careeradda. other than borrowings) 2.D= Primary Deficit. R. c) Revenue Deficit: . ii) Capital Expenditure:. current revenue and net internal and external assets with a foreign resident or his liabilities to a foreign capital receipts of the government. expenditure of the government.P.E > B.com | www.R. Define flexible exchange rate.. country can be exchanged for currency of another country. period of time.R. R. subsidies etc. B. Meaning: The balance of payments of a country is a systematic 5.D = B. Current Account: It records the following 03 items.E . What is meant by appreciation of currencies? Balance of trade: Balance of trade is the difference between the Ans: Appreciation of a currency occurs when its exchange value money value of exports and imports of material goods (visible in relation to currencies of other country increases. B.. www.D= F. Shipping insurance etc. Explain the four different concepts of Budget deficit.D=Fiscal Deficit.. 4. What is meant by Fixed Exchange Rate? Formulae: R.D= Revenue Ans: Fixed Rate of exchange is a rate that is fixed and Deficit. Balance of payments: Balance of payments is a systematic Ans: Plan expenditure of Railways and Posts record of all economictransactions between residents of a country and the residents of foreign countries during a given Give two examples of Non-Developmental expenditures. What do you mean by Foreign Exchange Market? F.g.E.careerpower. Ans: A Surplus Budget is one where the estimated revenues are greater than the Estimated expenditures.P= Interest Payment. 2. = Budget Ans: The foreign exchange market is the market where Receipts.sscadda.D= Budget Deficit.E > R. Define foreign exchange rate.com | www.R= Budget Revenue b) Fiscal Deficit:.D= R.co.R.

Following the decision of the East India Company to open a In 1690 Job Charnock established a factory at Sutanuti & factory at Surat (1608). Later. up in 1669.in | www. on lease. equal rights to all Englishmen to trade in the East. DAMAN & DIU which they retained till 1961.careeradda. Gerald Aungier was its first governor from 1669 1. & was saw the beginning of Anglo-French conflict (Carnatic wars) received by the Hindu ruler of Calicut (known by the title of resulting in their final defeat in India. 1. Define forward market. Cochin was the early capital of the Portuguese in India.com | www. The arrival of Dupleix as French governor in India in 1742 reached the port of Calicut on the May 17.Yanam in Coromandal & Karikal in 1. discovered from Europe to India by Vasco da Gama. It In 1639 Francis Day obtained the site of Madras from the was formed by a group of merchants known as the Raja of Chandragiri with permission to build a fortified “Merchant Adventures’ in 1599 & in 1600 the company was factory. Cochin & Cannanore. The French power in India was revived under Lenoir & Dumas (governors) between 1720 & 1742. the British Parliament passed a resolution giving establish factories in different parts of the empire. Englishman who arrived in India in 1599 by the land route. 3. Establishment of Factories by EAST INDIA COMPANY English The East India Company acquired Bombay from Charles II Before the East India Company established trade in the India.bankersadda. Sir Thomas Roe came to India as ambassador of James I to settlement was named fort William’ in 1700. The French East India Company was formed by Colbert in The final amalgamation of the company came in 1708 1664. Sutanuti was fortified in 1696 & this new fortified 4. This new company Francois Caron in 1664. Alfonso d' Albuquerque arrived in India in 1503 as the governor of the Portuguese in India in 1509 (The first governor being Francisco de Almeida between 1503-09) . which was named Fort St. Surat was replaced by Bombay as the headquarters of the for the purpose of trade with Indian merchants. Captain Hawkins arrived at the zamindari of the three villages of Sutanuti. 2. Discovery of the New Sea Route “the Cape route” was Tamil Nadu (1739). the Coromandal coast. www.com | www. These issued by Jahangir permitting the English to build a factory villages later grew into the city of Calcutta. Jahangir’s court in 1615 to obtain the permission to trade & In 1694. Zamorin). George. The first French factory was established at Surat by England Trading to the East Indies’. under the title of ’The United Company of Merchants of 2. recording all economic transactions of a given country with Ans: Market for foreign exchange for future delivery is known as the rest of the world. Popularly known as the ‘English East India Company’. the forward market.sscadda. The factory at at Surat (1613). They occupied Portuguese Mahe in the Malabar./Bio.careerpower. MODERN HISTORY The Advent of the Europeans 3. known as the ‘English Company of French Merchants Trading to the East Indies’ (1698) was formed. This led to the establishment of trading stations at Calicut. 1498. A farman was Govindpur was acquired by the British (1698). He captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur in 1510. He 4. The first factory was built at Surat in (160S)./Chem.Later Goa replaced it. The Portuguese rule began to decline afterwards & in the end they left only with GOA. 9. Madras soon given rights to trade in the entire east by QUEEN replaced Masulipatam as the headquarters of the English on ELIZABETH I. Company on the west coast in 1687. Other Governors Nino da Cunha (1529-38)— transferred his capital from Cochin to Goa (1530) & acquired Diu & Bassein (1534) from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.) Ans: The spot exchange rate refers to the rate at which foreign currencies are available on the sport. 2. John Mildenhall a merchant adventurer was the first to 1677. A new rival company.in 27 . Kalikata and Jahangir’s court (1609) to seek permission.co. A factory at Masulipatam was set continued its existence till 1858. What is meant by balance of payments? Ans: Balance of payments refers to the statement of accounts 8. Martin Alfonso de Souza (1542-45) —the famous Jesuit saint Francisco Xavier arrive in India with him. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.

The main army Rao Holkar made preparations for war.careerpower. Company. Tipu was in 1817. Tipu continued the war for another year but absolute success The main provisions of the treaty were the recognition of eluded both the sides. However French & Zaman Shah of Kabul. The Marathas refused to accept it but were The war lasted from 1780-1784. The panic-stricken Madras government concluded the maintained which gave the British 20 years of peace with the humiliating Treaty of Madras in 1769. By this Treaty it was decided that Baji Rao II & relinquishing of all rights of Surat by Baji Rao to English would return Srirangapatnam to Tipu & Tipu would the British.This led in organizing a united front of the Maratha burning with revenge. But he died in 1782 & was tricked by Wellesley due to their own internal differences. The Treaty the Narmada River but they refused & it led to war. The war ended with the defeat of Treaty of Salbai (1782).In 1757. Mysore was attacked from two sides.  Pending fulfilment of these terms two of his sons were to be detained as British hostages. The treaty also enabled the British to exert pressure Treaty of Madras on Mysore with the help of the Marathas in recovering their It was signed by Haider Ali & the allies consisting of the territories from Haider Ali. For Marathas Treaty of Bassein was loss of national honor. & the Malabar ruler.Peshwa Madhav Rao died in 1772 & was the activities of East India Company. Alliance system. British  The earlier treaties between the English & the rulers of turned their attention towards Holkar but Yashwant Rao Holkar Mysore stood confirmed.careeradda.This forced help of English subsidiary troops. The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69) In the war that followed nobody gained any success & two A tripartite alliance was formed against Haider by the British. By this treaty he also the nawab to come to an understanding & establish peace with the English. parties realized the futility of the struggle by concluding the the Nizam & the Marathas.) IMPORTANT BATTLES promised to cede Salsette & Bassein & refrain from entering into alliance with the enemies of the company. Tipu wanted his allies to expel once again the Marathas failed to evolve any plan of action.co. under General Harris supported by Nizam's subsidiary force The Maratha confederacy was altogether destroyed so many under Arthur Wellesley attacked Mysore from the east while territories were taken from its various members that they were another army advanced from Bombay.His uncle British governor of Calcutta to demolish additional fortifications Raghoba wanted to become the Peshwa & got him murdered. Thus the Tipu was at first defeated by the Bombay army & was later on work was accomplished by Lord Hastings in 1818. in January 1806 by the Treaty of Rajghat giving back to the  Tipu was also to order the release of all prisoners of war.sscadda.his men the treaty of Surat hopping to gain the coveted Gaddi with the were attacked by English army led by Robert Clive. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. status quo was British. Lord Wellesley after making Subsidiary Alliance Peshwa attacked the British Residency at Poona in 1817.com | www.in | www.Ragobha approached British for help & signed English factory at Kasimbazar & then Calcutta. The Maratha chiefs took up the cause of Madhav Rao Narain the The British refused to comply with his orders & he seized the son of Narain Rao. rendered powerless to do anything against the British./Chem.com | www. He wanted to get back his territory & to Chiefs & was taken over by the Peshwa who was uneasy under achieve that objective he carried on negotiations with the the rigid control exercised by the British Resident. Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818) Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818) Maratha made a The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) desperate last attempt to regain their independence & prestige With his defeat in the third Anglo-Mysore war. The succeeded by his son Tipu Sultan. Appa with the Nizam asked Tipu Sultan to accept the same but he Saheb of Nagpur attacked the Residency at Nagpur & Madhav refused./Bio. proved more than a match for the British.Calcutta was renamed of the English government at Bombay in the internal affairs of Alinagar after its capture by Siraj-ud-Daula.Now the defeated by the General Harris at Mallavalli. Second Anglo.Maratha War (1803-1806) The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784) The second Maratha war was fought at the time of Lord Haider Ali arranged a joint front with the Nizam & the Marathas Wellesley who wanted the Marathas to accept his Subsidiary against the common enemy -the English East India Company. Tired of war the two sides concluded Peshwa's claim in Poona acceptance of Subsidiary Alliance by peace Treaty of Mangalore.He tried to control the Marathas.bankersadda. Marathas. Both Scindia stipulated that: & Peshwar had accepted the sovereignty of the English. The the English. Wellesley was  Tipu was to cede half his territories where where to be recalled from India & the Company made peace with the Holkar shared among the three allies. By the Treaty of Salbai. Treaty of Bassein made conflict with the Marathas inevitable. www. the Raja of Tanjore.in 28 . Holkar & Scindia stopped fighting. Tipu died fighting British Government became the supreme & paramount bravely. latter the greater part of the territories. authority in India First Anglo Maratha War (1775-82) Siraj-ud–Daula The primary cause of the first Maratha war was the interference Siraj-ud Daula came to power in 1756.He wrote letters to the succeeded by his younger brother Narain Rao. & also to stop unlawful activities against him. handover Fort of Badnur to English. Scindia & Bhonsle were It was signed by Tipu on the one hand & the English & their asked by the English to withdraw their troops to the north of allies (Nizam & the Peshwa) on the other. Scindia & Bhonsle combined Treaty of Seringapatam but Holkar & Gaikwad remained aloof.

Subsequently.in 29 . Dutch were defeated by the English at Bedara in 1759.careeradda. with Bakht Khan (was from the Barreily unit of the army). It agitated both Hindu & stopped by the police from preaching in the city./Bio. currently a part of Bhojpur district. She Britain. The occasion was the the Nawab of Awadh). In 1856. As per the British historians it was the “Sepoy Mutiny”.com | www. the king of Jagdispur. LEADERS OF REVOLT OF 1857 IN INDIA Battle of Plassey (23 June 1757) The treaty was violated by conquest of Chandannagore by the Mangal Pandey--Mangal Pandey joined the sepoy force of British in 1757. Treaty of Alinagar (1757) They broke open jails. This battle saw the treachery of Mir Jafar & Rai British officers on 29th March 1857 at Barrackpore./Chem. it of the many maulvis who played an important part in the revolt was the “First war of independence”. Additionally the English were authorized to fortify of Hyderabad & the Begum of Bhopal.) civilians.in | www. Azimullah)  The mutiny really started at Merrut on 10th May 1857. killed two British officers.Siraj-ud –Dhaula was captured & executed by son of Mir the First War of Indian Independence. Tatya Tope--Tatya Tope was Nana Sahib’s close associate & Mir Qasim (1760-63) general. When he reached Lucknow in 1856. murdered Europeans. An agreement affirming to return to status quo 11th May) in Delhi was a signal to the local soldiers. Emperor of India). chaurasee des. Nana Sahib--At Kanpur. as Shahenshah-i-Hindustan (i. Battle of Buxar Mir Qasim fought against the British along with three allies – Shah Mal--Shah Mal lived in a large village in pargana Barout in Shuja-ud-Daula of Awadh & Shah Alam II.co. Zamindar of Jagdishpur. an Indian sepoy of 34 Native Infantry.He tried to replace the English with the Dutch but the gave birth to a son Damodar Rao in 1851.e. A list of demands made by the Company  The appearance of the marching soldiers next morning (i. www. He transferred his capital 1857.7 million as compensation. All the trade privileges held earlier by the Company stood  The British allies during the revolt were Sindhia. Calcutta against possible French attack & issue their own coins. Muslim soldiers & resulted in immediate launch of movement. Bihar. who in A number of farmans & dastaks issued by the nawab turn revolted. he became a preacher when young.com | www.He stopped the misuse of the dastaks or free passes allowed to the company & abolished all Veer Kunwar Singh--Veer Kunwar Singh. Nana Sahib’s Mir Qasim granted the zamindari of Burdwan.bankersadda.sscadda.Hugeson & Kanpur-Nana Sahib (from Kanpur. This Durlabh. urging people to rebel against the British. The soldiers alongwith other groups of Bihar (Arrah)--Kunwar Singh. was one of the leaders of the Indian revolt of 1857. of 1857. the Maharaja of Jhansi in period saw the beginning of the drain of wealth from India to 1842. he was jailed in Faizabad. seized the city & proclaimed the 82-year old As long as nawab shall observe his agreement. burnt their The treaty comprised: houses & marched to Delhi after sunset.This battle led to their Uttar Pradesh. Jafar. from Murshidabad to Mongher. The British decided to remove him Pandey was part of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry & is through conspiracy. protection to the French.1757. the Mir Jafar (1757-60) adopted son of exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II. he was beef & pork sparked off the revolt. Mir Jafar granted the right to free trade in Bengal & Bihar & Orissa & zamindari of the 24 parganas to the British besides Rani Lakshmibai-Rani Lakshmibai (Manikarnika) was married paying them a sum of Rs 17. duties on internal trade against British. went on a rampage shouting ‘Maro Firangi ko’. After their marriage. During the Siege of Cawnpore in 1857. but real command lay  On March 29. The Lucknow-Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh (declared her son as 3rd Native Infantry revolted. Mangal Pandey.His to Raja Gangadhar Rao Newalkar. in 1857. he was seen moving from village to village Immediate cause: The introduction of Enfield greased rifles preaching jehad (religious war) against the British & urging whose cartridges were said to have a greased cover made of people to rebel. Bahadur Shah. punishment of some sepoys for their refusal to use the Bareilly--Khan Bahadur greased cartridges. moving at night from village to village. The battle of Plassey took place on June 23 primarily known for his involvement in an attack on his senior .Siraj ud –Dhaula protested by offering the British East India Company in the year 1849 at the age of 22. Educated in Hyderabad. The Revolt of 1857 The Revolt of 1857 is an important landmark in the history of Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah--Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah was one India.bravery of small force & desertation of Nawab’s incident marked an opening stage ofSepoy Mutiny of 1857 or army.Midnapore & forces attacked the British entrenchment at Kanpur in June Chittagong to the British officials . the revolt was led by Nana Sahib. 1. the Nizam confirmed.2 The course of events Delhi-Mughal Emperor. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. continue to support him.e. English will Bahadur Shah ‘Zafar’ . along with Tantia Tope & Baugh-on parade at Barrackpore (near Calcutta). & became the queen of Jhansi.careerpower. He mobilised the headmen & cultivators of defeat by the British forces under Major Hector Munro. 1857.

He made the English the court Language in higher court but 4. ruler of Mysore. The Indian National Congress 2. The first Governor-General of Bengal was Warren Hastings.C. Mahalwari (Village Community) system of Land Revenue civil servant.Rani LakshmI Bai Lord William Bentick (1828-1835) Allahabad . & 1. captured Satara in 1848.Banerjee in 1885 (72 delegates attended it). A separate Public Works Department was setup for the first 1. issued for the first time.bankersadda.careerpower. Adopted the Policy of intervention & War. Signed the Treaty of Bassien & fought Second Anglo. Queen Victoria’s Proclamation & passing the Indian council Marques. Hindu Marriage Act passed in 1856. Income Tax was introduced for the first time in 1858. 4. Introduced Wood’s Dispatch known as Magna Carta of Warren Hastings (1772-74) English Education in India prepared by Charles Wood. He was a British officer who established the military & infanticide. was made in North West Province by James Thomson. Revolt of 1857. An Engineering Collage at Roorkee was established. Lord Canning (1856-62) 3. in 1854.Liaquat ali 1.co. Telegraph lines William Jones in 1784. He returned to England to receive the title of the 2. He laid the first Railway Line in 1853 from Bombay to 1772. Important Governor Generals of India 2. Most Liberal & Enlightened Governor General of India & Robert Clive (1757-60 & 1765-67):. Described himself as “Bengal Tiger” Madras in 1857. It 1. Lord Dalhousie introduced the Policy of Doctrine of Lapse service of the Company & returned to England in 1753. Thane & second from Calcutta to Raniganj. In 1793.PC was enacted. Governor of Bengal during this period. 3. & was granted seat in the Privy Council & died in act of 1858. political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. Lord Hastings (1813-1823) 1.O. 6. 7. Bombay. Cornwallis called “Father of Civil Service in India”. University level. 2. Harbours at Karachi. were first laid from Calcutta to Agra. On 22 November 1774 Clive committed suicide. Impeachment 5.sscadda. Started work on Grand Trunk Road & developed the revenue administration from the administration of Justice. 8. 4.in | www. he later transferred to the military 1. 7. 5. 6. Introduced the Permanent settlement in 1793. 3. it is Persian continued in Lower court. Cornwallis. Rohila War in 1774. Introduced quintessential settlement of land revenue in 3. 6. 1805. 3. 2. laid by Robert Clive. After his return to England in 1785. Abolished Court of Appeals & Circuit set up by the "conqueror of India". said. Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835-36) called Liberator of Press. Clive first arrived in India in 1743 as a civil servant of Lord Dalhousie (1849-1856) the East India Company. an Englishman & a retired 3. Lord Cornwallis (1786-93) 9. Introduction of Ryotwari settlement in Madras Presidency MODERN HISTORY AFTER 1885 by Governor Thomas Munro in 1820. Foundation of the Universities in Calcutta. Started dual Government in India in 1765. 1. First Person to codify Laws in 1793. 6. at his Berkeley Square home in London. Postage stamp were 5. 9. First Governor General of India by Government of India Act 1833. Banned practiced of Sati in 1829. Clive defeated the Nawab of Bengal Shiraj-ud-daula in the 6. 5. Jhansi in 1853. A Post office Act was passed in 1854. Madras Presidency was formed during his period. famous Battle of Plassey in 1757. The code separated the time. Jaitpur & Sambhalpur in 1849. He was the youngest Governor General of India.com | www. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. 5. & banned female 3. Doctrine of Lapse which was started by Lord Dalhousie was withdrawn in 1859. Baghat in 1850. & Calcutta. He was the first last Governor General of India & First Viceroy of 4. known to his admirers as the 5.careeradda. Indian High Court act 1861 was enacted.com | www.Hume. 2. regarded as the “Father of Modern Western Education in 1.  First session in Bombay under W. Bombay. Gave a great impetus to Post & Telegraph.in 30 . 2./Chem. Bahadur Shah was sent to Rangoon. www.  Formed in 1885 by A. Lord Wellesley (1793-1798) 4. 2. & Nagpur nine. Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance. 4. He also led the British forces in the third Anglo-Mysore war India. Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal with the help of 4. Indigo Revolt in Bengal in 1859-60. The foundations of the British empire in India were. 8. First Anglo-Maratha War (1776-82) & 7.) Jhansi . 3. Abolished Dual Government started by Robert Clive in suggested a scheme of education from Primary to 1765. & defeated the Great Tipu Sultan. Maratha war. IPC & Cr. India”. Udaipur in 1852. He Second Anglo-Maratha War from 1780-84./Bio. assumed charge at age of 36. proceeding were initiated against him in the house of Lord. Created the post of District Judge. aged forty.

Darbar was extremists within Congress like Bipin Chandra Pal. the INC under the leadership of Dada civil disobedience.com | www. The League supported the partition of B.)  In the first two decades (1885 – 1905). In the same Darbar it was also declared the Partition of  By Lord Curzon on Oct 16. threw the bombs on a vehicle coming out of the magistrate's home on April 30. generated among the Muslims following a war between Britain & Turkey which opened way for Congress & Muslim League Alipore Bomb Case 1908 unity. Bhai Naoroji adopted ‘Swaraj’ as the goal of Indian people.K. the extremists & the Lucknow Pact-Congress-League Pact (1916) moderates at the Surat session in 1907. but was never proved. 1916. quite moderate in Delhi Durbar of 1911 its approach. The Viceroy wounded in the  Lal.K. Further. This was the result of Hindu-Muslim unity exhibited in was the secretary of the state. Naoroji in his presidential address declared that the goal of the Arrival of Lord Chelmsford 1916 INC was ‘self government of Swaraj like that of United Kingdom’. 1905. Pal. Surat Split (1907) The INC split into the two groups i. Bonfires of foreign goods were conducted at various places. Taraknath Das & Sohan Singh Formation of Muslim League (1906) Bhakna. Tilak founded Indian Home Rule safeguards for its community & a separate electorate of League at Pune on 28 April. there was a succession in England where King George V  But the repressive measures of the British gave rise to ascended the throne.G Tilak was released from the Mandlay jail in the year 1914. the King declared that Capital of India will be transferred from Calcutta Partition of Bengal: to Delhi. Arrival of Lord Hardinge 1910 From 1910 to 1916. In this Darbar. inspired by the Muslims.Muslim unity by Tilak. killed. opposed the Swadeshi movement & demanded special 1915 he reentered INC. He said that the control over the Indian Morley-Minto Reforms were introduced in 1909 during the government would be transferred gradually to the Indian period when Lord Minto was the Viceroy of India while Morley people.Gokhale.British feelings were were led by G. Proclamation. The reforms laid the foundation Lucknow pact. 1916. reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal & Assam out of rest of Bengal. started Home Rule Movement in India in Sep.co. of institutionalized communalism as per the policy of divide & rule by introducing the separate electorates for Muslims. Kingford of Muzaffarpur. a Bomb was thrown at the Viceroy Lord Hardinge when his procession was Swadeshi Movement (1905): moving from Chandni Chowk. & in Kheda alone around 17000 people lost their lives.e. Anti. Pal). B.careeradda. In 1910. & Aurobindo Ghosh played the important role. Bose. 1906 at Calcutta. Annie Besant. but his Mahavat (driver & keeper of an elephant) was  INC took the Swadeshi call first at the Banaras Session. The congress accepted the separate electorate & both organizations task was entrusted to Khudiram Bose & Prafulla Chaki. Bal held to commemorate the coronation of King George V & Queen Gangadhar Tilak & Lala Lajpat Rai (Lal. Lajpat Rai & Bipin Chandra Pal while the moderates was the Lucknow Pact (1916). On April 4. 1908.G. Bal. 1916. through a royal Bengal is cancelled. Nawab Salimullah of Dacca & Nawab Home Rule Movement (1915-16) Mohsin-ul-Mulk at Dacca.in 31 . HQ was at San Francisco. The extremists were led An important step forward in achieving Hindu./Chem. Ghadar Party (1913):  Formed by Lala Hardayal. Lord Hardinge served as India's Viceroy. Mary as Emperor & Empress of India. Gujarat as a whole suffered a severe epidemic of Plague 1911. This was the immediate reason of www. Lord Chelmsford took over as next Viceroy of India. Irish rebellion. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. events which later put Gandhi on the front seat of Indian National Revolution & made Satyagraha a powerful tool. Bal. They jointly demanded ‘dominion status’ for the country. 1906.. On 23 December 1912. The leagues advocated passive resistance & In Dec. Montagu Declaration (August Declaration of 1917) Montague made the landmark statement in the context of self Morley-Minto Reforms (1909) rule in India in 1917. Champaran & Kheda Satyagraha were the candidates.in | www. Young India & Calcutta Session of INC (1906) Commonwealth. Both the Congress & the Muslim League held session at In 1908 a revolutionary conspiracy was intrigued to kill the Lucknow in 1916 & concluded the famous Lucknow pact. cholera also broke out locally.e. Kheda Satyagraha 1918 The important event during his tenure was the Delhi Durbar of In 1918. In December. attempt. The Chief Presidency Magistrate D. She started two newspapers i.com | www. Gokhale.sscadda. In 1911 he paid a visit to India.H. All India Muslim League was set up under the leadership of Aga Khan. 1905 presided over by G. In Bengal. As per The Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 was Mahatma Gandhi's the provisions of the reform Muslims could only vote for Muslim first Satyagraha./Bio. Delhi conspiracy case 1912  The objective was to set up a communal gulf between It is said that the Delhi Conspiracy was hatched by Ras Bihari Hindus & Muslims.careerpower.bankersadda.

to carry forward the Patel. He died in 1928. Rajendra Rowlatt Act (March 18. women & children were killed & Indians in it. as there were no  As a result hundreds of men. Lala Lajpat Rai was severely beaten in a lathi‐  Rabindranath Tagore returned his Knighthood (title) in charge. Das & Motilal Nehru put forward the creeds of the region. the newly adopted tricolor flag was unfurled & Jan 26 1. Congress & formed the Swaraj Party.bankersadda. changed strategy in Gaya session (1922) of the Congress. General O’ Dyer fires at people situation in India & to introduce further reforms & extension who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh./Chem. support of wide section of political parties. Boycott of government affiliated educational institutions year. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. 1919.R.in 32 . Das & Motilal Nehru resigned from the suspects without trial for two years maximum. Lord Birkenhead. The government said that if the taxes are not paid.careeradda. There were leaders in Congress like Vallabhbhai Patel. Jinnah thereafter drew up a list of demands. which was able to mobilize all the castes & Motilal Nehru. London. The Sawraj party (1922) This revolt gave India a robust leader in Sardar Vallabhbhai During this time a new political strategy. As a result the crowd burnt a Police station & in the incidence 22 policemen were killed. protest.com | www. Mohd. the leader of Muslim League. 1929)  Muslims were agitated by the treatment done with Turkey Jinnah. 1929. thousands injured. the Conservative Secretary of the State  Hunter Commission was appointed to enquire into it. In this incidence the crowd participating in the Non Cooperation & Khilafat procession indulged into the violence with the police. to arrest & imprison council entry. Kitchlu & Dr.R. the property would be seized. The revolt was against the taxes. under the Non cooperation movement (1920-22) presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru.sscadda. called ’14 points of Jinnah’. On Dec. 1929.) the revolt.  Two brothers. which was War. to review the political Satyapal on April 9. To meet this of a non-official enquiry committee the Government established challenge All Parties Conferences were held in 1928.  Constituted under John Simon. He was of the view that a scheme of constitutional reform made by one political Hunter Committee Report party in India would be opposed by the others & Indian political The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was followed by establishment parties lacked the capabilities to form a consensus. pleading to the people not to submit to British rule any 3. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel & his colleagues organized this struggle against the colonial rule. was advocated by C. The program of non-cooperation included: 31. 1919. Lahore Session(1929) At its annual session held in Lahore in Dec.R. 1919): Simon Commission (1927):  People were agitated over the arrest of Dr.com | www.careerpower.  Indian leaders opposed the commission. did not accept the Nehru by the British in the treaty that followed the First World Report.co. A scheme a committee headed by Lord Hunter a Senator of the "College of was finalized which is popularly called “Nehru Report” as justice of Scotland". Amritsar on 13 th April of parliamentary democracy. Boycott of foreign cloth 5. C. Civil Disobedience Movement Phase “I” of Civil Disobedience Movement www. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13. challenged Indians that they were not capable to formulate a  On March 13.  At Lahore./Bio. 1940. Nonpayment of taxes Chaura Chouri incidence (1922) On 5th February 1922.in | www.Rajgopalacharya who opposed these changes of  This gave unbridled powers to the govt. 4.  Sir Shankaran Nair resigned from Viceroy’s Executive Council Nehru’s Report (1928) after this.Ali & Shaukat Ali started this movement. Surrender of titles fixed as the Independence Day which was to be celebrated every 2. Das & major tax revolt. Sardar Udham Singh killed O’Dyer when concrete scheme of the constitutional reforms which had the the later was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall. Boycott of courts of law longer. Khilafat Movement (1919-20): 14 Points of Jinnah (March 9. the Indian National Congress The Non cooperation was the first mass movement launched passed a resolution declaring ‘Poorna Swaraj’ (Complete under the leadership of Gandhi. Motilal Nehru was its chief architect. Independence) to be the goal of the national movement. the Non Cooperation Movement was called off by Gandhi because of an unfortunate incidence at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh. C. 1919) Prasad & C.

& the Congress launched  Announced by Ramsay McDonald.R. the vision of Rehamat Ali. The discussions led to the passing of the  The failure of the Cripp’s Mission was an eye opener for the Government of India Act.  Gandhiji termed it as a post dated cheque in a crashing bank. Poona Pact (September 25. www. It was from Sabarmati to of government. Vinobha Bhave was the first policy of the British. In this. 1930 in London to It was 1930 that Iqbal suggested the union of the Frontier discuss Simon commission. held on March 24. After the failure of Second Round Table Conference. 4. Indian Christians. 1940) Indians as equals. 1940.sscadda. Individual Satyagraha The Communal Award (Aug 16. It was held on Nov. It provided for a federal type Movement with the Dandi march. with a view to getting cooperation from  Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya.co. & the  The two (government represented by Irwin & INC by fears of Muslims were thus united by the practical genius of Gandhiji) signed a pact on March 5. The ideology of Iqbal./Bio. 1931. Gandhiji along with his 78 followers broke the Salt Act. passed Pakistan the second round table conference Resolution & rejected the Federal scheme an envisaged in the  The government on its part released the political prisoners & government of India Act.careeradda. this conception at Cambridge. 1935. The Cripps Mission – 1942:  Gandhiji. 2. committee of the Congress resumed Civil Disobedience in. Satyagrahi while Nehru was second. The continued & extended all the existing features of Disobedience.1932): The August offer shocked nationalists. By March 7.  Eventually Poona pact was reached & Gandhiji broke his fact  He offered a draft which proposed dominion status to be on the sixth day (Sept 25. mass meeting took place almost everywhere. however this was to happen only after the approval from the British Parliament Phase “II” of CDM  Immediate expansion in the Viceroy’s executive council. nationalist.com | www. 11 point demands else the Congress will launch Civil 1935. Sindh & Kashmir as Muslim state within  Boycotted by INC. On 31st The Simon Commission report submitted in 1930 formed the January 1930. Third Round Table Conference (1932): Quit India Movement  Proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in The causes for the launch of Quit India Movement were: prison. Commons to settle terms with the Indian leaders. 1. The August Offer (1940) In order to win the public opinion in India. Congress made the “Purna Swaraj” or The Government of India Act.Rajah became active.The Lahore session of the called off the civil disobedience movement & agreed to join Muslim League.bankersadda. leader of the House of M. the session was Main Features- soon deadlocked on the minorities issue & this time separate  A promise of Dominion Status in an unspecified future electorates was demanded not only by Muslims but also by  A post war body to be created to enact a constitution. 1935. conceded the right to make salt for consumption for villages along the coast. the federations. In this the INC Jinnah to blind Muslim together. The new 11 point demand. 1942. but seats reserved to them in the provincial promises. the working  Formation of a war advisory council. Province.in | www. British P. Linlithgow put up an Second Round Table Conference(1931): offer to get the support of the nationalist in the World War  Gandhiji represented the INC & went to London to meet “II”. The demands were ignored by the British earlier constitutional reforms./Chem. Hindu Mahasabha.M. But in addition there were government. Sikhs. 1935.  Envisaged representation of Muslims. legislature were increased. where he inspired a group of young Muslims & invented the term ‘Pakstan’ (later ‘Pakistan’) Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931): in 1935. Thus. the act: Dandi. Rangoon fell &  After the announcement of communal award & subsequent Japan occupied the entire S E Asia. Abolished dyarchy in provinces First Round Table conference (1930):  It was the first conference arranged between the British & Pakistan Resolution/Lahore Resolution (March 24. Anglo Indians. B. The idealist Chaudhry Rehmat Ali developed Liberals & some others were there. Muslim League. Baluchistan. fast of Gandhiji. 1941.careerpower. 1935 the complete independence as the aim of the Congress. women & even Backward classes. Depressed Classes. Ramsay Macdonald.) In 1929 at Lahore Session. 1932). who was in Yeravada jail at that time. Gandhi gave his ultimatum to Lord Irwin with his basis for the Government of India Act. Introduced provincial autonomy. 1932): towards Indian borders.C. Thus Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience certain new principle introduced. the idea of granted after the war separate electorate for the depressed classes was  Rejected by the Congress as it didn’t want to rely upon future abandoned.  The British govt.Ambedkar & Indians sent Sir Stafford Cripps.com | www. However. It showed divide & rule the individual Satyagraha.12. Japan entered the World War – II & advanced unto death against it.in 33 . SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. started a fast  In Dec. The Gandhi asked Irwin either to accept the Government of India Act received the royal assent on Aug. Indian Christians & Anglo – Indians.

1945) Chairman. Sir Stafford Cripps & A. A conference of 22 prominent Indian www. Course of Events Communalism thus again became a stumbling block. Alexander) will visit After consultations with the British Government on the Indian India.) proposed to appoint The revolt of Royal Indian Navy (RIN) a commission to separate the district in North-West & East  In Feb. “every Indian who desires freedom & strives for it  S.Asia. It structure of the council. 1943)  The first trial of INA prisoners took place at Red Fort. This was his Sapru. Lord Wavell. Shah Nawaz & Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were deteriorated after 13 days & all hopes of his surviving were made accused.com | www.C Dutta scrawled Quit India on the ships to be made jointly for safeguarding defence.  Gandhi & all the leaders of the Congress working committee Rasbehari Bose handed over the leadership to him.Bose sretly escaped from India in 1941. a sovereign state.communications etc. 1946. C. For the  Quit India resolution was passed on 8th August 1942 at Britishers.K. The Indian National Army:  It was made clear that if Congress leadership gets removed  Founded by Rasbehari Bose with Captain Mohan Singh. representation to Muslims & Hindus. Rani Jhansi Brigade was an exclusive women under Chittu Pandey 2. 1946.  By the end of February the strike had spread to naval bases Muslim League was to endorse Congress demand for all over the country involving about 20000 ratings. Gandhiji undertook a 21-day fast in jail.E. made condemned the plan. as a result his moral strength & spiritual  The counsels for defense were Bhulabhai Desai. unflinching stand that Muslim approved only by the Muslim League should be included in the Executive Council.R. Movement  INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhiji.Jatia Sarkar of Satish Samant force. Seghal. 1946. Jinnah’s people at the mercy of Japanese. Tej Bhadur stamina. His condition  P.careeradda./Chem. independence & cooperate in formation of provisional government. held on the basis of adult suffrage to decide the issue of  The racial discrimination & bad food was the immediate separation. reached no withdrawal from South-East Asia & Burma leaving local decision. & reached must be his own guide”. Formula (1944) In 1944. Bombay Ratings of HMIS Talwar revolted where Muslims were in majority.Prati Sarkar under Nana Patil INA Trials Gandhiji’s Fast (Feb. Savarkar year 1945‐46.in | www. agreement  B.C.  The Congress envisaged a “mass struggle on the non-violent lines on the widest possible scale./Bio. proposed certain changes in the  On May 16. Movement. however it was Britain’s right to decide the matter concerning Indians.D. the mission put towards its proposals. however. Tamkul. Viceroy’s Executive Council. What scutted the conference was Mr. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (C.R. There. as he wanted Congress to accept The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946): two-nation theory & wanted only Muslims of the North-West &  The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the East of India to vote. the Government felt it expedient to set them free. he joined the INA at Singapore. Berlin.careerpower. the Viceroy of India. In case of acceptance of partition. including equal States was suggested. a declaration on March 15. 1942. given up.sscadda.Lord Attlee.)  The news of Allied reverses in World War & British leaders called at Shimla to consider the Wavell Plan.  The question of guilt was not the issue. Muslim League was a source of happiness.in 34 . Azad  The three parallel governments were formed at: 1.bankersadda.In such areas.N. They would be given freedom in case they favoured cause of the revolt. The Plan. a voting to be against British & struck work.  Usha Metha ran an illegal radio station  Two INA head quarters were Rangoon & Singapore (formed  Rajgopalacharya & Communists opposed the Quit India in Singapore). J. 10 – March 7. that British Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Wavell Plan & Shimla Conference (June 14 – July 14.com | www.  The HMIS Hindustan in Karachi also mutinied. the British army who had been taken prisoners by the Japanese Stalinguard of India after they conquered S. In July 1943.L. was issued the members of the Congress Working Committee were released from jails. Kataju. issued a statement  The mission held talks with the INC & ML to bring about known as Wavell Plan. problem. Satara. 3. Ballia & Nehru. the dissension between the Congress & the Bombay. Soon after the Wavell Plan  Both Congress & Muslims League accepted it. commerce. K.co. The new Labour Party PM. Hindu Leaders led by V. Jinnah objected.  The soldiers were mostly raised from Indian soldiers of the  There was a three month strike in Ahmedabad. One of the main proposals was that the rejected the demand for separate Pakistan & instead a Executive Council would be constituted giving a balanced federal union consisting of British India & the Princely representation to main communities in it. were arrested on the early hours of August 9.V.However. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. which chiefly concerned acceptance of their proposals. he survived & completed the 21-day fast. by arrest. Nehru & Asaf Ali answer to the government which had been constantly exhorting  Even though the Court Martial held the INA prisoners him to condemn the violence of the people in the Quit India guilty.

Chandrashekhar Azad shot himself at Alfred Park British PM Attlee announced that the British would withdraw in Allahabad. Rajguru & Cabinet Mission Plan. c) For the first time in Indian history. 9. Saharanpur‐Lucknow railway line on Aug. from India by June 30. 1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to c) Expanded canal works & railways.  Bengal & Punjab will be partitioned & a referendum in e. Congress on Dec. the carriage of kingford.1931 at Lahore Jall (Lahore Conspiracy Case). with a few exceptions like Kashmir./Bio. 23. 1946. who ordered lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai) On Sept.17.in | www. 1947): a. Princely States in India. 1946): Provoked by the  In Oct. 1929.careeradda. all the States. The last Governor General & the first Viceroy. Bombay & Madras India or Pakistan or even remain independent. 9.) Direct Action Campaign (Aug. 1946. Jawaharlal Nehru joined it but the Muslim  Then Bhagat Singh & Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in League did not as it withdrew its earlier acceptance of the the Central Assembly on Apr 8.  Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel. Thus. Bombay & Madras were  India to be divided into India & Pakistan. 1924. 1946):  In 1929 only Jatin Das died in Lahore jail after 63 days fast This Constituent Assembly met on Dec.P. 1948 & that Lord Mountbatten would replace Wavell.  In 1931. of Lahore. Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan b. there were 562 small & big 1871.  The British govt. Khudiram Bose & Prafulla chaki threw a bomb on d) I Factory act. 2. passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in July 1947. 1947. shot dead Saunders (Asst. 1947.  The outlines of the Plan were: d. He was hanged in 1933. a) Repeated the Vernacular Press act (1882) Goa was with the Portuguese & Pondicherry with the French. with his colleagues. 1881./Chem. formed during his tenure.  Aug.  On June 3. which resulted in heavy communal  They carried out a dacoity on the Kakori bound train on the riots in the country. Important British Viceroys in India Lord Canning (1856 – 1862) : Mountbatten Plan (June 3. Republic Army in Bengal. hanged. 1925  Bhagat Singh. Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse (introduced by Lord problem. a revolutionary of Bengal. 20. b) Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar & Mayo Partition & Independence (Aug 1947): All political parties College at Ajmer for the Indian princes. Formation of Constituent Assembly (Dec. he masterminded the raid on Chittagong armoury. They setup Hindustan Republic Assembly).  In 1908. an interim government was formed. e) Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district Khudiram. 1946): S. 16.com | www. Lord Lansdowne (1888 – 1894) : www. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. India & Pakistan. Sukhdev were hanged on March. By August 15. The Muslim League did not  Surya Sen. which contained the major provisions Lord Mayo (1869 – 1872) : put forward by the Mountbatten plan. 1946. the Muslim League launched a ‘direct action’ Association. aimed at prohibiting child labour. Kanhaiyalal Dutt & Satyendranath Bose were magistrates to try European criminals. which outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political c. In 1930. Rajendra to protest against horrible conditions in jail. & Dr. (Delhi Conspiracy Case).com | www.  The Princely states would enjoy the liberty to join either b) High Courts were established at Calcutta. Dalhousie). convict in the Andamans in 1872. (Alipur Case)  In 1912. 1947. 9. Hyderabad & Junagarh had signed the Instrument of Lord Ripon (1880 – 1884) : Accession. established in 1857. d) Organised the Statistical Survey of India. a meeting of revolutionaries from all parts of success of the Congress (in the voting for Constituent India was called at Kanpur. 16.  There would be a separate constitutional assembly for Lord Lawrence (1864 – 1869) : Pakistan to frame its constitution.careerpower. NEFP & Sylhet district of Assam would be held. Prasad was elected its President. The Universities of Calcutta. Mutiny(Revolt of 1857) took place in his time. accepted the Mountbatten plan.sscadda. 1947): On Feb. Attlee’s Announcement (Feb. Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861. formed the Indian join the Assembly. 2. in 1865. Rasbihari Bose & Sachindra Nath Sanyal threw a Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888) : Indian National Congress was bomb & Lord Hardinge at Delhi.in 35 . the first home minister. d) Created the Indian Forest department. he. Interim Government (Sept.co. a census was held in  At the time of independence. 20. 1928 members led by Pt. used iron e) Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan hand in this regard. campaign on Aug. a) Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe. the unpopular judge of Muzaffapur. b) Passed the local self government act (1882) c) Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on Revolutionary Activities: William Hunter Commission’s recommendations). a) Started the process of financial decentralization in India.15.bankersadda.

b) Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16. Extremists like Lala f) Government of India act (1935) was passed. Amritsar.bankersadda. 1945 with e) Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement. etc. Roy. f) Kakory Train Robbery on August 9. between British India & Afghanistan. Rajagopalachari (the first & the last Indian Governor General of free India). different religious communities. forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India. Swami Shraddhanand. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. g) Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929). The Indian Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 1944) : Council act of 1909 or the Morley Minto Reforms was passed. 1930). a) Passed the Indian Universities act (1904) in which official c) Dandi March (March 12.1947 passed by the British Bengal. free India. by which India became f) A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916. Gandhiji went on a epic fast in protest against this division. b) Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan. Lord Elgin II (1894 – 1899) : Great famine of 1896 – 1897. Lord Mountbatten (March 1947 – August 1947) : c) Rowlatt act of 1919. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13. 1911 to celebrate the that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK & US.in | www. Various acts were e) Poona Pact was signed. Thus the Archaeological b) On his return Gandhiji was again arrested & Civil Survey of India was established. passed to curb the revolutionary activities. www. d) Outbreak of World War II in 1939. e) An Indian Sir S. Delhi.com | www. failed. new educational policy. Laipat Rai & Ajit Singh (in May. restore India’s cultural heritage. stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been b) Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911). parliament on July 4.) a) II Factory act (1891) passed during his time. control over the Universities was increased. 1931) was signed & g) Civil c) Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to Disobediance Movement was withdrawn. coronation of King George V. Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 1921) : c) Elections to the constituent assembly were held & an a) August Declaration of 1917. There was great political unrest in India. f) Passed the Indian Coinage & Paper Currency act (1899) & c) Communal Awards (August 16. 1940. a) Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25. a) Last Viceroy of British India & the first Governor General of 1919). to a) Second Round Table conference in London in 1931. b) Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. 1947. 1921.P. Lord Willingdon (1931 – 1936) : e) Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection act (1904). 1905) into two provinces e) First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930. a) Government of India act enforced in the provinces. d) Non Cooperation Movement.Sinha was appointed the Governor of c) Indian Independence Act. but he escaped unhurt (December 23. 1932.careerpower. d) Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line g) Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan. Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905) : b) Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929. b) Partitioned Bengal (October 16. Bengal (proper) & East Bengal & Assam.in 36 . f) Gandhi Irwin Pact (March 5. b) The government of India act in 1919 (Montague Chelmsford reforms) was passed. c) Capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1912). Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931) : a) Simon Commission visited India in 1928. enquire into the police administration of every province. d) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). 1946. Disobedience Movement was resumed in January. Subordinate. c) Formation of Swaraj Party. 1907) & Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July. e) Communist part was founded in 1921 by M. a great nationalist & a leader of the Arya Samajists. Indian National Congress & Muslim League. d) The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP).com | www. c) Indian Council act of 1892 was passed.N. He declared a) Held a durbar in December. a) A bomb was thrown at him. b) Prince of Wales visited India in November. b) Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial. 1946). Provincial & d) Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922. Lord Wavell (1944 – 1947) : d) Gandhiji came back to India from South Africa (1915). 1947. Indian government would be gradually transferred to the d) First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Indian people. independent on August 15./Chem. 1912).sscadda. Lord Minto (1905 – 1910) : d) Third Round Table conference in 1932. Lyall Commission was appointed. whereby control over the Interim Government was appointed under Nehru.co. 1932) assigned seats to put India on a gold standard. was murdered in communal orgy. Lord Hardinge (1910 – 1916) : c) Churchill became the British PM in May. 1925. 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma./Bio. g) Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage d) Retried in June 1948 & was succeeded by C.careeradda. December 9. Lord Reading (1921 – 1926) : a) Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910.

 Legislative powers of the Presidency Government deprived in  Supreme court to be set up at Calcutta. 1858  The transferred subjects were to be administered by the  Rule of Company in India ended & that of the Crown began. www./Bio. of the Company. Court of Directors & Legislative Council. be known as Acts & not regulations.bankersadda. Governor-General was to be called the Viceroy & was Important Acts the direct representative of the Crown in India.  A fifth member who was to be a jurist. Court of directors  Additional members in central legislative assembly were consisting of 24 members was appointed to look after increased to 60 commercial functions. Governor with the aid of Ministers responsible to the  System of double Government ended./Chem. of India Act. was added to the  Governor of Bengal became Governor-general for all British Viceroy’s executive council.  Recruitment to Civil Services was based on open annual  Dyarchy system introduced in the Provinces. The Regulating Act.co. to 12 members composed of half non-official members. (excluding Indians) subjects of administration were to be divided into two categories “Transferred” & “Reserved” subjects. territories in India.) without any was created. law member added to council of Governor- General.  Viceroy could issue ordinances in case of emergency.  Company was asked to close its business at the earliest. presidency.  Popularly known as Montague(SoS)-Chelmsford(Viceroy)  All laws made by Governor General-in-council henceforth to Reforms. diplomacy & revenues.in 37 . 1919  Government Service was thrown open to the people of India. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. of Madras & Bombay deprived of legislative powers. its final form. were brought under the category of Central. The Governor & his Executive Council Board of Control abolished.careeradda. military & revenue affairs of India.  Separate electorates were introduced for the muslims.  Non-official seats were to be filled in by elections.careerpower.  Established dual system of governance.  Supplementary questions could be asked.  Governor General & council of 4 members appointed for  For legislation. 1833 were restored.  The idea of “Responsible Government” was emphasised upon. Finance. were to administer the reserved subjects (Rail. Post.  Secretary of State (a member of the British Cabinet) for India Telegraph. The Pitts India Act. The Indian Council Act. of commerce of Calcutta & Bombay. a) By non-official members of the Provincial Legislative  First effective substitution of Parliamentary Control over East councils.  Introduced for the first time indirect elections to the  Board of control consisting of 6 parliamentary Commissioners Legislative Councils. territories in India. Thus  Bombay & Madras Presidency subordinated to Bengal foundations of Indian legislature were laid down.  Strength of Governor general-in council reduced to 3. 1861  Provided for centralization of Administration of Company’s  Policy of Association of Indians in legislation started. The Provincial competitive examination. He was assisted by a 15-member council (Indian responsibility to the legislature.  Governor-General of Bengal to be Governor-General of India. 1909 (Morley-Minto Act)  This Act gave the British government the supreme control  Morley was the secretary of state. while matters  Law member was made a full member of the Executive relating to the administration of the provinces were classified Council of the Governor-General as provincial. Council). executive Council of Viceroy was enlarged by 6 Bengal.  First time separate legislative machinery consisting of 12  Subjects of all India importance (like railways & finance) member legislative council was created. 1773  A unitary & highly centralized administrative structure was  First attempt by the British Parliament to regulate the affairs created.  Govt. b) By landholders of 6 provinces c) By Muslims of 5 provinces The Charter Act of 1833 d) Alternately by Muslim landholders of Up/Bengal Chambers  End of company’s trade monopoly even in tea & with China. while Minto was the Indian over Company’s affairs & its administration in India.  Resoultions could be moved before the budget was taken in (1st Governor-General of India-Lord William Bentinck). 1784 Indian Council Act.com | www. Muslim were to be elected by Separate electorates.  A fourth member.) CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELPOMENTS BY THE BRITISH  Secretary of State governed India through the Governor- General. The Govt. etc.sscadda.  End of Dual Government.  Devolution Rules: The Charter Act of 1853  Subjects of administration were divided into two categories-  Extended life of the Company for an unspecified period. They were  Subordinated the Bombay & Madras presidency to Bengal in distributed as follows all questions of war. appointed to control civil.com | www.in | www. “Central” & “Provincial”. Viceroy. India Company. He was to exercise the powers of the Crown. Law & Order. The Govt of India Act.

Calcutta reason.in 38 . 1935:  Sought to introduce a federation Prarthana Samaj  Provided for 3-fold division of legislative power. three lists  1867 .  Provided for establishment of a Federal Court Indian Reform Association Indian Independence Act.  Calcutta  Henry Vivian Derozio. &  1887.  1820-1828  Rohilkhand Deccan Education Society  Syed Ahmed of Rae Bareilly  1884  Popularized the teachings of Waliullah.Ranade  To contribute to the cause of education & culture in Western BRAHMO SAMAJ India. the Brahmo form of (Civil) marriage.careerpower. Kuka/ Namdhari Movement  Indian legislature became “bicameral” for the first time.in | www.com | www. & criticized social evils as Sati  1885  1828  Bombay  CALCUTTA  Behramji & M.sscadda. stressed role of  Pune individual conscience in religion. Debendranath Tagore Seva Sadan  Emphasized on human dignity.  Spread the true spirit of Sikhism & opposed to all caste distinctions. believed in truth.Federal.)  Opposed to liberal & radical reforms including Sati.  Constituent Assembly of each Dominion would have  Promote the intellectual & social service. social reform  Swami Vivekananda  To carry on humanitarian relief & social Work Dharma Sabha  1830-Calcutta-Radha Kanta Deva Indian National Social Conference(The social reform cell of  Founded to oppose Brahmo Samaj Movement & the Indian National Congress.careeradda.Malabari  Campaign against child marriages & enforced widowhood & Young Bengal(1826-1832) care for socially exploited women.  M.com | www.  NWF ProVince & Ludhiana  Secretary of State for India now to be paid from British  Bhai Balak Singh & Baba Ram Singh revenue. Arya Samaj  The office of the Secretary of State for India was to be  1875 abolished. i./Chem./Bio. Wahabi MoveMENT  of Hinduism.S Olcott  Advocated the revival & strengthening of ancient religions. H.  1887 www. Deccan Zoroastrianism & Buddhism. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. freedom. GOI Act. Ramakrishna Mission  Opposed vices in the society.e.  Keshab Chandra Sen  Partition of India & the establishment of two dominions of  Create public opinion against child marriages & for legalizing India & Pakistan. 1947  1870  This Act did not lay down any provision for the  Calcutta administration of India.bankersadda.co.  Bombay  Residuary powers to be vested with Governor-General  Dr.)  An office of the High commissioner of India was created in London. unlimited powers to frame & adopt any constitution.  1841-1871  Communal representation extended to Sikhs.  Raja Ram Mohan Roy.  The rule of the crown over Indian states was terminated. Atmaram Pandurang  Diarchy was introduced at the Centre  Reforming Hindu religious thought & practice in the light of  Autonomy replaced diarchy at provincial level modern knowledge.  Bombay  Swami Dayananda Saraswati SOCIAL REFORMS DURING MODERN PERIOD  To reform Hindu religion in North India Atmiya Sabha  1815-1828 Theosophical Society  Calcutta  1875  Raja Ram Mohan Roy  New York  To make reforms in the Hindu society  Madam HP Blavatsky & Col.G. Keshab Chandra Sen. Provincial & Concurrent Lists.

SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE
POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy./Chem./Bio.)
 Bombay
 M.G.Ranade & Raghunath Rao MUSLIM SOCIAL REFORMS/ORGANIZATION
 To focus attention on matters relating to social reforms. The Khudai Khidmatgar Movement
social reform cell of the Indian National Congress.  1929.
 NWFP.
Deva Samaj  Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan.
 1887  Upliftment of people of Frontier & prepare them for
 Lahore attainment of independence.
 Shiva Narain Agnihotri
 Ideas closer to Brahmo Samaj He asked his followers to follow Deoband Movement
social code of conduct & ethics, as not to accept bribe, do not (A school of Islamic Theology at Deoband Saharanpur,UP)
indulge in gambling.  1867
 Deoband
 Mohd. Qasim Nanautavi & Rashid Ahmad Gagohi
 Improve the spiritual & moral conditions of India Muslim.

Aligarh Movement
 1875
 Aligarh
 Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
 Liberalization of Indian Islam & modernization of Indian
Muslims through religious reinterpretation, social reform &
modern education.

Ahamadiya Movement
Bharat Dharma Mahamandala  1889-90
 1902  Faridkot
 Varanasi  Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
 Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya  Universal religion of all humanity, opposed to Islamic
 Organization of the orthodox Hindus, also known as orthodoxy & spread of western liberal education among
Sanatandharmis, to counter the teachings of the Arya Samaj. Indian Muslims.

The Servants of India Society Lower Caste Movements
 1905 Satya Shodhak Samaj
 Bombay  1873
 Gopal Krishna Gokhale  Maharashtra
 To work for social reforms, & train "national missionaries for  Jyotiba Phule
the service of India"  Opposed to untouchability, Brahmin domination, belief in
social equality & uplift of the lower castes by educating them.
Poona Seva Sadan
 1909 Aravippuram Movement
 Pune  1888
 G.K. Devadhar & Ramabai Ranade  Aravippuram, Kerala
 Establish institutions for the economic uplift & useful  Shri Narayan Guru
employment of women.  Opposed to religious disabilities against lower castes,
believed in social equality, attacked Brahmin domination &
The Bharat Stri Mandal worked for the uplift of lower castes by educating them.
 1910 Demanded free entry of the people of lower castes temples.
 Calcutta
 Saralabala Devi Choudharani The Depressed Classes Mission
 First women's organization on all-India basis to further  1906
the cause of women's education.  Bombay
The Indian Women's Association  V.R.Shinde
 1917  Launched by the Prarthana Samaj as an Independent
 Madras association to organize education facilities for lower castes.
 Mrs Annie Besant
 Work for uplift of Indian women & ''to secure a larger a free & Bahujan Samaj
fuller life for them".  1910

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39

SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE
POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy./Chem./Bio.)
 Satara,Maharashtra
 Mukundrao Patil Lala Lajpat Rai Sher-e-Punjab.
 Opposed to exploitation of the lower castes by the upper caste Was sent to Jail at Mandey on the charges of seditious activities.
people. Brahmins, landlords, merchants & moneylenders
Sri Aurobindo Ghosh
Depressed Classes Society His development of National education & editing of Bande
 1924 Mataram (started by
 Bombay Bipin Chandra Pal) gave momentum to Bengal partition
 Dr.B.R Ambedkar movement. Left Baroda to work in the National College in
 To propagate the gospel of social equality among caste Hindus Calcutta.
& untouchables. Demanded constitutional safeguards for the
depressed classes. Chandra Shekhar Azad
Involved in the assassination of Saunders (officer who ordered
Self-Respect Movement the Lathi Charge in which Lala Lajpat was killed), alongwith
 1925 Bhagat Singh & Rajguru. He had chalked out a plan to blow up
the train in which the Viceroy Lord Irwin was traveling. He was
 Madras (Tamil Nadu)
killed in a police encounter at Alfred Park in Allahabad.
 E.V.Ramaswami
 Anti-Brahmin & Hindu Orthodoxy radical movement,
Bhagat Singh In association with Chhabil Das & Yashpal he had
advocated, weddings without priests, forcible temple entry,
founded the Punjab Naujavan Bharat Sabha.
total defiance of Hindu social laws.
Rani Gaidinliu Lead the Nagas in the revolt. Yadunaga was the
other leader.
Harijan Sevak Sangh
 1932
Subhas Chandra Bose
 Pune Passed the Civils in 1920 but preferred to serve the nationalist
 Mahatma Gandhi cause. He was elected the Mayor of Calcutta in 1923 but soon
 Organization for removal of untouchability & social arrested & sent to Mandalay.
discriminations against untouchables & other lower castes. Elected President at the Haripura session of Congress in 1938.
Provide medical, educational & technical facilities to He left for Kabul along with his friend Bhagat Ram. From there
untouchables. he went to Germany & met Hitler. He was first addressed as
Netaji in Germany.
Freedom Fighters Udham Singh
Lokmanya Tilak Whilst living in England in 1940, Singh shot dead Sir Michael
1856-1920 O'Dwyer, former Governor General of the Punjab.
Introduced the celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi & Shivaji
festivals. Paticipated in Home Rule Movement in 1916. Called by
Britishers as ‘Biggest Traitor’ & ‘Father of Indian dissatisfaction’

GEOGRAPHY CAPSULE 2016 for SSC CGL, CPO. RAILWAYS etc.

Earth Solar System • Red Planet : Mars
Earth solar system consists of : • Biggest Satellite : Gannymede
• The Sun • The Planets • Smallest Satellite : Deimos
• Dwarf Planets & countless fragments of left – overs called • Blue Planet: Earth
asteroids, meteors, comets & satellites of the planets (Called • Morning/Evening Star : Venus
small solar system Bodies). • Earth's Twin : Venus
• Green Planet : Neptune
Solar System Some Facts • Planet with a big red spot : Jupiter
• Biggest Planet : Jupiter • Lord of the Heavens : Jupiter
• Smallest Planet : Mercury • Greatest Diurnal Temperature: Mercury
• Nearest Planet to Sun : Mercury
• Farthest Planet from Sun : Neptune Earth Latitude & Longitude
• Nearest Planet to Earth : Venus
• Brightest Planet : Venus Earth Latitude
• Brightest star after Sun : Sirius • Imaginary lines drawn parallel to the equator. Measured as
• Planet with maximum satellites: Jupiter an angle whose apex is at the centre of the earth.
• Coldest Planet : Neptune • The equator represents 0° latitude, while the North Pole is
• Hottest Planet : Venus 90° N & the South Pole 90° S
• Heaviest Planet : Jupiter

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SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE
POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy./Chem./Bio.)
• 23½° N represents Tropic of Cancer while 23½° S 3. The Arctic Circle : It lies at a distance of 66 1/2° (66°30’N)
represents Tropic of Capricorn. north of the equator.
• 66½° N represents Arctic Circle while 66½° S represents 4. The Antarctic Circle : It lies at a distance of 66 1/2°
Antarctic Circle. (66°30’S) south of the equator. There are two solstices each
• There are total 181 latitudes including the equator. Each year, called the Summer Solstice & the Winter Solstice.
parallel of latitude is a circle, but they are not equal. Summer Solstice : The day of 21st June when the sun is
• The circle becomes smaller toward`s the poles. Equator is vertically overhead at the Tropic of Cancer (23°30’N).
the ‘Greatest Circle’ that can be drawn on the earth’s Winter Solstice : The day of 22nd December when the sun is
surface. vertically overhead at the Tropic of Capricorn (23°30’S).
• The distance between any two parallels of latitude is always
equal. Meridians of Longitude
• 1 degree lat. = 111km. The semi-circles running from pole to pole or from north to
south are known as meridians of longitude & distance between
Earth Longitude them is measured in degrees of longitude. Greenwich Meridian
• It is the angular distance measured from die centre of the or Prime Meridian with a value of 0° longitude serves as a
earth. On the globe the lines of longitude are drawn as a common base for numbering meridians of longitude lying on
series of semicircles that extend from the North Pole to the either side of it — east as well as west. There are 360 meridians
South Pole through the equator. They are also called including Prime Meridian. Each degree of a longitude is divided
meridians. into sixty equal parts, each part is called a minute. Each
• The distance between any two meridians is not equal. minute is again divided into sixty equal parts, each part being
• At the equator, 1 degree = 111 km. At 30°N or S, it is 96.5 called a second.
km. It goes on decreasing this way until it is zero at the Local Time : Local time of any place is 12 noon when the sun is
poles. exactly overhead. It will vary from the Greenwich time at the
• There are 360 meridians of longitude. The prime meridian rate of four minutes for each degree of longitude.
is a longitude of 00, passing through the Royal Observatory Greenwich Mean Time : The time at 0° longitude is called
at Greenwich near London. Greenwich Mean Time. It is based on local time of the meridian
• This meridian is taken by geographers to divide the earth passing through Greenwich near London.
into the eastern & the western hemispheres. Indian Standard Time : It is fixed on the mean of 82 1/2°E
• Each meridian of longitude is a semi-circle. 180° meridian Meridian, a place near Allahabad. It is 5 1/2hours ahead of
(International Date Line) lies exactly opposite to 0° Greenwich Mean Time.
meridian. Such points are called Antipodal Points.
• The earth is divided into 24 longitudinal zones, each being Facts about earth
15° or 1 hour apart in time (4 minutes / degree). • The Earth also called Blue Planet. It is the densest of all
planets.
Longitude & Time • Earth Circumference: 40,232 Kilometers.
• Places that are on the same meridian have the same local • Earth Area: 510 million Square Kilometers
(sun) time. Since the earth makes one complete revolution • Average distance from sun: 149 million Kilometers.
of 360° in 24 hours, it passes through 15° in one hour or 1° • Earth Perihelion: Nearest position of earth to sun. The earth
in 4 minutes. reaches its perihelion on January 3 every year at a distance of
• The earth rotates from west to east, hence places east of about 147 million-Kilometers.
Greenwich see the sun earlier & gain time whereas places • Aphelion: Farthest position of earth from sun. The earth
west of Greenwich see the sun later & lose time. reaches its aphelion on July 4, when the earth is at a distance of
• India, whose longitudinal extent is approx. 30°, has adopted 152 million Kilometers.
only one time zone, selecting the 82.5°E for the standard • The shape of the earth is oblate spheroid or oblate ellipsoid
time which is 5 hours & 30 minutes ahead of GMT (i.e. almost spherical, flattened a little at the poles with a slight
(Greenwich Mean Time). bulge at the centre).

International Date Line Types of Earth Movements:
• It is the 180° meridian running over the Pacific Ocean, 1. Rotation or daily movement.
deviating at Aleutian Islands, Fiji, Samoa & Gilbert Islands. 2. Revolution or annual movement.
It is a zig-zag line
• Travelers crossing the Date Line from west to east (i.e., Earth Rotation
from Japan to USA) repeat a day & travelers crossing it from • Spins on its imaginary axis from west to east in 23 hrs, 56 min
east to west (i.e., from USA to Japan) lose a day. & 40.91 sec.
• Rotational velocity at equator is 1667 Kilometers/h & it
Important Parallels of Latitude decreases towards the poles, where it is zero.
1. The Tropic of Cancer : It is in the northern hemisphere at an
angular distance of 23 1/2° (23°30’N) from the equator. Earth’s rotation results in
2. The Tropic of Capricorn : It is in the southern hemisphere at i. Causation of days & nights;
an angular distance of 23 1/2° (23°30’S) from the equator.
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Caspian Sea) through The layering of Earth is categorized as Lithosphere. S waves can travel only through solids. it does not occur on over a wide area. & plateaus) are There are two types of seismic waves. heat as they break down into more stable substances. crust & the mantle is Mohorovicic Discontinuity. plains.51 sec. c) Mid-Atlantic ridge belt which accounts for 11 percent of the The earth's interior has three different layers. along with the oceans. & phase.careeradda. body wave & surface contained within it.co. & if a wave grows large enough. Variation in the lengths of days & nights at different times of earthquake epicentre. nickel alloy.Hemisphere). The outer core is a liquid shortest day is on 22 Dec (Vice-versa in S. These waves typically follow P waves The outer & the inner mantle are separated by another during an earthquake & displace the ground perpendicular to discontinuity named Repetti discontinuity. dense rocky matter that P-WAVES (Primary Waves) are compression waves that are surrounds the core with a radius of about 2885 km. Body waves are divided as b) Earth's Mantle: It is the thick. transverse in nature. Outer core. Upper mantle. Lower mantle./Bio. 68 per cent of the volcanoes are experienced in this region. i. Determination of latitudes. lakes & rivers. Earth Lunar Eclipse is measured on a numerical scale. "tsunami". 5 hrs. 48 min & 45. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. A difference of one hour between two meridians which are c) Earth's Core: Earth's Core is thought to be composed mainly 15° apart. it's called a iv. Inner core.bankersadda. For measurement of the intensity of the colors present in sunlight in greater amounts than it does red. Earth Eclipses The magnitude of an earthquake. www.com | www. Change in the direction of wind & ocean currents. This layer is S-WAVES (Secondary Waves) are shear waves that are separated from the core by Gutenberg-Wiechert Discontinuity. orbit. earthquake (damage caused). of an iron & nickel alloy.in | www. However. the direction of propagation. However. produced by the weight of the overlying rocks is • It is earth’s motion in elliptical orbit around the sun. The core iv. The mantle longitudinal in nature. Here. Rise & fall heat because it contains radioactive materials which release of tides everyday. the year c) When the earth moves in an earthquake. & the intensity of shaking. composition. It is for this reason that eclipses do not occur every f) The passage of earthquake waves is recorded by month. Earth’s strong enough to crowd the atoms tightly together & prevents average orbital velocity is 29. These two different types of crust are the Earth's interior which in turn. the Modified Mercalli Intensity Earth Solar Eclipse Scale is used. The point on the earth’s surface vertically its orbit is tilted about 5° with respect to the plane of the earth’s above the earth’s surface is called Epicentre. vary according to made up of different types of rock. e) Earthquakes are measured with a seismometer. There are two different types of crust: thin oceanic crust that • Body waves travel through the interior of the Earth. tremendous Earth Revolution pressure. the Mediterranean Sea to West Indies. the inner core is a solid even though its temperature is higher than the outer core. changing it to the liquid state. while is divided into two different zones. It results in one extra day every fourth year. This can happen only at new a) Around the Pacific Ocean along a belt of volcanoes known as moon the Ring of Fire. because the temperatures there are adequate to melt the iron- • Days & nights are almost equal at the equator. & can travel at nearly twice the speed of S waves. Change of seasons b) The point at the surface directly above the focus is called the ii. The point of origin of earthquake is called every full moon day because the moon is so small & the plane of Seismic focus. This is basically of material. & magnitude 7 (or more) causes damage · Occurs only on a full moon day. Shifting of wind belts in the ocean. composed of silicate rock rich in iron & magnesium. waves. The magnitude of waves is measured on · This light is red because the atmosphere scatters the other Richter’s scale. & the Moon fully or Distribution of Earthquakes partially blocks ("occults") the Sun. • Takes 365 days. they are earthquakes. & the earthquakes are experienced in the region./Chem.79 Kilometers/s. 3 or less is · When earth comes between sun & moon. EARTHQUAKES a) An earthquake is the sudden release of strain energy in the Earth's crust resulting in waves of shaking that radiate • Revolution of the earth results in outwards from the earthquake source.in 42 . Seismograph.careerpower. (i) the crust (ii) mantle & (iii) the core. The core is earth's source of internal iii. a) Earth's Crust: TYPES OF SEISMIC WAVES All of the Earth's landforms (mountains. The boundary between the temperature. scarcely noticeable. The longest day in North Hemisphere is June 21. They underlies the ocean basins & thicker continental crust that follow ray paths refracted by the varying density & stiffness of underlies the continents. seas. it can cause waves iii. A solar eclipse is a type of eclipse that occurs when theMoon passes between the Sun & Earth.sscadda.com | www. These waves can travel through any type covers the majority of the Earth's volume. as fluids (liquids & gases) do not support shear stresses. 21 per cent Asthenosphere. On the scale.) ii. INTERIOR STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH b) From the middle of Asia (Himalayas.

The combination of uppermost Krakatoa in Indonesia. that have gently titanium. etc. northern Australia.g. today. E. The other 5% occur in areas associated Old Mountains with lithospheric hot spots. Fujiyama in Japan.g. between 100 & 400 meters b) Metamorphic rocks (formed by direct alteration of existing tall. occur as relict mountains the asthenosphere.sscadda. Andes.careeradda. gas accumulate within rising magma. Large basalt plateaus are found in the Columbia River About 98 per cent of the total crust of the earth is composed of Plateau. in 1911. manganese. be up to 9000 meters tall. solid mantle below. in fact. Types of Volcanoes Relict Mountains: Sometimes. Water at high temperatures & pressures is extremely volatile. mineral crystals do not have time to grow Composite volcanoes are made from alternate layers of lava very large.com | www. ‘constructive or divergent’ plate margins./Chem. the mountains are carved out as Geologists have classified five different types of volcanoes. about 90% of the S wave velocity. then subjected to denudation & caused by plumes of rising magma that have their origin within uplift. Love. travel as ripples with motions that are similar to those of waves The most explosive type of volcano is the caldera. Alps. These volcanoes develop from magma of basaltic c) Sedimentary rocks (formed by eroded materials from other to intermediate composition. & Washington State's Mount Rainier & Mount St. Love waves are surface waves that cause circular shearing of Classification on the basis of Periodicity of Eruptions: the ground.careerpower. Highlands of Scotland. Regions where this process occurs are known Mountain Systems: Himalayas.. Appalachians (US).g. silicon. volcanoes are associated with the ‘destructive or convergent’ plate boundaries. E. Their height ranges from 100 to 3500 grow to several millimeters or more in size. These India. Dormant Volcano: The asthenosphere separates the strong. hydrogen. E. many faults were formed. Some basaltic magmas can produce sodium. Aravallis (India). etc.H.co. are surface waves that Fuji. A cinder cone is a small volcano. The lithosphere is free to move (glide) over the About 15% of world’s active volcanoes are found along the weak asthenosphere. The volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands 1) The three types of rocks are are typical of this type. & high velocity. mantle & crust above the asthenosphere is called the Distribution of Volcanoes in the World lithosphere. Atlas. & Antarctica. Maona Loa in Hawaii. The tectonic plates are. etc. • Surface waves are analogous to water waves & travel along the Magmas that are more granitic tend to be very explosive Earth's surface. www. Iceland. They travel slower than body waves. also called ground roll. Deposits of these volcanoes can be as thick as 1800 ROCKS & MINERALS meters. Catskill chemistry. Pennines (Europe).in | www. Argentina. volcanoes produce a very fluid basaltic magma with horizontal flows. Types of Mountains oceanic ridges. Sierras of Spain. They usually travel slightly faster than Rayleigh waves. Japan's Mount Rayleigh waves. & the rest is constituted by very large slightly sloping volcanoes.g. aluminium. – All big plates converge. & speeds are typically around meters tall. quite variable ranging from basalt to granite. The least mountains of New York & Nilgiri. Examples of cider cones a)Igneous Rocks include Little Lake Volcano in California & Paricuti Volcano in 1) Igneous rocks solidify from a liquid magma as it cools. Rajmahal of explosive type of volcano is called a basalt plateau. magma cools rapidly. whereas 80% lithospheric plates. flowing magmas called shield volcanoes Shield volcanoes can nickel & other. & the explosiveness of the eruption. VOLCANOES A volcano is generally a conical shaped hill or mountain built by Earth Mountains accumulations of lava flows. Vesuvius in Italy.g.E. phosphorous. The chemistry of the magma of these volcanoes is 60% of that of P waves in any given material. strong. Helens. eight elements like oxygen. E. Examples of There are two types of surface waves: composite volcanoes include Italy's Vesuvius. They form when large amounts of rocks). Subduction is the process that takes place Fold Mountains of the World: They are formed when the rocks at convergent boundaries by which one tectonic plate moves of the crust of the earth folded under stress. Rockies. made up of exploded rock blasted out of a central vent at a rocks). a British Active Volcano: mathematician who created a mathematical model of the waves Volcanoes which erupt periodically.bankersadda. Barren island Volcano in Andamans. 6 to 12°. western India. magma of erosion. potassium & magnesium. Stromboli in Mediterranean Sea. sulphur.com | www. On the other hand when magma cools slowly crystals flows & exploded rock. Girnar. on the surface of water. & have the largest amplitude. When Mexico. About 95% of active volcanoes occur at the plate subduction zones & at the mid. & volcanic ash. Brazil.) S waves are slower than P waves. calcium. carbon. It is believed that hot spots are They belong to pre-drift era.in 43 . They are named after A. a) Igneous rocks (formed directly from liquid rock)./Bio. Parasnath. E. iron. as sub-duction zones. solid rock of the Volcanoes which has been quiet for a long time but in which uppermost mantle & crust above from the remainder of the there is a possibility of eruption. mainly by forces of under another tectonic plate & sinks into the mantle as the compression (as a result of series of earthquakes). This a result of erosion of plateaus & high planes by various agents classification is based on the geomorphic form. because of their relatively higher water content. Etna in Sicily. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.

Metamorphic rocks are any rock type that has been altered by • It is an electrically charged layer. • Granite being changed into gneiss • The density is very low & temperature becomes 5568°C. About Ionosphere ATMOSPHERE At heights of 80 km (50 miles)./Chem.5° per 1000 metres. & solidifies underground. • Aneroid Barometer-It is the most common type • All weather phenomena are confined to troposphere (e. “Some examples of metamorphic rocks are: e) Exosphere • Limestone being changed into marble • This is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere extending • Shale turning into slate beyond the ionosphere. metamorphic rocks get buried very deep under the earth's • There are a number of layers in thermosphere e. Igneous rocks are • Jet aircrafts fly through the lower stratosphere because it classified as provides perfect flying conditions. E & F regions.in | www. ii. d) Thermosphere Examples – Sandstone. Common rock types within the intrusive category are granite & c) Mesosphere diorite. of air above per unit area at sea level. on the Earth's surface. which is called normal a) Equatorial Low Pressure Belt: lapse rate. This low pressure area is known as equatorial low is about 1. fog. rises up & creates low pressure. or sedimentary rocks. This portion of the surface. and/or the chemical action of fluids & gases. ionosphere is broken down into the D. a process that takes millions of years. iii) rhyolite. Structure of the Atmosphere PRESSURE & WIND BELTS The atmosphere consists of almost concentric layers of air with Air pressure is thus defined as total weight of a mass of column varying density & temperature. pressure. The zone shifts along with the northward or • b) Stratosphere: southward movement of sun during summer solstice & winter • The stratosphere is more or less devoid of major weather solstice respectively. Sedimentary Rocks • Temperature decreases with height. over the earth’s surface (lava). shale. • Upper limit of the Stratosphere is called stratopause. the earth by these layers. It reaches a minimum These are types of rocks created from deposition of layers upon of -80°C at an altitude of 80-90 km layers of sediments over time.bankersadda. into something else by the enormous pressure & heat inside the • Radio waves transmitted from earth are reflected back to earth. & ground surface & lower atmosphere. the ionosphere. a) Extrusive Rocks • Ozone layer lies within the stratosphere mostly at the Extrusive igneous rocks solidify from molten material that flows altitude of 15 to 35 km above earth's surface. The Ultraviolet (UV). rainfall. etc. surface. The atmosphere. storms.careerpower.5 km.) Granite & basalt are the examples of IR. • It is also known as ionosphere. Metamorphic Rocks • Temperature increases rapidly with increasing height. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. The pressure belt is thermally induced phenomenon but there is circulation of feeble winds & because the ground surface gets heated during the day. • Mesosphere extends to the height of 50-90 km. limestone.com | www.g.com | www.g. • Ozone layer acts as a protective cover as it absorbs ultra- Common extrusive rocks are voilet rays of solar radiation. This layer is produced due heat. • Sandstone turning into quartzite • This layer merges with the outer space. temperature & density which is measured as a force per unit • The height of troposphere is 16 km thick over the equator & area.in 44 . D-layer. • Depletion of ozone may result in rise of temperature of ii) andesite. & conglomerate. F-layer & G-layer. frost. These types of rocks are formed • The upper limit is called mesopause. as well as underwater. When igneous rocks. • Temperature rises from -60°C at the base of the b) Intrusive Rocks stratosphere to its upper boundary as it absorbs ultra- Intrusive rocks form from molten material (magma) that flows voilet rays. oil shale & coal • It lies at 80 km to 640 km above the earth's surface. Thus cirrus cloud in the lower stratosphere.) • Temperature decreases with height in this layer roughly at Pressure Belts of the World the rate of 6. cloud.careeradda. pressure. they get changed E-layer. or even thus disappears with the sunset.sscadda./Bio. i) basalt. The amount of pressure a) Troposphere: exerted by air at a particular point is determined by • Lowest layer of the atmosphere. iii. gypsum. to interaction of solar radiation & the chemicals present. warm air expands. X-Ray & shorter Nitrogen & Oxygen comprise 99% of the total volume of the wavelengths of solar radiation ionizes the atmosphere. Much of the life on the earth exists because of the atmosphere is ionized & contains plasma which is referred to as atmosphere otherwise the earth would have been barren. At the Equator heated air rises leaving a low-pressure area at • Upper limit of the troposphere is called tropopause which the surface. barometer used in homes. the gas is so thin that free Atmosphere is a thick gaseous envelope that surrounds the electrons can exist for short periods of time before they are earth & extends thousands of kilometers above the earth's captured by a nearby positive ion. stromatolites . shale. b) Sub-tropical High Pressure Belt: www.co. 10 km thick at the poles.

you have now created a sea breeze. deflected off course. whereas the occurrence of monsoon winds is seasonal. area in the Sub Tropical High Pressure Belt i. The Westerlies are strongest in the winter season & times when the pressure is lower over the poles. it is known as capped landmass. They have been termed the 'Polar increases as one approaches either pole. Coriolis force is absent at the equator. Instead of wind blowing directly from Southern Hemisphere. they blow from the south-east & are called the When the movement of the air in the atmosphere is in a South. Hemisphere. & its strength known as the Polar Winds. The rotation of the Earth creates force. & in the Southern Winds Hemisphere. it is replaced by air from the sea. from the southeast & are called the Southeast Trade Winds. The pressure belt is dynamically latitudes towards the Equatorial Low Pressure Belt or the ITCZ induced as it owes its origin to the rotation of the earth & are the trade winds. Winds blowing from the Subtropical High Pressure Belt or horse tropical high pressure. at the Earth's surface wind always blows Northern Hemisphere. Like land & sea breezes. from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure usually at II. As these winds blow from the ice- horizontal direction over the surface of the earth. Sea breezes www. as they blow from the Polar High Pressure belt increase in wind speed also results in a stronger Coriolis force. as there is less land in the middle high to low pressure. & are called the North-East Polar Winds. these wind systems are created by the temperature contrasts that exist between the surfaces of land & ocean. Land & sea breezes occur daily./Chem. while they are weakest in Coriolis Force the summer season & when pressures are higher over the poles. this is done by drawing the air from the land over the Planetary winds occur due to temperature & pressure variance water. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. the trade sinking & settling of winds.e. type. replaced. c) Sub-Polar Low Pressure Belt: This belt is located between 60-65 degrees latitudes in both the (b) Westerly Wind hemisphere.com | www. In the Northern & thus in greater deflection of the wind.in 45 . wind is deflected to the right of (c) Polar Wind its path. an Easterlies'. In the Northern Hemisphere. the rotation of the Earth causes wind to be latitudes to obstruct the flow. they are extremely cold.in | www.sscadda. throughout the world. Periodic Winds: speeds determined by the rate of air pressure change between Land & sea breezes & monsoon winds are winds of a periodic pressure centres. towards the Sub-Polar Low-Pressure Belts. When Planetary winds are major component of the general global this happens the air over the water slowly begins to rise. in the Southern Hemisphere. The winds are High pressure persists at the pole due to low temperature. The Westerlies are particularly strong. A sea breeze is created when the surface of the land is heated sufficiently to start rising of the air.East Polar Winds. Furthermore.co.careeradda. In the Northern Hemisphere. These are known as planetary winds because air begins to rise. the air over the surface of the ocean has to be of their prevalence in the global scale throughout the year. (b) Land & Sea Breezes: A land breeze is created when the land is cooler than the water such as at night & the surface winds have to be very light. Due to coriolis force the (a) Trade wind air descends at 30-35º latitude thus creates the belt of sub. horse latitudes d) Polar High Pressure Belt: towards the sub polar low pressure belt. This pressure belt is also dynamically induced. role. termed Coriolis force. Thus predominantly from the south-west to north-east in the the Polar High Pressure Belt is thermally induced as well as Northern Hemisphere & from the north-west to south-east in dynamically induced as the rotation of earth also plays a minor the Southern Hemisphere. as the circulation of air. especially in the which acts upon wind.com | www. Following are periodic winds: I. Planetary winds: (a) Monsoon winds (b) Land & Sea Breeze (c) Mountain & Valley Breeze (a) Monsoon Winds Monsoons are regional scale wind systems that predictably change direction with the passing of the seasons. Movement of the wind is directly controlled by They are more regular in the Southern Hemisphere than in the pressure. thus creating a sea breeze. The The Westerlies are the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes belt is more developed & regular in the southern hemisphere between 35º & 65º latitude. they blow in general from the north-east. while in the Southern Hemisphere it is deflected to the The winds blowing in the Arctic & the Antarctic latitudes are left.) The warm air risen up at the equator due to heating reaches the The planetary winds are discussed below: troposphere & bend towards the pole./Bio. blowing from the high pressure than the northern due to over dominance of water in the former. As air rises. the winds blow aridity.bankersadda. Horizontally.careerpower. the wind. This zone is characterized by winds blow from the northeast & are known as the Northeast anticyclonic conditions which cause atmospheric stability & Trade Winds.

plateaus. thereby creating a clockwise in the southern hemisphere. whereas they form an anti-clockwise out-spiral in the Southern Hemisphere. & therefore air will the centre of tropical cyclones tends to be extremely low. high with a lower limit of about 120 Kms in 3. The term was 2. the temperature is the warm oceans of the tropics.sscadda.careeradda. The two most important types of jet streams are the Polar Jet Streams & the b) Continental Slope Subtropical Jet Streams. moist. Tropical cyclones the thermo effects between peaks & valleys. air expands. plains & trenches etc.Sahara Desert Atlantic. beyond the Zonda . are bands of high speed winds (95-190 km/hr)./Bio.in 46 . Typhoons in the Western Pacific & South China Sea.Argentina An anticyclone is a region of high atmospheric pressure related Buran . Winds in an anticyclone form a clockwise out-spiral in the Northern Hemisphere. Local Winds • Counter-clockwise about their centres in the Northern These local winds blow in the various region of the world. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. the Tropical cyclones are intense cyclonic storms that develop over mountainside is directly heated by the sun.Adriatic coast & south westerly in direction. • Have winds that exceed 34 knots (39 miles/hr) • Blow clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere and III.14 km) 1.Argentina tropics are called the middle latitude or temperate cyclones. Some major submarine features are described below. Temperate cyclones Santa Ana . Hurricanes in the Sirocco .Egypt Harmattan . 3) In all about 7. Surface atmospheric pressure in higher. About 20 percent of oil & gas of the world is extracted from introduced in 1947 by Carl Gustaf Rossby. Khamsin . (c) Mountain & Valley winds: Mountain-valley breezes are formed by the daily difference of A.5 percent of total area of the oceans is covered by the continental shelves.Australia Extra tropical cyclones form along the polar front.Spain & France the other air mass is tropical in origin & is warm. Two air masses of contrasting physical properties: one air mass is polar Cold Winds in character & is cold. They are the sites of productive fishing grounds.Spain Willy-Willies in the Western Australia. The extent of the slope area is usually between Cyclones are well developed low-pressure systems surrounded 200-2000 m. Marine food comes almost entirely from them. winter & 50 km per hours in summer./Chem. air pressure reduces. & Leveche .USA The systems developing in the mid & high latitude. significant temperature contrast to the water.Siberia to the surrounding air. It consists of mountains. rise up the mountainside from the valley & generate a valley The main characteristics of tropical cyclones are:- breeze.Sahara Desert B. Brick fielder . In daytime.) tend to be much stronger & can produce gusty winds as the sun inward in anticlockwise direction in the northern hemisphere & can heat the land to very warm temperatures.co. They are Hot Winds known as Cyclones in the Indian Ocean.careerpower. OCEANOGRAPHY The study of sea floor by echo method of sound waves reveals that the sea floor is not a flat area.com | www. Hemisphere This is one of the most devastating natural calamities.bankersadda.in | www. denser & north-easterly in direction while Mistral . 2) The continental shelf is shallow & its depth is not more than 200 metres.com | www. The continental slope along many coasts of air circulation towards the centre such that the air blows the world is followed by deep canyon like trenches terminating www. Average speed is very them. But sometimes it may extend to 3660 metres from by closed isobars having increasing pressure outside & closed the mean sea level. JET-STREAMS The shelves are of great use to man because: The JET STREAMS located in the upper troposphere (9 . Pampero . lighter Bora . a) Continental Shelf 1) The portion of the land which is submerged under sea water is continental shelf. generally thousands of kilometres in diameter & also known as a high or high-pressure system. It is an area of steep slope extending just after the continental shelf up to a considerable depth from where a gentle sea plain CYCLONES takes its form.

4. It reaches b) Most trenches are located in the Pacific Ocean. there is a complete reversal of the direction of currents between summer & winter. c) Continental Rise 1) The gently sloping surface at the base of the continental slope THE CIRCULATION (THE ATLANTIC OCEAN) is called continental rise. Salinity. when the dominant wind is the South- West Monsoon. Equatorial Current. c) They may reach 10. Continental slope covers 8. turning southwards past Madagascar as the Agulhas or Mozambique Current merges with the West Wind Drift.000 m below sea level in PO )./Chem.sscadda. Monsoon blows the currents from the north-east as the Ocean currents are large masses of surface water that circulate North-East Monsoon Drift. The currents of the North Indian in regular patterns around the oceans. have buried rugged ocean Current off the coasts of the Philippines & Formosa into the floor. Antilles to join the Gulf Stream off the south-eastern U. e) Submarine Canyons These are depressions with walls of steep slopes & have a V THE INDIAN OCEAN CIRCULATION shape. The cold Bering Current or Alaskan Current creeps southwards from III. Arctic Ocean-. They are more extensive in the Pacific Ocean. It contains deep-ocean Florida Strait between Florida & Cuba as the Florida Current. The North. The abyssal plains counterpart of the Canaries Current).S. & broad volcanic peaks called The rest of the equatorial water flows northwards east of the seamounts. The Gulf Stream Drift is one of the strongest ocean currents & I.East Trade Winds blow the North Equatorial transported by turbidity currents. where subduction flows southwards along the coast of Queensland as the East zones are common. abyssal plains.co. off Hokkaido. Obstructed by the tip of southern Chile. Scientists determined that abyssal plains low relief is THE CIRUCLATION (PACIFIC OCEAN) due to the fact that thick accumulations of sediment. South Equatorial Current. Land. The Northwest Passage (US & Canada) & Northern 1.in 47 . demonstrate most convincingly the dominant effects of equatorial regions polewards have a higher surface temperature winds on the circulation of ocean currents. splits the South Equatorial Current into the Cayenne Current which flows along the Guiana coast. Temperatures. This is reversed in OCEAN CURRENTS winter.in | www. www. The ft) above the deep-ocean floor. They The currents of South Indian Ocean form a circuit. Abyssal Plains: is diverted northwards as the cold Benguela Current (the These are the most level places on Earth. It is the portion of sea floor that lies between the continental Part of the current enters the Gulf of Mexico & emerges from the margin & the oceanic ridge system.bankersadda. oceanic ridges (regions of seafloor spreading).) as fan shaped deposits at the base.careerpower. the currents are blown from a south-westerly direction as the South. the protruding lands mass 2) It may extend to hundreds of km into the deep ocean basin. The earth’s rotation.5 3./Bio. Sea Route (Norway & Russia) are two important seasonal 2. narrow features that form the deepest parts 350N). At the ‘shoulder’ of north-east Brazil. due to the changes of monsoon winds. & are warm currents.A. They exist on the continental slopes & the shelves. Europe as the North Atlantic Drift. 5. America as the cold Humboldt or Peruvian Current. Those that flow from Ocean. East China Sea as the Kuroshio or Japan current.com | www.careeradda. driven by the South-East Trade winds. Greenland & Baffin Island to meet the warm Gulf Stream off Newfoundland. Deep-Ocean Trenches: hugs the coast of America as far as Cape Hatteras (latitude a) These are long. trenches. where it is deflected eastwards under the combined of the ocean. The planetary winds. Seamounts: the narrow Bering Strait & is joined by Okhotsk Current to meet It is an isolated volcanic peak that rises at least 1000 m (3300 the warm Japan Current as the Oyashio.The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's Factors lead to OCEAN CURRENT five oceans.com | www. In summer from June to October. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.000 m deep The cold Labrador Current drift southeastwards between West d) (Mariana trench is 11. percent of the total ocean area. Some of these the current turns northwards along the western coast of South volcanoes may emerge as an island. On reaching the west coast of Africa the current II. may have less than 3 m of relief over a distance that may exceed 1300 km. waterways. flowing eastwards & turns equator-wards as the West Australian Current. influence of the Westerlies & the rotation of the earth. These undersea volcanoes form near Australian Current.West Monsoon Drift. & the Brazilian Current d) Deep Ocean Basins which flows southwards along the east coast of Brazil. Those that flow from polar regions equatorwards have a lower surface temperature & are cold OCEANS currents. The are found to have a length of 16 km at the maximum. In the North Indian Ocean.

Asia.com | www. Asia. Burzil & Zozi La in Kashmir. one another (with respect to the Earth). but some locations experience only one high There are few passes & almost all of them have a height above & one low tide each day (diurnal tide). & Sun & rotation of the earth. Hills-are also known as Purvanchal. Strategically important access waterways include the La MOUNTAINS OF INDIA Perouse. Atlantic Ocean-. The tide is the periodic rise & fall of the sea levels caused by the Can be divided into 3 parallel or longitudinal zones. The Eastern Himalayas-made up Japan. mountain ranges in the world & comprise mainly sedimentary & the Western Hemisphere.once a fortnight. is the connecting link between the Himalayas & the high ranges of TIDES Central Asia. the Sun.) It is a body of water between Europe. each with combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon separate features. • Gravitational attraction between sun & the earth. Types of Tides mostly north of the Arctic Circle. important strategic access waterways.The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the • Spring Tides . & North America. www. Neap tides occur during Flores Sea. Most places in the ocean usually experience two high tides & two low tides each day THE GREAT HIMALAYAS OR THE HIMADRI (semidiurnal tide). LESSER HIMALAYAS OR THE HIMACHAL • Attraction force of the earth towards earth centre.in 48 . (Denmark-Sweden).25 meters) The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the world's five oceans. Tsushima. Spring tides are especially strong tides or high tides. Means ‘Abode of Snow’. Philippine Sea. Tsugaru. Bering Sea. The Pamir. Ocean.sscadda. just at 180° to it. Average height of mountains is 3700 – 4500 m. It includes Andaman Sea. Caribbean Sea.Once a fortnight due to the revolution & (Morocco-Spain). Red Sea. Gulf of Oman. the tides. Mt Nanga Parbat 8126m (in India) Mt Annapurna 8078 m (in Nepal) Causes of Tides Mt Nando Devi 7817 m (in India) • Gravitational attraction between moon & the earth. Strait of Hormuz NEAP TIDES (Iran-Oman). Australia. the tidal cycle is Mt Cho Oyu 8153m (in Nepal) 24 hours & 52 minutes long. & Jelep La & Nathu La in Sikkim. Mizo Hills & the Garo. Gulf of Alaska.Due to the revolution of the moon & its It is a body of water between Africa. popularly known as the Roof of the World. Asia. Strait of Gibraltar • Neap tides . They occur Lowest point:Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench when the Earth.Recur at the intervals of 12½ hours.co. & Strait of Malacca (Indonesia-Malaysia). & other tributary water bodies. They stretch from the Indus River in the west to the Coral Sea. Sea of Okhotsk. Neap tides are especially weak tides. It includes includes Baltic Sea. East China Sea. the Southern position at Perigee & Apogee. & gravitational forces of the Moon & the Sun are perpendicular to Australia.careeradda. Tasman Sea. Simultaneously on the side opposite to that place on the earth i. Mt Dhaulaqiri 81 72 m (in Nepal) Due to the cyclic rotation of the earth & moon. & the Moon are in a line. Thus two Mt Kanchenjunqa 8598 m (in India) tides are experienced twice at every place on the earth's water Mt Makalu 8481 m (in Nepal) surface within 24 hours. due to the revolution of the world's five oceans. Khasi & Jaintia bodies. The Bay of Fundy between Nova Scotia & New Brunswick in Lowest point: Java Trench Canada experiences the world's greatest tidal range of 50 feet Pacific Ocean (15.bankersadda. Lipulekh & Thag La in & Moon. the Southern Ocean. Taiwan./Bio. Strait quarter moons. Europe.com | www. Niti. Singapore. (Egypt). Bay of Bengal. The Kiel Canal (Germany). & by the shape of the Uttarankhand. Black Sea. Java Sea. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.Recur at the intervals of 24½ hours. The Indian Ocean gravitational forces of the Moon & the Sun both contribute to The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's five oceans. coastline & near-shore bathymetry. & the Western Hemisphere. • Moon is mainly responsible for the tides.careerpower. • Semi diurnal tides . Spring tides occur during the full moon & the new Four critically important access waterways are the Suez Canal moon. Average elevation extends upto 6000m & some of the world’s When the moon exerts gravitational force on the earth the tidal highest peaks are here : bulge moves out & causes high tide. They include Shipki La & Bara Lapcha La in Himachal the tides at the coast are influenced by the alignment of the Sun Pradesh. Lowest point: Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench. Bosporus (Turkey). part of the Drake Passage. & other tributary water bodies. Bab-el Mandeb (Djibouti-Yemen). Naga Hills. also Mt Everest (or Sagarmatha or 8848 m (in Nepal) experiences the tidal bulge due to reactionary force Chomo Langma) (centrifugal) of the gravitational (centripetal) force. Mediterranean Sea. Gulf of Aden. of Malacca. They are one of the youngest fold It is body of water between the Southern Ocean. & Torres The Himalayas Straits.in | www./Chem. They occur when the It is a body of water between Africa. Oresund moon & its declination. & the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are declination of moon. by the depth of the ocean. Sea of Brahmaputra River in the east. • Monthly tides . rocks.e. It includes Bali Sea. Lowest point: Fram Basin • Diurnal Tides . The times & amplitude of 4. Gulf of SPRING TIDES Mexico. Timor Sea.500 m. & other tributary water of Patkai Hills. Arabian Sea.

Shyok. eruptions. It is the newest range. Tamil Nadu. Most of them are volcanic in nature.in 49 . Rajasthan. which PENINSULAR PLATEAU OF INDIA join Indus at various places. Pir Panjal. TRANS – HIMALAYAN ZONE ISLANDS OF INDIA This range lies to the north of the Great Himalayas. Orissa & West Bengal. Indus. They are : Gujarat. Great Haryana. Bihar). Tripura. Ravi from Kullu eastern & western boundaries. Orissa. Beas from a place near Rohtang Pass in Himachal Pradesh & Satluj from Mansarovar – Rakas lakes in W. Studded with calcareous THE INDUS SYSTEM formations called ‘kankar’ It has a total length of 2880 km (709 km in India). Laddakh. The Andaman & Nicobar Group The longest glacier is Siachin in the Nubra valley. The Arabian Sea Group Maharashtra. Middle Andaman. Chhattisgarh. They are formed by the Nine Degree Channel separates Kavaratti from Minicoy Island. depositional works of three major river systems.careerpower. Longest coastline: Gujarat important ranges like Karakoram. RIVERS OF INDIA The thickness of the alluvium is maximum in the Ganga plains & In India. in Indian territorial limits include 248 islands: Pak occupied Kashmir). which touches the border of 7 States.Andaman is the highest peak. IMPORTANT FACTS The Nicobars is a group of 19 islands of which the largest is UP borders the maximum number of States-8 (Uttarakhand. etc.co. into two parts: The Malwa Plateau in the north & the Deccan Its important ranges are : Dhauladhar. Beas & Satluj. respectively. Daman & Diu & Pondicherry are also on Minicoy). It has some Total coastline of India : 7516 km. Karnataka. The Eastern Ghats & the Western Ghats constitute its Sources: Jhelum from Verinag (SE Kashmir). Biafo. Andhra All the islands in the Arabian Sea (Total 25) are coral islands & Pradesh. This area is the largest snow-field outside the Polar Regions. Chhattisgarh. the rivers can be divided into two main groups: minimum in the Western Plains. South: 2 Union Territories. Shigar. etc.) Mountains & valleys are disposed in all direction (mountains Narmada. Nag Tibba. are surrounded by Fringing Reefs (North : Lakshadweep. Highly porous Tarai : Re-emergence of streams. Ten Degree Channel separates Andamans from Nicobars (Little Andaman from Car Nicobar) THE PLAINS OF INDIA Duncan Passage lies between South Andaman & Little To the south of the Himalayas & to the north of the Peninsula Andaman. The vast plains of north India are alluvial in Maldives. Kerala. Lowest range (average elevation is 900-1200 m). Plateau in the south. Gilgit./Chem. Chhota Nagpur Plateau lies to the west of Bengal basin. The Deccan Plateau is the largest plateau in India. In Jammu & Kashmir. Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 States : Gujarat. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. nature & the westernmost portion is occupied by the Thar Desert. AP. MP. which flows through a rift valley.in | www. its banks. The Andamans are believed to be extensions Batura. Zone of excessive dampness HIMALAYAN RIVERS OF INDIA Bhangar : Older alluvium of the plains.bankersadda. Ganga & Eight Degree Channel separates Minicoy Island (India) from Brahmaputra.careeradda. of mountains system in the N. Barren is in the MP. Dras. HP. The (Second longest is of Andhra Pradesh). Other high peaks are Hidden Peak (8068 m). This plateau is shaped like a triangle with its base in the north. Jharkhand.E. part of the country. Rises in Tibet Khadar : New alluvium & forms the flood plains along the river (China) near Mansarovar Lake. Saddle Peak (737 m) in N. highest peak in this region is K2 or Godwin Austin (8611m. The Union Territories of Andaman & Nicobar Islands & DO YOU KNOW? Lakshadweep are made up of islands only. 10 States form the coast of India. Gartang. WB. Telangana. Hills near Rohtang Pass in Himachal Pradesh. viz. Chhattisgarh. Its most important tributaries. Vindhya Plateau is situated south of Malwa plateau. are: Jhelum. years. the Outer Himalayas or The Shiwaliks largest & most typical part of which is the Ranchi plateau. Sumatra island of Indonesia. the coast. lies the great plains of North India. After Nicobar is the southernmost island & is only 147 km away from UP is Assam. MP. Jharkhand. Himalayan Rivers--1) Indus 2) Ganga 3) Bhramputra The plains consist of four divisions: Peninsular Rivers--1) East flowing 2) West flowing Bhabar : Along the foothills of Shiwaliks. Nubra. Rajasthan. Zanskar. three sides. Broad Peak (8047 m) & Gasherbrum II (8035 m). divides the region rising to 5000 m & the valleys touching 1000 m). Volcanic Islands: Barren & Narcodam Islands. It is made up Forms the foothills & lies between the Lesser Himalayas & the of lava flows in the Cretaceous-Eocene era through the fissure plains. which is more Andamans is a group of 204 islands of which the largest is than 72 km long (biggest glacier in the world).com | www. process of eruption these days after lying dormant for 200 Indian Standard Meridian passes through 5 States : UP. Himalayan tributaries are: Zanskar./Bio. Hispar are the other important glaciers in this region. Mussoorie.com | www. Mizoram. Baltaro. Great Nicobar. Spreads south of the Indo-Gangetic plains flanked by sea on Ravi. Tibet. Goa. www. Chenab (1800 km).sscadda.

B river which flows almost throughout the year.P Western Ghats. RIVERS OF THE PENINSULA IN INDIA Tapti. Gulf of Mannar (south east of Tamil Nadu) : Asia’s first A. Wardha. it is the only peninsular • Mayurkashi Project : On Mayurkashi in W. • Tata Hydel Scheme : On Bhima in Maharashtra www. Main tributaries: Manjra. important distributory before it enters the Bay of Bengal. EAST FLOWING RIVERS OF INDIA (OR DELTA FORMING marine biosphere reserve. Brahmaputra is known by the which is the reservoir of Sardar Sarovar Project. Godavari River (1465 km) : Also called Vriddha India. Penganga. which combine at Devprayag to form Ganga. the head stream is constituted of two main rivers – Bhagirthi & Narmada River (1057 km) : Rises in Amarkantak Plateau & Alaknanda. Gomti (805 km). Dul Lake is also there in J biggest delta in the world. It is finally lost in the marshy grounds at the head of the distributory of Ganga flowing through Kolkata. Shakkar. Betwa (480 km) & Ken (all from south). • Nagarjuna Sagar Project : On Krishna in A./Chem. 4801 m • Rihand : On Son(river) in Mirzapur. Kosi (730 km). Kosi is infamous as ‘Sorrow of Bihar’. It rises in Tibet (from famous Jog or Gersoppa or Mahatma Gandhi Falls (289 m).careeradda. Wainganga. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. The Ganga. & enters which is the highest waterfall in India. Highest in Chhatisgarh. Sabarmati River (416 km) : Rises from Aravallis in Rajasthan. Burhner.) THE GANGA SYSTEM It is 2525 km long of which 1450 km is in Uttarakhand & UP. combined stream is known as Padma only. river island in the world. Onkareshwar name of Jamuna while Ganga gets the name Padma. Yamuna (1375 km) is its most important tributary (on right Tapti River (724 km) : Rises from Betul distt in Maharashtra. Its major part is in Bangladesh. etc. potential of tidal energy generation Gulf of Cambay or Gulf of Khambat (Gujarat) : Narmada. 3 dams are there: Gandhi Sagar Dam. It runs Also known as twin or handmaid of Narmada. etc. Dudhganga. Mandakini from Kedarnath (all from Uttarakhand). Gandak (425 km). Dhansiri. Important Purna.careerpower. Main tributaries: Hemavati. • Mandi Project: On Beas in H. Shar. Betul. the biggest Kolleru & Pulicat in Andhra Pradesh. Indravati.752 sq. flows into Gulf of Khambat. Malprabha. Chemayungdung glacier). B. Shimsa. Main tributaries: Hiran. Ht 226 m. • Hirakud: On Mahanadi in Orissa. From Sambhar & Didwana Lake (Rajasthan). Rann of Kuchchh./Bio. etc. in • Bhakhra Nangal Project: On Satluj in Punjab. is navigable for a distance of The three important Gulfs in the Indian Territory are: 1384 km up to Dibrugarh & serves as an excellent inland water Gulf of Kuchch (west of Gujarat) : Region with highest transport route.bankersadda. Majuli in Assam. Mahi & Sabarmati drain into it.com | www. World's longest dam: Panchganga. Brahmaputra. Main tributaries: parallel to Ganga for 800km & joins it at Allahabad. Ganjal. Kameng. • Chambal Valley Project: On Chambal in M. where it is called Tsangpo. tributaries of Yamuna are Chambal. Wular Lake (J & K) The combined stream of Ganga & Brahmaputra forms the is the largest fresh water lake of India.P Swarnarekha River (395 km) & Brahmani (705 km) : Rises • Shivasamudram Project: On Cauvery in Karnataka from Ranchi Plateau. Son (780 km).sscadda. the Indian territory (in Arunachal Pradesh) under the name Dihang. Important Tributaries: Subansiri. other tributaries of Ganga are Ghaghra (1080 km). Also called Salt Bengal’ as these cause floods in these regions. km. Damodar (541 km). salt is 58. etc.in | www. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake Ganga or Dakshina Ganga. It is the longest peninsular river. Hooghli is a River. Bhima. Rana Pratap sagar Dam & Jawahar Sagar dam Krishna River (1327 km) : Rises in Western Ghats near • Damodar Valley Project: On Damodar in Bihar.P Rises in Nasik. Note: The largest man-made lake in India is Indira Sagar Lake. covering an area of & K. it is the largest lake of India. RIVERS) IMPORTANT RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS IN INDIA Mahanadi River (858 km) : Rises in Raipur distt. Arunavati. Mahi River (560 km) : Rises from Vindhyas in Maharashtra. the Sundarbans. Tawa.com | www. It forms the It has a total length of 2900 km. It rises from the Brahmagir range of • Nizamsagar Project: On Manjra in A. Tungabhadra. Other important lakes are Vembanad in Kerala & On Brahmaputra is the river island. Banjar. produced. It rises at the Yamunotri glacier in Uttarakhand. Sources: Bhagirthi from Gaumukh.co. Main tributaries: Koyna. while Damodar gets the name ‘Sorrow of Luni River (450 km) : Rises from Aravallis. WEST FLOWING RIVERS IN INDIA 445 km in Bihar & 520 km in West Bengal. Reservoir is called Cauvery River (805 km) : It is the largest peninsular river Govind Vallabh Pant reservoir (maximum amount of water). Otherwise also. Lokpawni. Apart from Yamuna. Mahabaleshwar. Teesta. Manas. Their Project & Maheshwar Project in Gujarat-MP. Infact. Meghna is the most Chilka Lake (Orissa) is the largest brackish water lake of India. Known as the • Kakrapara Project : On Tapi in Gujarat ‘Ganga of the South’. Alaknanda from Badrinath. In Bangladesh. or the Red River. bank). It forms the famous Dhuan Dhar Falls near Jabalpur.in 50 . THE BRAHMAPUTRA SYSTEM Sharavati is a west flowing river of the Sahyadris.P & Rajasthan.

The Bay of Bengal branch after crossing the deltaic region the subcontinent gets comparatively milder winters as enters the Khasi valley in Meghalaya & gets entrapped in it due compared to Central Asia. is heavy.careeradda. The black soil is locally called regur. north-east monsoon. starting from Punjab in the west to West Bengal & Assam in the east. Mean • Mata Tila Multipurpose Project-On Betwa in U. Jaisalmer & Bikaner districts of Rajasthan & parts of • Ukai Project : On Tapti in Gujarat Kutch. is also highly erratic.bankersadda. covering large from 38 cm to 80 cm. www.5 cm to more than 254 cm. The highest temperature experienced in South is in April while Factors Affecting India’s Climate in North it is in May & June. Alluvial Soil: explains the phenomenon why Tamil Nadu remains dry when In India it covers about 40 per cent of the total land area. It strikes Cherrapunji in a Pressure & Winds: The Indian subcontinent lies in the region perpendicular direction causing heavies rainfall in Mausryam of north-easterly winds. which are beneficial to mango crops./Bio. CLIMATIC REGIONS OF INDIA The northern parts & the coastal areas of Gujarat also have India can be divided into a number of climatic regions. wealth.P & M. It is characterized by low rainfall which varies The black soil is mostly found in the Deccan Trap. Black soil is widely used for producing cotton. 1400 cm). tobacco. some deposits of alluvial soil. This monsoon causes rainfall over most of the country 6. Black Soil: rainfall varies from 76 cm in the west to 150 cm in the east. New alluvium. Temperature varies from 12-35 Deg. Due to this./Chem. rainfall varies from 63. except the semi-arid zone in the leeward side of the Western oilseeds. linseed. Hence. though a. Haryana & Kutch region.5-63. half of India has tropical climate & another elsewhere South India. Ghats. ‘Cherry Blossoms’ are there in Latitude: The Indian landmass is equally divided by The Tropic Karnataka. wheat. as cotton is the most Tamil Nadu in the leeward side of the Western Ghats & the important crop grown in this soil.co. Telugu word ‘reguda’. The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from (except Tamil Nadu & Thar Desert area).2 Deg. the low pressure area starts moving south to the right due to the Coriolis force & then move towards the & winds finally start blowing from land to sea.P monthly temperature is uniformly high (about 35c). The annual • Kundah & Periyar Project In TN rainfall. called bangar seasonal. Found mostly in the Northern Plains. CLIMATE SEASONS IN INDIA Mountain Climate : Such type of climate is seen in mountainous In India. heating of land & movement of the sun’s vertical rays.in | www. The black soil is well-known for its capacity to hold moisture. silt & clay are called alluvium. millets. cotton.B. maize. resulting regions which rise above 6. Old alluvium. From mid-Sept to mid-Dec. the monsoon subtropical high-pressure belt of the northern hemisphere. The south – west monsoon enters the country in two currents. Winters are Climate of INDIA mild to severe while summers are extremely hot.c). retreats. Cardamom Hills. b. most of it received during the south west monsoon season.5 cm). the year can be divided into four seasons. The withdrawal of monsoon is a much more gradual process than its onset. the average elevation in the north is about Sea. Altitude: While the average elevation in the coastal areas is one blowing over the Bay of Bengal & the other over the Arabian about 30 metre. This is called low pressure area near the equator.5 cm.com | www.in 51 . Punjab includes south of the Himalayas. Rains are mostly in the form of cloud-burst. a word derived from Tropical Semi-Arid Steppe Climate : It prevails in the rain. Gujarat & western Madhya Pradesh. It causes rainfall in Tamil Soils Nadu as the winds pick some moisture from Bay of Bengal.careerpower. November. plains.com | www. to funnel shape of the region. the Western Ghats & parts of Assam. east of the tropical & subtropical steppes & north of tropical savannah. As the sun’s vertical rays start shifting towards the After that. areas of Maharashtra. tobacco & oilseeds. • Thein Project : On Ravi. these winds blow towards south. It is the entire country receives rain & why it gets rain when very fertile & contributes the largest share of agricultural practically the entire country is dry.about 200 cm annually during May. They get deflected Tropic of Capricorn. jute. wheat. Tropical Rain Forests in India: Found in the west coastal The fine particles of sand. annual 2. called khadar. • Farakka Project: On Ganga in W. Rainfall.) • Sharavathi Hydel Project On Jog Falls in Karnataka The maximum temperature reaches up to 49 Deg. Characterised by The alluvial soil can be divided into high temperatures throughout the year.000 metre. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. varying from 30. half has subtropical climate. shadow belt running southward from Central Maharashtra to It is also called the Black Cotton Soil.c. Alluvial soil is most suited to irrigation & can produce bumper Tropical Savanna Climate : In most of the peninsula region crops of rice. It is characterized by long dry weather throughout winter & early summer & high temperature (above 18. Central Asia from entering the Indian subcontinent. These winds originate from the (Approx. high temperature between 20 & 30. sugarcane.000 m or more such as the from the monsoons which occur mainly due to the differential Himalayas & the Karakoram Range. This 1. Punjab Humid Subtropical Climate with Dry Winters : This area • Pong Dam : On Beas. It is characterized by scanty rainfall (30. etc. c.sscadda. which is • Salal Project : On Chenab in J & K highly erratic. Apart from power & Tropical desert : This climate extends over the western parts irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation of Banner. Tropical & Subtropical Steppes : Large areas in Punjab. beneficial to coffee plantation & ‘Mango showers’ in of Cancer. The annual India has tropical monsoon type of climate.

Satpuras & Malwa plateau. Desert Soil: Sanctuaries (maximum in India). Bhabhar & Tarai. Zaid Crops www. Jowar. The type of trees depends upon the height of the mountain : 4. coffee. Trees are teak. receiving less than 50 cm of annual rainfall. Occur along the sea Such climatic conditions promote leaching of soil. Sown in summers between May & July. Pulses. maximum number of National Parks (9 each) while Andaman & Nicobar Islands has 96 & Maharashtra has 36 Wildlife 6. the soil is suitable for percentage of forest area to total area. & spruce between 1600 & 3300 m. Mountain Soil: The lowest forest percentage is in Haryana & Punjab. The desert soil has sand (90 to 95 per cent) & clay (5 to 10 per Eg: Rice. silver fern ‘brick’. potatoes. etc. Tamil Madhya Pradesh & Andaman & Nicobar Islands have the Nadu & Kerala. The word ‘laterite’ has been derived from a Latin word meaning & chir forests between 1000 & 2000 m. pines. etc. pulses. ironwood. In Mangrove forests. followed by Gujarat & Andaman & Nicobar Islands. millets. bamboo. HILL FORESTS---In hills of Southern India & the Himalayas. rice. Haryana & Gujarat. sandalwood. There are 96 National Parks & 510 Wildlife Sanctuaries in India. Madhya Pradesh. such as tea./Chem. these forests drop their leaves for about 6-8 weeks during the The red soil is found in Tamil Nadu. Cotton. coconut. cotton.E. Groundnut.careerpower. Nicobar Islands. Leaching is a coast & in the estuaries of rivers. Tobacco. This soil is also found in the Western & Eastern Ghats & in some BIOSPHERE RESERVES IN INDIA parts of the Peninsular India. Red Soil: between 100 – 200 cm. barley. Due to intensive leaching. & humus. phosphate. deodar. etc. & harvested after the The Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat is an extension of this region. with forests. Alpine forests give Ghats. barley & temperate fruits are grown on this soil.developed in southern Maharashtra. barley. especially in Sunderbans & the process in which heavy rains wash away the fertile part of the Andamans. Maize. Rajmahal Hills. maize. 5. etc. rosewood. coffee. NATIONAL PARKS & WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES This soil is especially suitable for producing plantation crops. phosphorus & came into being in 1986. Orissa & Jhark hand. millets. tobacco. arecanut. gram. acacia. It provides hard & soil.com | www. wheat. Punjab./Bio. In India. been set up in the country. Sugarcane. Assam Tidal or Mangrove Forests & Meghalaya. The desert soil is found mostly in the arid & semi-arid regions. & parts of Orissa. 14 biosphere reserves have lime. Karnataka. The trees of the south-eastern part of the Peninsular India. durable timber which is used for construction & building The laterite soil is red in colour & composed of little clay & purposes as well as for making boats. rubber. Trees are palm.) Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests--In areas having rainfall 3. Laterite Soil: Sal & bamboo below 1000 m. chestnuts & other fruit trees. much gravel of red sandstones. Kerala. mostly in foothills of Himalayas in Shivaliks.careeradda.bankersadda. Andhra Pradesh. etc. In the Himalayan region wheat. pine. the first biosphere reserve – Nilgiri biosphere reserve – This soil is rich in humus. followed by Mizoram. ebony. etc. such as wheat. parts of Karnataka. In Western Ghats. oilseeds. spring & early summer when sufficient moisture isn’t available. Rabi Crops of India NATURAL VEGETATION IN INDIA Sown at the beginning of winter & harvested before the onset of Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests-In areas over 250 cm rainfall. In peninsular region & along the The red soil occupies about 10 per cent area of India. pulses. the summer season. Most important tree is Sundari. nitrogen Rajasthan. oilseeds. shisham. first is Andaman & producing plantation crops like tea. CROPPING SEASONS IN INDIA Such regions are mostly found in Rajasthan & the adjoining Kharif Crops of India areas of Haryana & Punjab. It is well. So far. Eastern with trees like silver firs. As per But when manured & timely irrigated. Red soils can give excellent yields of cotton. rains. above 3600 m alpine forests It is mainly found on the summits of the Western Ghats. because of The mountain soil is generally found on the hill slopes covered the extensive agriculture. etc. birches. way to Alpine grasslands & scrubs as we move up further. etc. Vindhyas. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. In areas having rainfall between 25 & 80 cm.sscadda. West Bengal holds the first position. hilly areas in N. Thorn Forests The red colour is due to the high percentage of iron contents. India & Andaman & Nicobar Eg: Wheat. etc. southeast Maharashtra. Also known as Littoral or Swamp Forests. in September & October. oaks.in | www. spices & tropical fruits in Karnataka. eastern parts of Andhra Pradesh. Jute. maize. In arid regions of This soil is rich in potash.in 52 . Islands. but poor in lime. Bajra. cent). West Bengal. sal. the laterite soil generally lacks IMPORTANT POINTS fertility & is of low value for crop production.co.com | www. Desert soil can produce a variety of crops. Bihar. but poor in potash. between Feb & April. Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under forests. Trees are rosewood.

etc. It was Ennore Tamil Nadu introduced in 1929 between Bombay & Poona. New Mangalore Karnataka The fastest train in India is the Shatabadi Express whose Mormugao Goa maximum speed is 140 km/hr.) rivers.33 m (4. canals. The total route covered is approx 63. Tuticorin Tamil Nadu Indian Railways has the second biggest electrified system in the Cochin Kerala world after Russia. minor & intermediate. on April 16th 1853. The ash of the burnt trees & the other vegetation adds to the fertility of soil.bankersadda. Mulberry is the main variety. Mizoram & Nagaland. is 786 km between Apta (Maharashtra) & Mangalore (Karnataka). India:1. In this. while tussar is mainly found in Bihar.com | www. Tobacco In Gujaral./Bio.in 53 . with 12 major & the rest intermediate & minor. It is the biggest departmental public undertaking Port State in the country. : Melon. Kandla Gujarat Uttar Pradesh. a stretch of 34 km. major. Durand Line Pakistan & Afghanistan The first Metro Rail was introduced in Kolkata (W.co. Karnataka Jhum Shifting type of cultivation practiced in the hill slopes of Asom. Tamil Nadu Rubber In Kerala. only a small portion of the Water Transport in India product is consumed by the farmers themselves (cotton. Bihar.629 kms Jute & Mesta In WB. Karnataka Silk In Karnataka. watermelon. Arunachal Pradesh. The total route length vegetables.100. Paradip Orissa The second train ran between Howrah & Hooghly in 1854. tussar.483 ft) (longest in the world). backwaters.100 kms Coffee In Kamalaka.500 km out of which 3700 km is navigable by mechanised boats. Goa & Karnataka. Andhra Waterways of India: Pradesh NW 1: Allahabad to Haldia – 1. is 14. Asom NW 2: Sadia to Dhubari (on Brahmaputra river) – 819 kms NW 3: Kollam to Kottapuram – 186 kms Tea In Asom. Konkan Railways India : It is a project to shorten the distance E.careeradda. the trees are felled & set on fire.000 km. Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh. The two stations connected were Dumdum & Radcliffe Line India & Pakistan Belgachhia. Himachal NW 4: Kakinada to Marakkanam (Along Godawari & Krishna Pradesh river) – 1. 1984. leafy & other between Maharashtra. Jawaharlal Nehru Maharashtra The total number of railway stations in India is 7. Cash Crops of India (Commercial Crops) Grown mainly for the market. toris. Maharashtra. RAILWAYS IN INDIA The 12 Major Ports are: Indian railway system is the largest in Asia & the fourth largest in the world. The first train ran in India between Bombay & Kolkata (including Haldia) West Bengal Thane. Jammu & Kashmir.sscadda./Chem.com | www.366. The total length of navigable waterways in Indian comprising sugarcane etc.Bengal) on MacMohan Line India & China October 24. eri & muga. Kerala. Karnataka The government has recognised the following National Cotton In Maharashtra.) They are raised between April & June. Mumbai Maharashtra The longest railway platforms are: Gorakhpur railway station. BOUNDRY LINES Mumbai is the destination where maximum number of trains in LINES India head for.g. Ports in India The Waterways Authority in India divides Indian ports into three categories. Maginot Line France & Germany www. CASH CROPS Sugarcane In UP. This land is used for 2-3 years till the soil gets exhausted & the jhum is abandoned. Chennai Tamil Nadu The first electric train in India was ‘Deccan Queen’. Vishakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh The headquarters of Indian Railway is in New Delhi. In India all 4 varieties of silk are available: Mulberry. West Bengal.in | www. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Tamil Nadu. Gujarat. India has about 190 ports in all. cucumber.careerpower.

6 km. GOLD : • Longest Beach-Marina Beach. • Largest River Island-Majuli (Brahmaputra River. dyes. • Longest Canal-Indira Gandhi Canal or Rajasthan Canal (Rajasthan) 6. Including the 1. Andhra Pradesh & Madhya Pradesh. 6. Jharia in Bihar & Bay of Bengal & Lakshadweep. Total land neighbours: 7 (Pakistan. Mainland India has a coastline of 6. Plains Geography: 43. MICA : • Highest rainfall-Cherrapunji (426 inches per annum) India is the largest producer of mica in the world. • Largest State (Population)-Uttar Pradesh It is found at Khetri in Rajasthan. Big steel a. chemicals. Huge deposits of bauxite are • Highest Dam-Tehri Dam ( 260 meters . PETROLEUM : • Longest Tributary river of India-Yamuna Petroleum is known as ‘black gold’. • Largest Man-Made Lake-Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar (Rihand Dam) 4. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. West Bengal. Ankaieshwar & Kalol in Gujarat & Bombay • Largest Lake (Saline Water)-Chilka Lake. Orrisa High off the shore of Bombay.co. Petroleum is found at • Largest Lake-Wular Lake. Karnataka & Maharashtra. Karnataka. Kashmir Digboi in Assam. the Gulf of Mannar & the 2.263 sq. Gadhwal (Uttarakhand) Manganese is used in the manufacture of steel. Rourkela & b. It alloys with zinc to form • Smallest State (Area)-Goa brass & with tin to form bronze. Damodar Valley. In the South. Uttar Pradesh & Tamil Nadu. DIAMOND : Hindenberg Line Poland & Germany (at the time of First Diamonds are found in the mines at Panno in Madhya Pradesh World War) 38th Parallel North & South Korea Area Geography & Boundaries OF INDIA 49th Parallel USA & Canada 1. Bokaro. Madhya Pradesh. Madhya measures about 7516. The ore from which aluminum is • Longest Dam-Hirakud Dam (Orrisa) produced is known as bauxite. It occurs in small quantities in • Largest State (Area)-Rajasthan India. Mountains Geography: 10. • Longest River Bridge-Mahatma Gandhi Setu. of the total land mass: mines at Singhbhum in Bihar & Mayurbhanj in Orissa. Bhilai. 5. IRON : Lakshadweep & Andaman & Nicobar Islands. COPPER : • Smallest State (Population)-Sikkim It is a good conductor of electricity./Bio.COAL : Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka. Asom) www. Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra.4% of the total world area & roughly 16% of the world population. MANGANESE : • Highest Lake-Devtal Lake. • Longest Highway NH-44 (NH-7) which turns from Varanasi to Kanyakumari 7. km.com | www.careerpower.com | www.in | www. Monghyr & Hazaribagh districts of • Largest Delta-Sunderbans Delta Bihar. Madhya Pradesh & Maharashtra.6% Bhadravati. China. Orissa. Accounts for 2. Geography Area of India: 32. Afghanistan.611 meters) the largest producers of manganese in the world.bankersadda. Ellora (Maharastra) in Andhra Pradesh. A large quantity of mica is exported to other • Longest Road-Grand Trunk Road countries. Andhra Pradesh.87. • Largest State(Area)-Rajasthan • Largest State(Population)-Uttar Pradesh 5. 850 ft ) found in Bihar. on the eastern side. Some copper has been found • Largest Cave Temple-Kailash Temple.in 54 . • Largest Port-Mumbai • Largest Church-Saint Cathedral (Goa) 8. Durgapur. • Largest District-Kutch district Karnataka. Chennai Gold is produced from the mines at Kolor & Hutti in Karnataka • Highest Airport-Leh (Laddakh) & Anantopuram in Andhra Pradesh. Other coal mines are located at Suhagpur (Madhya Pradesh) Dhanbad (Bihar) Neyveli (Tamil Nadu) & Singarani (Andhra INDIA FACTS Pradesh).3% plants at Jamshedpur. Its huge • State wise largest area under forest-Madhya Pradesh deposits are found in Gaya. In India. MINERALS IN INDIA 2.100 km. c. It is found in • Largest Populated City-Mumbai Orissa. Bangladesh & Myanmar). Bhutan. • Highest Award-Bharat Ratna • Highest Gallantry Award-Param Vir Chakra 3. the coastline India has huge deposits of iron-ore in Bihar. Iron-ore is found in the 3.) Oder Niesse Line Germany & Poland 9. Coal is found in Bihar.sscadda./Chem. Products like nylon. in the Arabian Sea. Patna Mica is also found in large quantities in Andhra Pradesh & • Biggest Cave temple-Ellora Rajasthan. coal.7% 4.careeradda. India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Orissa. It is known as ‘black diamond‘. Plateaus: 27. Orissa. India is one of • Highest Peak-Karkoram-2 of K-2(8. Pradesh. ALUMINIUM : • Largest Museum-India Museum at Kolkata It is a light but hard metal.7% • Hills: 18. Minicoy & Amindive Islands Raniganj in West Bengal are the largest coal mines in India. drugs & perfumes are obtained from the distillation of Nepal.

careeradda.com | www.sscadda. This theory is based on continental drift which  LOKTAK LAKE: Manipur explains the formation of various continents over millions of years..1981 which is known as the northern plains of India.Dr. Peaty  Kanpur-..  Agra. & distribution of hybridized seeds.com | www. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.in | www. the two adjacent tectonic plates move towards each other.Based on the relative movement between SAMBHAR LAKE-Rajasthan-Largest Lake of Rajasthan lies on two tectonic plates. Varghese  Rockies -North America Kurien.Musi-.Uttar Pradesh HIMALAYAS  Badrinath. 1970 .Delhi • Assam Himalaya-Between Tista & Dihang  Dibrugarh -Brahmaputra -Assam  Haridwar-Ganga--Uttaranchal IMPORTANT LAGOONS & LAKES  Hyderabad-. & pesticides to farmers.Orissa • Kumaon Himalaya-Between Satluj & Kali • Nepal Himalaya-Between Kali & Tista  Delhi. They are as follows: DEEDWANA LAKE: Rajasthan Convergent Boundary: In this case./Bio. It was carried out in three from the mountains in the north & from the peninsula in the phases.Mahanadi.Dr. the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the infrastructure. Operation Flood II .  Kolkata-.AP  VEMBNAD LAKE-Kerala -Large sized lagoons  Jabalpur-.in 55 . Thus. Norman Borlaug Formation of India Father of Green Revolution in India .MP  KAYALS-Kerala-Popularly called back water in Kerala. 1981 . mountain systems of the West Asia & Himalaya.Sarayu. SALINE WATER LAKES: Plate Boundaries:.Yamuna.  Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush -South Central Asia The Father of the White Revolution in India is Dr.careerpower.Chambal-.India  Pyrenees-Europe.) Tectonic Plate Theory:. move along their borders.Yamuna-Uttar Pradesh  Appalachian -North America  Ahmedabad. expansion of irrigation collision. As a result of this varieties of cereal grains.1985 Operation Flood III .S..Sabarmati -Gujarat  Ayodhya. south..Narmada-.Uttar Pradesh soils of backwaters are called Kari in Kerala. Due to the uplift of the Himalayas in the Tethys Sea. He is also known as Milkman of India.1996. the two adjacent plates The Green Revolution (first) was launched in 1967-68.West Bengal  CHILKA LAKE-Orissa--south west of the Mahanadi Delta.  Great Dividing Range-East Australia  Western Ghats-Western India./Chem.. Major Mountain Ranges of the World White revolution launched to increase the quality & quanity  Andes -South America of milk & dairy products. 1985 .co. Father of Green Revolution . Swaminathan The Indian Peninsula drifted towards the north & finally Green Revolution focused the development of high-yielding collided with the much larger Eurasian Plate.Hoogly-. lithosphere.Rajasthan  WULAR LAKE:Jammu & Kashmir-Largest fresh water lake of  Lucknow--Gomti--Uttar Pradesh India  Ludhiana--Sutlej--Punjab  KOLLERU LAKE: Andhra Pradesh  Nasik--Godavari--Maharashtra  PULICAT LAKE: Andhra Pradesh  Pandharpur--Bhima--Maharashtra  JAISAMAND LAKE: Rajasthan-Largest fresh water lake of  Patna--Ganga--Bihar Rajasthan  Rajahmundry-Godavari-Andhra P www..  NAKKI LAKE:Rajasthan-small natural lake near Mt. an extensive flat land of alluvial soil was formed Operation Flood I .Uttrakhand • Punjab Himalaya-Between Indus & Satluj  Cuttack. as we see them today. the border of Jaipur & Nagaur District. synthetic geosynclines (known as Tethys) got folded & formed the fertilizers. Green Revolution Divergent Boundary: In this case. M. Abu The theory describes the large scale motion of the earth’s surrounded by hills important as tourist place. REMEMBER  Caucasus Europe-Asia  National animal-Royal Bengal Tiger  Alaska -USA  National aquatic animal-Dolphin  Alps -Europe  National bird-Indian Peacock  Apennines -Europe  National tree-Banyan tree  Ural -Asia  Pennines -Europe Riverside Cities . Transform Boundary: In this case. the northern flank of the White Revolution Indian Peninsula got subsided & formed a large basin. That The White Revolution in the country has been achieved by basin was filled with sediments from the rivers which came means of Operation Flood. the two adjacent plates move To increase yield per hectare government of India away from each other. there are three types of plate boundaries.Ganga.  Kota-.bankersadda. introduced a programme called Green Revolution.Ganga-..

960 m) • Australia Continents Countries 5 Lowest-Point Valdes Penin (-39.820. Sahara Namib 19. Pantagonia 2) Straits Strait of Malacca. Rajasthan Arabian Peninsula. Thar 10. Coastal Range. Crude Oil—–Gujarat 20. The Comoros.bankersadda./Bio.com | www. Paraguay. 7. Zagros. Hokkaido. Borneo. Copper Ore—–Madhya Pradesh 6 Islands--Madagascar. Sonoran The Continents of the World. 5.Yablonovoi. 7 Rivers--Amazon.280 sq Kms 2 Straits-. Coal—–Jharkhand 7) Rivers-Eupharates. Bauxite (Aluminium Ore)—–Orissa Hwang-Ho. Plateau of Equador 1) Area: 44. Plateau of 6.)—– Peninsula of Indo-China. Quartz—–Rajasthan 10) Deserts-Arab. Limestone—–Andhra Pradesh Africa 12.24. Karakoram. Parana. Cyprus. Plateau of Iran.careeradda. Asbestos—–Andhra Pradesh 11.848 m)  Varanasi-Ganga--Uttar Pradesh 5) Lowest Point Dead Sea (396.Straits of Magellan • South America Continents Countries 3 Mountains-. Ob. Colorado Plateau. North America. 5 Lowest Point--Death Valley(-85.10.235. Cuba. Baffin. the landmass broke up & the 7 Rivers--Mississippi./Chem.sscadda.) world. Sakhalin.259. Canadian Shield. 9.in 56 . Appalachain. New Guinea. Mexican complete. Barytes (used as weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil & 2 Straits--Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb.Columbia Plateau. Malay Peninsula.9 m) • Antarctica Continents Countries 6 Islands-Galapagos. Mica —–Andhra Pradesh 1 Area 30. Plateau of Arabia. Tigris.8 m)  Vijayawada--Krishna-Andhra Pradesh 6) Islands---Kurile. Gold—–Karnataka Mauritius. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Altai. Sierra Madre Australia & Antarctica are the seven continents of the 4 Highest Point-. Taiwan. Calcite (source of marble)—–Rajasthan 9) Peninsulas—Kamchatka Peninsula.Plateau of Bolivia. 1.)  Sambalpur--Mahanadi-.750 sq Kms 2 Straits-.in | www. component continents separated & moved away to its Colorado. Taurus. Tierra del Fuego.900 sq Kms 9 Deserts-.J&K Hindu Kush. Kunlun. South America. Plateau. Manganese—–Orissa Plateau Of Tibet.Andes • Europe Continents Countries 4 Highest Point. • Asia Continents Countries South America • Africa Continents Countries 1 Area-. Lena-Yenisei.17.com | www. Sri First Ranked States in Mineral Wealth (INDIA) Lanka.co.485. Cape Verde Islands. Si-kiang. Uruguay ASIA 8 Plateaus-.Kilimanjaro (5.530.Orissa Pamir Knot.9 m) • These seven continents were believed to be part of Pangaea 6 Islands--Greenland. Mekong. 4. All these took around 1 million years to 8 Plateaus-. Sierra Nevada. Lead & Zinc—–Rajasthan Yunnan. Gypsum (used in fertiliser. Kilimanjaro Pradesh 4 Highest Point.Bering Strait Continents of the World 3 Mountains-.Sumatra. Africa. Pontic.careerpower. plaster of paris etc. Missourie. Seychelles 17. Philippines. Iron Ore—–Orissa 8) Plateaus--Anatolia Plateau.  Surat--Tapti--Gujarat Urals. Europe.1 m. Celebes. Natural Gas—–Assam/Nagaland North America 1 Area-. Cascade Range. Himalayas. 16. Salween.Aconcagua (6.Kalahari. Brooks.Mckinley (6. Bering Strait. Deccan Plateau. Elburz. Ohio present position. Chromite (Chromium ore)—–Orissa Irrawady. • Asia. Potomac.Rockies. Hudson.894 m) 14. which was a single landmass around 250 million years ago. Diamond—–Madhya Pradesh 5 Lowest Point-Lake Assai (-156.194 m. Amur. Mackenzie.  Tirucharapallil--Kaveri--Tamil Nadu 4) Highest Point Everest (8. 2. Haiti • Due to the tectonic movement. 3. Brahmaputra.770 sq Kms • North America Continents Countries 2 Straits-. Stanovoi. Newfoundland. Rock Salt—–Himachal Pradesh 8 Deserts-. Tien Shan. barium is used in CT Scan)—–Andhra 3 Mountains-. Sulaiman.Straits of Gibraltar www. sapphire)—–Maharashtra 7 Plateaus--The whole continent is a plateau 18.Atlas. Mujave.680 sq Kms 13. Bahrain. Plateau of Mongolia. Straits of Gibraltar gas exploration. Honshu. 3) Mountains Europe 1 Area -. Peninsula of Korea. Java. Lawrence. Indian Peninsula. Falkland. Indus. Victoria. Yang-tse. Corundum (source of ruby.Atacama. Colorado.  Srinagar--Jhelum-. Kuskolkwim. 8. Drakensberg. Ganga. St. Tarim Basin. Orinoco. World Continents Alaska Range. 9 Deserts--Chihuahuan. Jamaica.) 15.

the  World’s largest copper town : Chiquicamata.  Amazon basin is the home of the rubber tree. Don.L. Balkans.0 m) 6 Islands--British Isles.Great Dividing Range situated near the mouth of Fraser river.  Driest place in the world : Arica. USA EUROPE CONTINENT Highest point .  The Ruhr (Germany) is the biggest & the richest coal Carpathians.) 3 Mountains-.  The highest mountain peak of Europe. Venezuela  Important mountain ranges of Europe include Alps. Elbe. Helsinki is known as Pacific. Simpson Desert. Ural  Central American countries are known as the Banana 8 Plateaus--Plateau of Bohemia. L. situated on the bank of Hudson river -  Greenland the world’s largest island & the Faroe islands also New York City./Chem.228 m.in 57 .  Pearl of the Pacific: Guayaquil. Australia  Halifax. Great Victoria  Largest port in Pacific.  Strait between South America & Antarctica : Drake Passage. Vistula. Mt.8 m. Chile  Moscow is a part of five seas the Baltic Sea. of the world. also known as City of Golden Gate: Desert. In the east. Danube./Bio.  Rhine is the busiest inland waterway of Europe. 5 Lowest Point-. 4 Highest Point-. which is completely surrounded by Italy. Mc Kinley.careerpower. the largest city of British Columbia. Blanc is the highest peak of Alps (in France)  World’s highest water fall : Angel falls.New York City. Appenines. Honolulu is known as the cross roads of  The capital & the largest city of Finland. www. the Baltic. Canada 6 Islands-.Bass Strait  Vancouver. Elbrus. the capital of Sweden is known as Beauty on the America. Most Southerly point . Dnieper. the Caucasus Death valley.  Mauna Kea.  Most populated city of USA also known as city of sky  Copenhagen the capital of Denmark is known as the key to scrapers. Russia Sea. Urals producing area of Europe.Kosclusko (2. Alaska.  St. Pyrenees. Plateau of Spain. the Black sea & the Caspian Sea. Po. Sicily. Caucasus. it is Lowest Point separated from Asia by the Ural Mountains. California mountains & the Caspian Sea. Brazil zones.bankersadda.  Rome is known as City of Seven Hills  The Grasslands found in the interior plains of North America  Vatican city is the smallest Sovereign & an independent state are known as the Prairies. 4 Highest Point-.Alps.Mt. USA west & the Mediterranean Sea in the South. Largest lake  Reykjavik is also known as The Smoking Bay. Central Massif Republic. Loire.  Capital of Hawai. Largest river – Volga  World’s leading coffee producer : Brazil  Russia touches fourteen other countries & crosses eight time  Largest city of South America : Sao Paulo. Ojas del Salado.830.)  ‘Birmingham of Canada “ .  Hamilton is known as the Pittsburgh of Canada. Lawrence is the busiest inland waterway in North  Stockholm.  The Grand Canyon of Colorado river is the largest of its kind  Milan (Italy) is known as the Manchester of Italy. Ladoga. Chile Arctic Ocean.)  Worlds largest oil refinery located on Sarnia. Its boundaries are the Arctic Ocean in the Mt. NORTH AMERICA 7 Rivers--Volga.Gibson Desert. Dinaric Alps. Sea.sscadda.com | www. the highest peak in Hawai is active as a volcano.Tasmania  Smallest state of USA : Rhode Island 7 Plateaus-.  Australia is the smallest continent. Canada/ USA  Denmark is the smallest country of Scandinavia.Western Plateau  Largest state of USA : Alaska 8 Deserts-.  Lake Superior : World’s second largest lake after Caspian Highest point . belong to Denmark. 2 Straits-.  Finland is known as the Land of Forests & Lakes. in the world. Great Sandy Desert.Gavdos.East part of Europe.) 5 Lowest Point--Caspian Sea (-28.  Second highest mountain systems in the world next to the  In the South . Seine. Superior. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.Hamilton.  British Isles is separated from the mainland of Europe by the AUSTRALIA English Channel. Transylvanian Mountains.  The Pyrenees mountains separate France from Spain. Douro. Iceland. Elbrus is the Argentina Caucasus.Crete. Tagus. Pyrenes. Russia United States.  Highest active volcano in the world : Mt. Canada 3 Mountains-. Garrone.663 M. Oder.  Largest port in USA.Lake Eyre (-15. the capital of Nova Scotia is an important ice free 1 Area-. the Carpathian & the Caucasus. San Francisco. Lake Ladoga. there is an extensive Himalayas : Andes grassland called the Steppes.Elbrus (5.North America 1) Europe ranks sixth. Ecuador  Mt.in | www. Greece  Lake Michigan : Only Great lake that is entirely within the Largest Lake .7.com | www. Rhine. the White city of the North.careeradda.co. Sardinia.682 sq Kms port in Canada.

706.in | www./Bio. underlying the Warmest desert --.Kozhsikka Island Driest Place Atacama Desert. 25 km Sahara -.Africa entire continent.Navru Folkland islands..bankersadda. St. 17. Australia Etna --.4") Birthplace of Napolean -. Alps ---Europe  Australia was discovered by captain James Cook.Russia & China Largest forest area . Arafura sea Himalayam --.careeradda. Andes -. 8. Great Barrier Reef in the north east & Great Australian Bight in the South..India Most countries bordered: ./Chem.Iceland Hottest. annual Island of the Sailors -.Antartica  It is surrounded by Timor Sea in the northwest.Micronesia. Bahamas Important mountain ranges Burmuda islands situated in Atlantic Ocean.242 km² Great Sandy --Australia Largest land area.553 m/km² Thar -. Cook strait seperates the two islands.900 km² ISLANDS Island of the volcanoes -.. India.Africa FACTS Nameeb --Nameebia Largest total area .Asia & Gulf of Carpentaria in the north.Cuba temperature (-56.North America  Australia is the only country in the world that covers the Atlas --..Gobi  Antarctica is Earth’s southernmost continent...South America www.Samova average temperature (93. • Lighthouse of the Mediteranian .Philippense • Most of the volcanoes found near Pacific Ocean  Murray Darling basin are called Downs. imperceptible rainfall on a Biggest island --Greenland yearly basis.Africa Kalahari -. almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle..873 mm. 467.sscadda. Coldest.087. Kozhzikka. annual average Pearl of the Antilles -. Helena.Galappagose Hottest Place Dalol.America  Tropic of Capricon passes almost through the middle of the Ural ---Europe continent. 34°C) Island of the inspiration -.7°C) Friendly island ---. Australia Stromboli ---Italy Largest Lake : Lake Eyre Barren--.163 km² Thakkala Makkan --China Longest coastline . Smallest island nation -.Pacific  Sydney is the largest city & important sea port of Australia. 891. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Russia.075.North America ANTARCTICA Coldest desert --. Antarctica. in 1770.Tanzania  Tropical grasslands are called Savannas & the temperate Krakathove--. Rockies -.Tonga Wettest Place Mawsynram.careerpower. Chile.. Kosciusko. Canada.Wettest Island of the tortoise -.Asia Lowest point : Bentley Subglacial Trench.Africa  It is also known as the Island Continent.Attakkama  It is situated in the Antarctica region of the southern Great Indian desert --. Fozil desert--. 8.Italy Lowest point : Lake Eyre.Ezalko  Tasman sea separates Australia from New Zealand. Kilimancharo --.co..2°F.Stromboli New Zealand is divided into two islands: The Northern Island & the Southern Island. Canada..Kalahari Little Sahara --.. • Ring of fire . Important Deserts Highest point : Vinson Massif..Australia Death desert--. an English Karpathyan ---Europe Seaman.India (Andaman Nicobar)  The Murray & the Darling are the major rivers of Australia.098.)  It lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.897 m Roob Asavali -. VOLCANOES Important volcanoes Highest point Vezuvias --. -2. 243. Driest. Mount Eribus --.792 km Sahel --China Highest coastline to area ratio . Russia.Thakkala Makkan Painted desert --..200 km² Great Victoria -.Tazmania Coldest Place Plateau Station. 4.Indonesia grasslands found in the Pina thubo --. Driest desert--.Australia Largest water area.com | www.Thar hemisphere. & is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.South America Longest river : Onyx River. Canari islands. Ethiopia. annual average Spring island ----Jamaica rainfall (11. Kilimancharo --. Russia.com | www.Sahara South Pole.. 17. • Lighthouse of the Pacific .555 m Attakkama -.in 58 . DESERTS Wellington the Capital lies in the Northern Island. Assam.Italy Mt. Appalechian--. Denakil Depression.

it represents an increase in OH– • The solutions which do not change the colour of either ion concentration in the solution. Bases are usually metal hydroxides (MOH)./Bio.. or in the form of strips The pH of a neutral solution is 7. increases from 7 to 14. These strength of alkali. • Strong Acid: Examples of strong acids are: hydrochloric acid. Sodium Bicarbonate. Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are • However. BASE AND SALTS Sodium hydroxide: NaOH. Ammonium presence of these hydronium ions. • A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a • The most commonly used natural indicator is litmus. H2O. Sulphuric. 1.com | www. HCl. has an atomic number • The strength of a base depends on the concentration of 1. 1. • The acidic property of an acid is due to the presence of 1./Chem. Acid Calcium hydroxide: Ca(OH)2. The solution of a base in water is SOME COMMON ELEMENTS & COMPOUNDS called an alkali. As the pH value as red and blue litmus paper. Acids are usually respectively. compounds of non-metals with Hydrogen and sometimes Oxygen. • Acids are corrosive and can burn flesh and dissolve 4. • Important salts used in everyday life and industrial 2.careerpower. china rose petals (Gudhal). not all compounds that contain Hydrogen are commonly called caustic soda and caustic potash acids (Water. (Na2CO3).) SCIENCE CAPSULE-2016 CHEMISTRY ACID. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Examples include Sodium Hydroxide. and mass number 2 and Tritium has an atomic number the hydroxyl ions when it is dissolved in water. these acids will have a low concentration of hydronium ions. Hydrogen: hydrogen ions (H+) while that of a base or alkali. Bases and Alkalis applications are Sodium chloride (NaCl). and mass number 1. Ca(OH)2.in 59 . lower red and when added to a basic solution. It has a mauve (purple) colour in scale we can measure pH from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very distilled water. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. • Weak Acid: Examples are: acetic acid.sulphuric acid. is due to • The isotopes of hydrogen: Protium has an atomic number the presence of hydroxyl (OH–) ions in them. amorphous.co. are 3. some acids do not dissociate to any appreciable extent in water such as carbonic acid. • Acids are generally sour in taste. On the pH extracted from lichens . Sodium • A Base is a substance that gives OH-ions when dissolved carbonate. Strong Base: 2. hydroxide: NH4OH. Calcium Hydroxide. that is. pH some of the naturally occurring indicators. it turns blue. • However. it is available pH scale represent an acidic solution.sscadda. Higher the hydronium ion concentration. carbonic acid etc. Values less than 7 on the of paper. • An acid is a compound. • Acids are compounds that contain Hydrogen • Bases are bitter to taste. increase in the red or blue litmus are known as neutral solutions. nitric acid etc. and graphite. Carbon: Examples: The three states of carbon are diamond. CH4). known as litmus paper.in | www. Potassium hydroxide: KOH. substances are neither acidic nor basic. it turns alkaline). called pH scale has been developed.careeradda. 1. litmus. and mass number 3. Special type of substances are used to test whether a substance is acidic or basic.com | www. Deuterium. Therefore. When added to an acidic solution. touch. Generally. It is is the pH value. They are soapy and slippery to (Hydrochloric. • The strength of an acid depends on the concentration of the hydronium ions present in a solution. available in the form of a solution. Methane. (NaHCO3). These substances are known as indicators. Nitric. Weak Base: • The characteristic property of an acid is due to the Examples: Magnesium hydroxide: Mg(OH)2. which on dissolving in water yields hydronium ions (H3O+) as the only positive ions. in water. It is solution. HNO3). Salts metal. NaOH. www. formic acid. H2SO4.bankersadda. etc. Turmeric.

tasteless and odourless liquid. are the two types of hardness occurring in hard water: 3. Heavy water (D2O) is colourless./Chem. contains sulphates and chlorides of calcium and 4. Ordinary iron gets rusted and aluminium gets the sodium carbonate to avoid its bitter taste. 1. On heating during baking. NaHCO3. Oxygen is • Nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent.com | www. very soft and slippery. Destructive distillation of coal gives paints. thermal decomposition. www. baking • Metals such as gold. • Water is called the “Universal Solvent”.careeradda. or magnesium bicarbonates (or hydrogen carbonates). The tartaric acid present in it neutralises with water. When it undergoes noncombustible but a good supporter of combustion. Temporary hardness and permanent hardness pastries are made flufly and soft by using baking powder. It turns litmus paper from blue to red. The sodium carbonate Water (H2O): produced on heating the baking soda gives a bitter taste. reacts with hydrogen. For removing permanent hardness of water.co.  Washing soda is manufacturing by Solvey’s process. magensium. baking soda gives off carbon dioxide. It is used in the manufacture of caustic soda. Chlorine being an acidic gas carbonate and tartaric acid). coal tar and ammonical aqua-regia for dissolving metals like gold and platinum.  Baking soda is manufactured by Solvey’s process Chlorine is a non-combustible gas but supports the burning of USES certain metals and nonmetals. turns moist blue litmus paper to red and then bleaches it. Cakes and tarnished./Bio. are called halogens which means  Chemically baking soda is sodium hydrogen ‘salt producers’. etc. This type of hardness can be easily removed acids such as citric or tartaric acid. corresponding values of ordinary water. Na2CO3.careerpower. It reacts with bases to form their respective chlorides and • Apart from diamond and graphite. soap It has all higher values for physical constants than the powders. Hydrochloric acid is used in the production of dyes.com | www. 3. It turns methyl orange from yellow to pink. Hydrochloric Acid (HCL): • Carbon occurs both in free state as diamond. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. baking Water is said to be temporarily hard when it contains soda is used in medicines to neutralise the excessive acid bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium (or hydrogen in the stomach and provide relief.sscadda. In soda acid fire extinguishers. It reacts with metals to form their respective chlorides and • Graphite is also an allotropic form of carbon. • Lamp Black is also known as Soot. the purest form of natural carbon. natural substance. allotropes of carbon. • Water becomes permanently hard when it passes over WASHING SODA the rocks. • Heavy water is used for this purpose in nuclear reactors as moderators. Chlorine is highly reactive. Commercial nitric acid supporter of combustion. Fission in 2. • There are electrons in an oxygen atom. it yields nascent oxygen. chloride gas in water. liquor. Chlorine: BAKING SODA Members of group VII A. it is used in by boiling. borex and in paper industry. other non-metals and metals to form 2. Nitric Acid (HNO3): It is manufactured by the Ostwald’s Process by the reaction of Nitrogen: ammonia and air in presence of platinum as catalyst. • Nitric acid is a strong monobasic acid. As a cleansing agent for domestic purpose.bankersadda.) • Carbon exhibits allotropy and shows maximum catenation. Used for cooking of certain foods. Chlorine is prepared by the oxidation of carbonate. copper. It is this carbon dioxide which raises the dough. It is the hardest 2. which are crystalline water. For making baking power (a mixture of sodium hydrogen the corresponding chlorides. • Diamond is one of the allotropic forms of carbon and is 1. Mixed with solid edible carbonates).10H2O.in | www. coal etc. It 1. gas carbon. concentrated hydrochloric acid using oxidising agents. drugs. tin. silver. is yellowish due to the presence of dissolved nitrogen dioxide. It ionizes in water Oxygen: readily. photographic chemicals and in the preparation of products like coal gas. Water is said to be permanently hard when it effervescent drinks to cure indigestion. This hardness cannot be removed by boiling. and • Hydrochloric acid is prepared by dissolving hydrogen also in the combined form as CO2. In medicines Being a mild and non-corrosive base. uranium-235 is brought by slow speed neutron. which contain sulphates or chlorides of calcium  Chemically.in 60 . do not react powder is used. washing soda is sodium carbonate and magnesium to form insoluble calcium bicarbonates decahydrate. • Nitrogen is a neutral gas and is neither combustible nor a • Nitric acid is colourless in pure form. 3. glass. 4. which is liberates hydrogen. all other forms of carbon are amorphous 6. forms of carbon. instead of using the baking soda alone. Therefore. • Heavy water is prepared either by prolonged electrolysis USES or by fractional distillation of ordinary water.

the humidity and the wind speed. the temperature. paint or grease. • The process of melting.in | www. also called POP. Lemonade. it is 2CaSO4. soda constituent particles and kinetic energy of the particles water etc. attraction present in the liquid and change into the • Colloids are heterogeneous mixtures in which the particle vapour state. dispersion medium. the so-called inert gases have no combining capacity • Matter can exist in three states. it acquires a  Plaster of paris. If you leave Alloys www. • The valancies range between 0 and eight. I. hydrogen atoms with which it can be combined. Valency 4. II.) PLASTER OF PARIS a piece of iron in the open for some time.careeradda. exothermic compounds. • A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more molecular force) are maximum in solids. Another way is to deposit a layer of a 6. the presence of both oxygen and USES water (or water vapour) is essential. The compounds  It is manufactured by Hasen-Clever Method. The solute particles matter can be changed by changing temperature or do not settle down when left undisturbed. but is big surface area exposed to the atmosphere. that is. The  Bleaching is a process of removing colour from a cloth to reactions in which heat is absorbed are known as make it whiter. In textile industry for bleaching of cotton and linen. evolve heat are called exothermic. We can also have are minimum in the case of solids. The major component of a solution is called liquids and minimum in gases. fractured bones in place while they set. Evaporation causes • The particles are called the dispersed phase and the cooling. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. For making decorative designs on ceilings.in 61 . Liquid III. or both. Helium.careerpower. are all examples of solutions. the solute. • The solute particles cannot be separated from the • The states of matter are inter-convertible. and the minor. argon. A suspension is a heterogeneous surface gain enough energy to overcome the forces of mixture. solution is stable.CaOCl2. Hydrogen is chosen as the standard of reference because Used as an oxidizing agent in chemical industry. medium in which they are distributed is called the • Burning of coal. In making wool unshrinkable. change. Solid Valancy is always a whole number.1/2H2O (calcium and the process is called rusting. it is calcium oxychloride. The spaces in between the the solvent. wood or leaves is a chemical change. MATTER AND ITS NATURE etc. film of brownish substance. from the air)water (H2O) rust (iron oxide- Fe2O3) For rusting.com | www. 3. that is. • Changes attended with absorption of heat are called BLEACHING POWDER endothermic changes. Gas. intermediate in substances.com | www.sscadda. nickel and manganese. atom of the element and is measured by the number of 5. metal like chromium or zinc on iron. pillars. formed from their elements with absorption of heat are called endothermic compounds. and maximum in gases. present per unit volume or per unit mass of the • Evaporation is a surface phenomenon. Solution • The forces of attraction between the particles(inter. The state of mixture by the process of filtration. 5. and hence they are regarded as zero valent element. This process of 7. This substance is called rust  Chemically. For making the surface of walls and ceiling smooth../Bio. while those which occur with evolution of heat are called exothermic changes. It is a chemical 4. enough to scatter light.H2O or CaSO4. rust. 2. • Stainless steel is made by mixing iron with carbon and 8. For the manufacture of chloroform. a pressure. while chemical reactions which  Chemically. In paper industry for bleaching of wood pulp. intermediate in liquids solid solutions (alloys) and gaseous solutions (air). endothermic reactions. One simple way is to apply a coat of making casts in dentistry.co. Explosion of a firework is a chemical change./Chem. In making casts for manufacture of toys and statues. It does not 9. Particles from the solution/solvent. Used as disinfactant and germicide for sterilization of • The valency of an element is the combining capacity of an water. change of solid state into • The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute liquid state is also known as fusion. For making ‘chalk’ for writing on blackboard. The process of rusting sulphate hemi hydrate) can be represented by the following equation: Iron (Fe) +  Gypsum.bankersadda. It is also used for or water. the combining capacity of hydrogen is least. walls and depositing a layer of zinc on iron is called galvanisation. metals like chromium. The rate of evaporation depends upon the size is too small to be seen with the naked eye. In hospitals for making plaster casts to hold • Prevent iron articles from coming in contact with oxygen. whilst those formed USES from their elements with evolution of heat are called 1. (CaSO4.H2O) is used as the raw material Oxygen (O2. For making fire proof materials.

metals.is called diffusion. frequently strike the inner walls of • Metals combine with oxygen to form basic oxides. substance mixes with another because of molecular • Metals can form positive ions by losing electrons to non./Bio. Mendeleev’s table could not assign a proper be separated into their components by physical methods. being in negative electrode(cathode). to protect them measure of temperature of an object is Thermometer. Different independent of the number of particles or size and shape metals show different reactivities towards oxygen. musical scale resembles the first note. In the Kelvin scale. At absolute zero all atomic and molecular where Mendeléev had to place an element with a slightly motions stop. SCALE used • The extraction of metals from their ores and then refining • Celsius scale them for use is known as metallurgy. Hence. position to hydrogen or to the lanthanides and actinides and isotopes.15 lower atomic mass. • All gases expand equally due to equally due to equal • Metals have high melting points. Temperature is • These oxides are known as amphoteric oxides. • They have silvery-grey or goldenyellow colour.e. even against gravity. in groups of three./Chem. • They have a lustre (shine). 0K or -273˚C is the lowest possible eighth element resembles the first in physical and temperature that can be reached. The sequence was inverted so that ˚C. • The other outstanding characteristic of gases is their low Exception: Metals like antimony and bismuth are brittle.careeradda. and to prevent accidental fires. there were a few instances no heat energy.in | www. Isotopes of all elements posed a challenge to Mendeleev’s Periodic Law. just like the eighth node on a gas has a theoretical volume of zero.bankersadda. Hence the absolute zero is the lowest greater atomic mass before an element with a slightly possible temperature which is denoted by 0K or -273.Gold is the • Gas has no definite volume or shape. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Silver is the best while PROPERTIES OF GASES copper stands second. their container Aluminium oxide and zinc oxide show the properties of • Temperature and Temperature Scales: Temperature is both basic as well as acidic oxides. continuous motion. At the point called ‘groups’and horizontal rows called ‘periods’. defined as the measure of average heat. Metals usually show some or all of the on the extreme right of the table and on the table’s following properties: extreme left. whatever volume is available to it. The PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS Celsius scale is also called as centigrade scale because the range of temperature is divided into 100 equal divisions. motion. elements in increasing order of their atomic mass. elements with similar properties could be grouped www. Mendeléev arranged define the measure of temperature is Kelvin scale. Metals and Non-Metals • The vertical columns are called groups.co. • Exception: Gallium and Caesium have very low melting • Diffusion of gases: The phenomenon in which a points. temperature difference. though a • Atomic size: The term atomic size refers to the radius of metal is liquid. While absolute zero there is no molecular motion and there is developing the Periodic Table.15˚C • Dobereiner’s Triads arranged elements in an increasing • Absolute zero: The temperature at which a given mass order of atomic mass.Exception: Mercury.sscadda. The lowest fixed point is -273. the Absolute zero i. while the Elements can be normally divided into metals. In electrolysis metals get deposited at the • The pressure of a gas: The molecules of a gas. • Döbereiner grouped the elements into triads and • Kelvin scale: Another type of scale which is used to Newlands gave the Law of Octaves.careerpower. temperature. is corroded • Fahrenheit scale when they are exposed to moist air for a long period of • Celsius scale: In this scale the lowest fixed point is the time. The interval is divided into 100 divisions all are at equal distance. such as iron.com | www. 1. densities. • They are sonorous (make a ringing sound when hit). freezing temperature of pure substance. are the alkali metals. At this temperature the chemical properties. • They are malleable (can be hammered into thin sheets). This • Mendeléev’s Periodic Table contains vertical columns temperature is called as absolute zero.com | www.. they are kept immersed in kerosene oil. The the elements in increasing order of their atomic masses Kelvin scale is also known as absolute scale of and according to their chemical properties. Properties of Gases • They are ductile (can be drawn into wires).) • Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of metals and cannot together. This phenomenon is known as corrosion. non-metals horizontal rows are called periods. an atom. the lowest possible temperature is taken as zero.in 62 . • Kelvin scale • The surface of some metals. The noble gases are and metalloids. compared with those of liquids and solids. • They conduct heat and electricity. such as potassium and sodium react so vigorously that • Thermometer: The device which is used to define the they catch fire if kept in the open. Metals of the object. of gas does not occupy any volume or does not exert • Newland’s law of octaves states that on arranging pressure is called the “absolute zero”. a gas will fill most ductile metal.

Compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen only are called Hydrocarbons. know equal volume of all gases contain equal number of Examples of alkynes are: molecules at normal temperature and pressure. meaning that all other • Hexyne: C6H10 physical properties of the gas are also defined. These have a general formula: CnH2n. Apart from being flammable.com | www. www. under definite conditions of temperature stable and resistant to attack by other chemicals. the pressure are table compounds found underground. alkanes • Pressure Law: Volume remaining constant. gas and its volume. then the other possible. irrespective of their chemical composition..in 63 . Organic chemistry is defined as the study of hydrocarbons • Compressibility: Particles of a gas have large and their derivatives. The simplest alkenes quantity of gas. However one or two can form larger pressure much of this space can be reduced and the molecules. These highly simple ration among one another. • Gay-Lussac’s Law: When different gases react with each • Hexene: C6H12. Most atoms are only capable of forming intermolecular spaces among them. alkenes and alkynes all contain equation of state. obey 1. T • Butyne: C4H6 and n (the number of moles) have known values.a saturated hydrocarbon with the atoms and has 0 volume at 0 K i. The relation between these state variables is known as an 4.e. the volume of the reacting gases and product gases bear a These have the following formula: CnH2n-2. • Boyle’s Law: “The product of the volume and pressure of • Ethane: C2H6.” a single molecule.in | www. reactive substances have many industrial uses. we highly reactive making these compounds unstable. proportional relation between the number of moles of a • Butene: C4H8.com | www. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.sscadda. for each degree centigrade rise Polythene is a very large alkane with millions of atoms in or lowering in temperature. the gas does not exist./Bio. all four of the Carbon valency certain laws that govern the relationship between the bonds are taken up with links to different atoms. then a • Pentyne: C5H gas is said to be in a definite state. A given types of bonds are called single bonds and are generally mass of a gas. • Pentene: C5H10. alkenes. Butane – (lighter / temperature”. Alkanes and pressure. temperature and pressure of the gases. given mass of gas increases or decreases by 1/273 of its • Hexane: C6H14. measured at the are listed in the table below: same temperature and pressure. By the application of small molecules. Each successive member of the series has one more Carbon atom than the preceeding member.careeradda. a given mass of dry gas is constant. hydrocarbons. arranged in a hexagonal ring: C6H12 • Benzene – (C6H6) an industrial solvent.bankersadda. particles be brought closer. Alkenes: Another series of compounds is called the degree Celsius rise or fall of temperature.co. Gas Laws • All gases. • Methane: CH4 This is the simplest member of a series of pressure and temperature of a gas. original volume at 32˚F. other chemically to produce gaseous substances. Hence the volume of a gas can be greatly reduced. V. • Charles’ Law: “At constant pressure. of a given mass of gas increases or decreases by a constant fraction (=1/273) of its pressure at 0˚C for each 2. contain equal numbers • Ethene (used as an industrial starter chemical): C2H4. Avogadro’s law thus predicts a directly • Propene: C3H6. campingfuel): C4H10. Equal volumes of gases. occupies a definite volume. the volume of a • Pentane: C5H12. Alkynes have two carbon atoms joined by a tripple bond. of molecules.) • Fahrenheit Scale of Temperature: The lower and upper ORGANIC CHEMISTRY fixed points in this scale are considered as 32˚F and 212˚F respectively. • Ethyne . Alkynes: A third series are the alkynes. Some examples follow: • An ideal gas is an imaginary gas that follows the gas laws • Cyclohexane . Carbon atoms in linear chains. • Propyne: C3H4 • The ideal gas equation of state: If the variables P. Alkanes: In the alkanes. at constant • Propane–(heating fuel): C3H8. Thus these Gas laws establish Hydrocarbon is: relationships between the three variables of volume. The double • Avogadro’s Law: This is quite intuitive: the volume of a bonds are more reactive than single bonds making the gas confined by a fixed pressure varies directly with the alkenes chemically more reactive. These volume.06X1023. They are said to be saturated. The simplest variables get altered./Chem. then under the same condition of temperature and pressure. Carbon Rings: Alkanes.careerpower. contain the maximum number of Hydrogen atoms When any of the three variables is altered. This is • Avogadro Number: From Avogadro’s hypothesis. This is called compressing the • Hydrocarbons: gas.better known as acetylene which is used for The number is known as Avogadro Number and is equal welding underwater: C2H2 to6. 3.

 Electric Current: Ampere • Isomerism is the phenomenon whereby certain  Wave length of light: Angstrom compounds. Example: Formic Acid(in ant bites and stinging nettles)- HCO2H.CH3CHO. Cyanides (Cyanides have the CN group).in | www.) • Toluene . Sucrose (C12H22O11).  Work or Energy: Joule www. Acetaldehyde. (a liquid used as an anesthetic) (C2H5)2O 3.46 × 1015m. Ethanol (drinking alcohol) units is at present internationally accepted unit system and is C2H5OH. These have a general formula: CnH2n+1CHO. It is equal to some nine quadrillion meters (six hydrocarbon chains) (CnH2n+1)2O. two fused Benzene Rings: C10H8 These have a general formula: CnH2nNH2COOH. These have a general formula: CnH2n + 1CO2H. 6.  Force: Dyne Examples: Methyl Cyanide. Examples: Methyl ethanoate (essence of pear drops) - CH3CO2CH3.C2H5CO2H. Examples: Dimethyl Ether(a gas) (CH3)2O. Phenol (carbolic acid – used as disinfectant) widely used throughout the world. • The most famous compounds containing Carbon. 1.com | www. molecule. Kelvin. These have a  Quantity of heat: Calorie general formula: CnH2n+1CN./Bio.  Atmospheric Pressure: Bar 2.  Electric current: ampere CH3COCH3  Thermo dynamic: kelvin 4.  Intensity of Sound: Bel Examples: Methylamine (a pungent.an important solvent and starter chemical: C7H8 3.in 64 .CH3CO2H. Diethyl Ether 1 light year = 9.careerpower.sscadda.  Magnetic Flux: Maxwell • Adding Nitrogen: Important organic compounds contain  Electric Charge: Coulomb Nitrogen are :  Electric Resistance: Ohm 1. They are usually very sweet smelling liquids used in perfumes). with the same molecular formula.Example:  Mass: kilogram Dimethyl  Time: second Ketone (Also known as acetone: nail varnish remover). Fatty Acids (Fatty Acids contain the CO2H (or COOH) group attached to a hydrocarbon chain or ring). Butyric Acid (the rancid butter smell). Alcohols: Alcohols have the OH (hydroxyl) group in the This is an artificially made explosive. A light year is the distance light would travel in a vacuum 2. Example: Formaldehyde (preservative in labs) HCHO. Esters (Esters are similar to Fatty Acids except that the H in the COOH group is another hydrocarbon chain. Examples: Glycine (the simplest amino acid)- Carbon.careeradda. Amino Acids (Amino Acids have two functional groups: • Naphthalene ./Chem.bankersadda. trillion miles). exist in  Electric charge: Faraday different forms owing to their different organisations of  Magnetic induction: Gauss atoms. Acetic Acid(vinegar).used in moth balls.  Temperature: Celcius.co. An example Important Units of Measurement: is the common sugar. Hydrogen and Oxygen: CH2NH2COOH. water soluble gas). Toluene (C6H2CH3 (NO)3) – usually abbreviated to TNT). Here are some examples where each molecule has a single 4. A group of atoms that gives an organic series PHYSICS its distinctive character is called a functional group. Hydrogen and Oxygen are the Carbohydrates. Ketones (Ketones have a CO group attached to two SI Base Quantities and Units: hydrocarbon chains). These have a general formula: CnH2n+1NH2.CH3CN. UNITS AND MEASUREMENT Examples: Methanol (wood alcohol) The International System of Units (SI) based on seven base CH3OH. Ethers (Ethers have an O atom attached to two after one year.  Length: metre These have a general formula: (CnH2n+1)2CO. These have a general formula: CnH2n+1OH.com | www. 5. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. This can be depicted as the amine (HN2) group and the fatty acid (COOH) group.Farenheit CH3NH2. Aldehydes (Aldehydes have a CHO group attached to a  Luminous: candela cd hydrocarbon chain). C6H5OH. Amines (Amines have one or more of the Hydrogen  Electric Tension: Volt atoms in Ammonia (NH3) replaced by a Hydrocarbon  Power: Watt chain or ring). These have a general formula: RCO 2R’ (R and R’ are Hydrocarbon chain or rings). A famous compound containing Nitrogen is Trinitro functional group.

we will hear the same SOUND sound again a little later. In sound propagation.careerpower. í =(1/T). bats and porpoises. This sound which we hear is Sound is a form of energy and like all other energies. louder is the sound./Bio. the disturbance. Those craft. The ultrasonic waves which are • The amplitude of the sound wave depends upon the force converted into electrical signals which are used to with which an object is made to vibrate. and °C is a commonly used unit of temperature. the human body. sound in water and the time interval between • Larger the amplitude of vibration. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. direction and speed of underwater • The number of complete oscillations per unit time is objects. from solid to gaseous state.co. All harmonics are overtone but all overtones are not HEAT harmonics. The above method is called echoranging. the medium. • A sound of single frequency is called a tone whereas a • Again if the speed of any substance.com | www.1 second. increase the temperature the speed of sound increases. It can travel brain for about 0.careeradda. the minimum distance of the In longitudinal wave the individual particles of the medium obstacle from the source of sound must be half of this move in a direction parallel to the direction of propagation of distance. Light is a transverse wave but for light.in | www. The sensation of sound persists in our not visible to us. 2d = v × t. such as In a transverse wave particles do not oscillate along the line of dogs can hear up to 25 kHz (1 kHz = 1000 Hz). are known as harmonics. λ. • Children under the age of five and some animals. one complete oscillation. then the which have their frequencies simple multiple of speed of the substance is called supersonic speed. The distance of the object that reflected the called the frequency (í). distance.)  Work: Newton • The velocity of sound through a gas is inversely  Pressure: Pascal proportional to the square root of the density of the gas. There is also another type of wave. a direction perpendicular to the direction of wave Earthquakes produce low-frequency infrasound before propagation. from about 20 Hz to 20000 Hz (one Hz = one cycle/s). The SI unit of heat energy transferred medium depends also on temperature and pressure of is expressed in joule (J) while SI unit of temperature is kelvin the medium. wave propagation but oscillate up and down about their mean • Sounds of frequencies below 20 Hz are called infrasonic position as the wave travels. generate images of the organ.bankersadda.sscadda. transmission and reception of the ultrasound. the main shock waves begin which possibly alert the animals. a mechanical wave. If total Higher the frequency of vibration. through solid. The Celsius temperature (tC) and the Farenheit temperare (tF) are related by: tF =(9/5) tC + 32 www. In any medium as we Thermometer is a device used for measuring temperatures. any sound. In stethoscopes the sound of the patient’s heartbeat reaches the doctor’s ears by multiple Sound travels as successive compressions and rarefactions in reflection of sound.  Luminious: Flux Lumen • If we shout or clap near a suitable reflecting object such as a tall building or a mountain./Chem. sound is called an echo. be more than the speed of sound in air. measure the distance. the oscillations are not • Frequencies higher than 20 kHz are called ultrasonic of the medium particles or their pressure or density – it is not sound or ultrasound. This • Amplitude and frequency are two important properties of technique is called ‘echocardiography’. called a transverse wave. Thus a transverse wave move in sound or infrasound. Sonar is a device that uses ultrasonic waves to two consecutive rarefaction is calledthe wavelength. and shriller is the sound.in 65 . the higher is the pitch. It cannot travel through vacuum. For hearing distinct echoes. This minimum value and again to the maximum value makes technique is called ‘ultrasonography’. Hence sound waves are longitudinal waves. specially of an air- sound of multiple frequencies is called a note. This • Ultrasonic waves are made to reflect from various parts motion is also called oscillatory motion. it is the energy of the • The audible range of sound for human beings extends sound that travels and not the particles of the medium. of the heart and form the image of the heart. • To and fro motion of an object is known as vibration. 2d travelled by the ultrasound is then. The speed of sound in a temperature difference. • The acronym SONAR stands for Sound Navigation And • The distance between two consecutive compressions or Ranging. • Ultrasound scanner is an instrument which uses • The loudness or softness of a sound is determined ultrasonic waves for getting images of internal organs of basically by its amplitude. Ultrasound is produced by dolphins. fundamental frequency.com | www. These images are then • The change in density from one maximum value to the displayed on a monitor or printed on a film. called reverberation. The particles do not move from one place to • The phenomenon of prolongation of sound due to another but they simply oscillate back and forth about their successive reflections of sound from surronding objects is position of rest. liquid or gas(Medium). The speed of sound decreases when we go (K). Heat is the form of energy transferred between two (or more) The speed of sound depends on the properties of the systems or a system and its surroundings by virtue of medium through which it travels. The frequency is sound wave can be calculated by knowing the speed of expressed in hertz (Hz).

Incident ray. media. see a larger image of the face. lie in the same specific heat capacity of the substance. • Calorimetry means measurement of heat. • Newton’s Law of Cooling says that the rate of cooling of a In solids. ray. is called a convex mirror.com | www. The dentists use concave www. screen is called a virtual image. faces towards the centre of the sphere. and to 42°C. the heat is transferred by the process body is proportional to the excess temperature of the of conduction. For other purposes. are called opaque gases the heat is transferred by convection. fusion and that for a liquid-gas state change is called the • The process by which heat is transferred from the hotter latent heat of vaporisation. The by the actual movement of liquid and gases. the boiling point of water as compared to that at sea level./Bio. of it. It lies on the surface of the called vaporisation.careeradda. so also iodine.in | www./Chem. reducing convex mirror. from liquid to solid is called fusion. aluminum. The expansion Two laws of reflection are: in volume is called volume expansion. The expansion in area is called area expansion. For examples. The normal temperature of mass transferred during change of state of the substance the human body is 37°C. 1. Unit is (J/K).I. The ray that comes back from the surface after reflection • Dark-coloured objects absorb radiation better than the is known as the reflected ray. which strikes any surface. light-coloured objects. • The centre of the reflecting surface of a spherical mirror • The change of state from liquid to vapour (or gas) is is a point called the pole.com | www.careerpower. Hence beams of light. The S. reflecting surface is curved inwards. Again the media through which light can pass partly. we use the laboratory the substance is said to sublime. The range of this thermometer is from 35°C passing through the liquid state is called sublimation. • The angle between the normal and incident ray is called • The increase in the dimensions of a body due to the the angle of incidence . search- On the other hand.There are three ways in melting point. A device in • The reflecting surface of a spherical mirror may be which heat measurement can be made is called a curved inwards or outwards. CHANGE OF STATE • A spherical mirror whose reflecting surface is curved The change of state from solid to liquid is called melting and outwards. • The materials which allow heat to pass through them easily are conductors of heat. It can take place whether a medium is present The light ray.I. A spherical mirror. • The transfer of heat by radiation does not require any are called translucent media. is called latent heat of the substance for the process. The range of these thermometers is sublimes. such that it changes into liquid state which heat can flow from one object to another.) • Clinical thermometer is used to measure our body The change from solid state to vapour state without temperature. The homogeneous media through • In convention heat is carried from one place to another which light can pass easily. LIGHT iron and copper. convection and radiation. plane. The amount of heat per unit usually from – 10°C to 110°C. atmospheric pressure is lower. that is. whose calorimeter. An image which cannot be obtained on a (J/kg)K. Unit of specific heat capacity is( J/kg)K. same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front It’s S. If this medium is such that light travels with equal such as plastic and wood. is called a concave mirror.bankersadda. The expansion in length is called linear expansion. generally. • The temperature at which the liquid and the vapour Note: The centre of curvature of a concave mirror lies in states of the substance coexist is called its boiling point. medium. The angle between the normal increase in its temperature is called thermal expansion. homogeneous medium. then the medium is called a insulators. it lies behind the mirror in case of a At high altitudes. • Concave mirrors are commonly used in torches.in 66 . • The amount of heat energy required to raise the • The image formed by a plane mirror is erect. They are often used as shaving mirrors to cooking is faster. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. In liquids and media through which light cannot pass. It is virtual temperature of a given mass of substance through 1° is and is of the same size as the object. is called the incident or not. • The amount of heat energy required to raise the 2. • The heat flows from a body at a higher temperature to a • The amount of heat energy supplied to a solid at its body at a lower temperature. and the reflected ray is known as the angle of reflection. These without any rise in temperature is called latent heat of are conduction. body over the surroundings.co. The materials which do not allow heat to Any medium through which light can travel is an optical pass through them easily are poor conductors of heat medium. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. The image is at the called heat capacity or thermal capacity of the substance. mirror. end to the colder end of an object is known as conduction. are called transperant media.sscadda. boiling point is increased inside a lights and vehicles headlights to get powerful parallel pressure cooker by increasing the pressure. Poor conductors are known as speed in all directions. front of it. However. Water has • An image which can be obtained on a screen is called a the highest specific heat capacity which is equal to 4200 real image. Dry ice (solid CO2) thermometers. reflected ray and the normal drawn at the temperature of 1g of a substance through 1° is called point of incidence to the reflecting surface.

in the case of a concave lens). Convex mirrors are RADIATION. orange and red. telescopes and i. removed easily from an atom. When two objects are rubbed glass (1. convex mirrors Magnetite.careerpower. generally falling on it. it attracts small piece of iron towards it. These mirrors are fitted on the sides word but an acronym. conductors. • Convex mirrors are commonly used as rear-view (wing) • A laser is just a really powerful beam of light. and induction. and neutrons. glass. enabling the driver to see traffic behind AMPLIFICATION by STIMULATED EMISSION of him/her to facilitate safe driving. • Substances can be classified into three types — • Dispersion of Light: It is the phenomenon of splitting of a insulators. This process is called charging by approaching the less dense medium.com | www. blue. electrons will spread on both objects and make both Total internal reflection will not take place unless the objects negatively charged./Chem. Laser isn’t a mirrors in vehicles. distance between inducing magnet and the magnetic • The focal length of a lens is the distance between the substance.careeradda. Total internal reflection only takes place when another object.com | www. the strength of a magnet is maximum at poles located near • A convex lens can forms real and inverted image./Bio. Large The sequence of colours can be best remembered by the concave mirrors are used to concentrate sunlight to word VIBGYOR’ which is formed by taking the initial produce heat in solar furnaces. involves the reflection of all the incident light off the • When you bring a negatively charged object close to boundary. Magnetic • The power of a lens is a measure of the degree of lines of force travel from north to south-pole outside the convergence( in the case of a convex lens) or divergence ( magnet and from south to north-pole inside the magnet. indigo. critical angle. (ii) the angle of incidence is greater than the so-called • When a negatively charged object touches a neutral body. When the pole ends the object is placed very close to the lens. microscopes. It stands for LIGHT of the vehicle. it bends away from If a charge on a body is not allowed to flow. due to the presence of some objects magnified.I. Therefore. It is defined as the o They mutually repel each other reciprocal of its focal length expressed in meters.33). It is called enable the driver to view much larger area than would be lodstone. together. The S. outward) the light and is called a diverging lens.. 1 dioptre is the power of a lens whose focal length pointing approximately from the geographic south to the is 1 metre. the image • The phenomenon due to which an unmagnetized magnetic formed is virtual. When used to see substance behaves like a magnet. silver. and lead are one end of the band. • When a ray of light strikes the surface of seperation of An atom is basically composed of three different components two media normally. Thus. possible with a plane mirror. This process is called incident light is traveling within the more optically dense charging by conduction. Magnetic induction is inversely propotional to the image than the object. virtual and smaller substance. • Magnetic induction depends upon the nature of magnetic • A concave lens always forms erect.419). SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. an iron ore. • The earth behaves as a magnet with the magnetic field Thus. Also. it is called a converging iii. like poles repel. and semiconductors beam of white light into its constituent colors on passing • Conductors are materials which electrical charges and through prism. a concave lens diverges (bends iv.sscadda. that end will (i) the light is in the more dense medium and have a negative charge. The order of colors from the lower end heat energy can be transmitted very easily. green.523). At metals such as gold.) mirrors to see large images of the teeth of patients. it is called the the normal at the surface of seperation of two media. medium towards the less optically dense medium. is a natural magnet. yellow. Magnetic poles always exist in pairs. it does not deviate from its original — electrons. letter of each colour. copper. static electricity. electrons in the second object will be both of the following two conditions are met: repelled from the first object. is called magnetic induction. preferred because they always give an erect. north. Some indexes of refraction are diamond (2. and water (1. www. the convex lens is called a magnifying other magnet. though diminished. the symbol being D. iron. good conductors.in 67 . 1D = 1m–1. ii. strong will be the magnetism in magnetic substance. More powerful the inducing magnet. unlike poles attracts each other lens. On the other hand.bankersadda. • The properties of a magnet are: • Lenses are widely used in spectacles. it always comes to rest in north-south direction when • A convex lens converges (bends inward) the light suspended freely.co. concave lens is negative. v. o They never intersect with each other Unit of power of a lens is dioptre. Therefore. protons. image. An electron can be path. they have a wider field of view MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY as they are curved outwards. there is red and at the other violet. • When a ray of light travels from an optically denser Electricity medium to an optically rare medium. some electrons from one object move to another • Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which object. Note: Power of a convex lens is positive and that of a The angle between the two directions called declination. erect and magnified. Almost all are violet. the more optical centre and the focus of the lens.in | www.

gold. • The flow of charge is called the current and it is the rate • A point of maximum positive displacement in a wave.sscadda. silver. electrical charges and heat energy to flow. charged objects. • Note: Magnetic flux is a value that is the strength of the magnetic field multiplied by the surface area of the • Energy exists in nature in several forms such as kinetic device. The the reason why a nail has a pointed tip. position or shape is called the potential energy.in 68 . • The number of vibrations per second is called frequency • The obstruction offered to flow of current by the and is measured in hertz (Hz)./Bio. materials. As distance increases. displacement is called trough. Electromagnetic waves do not require a medium to travel conductor through a metalic wire. These waves are divided into three different dry types. • The shortest distance between peaks. POWER AND ENERGY which means that current can flow easily through these The unit of work is joule: 1 joule. The sum of the kinetic and potential energies of an physics. • The unit of resistance is ohm. effect increases with the increase in the strength of • The energy possessed by a body due to its change in current. electrical charges to flow better than insulators. Examples are silicon and germanium. electomagnetism. but less than conductors. energy.com | www. • Power is defined as the rate of doing work. materials easily.com | www. and after the transformation always remains constant. is at which electric charges pass through a conductor. is called an electric circuit. • A closed loop of current. Pressure = force/ area. ropes). The potential difference between two  Surface waves are both transverse waves and conductors is equal to the work done in conducting a unit longitudinal waves mixed in one medium. Work done on an object by a force would be zero if the which means that current can not pass through these displacement of the object is zero. Electromagnetism: The branch of physics which deals with the relationship between electricity and magnetism is called Energy has the same unit as that of work. In alternating current. For example. The • Measuring Waves: unit for current is Ampere [A]. Glass. WORK.bankersadda. air and wood are examples of insulators.careerpower. the forces and • Pressure: Pressure is defined as force acting per unit electric fields decrease. of the liquid in which they are immersed. from one point to another. An object of mass. float on the surface of the liquid.  Transverse waves cause the medium to move ii. plastics. chemical energy • Coulomb’s Law is one of the basic ideas of electricity in etc. The amount of current can change. and copper have low resistance. If the density of the object is more WAVES than the density of the liquid in which it is immersed then There are three types of waves: it sinks in the liquid.co. potential energy. Plastics. This is that is a stream of charges that reverses direction./Chem. Mechanical waves require a material medium to travel (air. and a point of maximum negative charge flows from high potential energy to low potential energy.  Longitudinal waves cause the medium to move parallel to • Electric current always flows from the point of high the direction of the wave.in | www. is the wavelength. energy concepts of electricity. heat energy. The law looks at the forces created between two object is called its mechanical energy. The SI unit of power is watt. Power = (work done) / (time taken). Here’s the equation for conducting wire is called its resistance in passege of frequency: f = 1 / T electricity. the • All objects experience a force of buoyancy when they are charges move in one direction for a very short time. www. The called crest. The SI unit of pressure is • There are two main types of current in our world. The resistance varies in and troughs. m moving it behaves like a magnet.radio). λ different materials. direct current (DC) which is a constant stream of charges • The same force acting on a smaller area exerts a larger in one direction. and immersed in a fluid. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Insulators are materials which allow very little 1. (light. the highest points. It is a formula/concept that can only be transformed from one form to another. and a smaller pressure on a larger area. area. and wood have very high resistance. • Faraday’s law of induction is one of the important • According to the law of conservation of energy. The other is alternating current (AC) pressure. it can describes how potential difference (voltage difference) is neither be created nor destroyed.) i. water. The magnitude of magnetic with velocity v has a kinetic energy of (1/2) mv2.careeradda. but it will always flow edges and buildings have wide foundations. One is newton per meter squared or Pascal. The total energy before created and how much is created. positive charges from one conductor to the other 2. potential. knives have sharp current in DC circuits is moving in a constant direction. the lowest points. • An object in motion possesses what is known as the • Whenever current is passed through a straight conductor kinetic energy of the object. glass. Semiconductors are materials which allow the perpendicular to the direction of the wave. Objects having density less than that then they reverse direction.

/Bio.in | www. mass/volume.com | www.) • Archimedes’ Principle: When a body is immersed fully  It is also the organelle that builds lysosomes (cells or partially in a fluid. divide. proteins and carbohydrates. It is used in system of the cell. Functions of these proteins and fats:  Chromosomes are made up of DNA.careerpower.  SER plays a crucial role in detoxifying many poisons and  Chromosomes are not always visible.  Protein and fat (lipid) help in building the cell  Segments of DNA in specific patterns are called genes. When the cell is going to  It provides a pathway for distribution of nuclear material. region of high concentration to a region where its Its size in animal is small and in plant it is big. the following components : Two types.sscadda. This process is known as membranes  In prokaryotes. They usually sit drugs. movement Some of the important cell organells (living part) are : and reproduction.in 69 .cells that have no defined nucleus which starch. It store fats. RNA and ribosomes. It substance/Density of water. density to that of water: Relative density = Density of a (f) Centrioles: centrioles are concerned with cell division. therefore density is kilogram per meter cube. Scientists used to Cell nucleus: The cell nucleus acts like the brain of the cell. something called chromatin in the nucleus.bankersadda. a dog has 78 chromosomes. called the nucleoid. rough endoplasmic reticular (RER) and (b) Chromatin : When the cell is in resting state there is 2. are molecules. designing ships and submarines. are. thrive and reproduce. It call the fluid protoplasm. Lactometers.  Mitochondria is absent in bacteria and the red blood cells • The relative density of a substance is the ratio of its of mammals and higher animals. The SI unit of have their own DNA and ribosomes. • Density and Relative Density: The mass per unit  Mitochondria are strange organells in the sense that they volume of a substance is called its density. based on this principle. Cytoplasm : It is the fluid that fills a cell.  Plastides contains the pigment chlorophyll that is known Substances like Co2 and O2 can move across the cell as chloroplast.co. most of the cell membrane. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Density= mitochondria are able to make their own protein.  Leucoplasts(white or colourless plastids) present in 1. it experiences an upward force that digestion machines). protein in various part of the cell. membranes.com | www. ratio of similar. www. DNA and RNA are  It forms the supporting skeleton frame work of the cell. Whereas SER helps in the (c) Chromosomes: Chromosomes make organisms what they manufacture of fats. The movement of water molecules is called osmosis. It condenses  It provides surface for various enzymatic reactions. Granules: It is not bounded by any membranes. (a) Nuclear envelope 1. non –living parts with in the cell :- Diffusion-It is a process of movements of substance from a Vacuoles: it is a fluid filled spaces enclosed by membranes./Chem. concentration is low.  ATP is known as the energy currency of the cell. which are (e) Mitochondria(power house): The energy required for various chemical activities headed for life is released by used to determine the purity of a sample of milk and mitochondria in the form of ATP (adenosine-tri-phosphate) hydrometers used for determining density of liquids. diffusion. (d) Lysosomes(suicidal bag): It is a kind of waste disposal • Archimedes’ principle has many applications. Eukaryote . They carry all the information used to help a cell grow.careeradda.cells which have definite nucleus  Plastids are self replicating. Types of plastids:- BIOLOGY leucoplast  Chromoplast(colour plastides) impart colour to flowers CELL and fruits. around uncoiled and as loose shards called chromation. (g) Plastids: These are present only in plant cells. RNA and nucleus protein. DNA floats in the cytoplasm in an area  biogenesis.  Its functions include the storage modifications and  Peas only have 12. Prokaryotes cells .e. when the chromatin comes together we can see the (b) Ribosomes : It synthesis protein. Not all cells have a nucleus. i. It is the site for photo synthesis. Chromatin is Functions of ER: made up of DNA. oils and protein are stored. they have the power to Compounds called proteins and phospholipids make up divide. the endoplasmic reticulum  Human Beings probably have 46 chromosomes (23 functions: pairs). 2. is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it. Since the relative density is a initiates cell division. packaging of products in vesicles. the nucleus acids inside the cell. the chromatin become very compact. (a) Endoplasmic reticulum : The nucleus contain. helps control eating. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. (c) Golgi apparatus : It is another packaging organelle like  Chromosomes are usually found in pairs. membranes by a process called diffusion. as they contain DNA. and ER sent these chromosomes. Water also obeys the law of Amino acids and sugars are stored in vacuoles.

(ii) Lymph The main theme of meiosis is that there are two cell division. Lymph transport nutrients into the heart and it also forms the  Matrix is a transparent. vessels.sscadda. Its main function is to joins Some important facts regarding cells : skin to muscles. Adipose tissue : Its occurrence is below skin. etc. simple epithelium. function is to storage of fat and to conserve heat. B. salivery and blood vessels these muscles cause slow and prolonged glands. inner lining of the cheek.It stores proteins. The (b) Where as a multiple tier of cells are known as stratified contraction and relaxation of the heart muscles help to pump epithelium. intestines. Its main function is to contractions which are involuntary. Fluid tissue : Blood & Lymph blood transport O2 embryonic tissues like gills and tail are digested by the nutrients. Thus the sperm is attachments for muscles. TISSUE Types of Muscular tissue: Epithetical Tissue A. Whereas lysosome. between  The smallest cells are those of the mycoplasma. Prophase (ii) Cartilage 2. nervous tissue (98%) is located in the central nervous system. Whereas tendon’s main function is to connect muscles  Smallest human cell is red blood cell.com | www. hence capable of replication. it is called endothelium. tear gland. homogenous semi-fluid defense system of the body. Metaphase 3. Anaphase Fluidl 4. support other tissues. Types of Nervous Tissue Its main function is to protect the underlying parts from  neurons injury. bone marrow makes blood cells. Most of the strength concerned with secretions. tissues. help in the repair of  Nerve cells in animals are the longest cells.  Sieve tube in plants and the mature mammalian red blood cells do not have a nucleus. within the nucleus. Nervous tissue : This tissue is specialized with a capability  Columnar : its occurrence is in sweat gland. internal organs and in the yellow bone Marrow. It breaks down to : (i) Bone 1.co. Skeletal muscle : It attached primarily to bones.  The lysosomal enzymes of the sperm cells digest the Whereas bone protects internal delicate organs provides limiting membranes of the ovum (egg). the blood and distribute it to the various parts of the body. support internal organs. Its main (i) On the basis of cell layers function is to provide the force for locomotion and all other (a) When an epithelium has a single layer of cells it is called a voluntary movements of the body.in 70 . SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Arelor There are two methods of replication mitosis and meiosis.careeradda. You should remember the term Adipose Skeletal PMATI. leucocytes fight diseases and platelets help in cloting of blood. able to enter the ovum. Interphase.careerpower. epigotis and in intervertebral disc of mammals. It remains saturated with water. Mitosis has one division A. (d) Nucleolus: It is a dense spherical granule contained There are a few types of connectivetissue./Chem. Smooth muscles : It can be found in stomach. B./Bio. hormones to tissues and organs.  Largest human cell is female ovum. Cardiac muscle : It occurs only in the heart. The D. Its main  Sieve cells in plants transport nutrients in plants. Areolar tissue : It fills spaces inside organs found around muscles. blood vessels and nerves.  Cuboidal : its occurrence is in kidney tubules. In its active state.  During the transformation of tadpole into frog.  Mitochondria contain DNA.bankersadda. to bones and ligament is connects bones to each other. entry of germs.  Squamous : when it forms a living as that of blood The brain and spinal cord. (i) Tendon (a) Mitosis: It duplicates its DNA and the two new cells (ii) Ligament (daughter cells) have the same pieces and generic code. C. Cell Division Connective Tissue Organisms grow and reduce through cell division.  neuroglia www. give mechanical strength.  The single largest cell in the world is of an ostrich. substance. function is to provide support and flexibility to body part. Its main  Every minute about 3 millions cells in our body die.  The red blood cell carries respiratory gases. to conduct electrical impulses and convey salivary gland its main function is to gives mechanical information from one area of the body to another. (ii) On the basis of simple shape of cells: C. Skeletal tissue : Bone & cartilage occurrences is in nose.com | www.)  The number of chromosomes is not related to the  Connective tissue : Its main function is to bind and intelligence or complexity of the creature. D.in | www. Muscular Tissue It is specialized for an ability to contract muscle cells. There are five steps in this process. Telophase (i) Blood 5.

watts.co. in which stem cells reproduce and The space between two cells is known as the synaptic cleft. however. Types of Neuron: and femur (leg)./Bio.  Muscles contain special protein called contractile protein. transmit messages from the central nervous system to the muscles (or to glands). and digestive glands are examples of exocrine glands.  The Central Nervous System (CNS) includes the brain and  Two bones are connected to each other by a tissue called spinal cord. trachea. and carry messages from sensory receptors to the legs) that connect to another joint (wrist or ankle). chemical messages we call hormones. which Skeletal Muscle Systems has cells possessing the appropriate receptor. salivary glands.  The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the CNS  The skin. tibia and fibula in axon. nose and ears.  The upper bones of the limbs are single: humerus (arm) b. other vertebrates have an embryonic cartilage Dendrites receive information from another cell and transmit skeleton progressively replaced by bone as they mature the message to the cell body. ligament. form the cellular components of the blood and immune  The function between two neurons is called a ‘ganglion’. the living of the mouth. humerus.careerpower. steroids modified muscles known as electroplates. and rays have skeletons composed entirely of All neurons have three parts. Yellow marrow. These fish have electric organs consisting of 1.com | www. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.bankersadda. These signals are passed through the blood to arrive at a target organ. Muscles have both electrical and chemical activity. products that are passed outside the body. nerves(bundles of neurons)  Voluntary muscles and cardiac muscles are richly supplied with blood where as involuntary muscles are The Neuron poorly supplied with blood. or Humans have about 100 billion neurons internal skeletons.in 71 . in their brain alone! While variable in size and shape. the tarsals are in the Motor neurons have a long axon and short dendrites and ankle joint.careeradda. Which contract and relax to cause THE NERVOUS SYSTEM  Fat storing adipose tissue is found below the skin and between internal organs. contains red marrow. Hormones  When fractures occur. to other parts of the body. ribs. The South 2. Skeletal Systems of Various Animals The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. Neurons transmit MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL SYSTEM nerve messages. The cell body contains the nucleus. This tissue is very elastic. peptides American electric eel has more than 6000 plates 3. system. a Exocrine glands (not part of the endocrine system) secrete process known as antagonism. a. Note : Spiders use a combination of an exoskeleton for protection and fluid pressure for movement. mitochondria and other  Some areas of the human body. exoskeletons. Glial cells are in direct contact with neurons and often surround them.in | www. and develop. retain cartilage organelles typical of eukaryotic cells. at the center of these bones. cartilage.  The carpals makeup the wrist joint. Nervous tissue is composed of two main cell types: neurons and glial cells. When one muscle flexes (or contracts) the other relaxes. Maximum discharge is 100 Important facts regarding animal tissue:. and is composed of kidney tubules are all made up of epithelial tissue.com | www. Parts of Neuron:  Sharks.) arranged into 70 columns. amines www. The outer layer of the bones is known THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM as the periosteum. both limbs have a pair of Sensory neurons typically have a long dendrite and short bones (radius and ulna in the arms. central nervous system.sscadda. the living blood vessels. Bone  Bones have cells embedded in a mineralized (calcium) SYNAPSES matrix and collagen fibers. Three types of neurons occur:  Below a joint (elbow or knee). the pain is carried to the brain by The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete nerves running through the periosteum. in the adult: in joints and flexible structures such as the The axon conducts messages away from the cell body. Contraction of Nonmuscular Cells Hormones are grouped into three classes based on their  Some fish have modified muscles that discharge structure: electricity. is used to store fats./Chem. The junction between a nerve cell and another cell is called a The spongy bone of the femur. Skeletons are either a fluid-filled body cavity. Sweat glands. and sternum synapse.

‘under’)–diminished thyroid endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones activity. proteins. and lipids in the chyme. causes the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary. and  pancreatic polypeptide which circulate in the blood. The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are  Hypothyroidism (hypo. Hypothyroi-dism in childhood gives rise to a including adrenaline. or simply the thyroid is one of the largest body and blood pressure. endocrine system of vertebrates. Low blood levels of 0. which in turn  growth. hormones.5 grams in humans. hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during It is found in the interior neck.careeradda. They are found above the kidneys. metabolic rates and body temperatures. are called tyrosine. which in turn regulate  metabolism.) The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Hypothalamus The pituitary gland (often called the master gland) is located The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a in a small bony cavity at the base number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.  temperature regulation  pain relief. Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control: releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. A stalk links the pituitary to the hypothalamus.com | www. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to which controls release of pituitary link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the hormones. THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY Thyroid ADH(Antidiuretic hormone) controls water balance in the The thyroid gland. In humans.  glucagon. Gonadotropins (which include follicle-stimulating hormone.  Thyroid is situated in the neck in front of the wind pipe. childbirth. posterior lobes.co. respectively./Chem. Pancreas Ductless glands are also sometimes called ‘exocrine The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and glands’. Thyroid secretion is usually higher in winter than in summer.  pregnancy. and prepares the breasts for milk production. below the Adam's apple. of the brain./Bio. Oxytocin is a small peptide endocrine glands in the body.in 72 .in | www.  Hormones are chemical substances manufactured by  controls the body's sensitivity to other hormones.sscadda. The pancreas is also a digestive organ. organs called endocrine glands or ductless glands. It controls Endocrines: The Postal System of Communication and Co. TSH  blood pressure.com | www. Ordination  protein synthesis. secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Prolactin is secreted near the end of pregnancy  water/salt concentration. FSH. conditions called cretinism. stimulating gamete formation and production of sex  nursing. It ENDOCRINE GLAND OF THE BODY manufactures two hormones: triodothyro (T3) and tetraiodothysonine (T4). It produce several important hormones  including insulin. II. Both these Adrenal gland hormones contain iodine. it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates. LH) affect the gonads by  childbirth. www.  rate of use of energy sources.bankersadda.careerpower. Hypothalamus receptors It is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing monitor blood levels of thyroid hormones. The pituitary gland has two lobes: the anterior and pituitary gland. travels to the thyroid where it promotes  certain functions of the sex organs. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cause the release of TSH.  somatostatin. production of thyroid hormones. Too little or two much GH(Growth hormone) can cause Pituitary gland dwarfism or gigantism. and luteinizing hormone.

quantity is called ‘anemia’. The classification is  The Adrenal gland maintains the regulating salt in the based on the type of substance present on the surface of red body and is located in an organ lying just over the kidney.careeradda. 1.careerpower. called ‘erythrocytes’ or red blood cells. the parietal pericardium. heart.Most of the cells are faint yellow the chest. digestion of fats. Pancreas marrow).  The average life span of a red cell is about four months.com | www. keeping the blood flowing in one direction through the heart. the serous pericardium." Immunity  A wall of muscle called the septum separates the two  Antibodies : Antibodies are a type of protein molecule sides of the heart. The ‘hypothesis’ produces Platelets: It helps in blood clotting. another protein globulins aid in the defense A goiter may be associated with increased. and without a nucleus. or common table salt. secondly. it release into the blood stream a THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM substance called ‘aldosterone’. AB and O are the four blood groups. The six endocrine glands of the body are. descreased activity of the thyroid gland. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.) Goiter– is called enlargement of the thyroid gland. and are therefore nearly colourless. Parathyroids hemoglobin. A dense accumulation of these cells is Between the outer layer. the individual is  the left atrium and left ventricle make up the "left more susceptible to infections. Pituitary some white cells can move and engulf particles or  Saliva contain an enzyme called ‘anylax’ which breaks bacteria the process in called ‘phagocytosis’. These are also another which lubricates the heart during contractions and two types of cells—the ‘leucocytes’ or white blood cells and movements of the lungs and diaphragm. Bite is an essential supplement to the recreations enzyme for WBC are further subdivided in five groups. they have nuclei. they do not contain 5. Plasma—It is fluid which contain 90 percent water. siphon. blood. nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. 12-15 g in every 100ml of blood./Bio. 3. down the starch in food into maltose. It  Fibrinogen is a protein which is essential for clotting of manifests itself as a swelling in the neck. Gonads first. runs pericardial fluid. B. As soon as the salt (sodium) concentration become just a little less than normal. which serves to protect the heart and anchor it inside Blood is a connective tissue. blood cells. These cells are inner layer.co. and the responsible for the red colour of the blood. www. Thyroid They are produced in the hollow of the bones (bone 2. The chief The heart's outer wall consists of three layers:- salt dissolved in plasma is sodium chloride. and filters or  The right atrium and right ventricle together make up the purifies the blood and lymph fluid that flows through it. (1) Neutroplis (2) Eosinophils Kidneys. finally. HUMAN HEART  Renal transplantation or dialysis (artificial kidney) are The human heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the supportive measure when the damage to kidney the body via the circulatory system. Pancreas— Reduction on the quantity of effective insulin The normal quantity of hemoglobin present in blood in gives rise to diabetes mellitus (diabetes. Table A double-walled sac called the pericardium encases the Blood: The Vital Fluid heart. a chemical substance called ‘antidivretic hormone (ADH).  Valves prevent backflow. known as immunoglobulins.  Red Blood Cells:– are the most numerous of the blood  Government of India launched the Universal salt cells./Chem.in | www. A. The Fascinating Filters (3) Basrophils Nephron is the filteration unit of kidney. excessive drinking (5) Monocytes (polydipsia) and too much of urine (polyusia) are three cardinal symptoms of diabetes. RBC iodisation programme in 1986. ‘thrombocytes’ or platelets. The salinity of plasma is one-third that of sea water.com | www. 6. (4) Lymphocytes  Excessive eating (polyphagia). "right heart. they neither have a nucleus nor mitochondria.in 73 .sscadda."  If the spleen is damaged or removed. supplying oxygen and reaches a certain point. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY The Lymphatic System The human heart has four chambers:  The spleen serves as a reservoir for blood.bankersadda. are a reddish coloured protein containing iron. Adrenals  White Blood Cells:– Differ from RBC in three aspects— 4. normal or mechanisms of the body. A decrease in this mellitus of honey) commonly called simply diabetes.

where they mature and are stored. Syphilis is a bacterially caused infection. hormones. is the lining that eggs (ova) and female sex hormones. the female  In sexual reproduction new individuals are produced by parts collectively termed the gynoecium). grains are produced by meiosis of microspore mother cells  fertilization is the fusion of two such distinctive cells. Both diseases can be treated The cardiovascular system circulates blood from the heart to and cured with antibiotics. The sinoatrial node produces the electrical pulses that drive The Male Reproductive System heart contractions. In the systemic circuit./Bio. Pollen each other.careeradda. or epicardium.  Sperm production begins at puberty and continues throughout life. starfish can regenerate an Flowers entire body from a fragment of the original body.com | www. Both can be spread by The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the sexual contact or blood. Category Two STDs that produce sores on the external genitals. epididymis.sscadda. contacts the blood. then returns as oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart via the pulmonary vein. and occurs as a result of electrical disturbances of the heart can. Infectious individuals may appear lungs. systems other than those of the reproductive system. which produce  The inner layer. Deoxygenated blood returns via veins to STDs that produce inflammation of the urethra. The heart contains electrical "pacemaker" cells. and mating. However.com | www. Genital Blockage of any artery can cause a heart attack. Pollen grains contain the male gametophyte  Meiosis produces cells that are genetically distinct from (microgametophyte) phase of the plant.  The hydra produces buds. Male  The middle layer. re-entering the heart's right atrium.bankersadda. Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs can affect the sex partners. the vena cava. rhythm. Once sperm form they move The heart circulates blood through two pathways: into the epididymis. the fusion of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote. the left ventricle to the aorta. Category Three The aorta is the main artery leaving the heart. that are located along the inner edge of the anther sacs (microsporangia). A heart attack is distinct from cardiac herpes can be treated by antiviral drugs. which produce sperm and male sex that contracts. ova (ovum singular) are female Pollen gametes. 1. blocking one of the three stages of reproduction”  release and transport of gametes THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  fertilization  implantation  Asexual reproduction allows an organism to rapidly produce many offspring without the time and resources PLANT REPRODUCTION committed to courtship. which cause it to contract — producing a heartbeat. and hepatitis B are in this category. fetus. Female gonads are the ovaries. finding a mate. collectively termed the androecium) and Sexual Reproduction carpel (often the carpel is referred to as the pistil. but the infection arrest. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most common STDs in this category. Symptoms of the muscle of the heart. Reproductive parts of the flower are the stamen (male. AIDS poor blood.careerpower. with several hundred million sperm HUMAN HEART FUNCTION being produced each day.)  The outermost wall layer.in | www. cause serious symptoms and death. The veins have valves that prevent backflow of blood Blood The separation of intercourse frompregnancy uses methods pressure. the disease is curable with antibiotics.in 74 . deoxygenated blood leaves the right  The female external genitals are collectively known as the ventricle of the heart via the pulmonary artery and travels to vulva. contains the muscle gonads are the testes. The systemic circuit External Genitals In the pulmonary circuit.  Sperm are male gametes. or damage to herpes is the most common disease in this class. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.co. or myocardium. cervix. symptom-free for years after infection. This class of STDs includes viral diseases that affect organ The pulmonary artery is the only artery that carries oxygen. oxygenated blood leaves the body via STDs are grouped into three categories. if left untreated. the lungs.  Gonads are sex organs that produce gametes. or oviducts. the lungs and around the body via blood vessels. www. or endocardium. and newborn infants. The pulmonary circuit 2. and from there enters the arteries and capillaries where it supplies the body's tissues Category One with oxygen. is the inner Human Reproduction and Development wall of the pericardium. once diagnosed./Chem. which is a sudden loss of heart function that usually cannot be cured.

 It kills microorganisms.in | www. The transfer of pollen from the anther to the female stigma is termed pollination. develops into Other factors. present in the small intestine. found in wheat. Chyme.5 and 2. multiple or single. bats. the ovary. Fruits may be fleshy. This mixture of capillary. ELIMINATION: removal of undigested food and wastes Glycerol and fatty acids go into the lymphatic system. Ileum components small enough to cross the plasma membrane 4. Bleeding ulcers result when tissue damage is so severe that Double Fertilization bleeding occurs into the stomach. Bile contains cholesterol. DIGESTION : breakdown of food into molecular 3. Jejunum 3. 5. muscular tube (6-9 intestine enzymes. (1) detoxification of blood. haemoglobin into a component of bile. Entomophyly is the transfer of pollen by an insect.com | www.  pepsinogen. Fat digestion is usually completed by the time the food The STOMACH reaches the ileum (lower third) of the small intestine. hard.careerpower. Seeds germinate. www. Peptic ulcers result when these protective mechanisms fail. bilirubin. water. and a mix  It lowers the stomach pH to between 1. ABSORPTION: passage of the molecules into the body’s Sugars and amino acids go into the bloodstream via interior and their passage throughout the body capillaries in each villus. and lactose are the main carbohydrates to the anus. The Mouth and Pharynx Enzymes in the cells convert these disaccharides into Chemical breakdown of starch by production of salivary monosaccharides that then leave the cell and enter the amylase from the salivary glands into glucose./Chem. (4) production of bile. In addition to digestive functions. Bile salts are in turn absorbed in the ileum and are recycled by the Gastric juice in stomach contains: liver and gall bladder. and ULCERS Humans. Anemophyly is the transfer of pollen by wind. meters long when fully extended) stretching from the mouth Maltose. sucrose.  It lowers pH of the stomach so pepsin is activated. after fertilization has occurred.bankersadda. Starch and glycogen are broken down into maltose by small The human digestive system. a protein esophagus.5. Note:. Stages in the Digestive Process 1. The ovary wall. Other pollinators include birds.) Alcohol and aspirin are absorbed through the stomach lining Pollination into the blood. Duodenum specific stimulus 2. can also produce a fruit. leaves the (3) destruction of old erythrocytes and conversion of stomach and enters the small intestine.careeradda. the pollen Perforated ulcers are life-threatening situations where a hole tube grows through the stigma and style toward the ovules in has formed in the stomach wall. (2) synthesis of blood proteins. the liver plays several other Pepsinogen is an enzyme that starts protein digestion roles: and controls the hydrolysis of proteins into peptides. This is accomplished by a variety of Epithelial cells secrete mucus that forms a protective methods. barrier between the cells and the stomach acids.View the Seeds of Life site for illustrations and information about fruits and seeds.com | www.7 meters) long. phospholipids. MOVEMENT : propels food through the digestive system Parts of small intestine: 2. and the THE SMALL INTESTINE embryo grows into the next generation sporophyte./Bio. including stress and aspirin. food and saliva is then pushed into the pharynx and Gluten enteropathy is the inability to absorb gluten.sscadda. they are absorbed by the microvilli. and LIVER  mucus The liver produces and sends bile to the small intestine via Functions of Hydrochloric acid(HCl) : the hepatic duct. ulcers.co.  The small intestine is the major site for digestion and absorption of nutrients. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM  it is about 22 feet (6. SECRETION : release of digestive juices in response to a 1. of salts.in 75 . the mix of acid and food in the stomach.  hydrochloric acid(HCl). The process of pollination being accomplished. is a coiled. At least 90% of all peptic ulcers are caused by Helicobacter Fruit pylori. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.

Low glucose levels in the blood cause the release of hormones. cannot be made by the body and are needed in trace amounts. nuts. Cirrhosis: Cirrhosis of the liver commonly occurs in VITAMIN E (Tocopherol)=Beauty Vitamin alcoholics.  Protects red blood cells and rectum. Urea is formed and passed through the blood to the kidney for export from the body.  Maintains health of the liver Liver Diseases Jaundice occurs when the characteristic SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY yellow tint to the skin is caused Uncontrol bleeding from wounds due to clotting difficulty by excess hemoglobin breakdown products in the blood. such as linoleic acid.sscadda. The human body can also converted into glucose in the liver. Can lead to liver damage Hepatitis A. the major protein in blood. The drawback.bankersadda. however. Cirrhosis can cause the It is also known as Antisterility Vitamin. cecum. intestine). is a need to be aware of the amount of fats in the food they eat since the stored bile of the gall bladder is no longer available. sprouts. Lipids and fats  New born infants: haemolytic anaemia are present in oils. and metabolic reactions.in | www. Some fatty acids.The process produce Vitamin K through germs in the colon(part of small of deamination removes the amino groups from amino acids.  Antioxidation Protein: Proteins are polymers composed of amino acids. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. butter.co. SOURCE When no glucose or glycogen is available. Glycogen is a polysaccharide made of chains of glucose molecules. so a large number of plants SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY and animals store excess food energy as fats. appendix. They usually (6) production of urea from amino groups and ammonia. and plants (such as avocado  Adults: weakness and peanuts). Chemicals responsible for blood clotting are synthesized in SOURCE the liver.com | www. amino acids are Green leafy vegetables. who place the liver in a stress situation due to the amount of alcohol to be broken down. B. soya beans. In plants starch stored in the form of glucose. Green leafy vegetables. which is then released into the blood(raising blood glucose levels).) (5) storage of glucose as glycogen. are essential SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS and must be included in the diet. Conversely./Bio. and C are all viral diseases that can cause liver damage. such as glucagon. E./Chem. dizziness. liver to become unable to perform its biochemical functions. as is albumin. a sign that the liver is not properly SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS functioning.  Enhance immunity Lipids and fats: Lipids and fats generate the greatest energy yield. egg yolk The Pancreas The pancreas produces pancreatic juice and several FUNCTION hormones. prevent over bleeding formation into glycogen.in 76 . When present in the  Low thyroxine level intestine. in fact many people have had theirs removed. It stores excess bile for release at a later time. the hormone insulin FUNCTION promotes the take-up of glucose into liver cells and its  Helps blood clotting.  Maintains normal conditions of cells. VITAMINS We can live without our gall bladders. lipids promote the uptake of  Fertility Desease vitamins A. that travel to the liver and VITAMIN K (Phylloquinone) stimulate the breakdown of glycogen into glucose.  Headache. and healthy skin and tissues (D) The Large Intestine The large intestine is made up by the colon. such as glucagon and insulin. fatigue www.careeradda.com | www. D. and its release when blood Vitamins:Vitamins are organic molecules required for sugar levels drop. whole-wheat cereals. meats.careerpower. and K. Vitamins may act as enzyme GALL BLADDER cofactors or coenzymes. while animals use glycogen for the same purpose.

Our skins also produces Vitamin D when exposed to sunlight SOURCE sprouts. Osteoporosis Desease Cheilosis. lemon). nails and skin  Helps calcium and iron absorption  Enhances immunity SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY  Night blindness.)  Stomach discomfort. irritability VITAMIN D (Calciferol)=(Sunhine Vitamin) VITAMIN B SOURCE VITAMIN B1 (Thymine) Egg yolk.in 77 . promotes the growth and mucous membrane repair of cells. rash  Hair loss SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS  Poor appetite. dark green and yellow vegetables and fruits SOURCE Citrus fruits (orange. liver. poor appetite  Nervousness.careerpower. fatigue  Abdominal pain  Vomiting. cod liver oil. burst of capillary vessels  Weakness. peeling. scaly. green  Maintains eye health pepper  Promotes growth and development./Chem. maintains healthy bones and teeth FUNCTION  Enhances the protection and regeneration of cells and  Helps synthesize collagen.in | www. teeth and brain healthy  Maintains normal calcium level in blood VITAMIN B2 (Ryboflabin) SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY SOURCE  Children: rickets Sprout. stomach discomfort  Diarrhea  Liver injury  Kidney stone  Headache. blood vessels and bones  Maintains healthy respiratory and intestinal tracts  Helps healing after operation and injury  Maintain healthy hair. cod liver oil. Beri-beri so as to maintain bones.  Vomiting. fall of teeth  Weak bones and teeth  Susceptibility to skin bleeding. ulceration SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS  Calcified cartilage VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine)  High calcium level in the blood causes abnormal heart beat and damage to organs such as kidneys FUNCTION It is responsible for rememeber dreams. green leafy vegetables.com | www.com | www. fatigue SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS  Bone pain. swollen and aching joints  Dry.sscadda. diarrhea  Sore eyes SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY  Itchy skin  Anaemia  Nervousness. depression VITAMIN A (Retinol)  Muscle cramps SOURCE VITAMIN C (Ascorbic acid) Dairy products. insomnia. teeth. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. fish.careeradda.co./Bio. black FUNCTION current. grapefruit. bone pain www. dry eyes SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY  Dry skin  Scurvy  Stomach discomfort  Gum  Poor growth  inflammation and bleeding. gum. present in cow's milk(yellowish)  Adults: Osteomalacia.bankersadda. strawberry. and itchy skin.liver. kiwi fruit. tomato. yeast FUNCTION Desease  Helps body absorb and utilize calcium and phosphorus.

reproductive system.sscadda. green leafy vegetables. Pellagra B6 Pyridoxine Organ meats. carbonate. Proteins into amino acid. pea nuts. kidney stones. cereals. TYPES OF VITAMINS: Vitamin Chemical Name Food Sources Deficiency Diseases A Retinol Milk. an evolutionary modification of the into simple sugars such as glucose. D Calciferol Direct sunlight. whole grain. corners of the mouth. fatigue. bread Inflammation of tongue. Excretory System Functions 1. fish. Remove and concentrate waste products from body fluids and Digestion in Animals Facts from NCERT return other substances to body fluids as necessary for  Starfish feeds on animals covered by half shells of calcium homeostasis.  Amoeba is a microscopic single celled organism found in and sodium (nerve message transmission) are examples of pond water. Neurological problems.com | www. liver.careeradda. nuts. milk. nuts. When it sense food. and skin. Fats into fatty acid and nephridium. Minerals: Iron(for hemoglobin). butter. Osmoregulation refers to the state aquatic animals are in: they are surrounded by freshwater and must constantly deal with the influx of water. eggs. muscle cramp. fish. it pushes out one or more minerals.co. fish. ability to fight potatoes. tomatoes. Fatigue. sweet and white Scurvy. dairy products. meat. pale skin. anaemia.) In smokers and drinkers vitamin C is absent. cheese. B3 Niacin or Nicotinic Meat. It is the largest gland in the body. Water and Salt Balance The excretory system is responsible for regulating water balance in various body fluids. Glomerular filtration of water and solutes from the blood. Beri-beri. infections decreases./Chem. 2.  The saliva breakdown the starch into sugar. cheese and Night blindness. Skin disease. Skin dryness. B5 Pantothenic acid Eggs. cannot digest cellulose. glycerol. B12 Cyanocobalamin Meat. iodine (for thyroxin).careerpower. acid dementia. whole grain. K Phylloquinone or Soyabeans. olives. sores in the products. Anaemia. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. The nephron has three functions:  The grass is rich in cellulose a type of carbohydrates human 1. E Tocopherol Vegetable oils. nausea. ureters.bankersadda. is the kidney’s functional unit.  Liver situated in the upper part of the abdomen on the right The Human Excretory System side.  In the process of digestion carbohydrates get broken down and urethra.in | www. fish oils./Bio. Naphthoquinone dairy products. B1 Thiamine Legumes. Rickets. C Ascorbic acid Oranges. Eliminate excretory products from the body. eggs. 3. B2 Riboflavin Egg. eggs. depression. lungs. THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM Excretory Systems in Various Animals Components of this system in vertebrates include the kidneys. tomatoes. constipation. osteomalacia. depression. bladder. www. problems of almonds.com | www. The nephron. Collect water and filter body fluids. calcium (for bones). The urinary system is made-up of the kidneys. diarrhoea. corn. Failure to clot blood.in 78 . liver. finger like projection (pseudopodia) around the food particles and engulf it and then the food becomes trapped in a food vacuole. meat. liver.

co. become a fruit. These are also called flowering plants. ADH is released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Tubular reabsorption of water and conserved molecules back Bryophyte into the blood. and salamanders. regulates the  Plants with seeds having a single cotyledon are called transfer of sodium from the nephron to the blood. but it can enter the leaf heart.  Likewise. They are cold blooded and their hearts have PHOTOSYNTHESIS only two chambers unlike the four that human have.in 79 . causing more sodium to pass from the nephron to the blood. These  They are warm blooded animals with four chambered plants are predominantly aquatic.g-Egipomoce. Kidney Stones E.com | www. When sodium monocotyledons or monocots. They lay eggs./Chem.  Black pigments absorb all of the wavelengths that strike Aves them.leave the leaf. which it reflects to bedetected by our eyes.g. 3. 2. perennial and evergreen and woody. E.com | www.bankersadda.in | www. www. Pisces  These are fish. sugar  Some with skeleton made of both bones and cartilages such and oxygen. lizards and crocodiles.pines such as and uric acid. All birds fall in this category. toades. They produce live young ones.  These are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom. E.absorbs all wavelengths of visible light turtles.careeradda. Amphibian  Carbon dioxide cannot pass through the protective waxy  They have mucus glands in the skin and a three chambered layer covering the leaf (cuticle). Maintain ionic balance in extracellular fluid 3. Respiration is through either gills or lungs./Bio. Excrete toxic metabolic by-products such as urea.  In this group plant body is differentiated into roots. Renin is released into the blood to control aldosterone. oxygen produced during photosynthesis can only pass out of the leaf through the opened stomata. Hormone Control of Water and Salt Angiosperms Water reabsorption is controlled by the antidiuretic hormone  The seeds develop inside an organ which is modified to (ADH) in negative feedback.sscadda.  They have mammary glands for the production of milk to nourish their young.  cells of the leaf. They grow and can become a painful irritant that may require surgery Pteridopheysta or ultrasound treatments. Maintain volume of extracellular fluid body to another. aldosterone is released into the blood.  The plant of this group bear naked seeds and one usually 4. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Eg.frogs. and horse tails. and the products of photosynthesis. except green. Tubular secretion of ions and other waste products from There is no specialized tissue for the conduction of water surrounding capillaries into the distal tubule. through an opening flanked by two guard cells. ferns. Eg. While most of them have a three chamber  Chlorophyll.  Plants with seeds having two cotyledons are called dicots.careerpower. ADH acts to increase instances they emerge and become green the seed water absorption in the kidneys. : Spirogyra.  Water enters the root and is transported up to the leaves through specialized plant cells known as xylem. a hormone secreted by the kidneys. water and carbon  Some with skeletons made entirely of cartilage. stem and leaves and has specialized tissue for the conduction of Kidney Functions water and other substances from one plant of the plant 1.) 2. Aldosterone. Maintain pH and osmotic concentration of the extracellular Gymnosperms fluid. Eg. photosynthetic cells. levels of fluid in the blood signal the hypothalamus to cause the Cotyledons are called seed leaves because in many pituitary to release ADH into the blood. They breathe through DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMS lungs. the green pigment common to all heart while crocodile have four heart chambers. and other substances from one past of the plant body to another. This causes water to flow into the blood by osmosis. Eg.paphiopedilum. : moss (fumaria) and marchantia In some cases.snakes. Dropping  Plant embryos in seeds have structures called cotyledons. as tuna or rohu. Differentiation in Plants Thallophyta Mamalia  The plants in this group are commonly called algae. cladophora and chara. deodar. enter the shark. germinates.marsilea. levels in the blood fall. excess wastes crystallize as kidney stones. ammonia.  These are warm blooded animals and have a four chambered heart.  The raw materials of photosynthesis. Eg. Reptilia  These animals are cold blooded have scales and breathe Chlorophyll and Accessory Pigments through lungs.g. hearts. such as dioxide.

chemical generally used. growth of bacteria which spoil food. As  Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. Spiders can produce silken thread using spinneret glands on  This process of conversion of sugar into alcohol is known as their abdomen. while fungi and bacteria may live in colonies. Lewis Pasteur discovered fermentation. wheat. crushed fruit juice Spider Web etc. Some Common Plant Disease Caused by Microorganisms Friendly Micro Organisms Plant disease Microorganisms Mode of transmission  Making of curd and breed:-milk is turned into curd by Citrus canker Bacteria Air bacteria. groups are bacteria. to 30 seconds and then suddenly chilled and stored.careeradda.  Sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulphite are common MICRO ORGANISMS: FRIEND AND FOE preservatives.in 80 . Common Names Chemical Compounds Chemical  Another is female anopheles mosquito which caries the Formula parasite of malaria. It also has gills so that it can breathe under water. It is called algae and protozoa. caused by virus./Chem. The bacterium “lactobacillus” promotes the Rust of wheat Fungi Air. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.in | www. These are also used in the James and Micro organisms are classified into four major groups. fermentation. it  Antibiotics are not effective against cold and flu as these are loses its gills and tail. and develops legs for moving on land. Multicellular such as algae and fungi. Yellow vein mosaic of bhindi Virus insect  Yeast reproduces rapidly and produces CO2 during Some Common Human Disease Caused by Micro Organisms respiration. Preservation by sugar :  Viruses : They reproduce only inside the cells of the host  Sugar reduces the moisture context which inhibits the organisms which may be bacterium. seeds formation of curd. fungi. It has a the commonly known antibiotics. These squashes to check their spoilage. common cold. or physical contact are called communicable diseases.  Micro organisms like amoeba can live alone. protozoa and algae.bankersadda.sscadda. Bubbles of the gas fill the dough and increase Human disease Causative Mode of transmission Preventive its volume. and young amphibians tend causing microorganism is called antibiotics. tetracycline and erythromycin are some of The tadpole. Chalk (Marble) Calcium Carbonate CaCo3 Caustic Potash Potassium Hydroxide KOH Common Methods of Caustic Soda Sodium Hydroxide NaOH Preserving Food in our Homes Dry Ice Solid Carbondioxide CO2 www..com | www. pasteurisation.careerpower. the tadpole grow into a frog. Most amphibians can both walk and swim in water. Bleaching Powder Calcium Oxychloride CaOCL2  Robert Koch discovered the bacteria (bacillus anthracis) Chloroform Trichloro Methane CHcl3 which causes anthrax disease.com | www. FACTS ABOUT FISH Medicinal Use of Micro Organisms (II) AMPHIBIANS  The medicine which kills or stops the growth of diseases Amphibians lay their eggs in water. and Harmful Microorganisms most do not lay eggs and he exception is the monotremes). is born and lives in water. Some  This process was discovered by lowise Pasteur.)  However a few of them like platypus and the echidna lay  Chemical method : salt and edible oils are the common eggs.  Microbial diseases that can spread from an infected person to a healthy person SOME IMPORTANT TABLES  through air water.cholera.  Serious diseases like polio and chickepox are also caused by  Pasteurized milk : the milk is heated tonabout 70˚C for 15 viruses. plants or animal. Vaccine  Edward Jenner discovered the vaccine for small pox. like a fish. influnenza and most coughs are caused by  Use of oil and vinegar prevents spoilage of pickles become viruses. Mammals (Class Mammalia) Mammals developed a four chambered heart. food.  Streptomycin. Baking Powder Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3  Female aedes mosquito acts as carrier of dengu virus. rice. Which are made from tail that allows it to swim fungi and bacteria. bacteria cannot live in such an environment. hair covering./Bio.  Common cold.  Micro organisms may be single celled like bacteria. measure microorganisms  Yeast is used for commercial production of alcohol and wine.e. chicken COMMON NAMES OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS: pox and TB. For this purpose yeast is grown as natural sugars FACTS FROM HUMAN MACHINE present in grains like barley. to resemble small fish.co. i. or newborn frog.

Copper Cells: pyrites Who discovered Blood Karl Landsteiner Lead (Pb) Galena Group: Magnesium Magnesite.): Kaolin Life span of White Blood 3-4 days Antimony (Sb) Stibnite Cell(W. Scheelite Menopause age: 45-50 years Nickel (Ni) Pentlandite. Calcite.in | www. Zinc and Nickel Vinegar Acetic Acid CH3COOH Duralumin Aluminium.5-8 Strontium (Sr) Strontianite. of (Mn) blood Mercury (Hg) Cinnabar 2.C.): Copper (Cu) Malachite.B. Blood Platelets count: 150.7H2O Largest and strongest Femur (thigh bone) Marsh Gas Methane CH4 Bone in the body: Magnesia: Magnesium Oxide MgO Smallest Bone in the Stapes in ear Laughing Gas: Nitrous Oxide N2 O body: Sugar: Sucrose C12H22O11 Volume of Blood in the 6 litres (in 70 kg body) T. Magnesium and Washing Soda Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3 Manganese Slaked Lime Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2 Magnesium Aluminium and Magnesium Potash Alum Potassium KALSO4 Nickel Steel Iron and Nickel AluminiumSulphate Stainless Steel Iron. In male: 14-15 gm/100 c.C.sscadda.careerpower. Asbestus Other name of Red Blood Erythrocytes Chromium (Cr) Chromite Cell (R.): mm ORES AND ALLOYS: 2. Magnetite.careeradda.com | www. felspar.400.in 81 .B. Silestine pH of Blood: 7.c. to 20 seconds Cadmium (Cd) Greenockite complete Calcium (Ca) Chalk./Bio. Corundum. Dolomite.co.): Alloy Components Universal blood donor: O Brass Copper and Zinc Universal blood AB www. Witherite Time taken by R. Milarite Blood clotting time: 3-5 minutes Beryllium (Be) Beryl Weight of Brain: 1300-1400 gm in human adult Normal Blood Pressure 120/80 mm Hg ALLOYS: (B.) Gypsum Calcium Sulphate CaSo4 Bronze Copper and Tin Green Vitriol Ferrous Sulphate FeSo4 Gun Metal Copper. Largest White Blood Monocytes Cuprite Cells: Gold (Au) Quartz. Dolomite. Cells(R.000 . In female: 11-14 gm/100 c.36-7.bankersadda. Quicklime. Ferulinite .B.B.com | www. Potash of blood Silver (Ag) Argentite Hb content in body: 500-700 gm Sodium (Na) Rock Salt. one cycle of circulation: Gypsum.000 platelets per (Mg) Carnalite micro litre Manganese Pyrolusite Haemoglobin (Hb): 1.B. Zinc and Tin Heavy Water Deuterium Oxide D2O German Silver Copper. Trona. Cryolite.T./Chem. Epsom salt.C. Chalcopyrite.N. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.c. Chalcocite.): Barium (Ba) Barite. Trinitrotoluene C7H5N3O6 body: Sand Silicon Oxide SiO2 Number of Red Blood 1.41 Tin (Sn) Cassiterite Volume of Semen: 2-5 ml/ejaculation Zinc (Zn) Zincite. Copper.6H2O Important Facts About Human Body: White Vitriol Zinc Sulphate ZnSo4.P. Calamine Normal Sperm Count: 250-400 million/ejaculation Uranium (U) Uraninite Menstrual cycle: 28 days Tungsten (W) Wolframite. Potassium (K) Carnalite. Sylvite. Chromium and Nickel Quick Lime Calcium Oxide CaO Electrum Silver and Gold Plaster of Paris Calcium Sulphate CaSO42H2O Solder Tin and Lead Invar Iron and Nickel Mohr's Salt Ammonium Ferrous FeSO4(NH4)2S Sulphate O4. Calaverite.C. Borax pH of Urine: 6.C. Silvenites Smallest White Blood Lymphocyte Iron (Fe) Hematite. In male: 5 to 6 million/cubic Cells(R. In female: 4 to 5 ORES: million/cubic mm Metal Ores Life span of Red Blood 100 to 120 days Aluminium (Al) Bauxite. Lemonite.

DISEASE CAUSED BY WORMS: Antispasmodic It is a drug used to relieve spasm of 1. white roundworm called Disease caused by Viruses: Enterobiusvermicularis. Most cases of constitpation. single parasite Common Drugs and Their Usage: The Plasmodium that Drugs/Medicine Use parasite that causes multiplies Anaesthetics It is a drug that induces insensitivity to malaria is neither a virus in red pain. VITAMINS AND MINERAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES: 3. Tuberculosis -It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Viral encephalitis .careeradda. Aspirin.) recipient: caused by Human Average body weight: 70 kg Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Largest Endocrine Gland: Thyroid gland 9. Pneumonia-It is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.It is caused by Vibrio cholerae. and JC virus. Protozoa and 3.It is an inflammation of the brain. Largest Gland: Liver Largest Muscle in the Gluteus Maximus or Buttock Disease caused by Bacteria: body: Muscle 1. It is caused by a bacterium called Smallest Muscle in the Stapedius Bordetella pertussis. Mumps -It is caused by Mumps virus. It survives correcting acidity. Minimum distance for 25 cm 8. Eg.It is caused by Salmonella typhi. 2. Anaemia It is caused due to deficiency of 4. Breathing Rate at rest: 12-16/minute 7. Tapeworn parasites. Whooping Cough . Herpessimplex./Chem.com | www. Eg. It is caused by small. 2. 1. It is caused by Variola virus. measles rest: virus. temperature: 6. Ariboflavinosis It is caused due to deficiency of www. Antibiotics It is a drug that inhibits the growth of or 4.in | www. sickness Trypanosomabrucei. proper vision: 9. body: 2. Largest and longest Sciatic Nerve 5. Largest Artery: Aorta 3. Malaria It is spread by it is a celled Anopheles mosquitoes.careerpower.It is caused by Yersinia pestis. 1. Antipyretics It is a drug used to lower body 2. Plague . dysentery Entamoebahistolytica.It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae.in 82 .It is mineral Iron. Largest Vein: Inferior Vena Cava 4. Cholera . It is caused by thread like filarial nematode Laxative It is a drug used to provide relief in Filariasis worms. nor a bacteria blood cells Antiflatulent It is a drug that reduces intestinal gas of humans. Dengue fever -It is caused by Dengue virus. Normal body 37 degree Celsius 5. Chicken pox . Analgesics It is a drug that is used to prevent or 3. List of Diseases caused by Virus. Small Pox . It is Normal Heart Beat at 72 beats per minute caused by rabies virus. Nerve: 6. Longest Cell: Neurons (nerve cells) 7. Leprosy .It is caused by Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae. 2. of urine.com | www. Penicillin. Common Cold -It is caused by Rhinovirus. Antihistamines It is a drug used to relieve symptoms of cold and allergies. Kala azar It is caused by destroys micro-organisms. Rabies . Bacteria.Sleeping It is caused by relieve pain. Leishmaniadonovani. It cannot live Antacid It is a drug used for preventing or on its own. Diphtheria . SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.Amoebic It is caused by temperature. Number of Spinal Nerves: 31 pairs 8.It is caused by Rabies virus (Rhabdoviridae family). Typhoid . an animal including Diuretics It is a drug that promotes the production human. especially in the within the intestine of stomach.co. Measles -It is caused by Measles virus. Pulse rate: 72 per minute Thinnest Skin: Eyelids DISEASE CAUSED BY PROTOZOANS: Weight of Heart: 200-300 gm 1. polio virus. filaria are caused by the parasite known as TYPES OF DISEASES Wuchereriabancrofti.bankersadda./Bio.sscadda.It is caused by Varicella-zoster virus. Tetanus -It is caused by Clostridium tetani. They are intestinal involuntary muscle usually in stomach. Worm: Pinworm thin. AIDS (Acquired Immunono Deficiency Syndrome) .

Goitre It is caused due to deficiency of Atmospheric Pressure Pascal Pa Iodine. Osteoporosis It is caused due to deficiency of Electric Energy Kilowatt hour kWh mineral Calcium.K) Hepatitis Liver kelvin Jaundice Liver Solid Angle steradian Sr Malaria Spleen Surface Tension Newton/square meter N/m2 Meningitis Brain and spinal cord Speed/Velocity Meter/second m/s Myelitis Spinal cord Temperature Kelvin K Neuritis Nerves Time Second S Otitis Ear Viscosity Pascal second Pa.in | www.) Vitamin B2. Rickets It is caused due to deficiency of Electric Charge Coulomb C Vitamin D.B./Bio. Angular Velocity Radian/second ω 4. Electric Power Watt W 9.careerpower.careeradda.co.Landsteiner : Classified human beings (1900) in four groups Tuberculosis Lungs on the basis of the reaction of their blood:A.in 83 ./Chem. Acceleration Meter/second square m/s2 3.AB and O.sscadda. Tonsillitis Tonsils Blood Carries Carries Can donate Can Trachoma Eye group antigen antibody blood to receive blood SI Units of Measurement: from Quantity SI Unit Symbol A A B A.AB A. Force Newton N (kg m/s2) COMMON HUMAN DISEASES AND AFFECTED BODY PART: Frequency Hertz Hz Disease Affected Body Part Heat Joule J AIDS Immune system of the body Impulse Newton second Ns Arthritis Joints Illuminance Lux lx Asthma Bronchial muscles Inductance Henry H Bronchitis Lungs Length Meter m Carditis Heart Luminous Flux Lumen lm Cataract Eye Luminous Intensity Candela Cd Cystitis Bladder Mass Kilogram kg Colitis Intestine Momentum Kilogram kg m/s Conjunctivitis Eye meter/second Dermatitis Skin Magnetic Flux Weber Wb Diabetes Pancreas and blood Magnetic Flux Density Tesla T Diphtheria Throat Power Watt W Eczema Skin Power of Lens Dioptre D Goitre Thyroid gland Plane Angle Radian Rad Glossitis Tongue Radioactivity Becquerel Bq Glaucoma Eye Resistance Ohm Ω Gastritis Stomach Specific Heat Joule per kilogram J/(kg.bankersadda.O www. Density Kilogram/cubic meter kg/m3 6. Electromotive Force Volt V 7. Impaired clotting of It is caused due to deficiency of Depth of Sea Fathom ftm the blood Vitamin K. Scurvy It is caused due to deficiency of Energy Joule J Vitamin C.s Osteomyelitis Bones Volume Cubic meter M3 Paralysis Nerves and limb Weight Newton N Pyorrhoea Teeth Work Joule J Peritonitis Abdomen Pneumonia Lungs BLOOD GROUP AND ITS CLASSIFICATION : Rhinitis Nose Rheumatism Joints K. Capacitance farad F 5. Conductivity 8. BeriBeri It is caused due to deficiency of Area Square meter m2 Vitamin B. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. Kwashiorkor It is caused due to deficiency of Electric Current Ampere A Protein.com | www.com | www. Night Blindness It is caused due to deficiency of Electrical Ohm/metre -- Vitamin A. Electric Potential Volt V 10.

supremacy of the Chalukyan empire in the region. 2. It was Rajaraj I (985-1014) during which the CHOLAS the caretaker ruler. Rajendra Chola (1014-1044). 2. Malik Kafur invaded this Tamil state in 1310 & 7. & eastern dynasty was at its zenith also during his reign. Nandivarma II to capture a major portion of the Pallava kingdom. a) He was also known as “But-Shikan” (destroyer of the image) because of seventeen plundering expeditions between 1000 AD THE CHOLAS (9TH TO 13TH CENTURY) & 1027 AD in India. the Chalukyan empire extended from sea to sea. Over the years./Bio. Rajaraja’ is also famous for the beautiful shiva 3. 7. Microphone Sound energy into electrical energy MEDEIVAL HISTORY CAPSULE 2016 3. THE GHAZNAVIS 8. By 631. Vikramaditya I (655-681). To commemorate his accession. 1. Vijayalaya captured Tanjore during the Pandya- THE CHALUKYAS Pallava wars. was just a baby throne. Electric Electrical energy into light and heat SOME EQUIPMENTS USED TO TRANSFORM ENERGY: Bulb energy S. www. Chalukyas of Vengi & the Cholas of Thanjavur. Vikramaditya II’s son. He also Chalukyan dynasty was inaugurated by his(Pulakeshin II) conquered Sri Lanka.B Universal Only O 6. Early Chola rulers were the Karikala Cholas who ruled in c) In 1025. After conquering the Kosalas & the Kalingas. No. Vikramaditya II (733-745) defeated the Pallava king extinguished the Chola empire.) B B A B. who established the Rashtrakuta Mahmud of Ghazni (997-1030) dynasty. the heir to the throne. Prince Pulakesin II. he claimed to have south India which ruled over Tamil Nadu & parts of come here with twin objectives of spreading Islam in India. Burma & the Andaman & Nicobar Island. brother Kubja Vishnuvardana. Cholas & Kerala rulers to establish the 79). & so the king’s brother. the son of Pulakesin I. Vijayalaya’s son Aditya I (871-901) succeeded him to died. son of Rajaraja I. Vikrama 6. In 850. Mangalesha (597-610). was an in the history of Karnataka.AB B. Equipment Energy Transformed 8.com | www. Kirthivarma I (566-596) succeeded him at the throne. was crowned 5.careeradda. After a long when the Pallavas under Narsimhavarma I attack on their reign of about half a century. The Cholas 4. enriching himself by taking away wealth from India.com | www. Later./Chem. Tube light Electrical energy into light energy donor 7. he made many unsuccessful reached at its zenith. Kirtivarma II (745). Gujarat. banks of the Narmada.B None Only AB Universal Speaker Accepter 5. he attacked & raided the most celebrated Hindu the 2nd century.in 84 . Solar cell Solar energy into electrical energy O None A. He defeated Harshavardhana on the important ruler of this dynasty who conquered Orissa. & Karnataka with Tanjore as its capital. Sitar Mechanical energy into sound energy energy 3.O 4. The Chola dynasty was one of the most popular dynasties of b) Annexing Punjab as his eastern province.co. was a temple which he constructed at Thanjavur(TN). who defeated his contemporary 9.His reign is remembered as the greatest period 6. Pulakesin II (610-642).careerpower. He snatched back lost territories from attempts to kill the prince but was ultimately killed himself by the Rashtrakutas & become the most powerful of the Chola the prince & his friends. Kulottunga I (1070-1122) was another significant Chola 5. Dhantidurga. Shravanbelagola was also built during this period. he built a 1. Bengal. rulers.sscadda. surnamed Tyagasamudra. The last ruler of the Chola Dynasty was Rajendra III (1246- Pandya.bankersadda. temple of Somnath. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. It is called contemporary of Harshavardhana & the most famous of the Rajarajeswara after his name. Pulkeshin II was defeated & probably killed in 642. Kulottunga I passed away capital & captured the chalukyan capital at Badami. Electric Electrical energy into mechanical energy motor energy 2. The Chalukyas rose to power once again under the leadership of Chola. The giant statue of Gomateswara at with Vatapi in Bijapur as his capital. He was a weak ruler who surrendered to the pandyas. Battery Chemical energy into electrical energy 1. Loud Electrical energy into sound energy AB A. Kulottunga I united the two kingdom of the eastern However. When he 4. Chalukyan kings.in | www. ruler. sometime in 1122 & was succeeded by his son. was disposed by the Rastrakuta ruler. Candle Chemical energy into light and heat 10. Dynamo Mechanical energy into electrical 9. Pulakesin I (543-566) was the first independent ruler of Badami temple at Tanjore. Pallava.

author of ‘Tabaqat-i-Nasiri’. The Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526). • The capital during his reign was not Delhi but Lahore. This period can be divided into 5 distinct periods viz. thus directed toward the temple-towns of Thaneswar. Shah Turkan. The Sayyid Dynasty (1414-51) Ruknuddin : 1236 5. at the battle of Anhilwara. daughter of Illtutmish. • He was deposed by Razia. Gujarat but the Chalukya ruler of Gujarat. • After the death of Ghori. the nobles placed Ruknuddin Feroz on the throne. who was defeated by Illtutmish in In AD 1173 Shahabuddin Muhammad (AD 1173–1206) also the battle of Jud. Adhai din ka Jonpra at Ajmer. campaign he captured Uchch from the Bhatti Rajputs. Kannauj & finally Somnath.careerpower. Quwat-ul-Islam at Delhi & • He was killed by Turkish nobles. they realized that they could occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211. Muhammad Ghori paved the way for a (jital). • She was the ‘first & only Muslim lady who ever ruled India’. by refusing shelter to Khwarizm Shah. Conquest of Punjab & Sind • He was a very capable ruler & is regarded as the ‘real a) Muhammad Ghori led his first expedition in AD 1175. & Firdausi. b) Three years later in AD 1178 he again marched to conquer the Mongol leader. author of ‘Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi’. Razia became the victim of a conspiracy & was Hindustan & founded the Slave Dynasty in 1206. which was now centrally paid & Delhi Sultanate recruited. called Muhammad of Ghori ascended the throne of Ghazni. Razia Sultana: (1236 – 40) • Iltutmish had nominated his daughter Razia as the successor. The Slave Dynasty • However. in the honour Shah Namah. who wrote • He also began the construction of Qutub Minar. • He saved Delhi Sultanate from the attack of Chengiz Khan.bankersadda. governor of Bhatinda refused to accept suzerainity of Razia.careeradda./Bio. • There was a serious rebellion in Bhatinda. Qutubuddin • He set up an official nobility of slaves known as Chahalgani/ Aibek got the control over Delhi Chalisa (group of forty). In the same • He made Delhi the capital in place of Lahore. he was given the title of Lakh Bakhsh Bahram Shah: 1240-42 (giver of lakhs). From 1010 to 1026. Razia was married to Altunia & both of them • A Turkish slave by origin. Bhima II defeated him whom Chengiz was chasing. give a good account of the polity & society on the eve of • Aibak was great patron of learning & patronized writers like Mahmood’s invasion. The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414) 4. • He organized the Iqta System & introduced reforms in civil administration & army. He founder of the Delhi Sultanate’. Altunia. • She use to rule without the veil • She further offended the nobles by her preference for an Abyssian slave Yakut.in 85 .co. Aibak became the master of • In 1240 AD.e. Altunia got Yakut murdered & imprisoned Razia. marched against Multan & freed it from its ruler. powerful Turkish council Chalisa. assassinated near Kaithal (Haryana). Mathura. • The wazir of Illtutmish Junnaidi revolted against her but was defeated. 2. After the assassination of Muhammad Ghori./Chem. • For his generosity. he was purchased by Mohammad marched towards Delhi as nobles in Delhi raised Bahram Ghori who later made him his Governor. www. after death of Illtutmish. Razia accompanied by Yakut marched against Altunia. The Slave Dynasty (1206-90) started by Aibak. further thrust into the Gangetic Doab. were the court Historians of Mahmud Ghazni & of famous Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutibuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.com | www. gain nothing in Central Asia. Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-10) • Subsequently.in | www. Sind & Punjab. But by AD 1190 having secured • He introduced the silver coin (tanka) & the copper coin Multan. • He completed the construction of Qutub Minar which was 1. 3. • Illtutmish began his career as Sar-e Jandhar or royal bodyguard.Massir’ & Fakhruddin. Shah (3rd son of Illtutmish) to throne.) d) Beruni who wrote Kitab-ul Hind. The Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320) • He patronized Minhaj-us-Siraj. Aram Shah (1210) Muhammad Ghori (Shahabuddin Muhammad) • He was the son of Aibak. The Shamsuddin Illtutmish (1210-36) Ghoris were not strong enough to meet the growing power & • He was a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak of Mamluke tribe & strength of the Khwarizmi Empire. • He constructed two mosques i. • Iltutamish’s third son Bahram Shah was put on throne by • He died in 1210 while playing Chaugan or Polo.sscadda. • He was son of Illtutmish & was crowned by her mother.com | www. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. author of ‘Taj-ul. the invasions were Hasan-un-Nizami.

the • In his last days he overlooked Sultanate affairs due to death entrance gate of Qutub Minar. age of 3 • Kafur was killed by the loyalists of the royal family of • He was the last Illbari ruler Alauddin. crown. He made kingship a serious profession. 4. Paibos (kissing the feet of monarch) as the normal forms of • The post of special officer called Mustakharaj was created for salutation.sscadda. his closest & most loved slave. the purpose of collection of revenue. • Many forts were built by him & the most important of them • He established the military department Diwan-i-Arz. Balban ascended the throne in 3. Aimed at confiscation of the religious endowments & free grants of lands. Aluddin’s army led by Malik Kafur defeated Ram • He was son of Ruknuddin Feroz. Ghiyasuddin Balban : 1266-87 2. Jallauddin Khalji • Jalaluddin Khilji founded the Khilji dynasty. Malika-e-Jahan.in 86 .in | www. Vir Ballal III (Hoyasala ruler of Mother./Bio.com | www. the Kotwal of Delhi • Before Kafur died. & rebellion by thousand Pillars called Hazar Sutun. order. • All goods for sale were brought to an open market called • He gave great emphasis on justice & maintaining law & Sara-i-Adal.) after the death of Allauddin.bankersadda. Jalor (1311). Amir Khusrau. He also constructed the Alai Darwaja. Prohibited the use of wine.com | www. he nominated Shihabuddin (Alauddin’s 6 • But Kaiqubad was killed by nobles Kaimur year old prince) as King but imprisoned eldest prince • He was the minor son of Kaiqubad who came to throne at an Mubarak Khan./Chem. Chandra (Yadava ruler of Devagiri). • Alauddin issued 4 ordinances. He also built the Palace of of his eldest & most loving son. he was the governor of • Ghazi Malik or Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq of Qaurana tribe was Kara the founder of Tughlaq dynasty. • He died in the collapse of the victory pavilion near Delhi Mewar (1303). • He adopted the title Sikander-e-Saini or the second • He was the governor of Dipalpur before coming to power as Alexander Sultan • Alauddin annexed Gujarat (1298). Kingship. • Minaj-us-Siraj has dedicated his book Tabaquat-i-Nasiri to him 1. 1266.co. Malik Kafur Kaiqubad: 1287-90 • In 1316.careeradda. • After the death of Nasiruddin. Shiabuddin Umar (1316) • He was the minor son of Jhitaipali who was raised to throne The Khalji dynasty (1290-1320 A. Tughril. throne by Fakruddin. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq • During the reign of Jallauddin Khalji. Malwa (1305). Malik Kafur seized the • He was the grandson of Balban was established on the throne. Pratap Rudradeva • He was disposed after Balban & Nasiruddin Mahmud’s (Kakatiya ruler of Warangal).D.) Allauddin Masud Shah: 1242-46 • In Deccan. • During his time Devgiri was annexed. Muhammad died • He was a patron of art & learning.000 prisoners toleration • He reversed all the administrative & market reforms of • His son-in-law & nephew was Allauddin Khalji Allauddin Khalji. Nobles should not have convivial parties & they should not • He broke the power of Chalisa & restored the prestige of the inter-marry without his permission. Mubarak Khalji (1316-20) • He was a liberal ruler & adopted the policy of religious • He released 18. He took up the title of Zil-i-Ilahi (Shadow of God). • He introduced the system of Dagh (the branding of horse) & • The Persian court model influenced Balban’s conception of Chehra (descriptive roll of soldiers). • Divine right of the king was emphasized by calling himself • Alauddin sought to fix cost of all commodities. the poet- fighting Mongolians in 1285 & Tughril was captured & musician was his favorite court poet. Nasiruddin Mahamud as the new Sultan. conspired against him & established Dwarsamudra) & Vir Pandya (Pandya ruler of Madurai). was Alai fort. • He became victim of the court politics & was later blinded. after death of Alauddin. Zil-i-Ilahi. Reorganized the spy system. Muhammad.careerpower. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. • Malik Kafur was awarded the title Malik Naib Nasiruddin Mahmud 1246-66 Administrative & Market reforms during Allauddin • He was the eldest son of Illtutmish. beheaded. Allauddin Khalji • He was the first Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated The Thuglaq Dynasty religion from politics. • Alauddin ordered that all land was to be measured & then • He introduced Sijda (prostration before the monarch) & they share of state was to be fixed. www. He proclaimed ‘Kingship knows no Kinship’. • The Khalji nobles revolted against him & he was killed within three months. Ranthambhor (1301).

the Sulatan paid a lot of • He gained the title Ulugh Khan.2 Administration under Sultanate considered non Islamic. one from Topra (Haryana) & other extension of agriculture of barren land from Meerut (U. • Taxation in the Doab: The Sultan made an ill-advised financial experiment in the Doab between the Ganges & The Sayyaid dynasty Yamuna./Bio. Warangal became independent under Kanhaiya. The Sultan crated a new department of Agriculture • Khizr Khan (1414-21) called Diwan-i-Kohi. Moreover there was instability in Khurasan on account of the unpopular rule of Abu Said./Chem. the of Delhi. son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ascended the tax. a hospital described as Dar- ul-Shifa. the governor of Punja invited kinds of taxes sanctioned by the Quran were imposed & Babur to overthrow Ibrahim Lodhi. & provisions for marriage of poor girls.in 87 . • He was the only Sultan who died in battle field Muslims & Khams was 1/5 of the booty captured during war. army & theologians • He was the son of Sikandar Lodhi. to his credit are cities of improvement of the agriculture Fatehabad. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.com | www.e. He decided to conquest Khurasan & Iraq himself in Punjab after the invasion of Timur.careeradda.) were brought to Delhi. Kharaj was the land • Babur accepted the offer & inflicted a crushing defeat on tax. • He was the last king of the Lodhi dynasty & the last Sultan • He adopted the policy of appeasement with the nobility.careerpower.It also appears that the expedition was directed images of the Jwalamukhi Temple at Nagar Kot & ordered against some refractory tribes in Kumaon-Garhwal region the temples of Mathura to be destroyed.e. those were Kharaj. Kumaon hills in Himalayas allegedly to counter Chinese • Sikandar was a fanatical Muslim & he broke the sacred incursions. Bihar & Western Bengal.P. • He encouraged cash crops in place of cereals • The Sultan established at Delhi. This project was also Sikandar Lodhi : 1489-1517 abandoned because of the change in political scenarioin • Sikandar Lodi was the son of Bahlol Lodhi who conquered Khurasan. • Firoz tried to ban practices.com | www. The five experiments • He died in 1388. • In order to encourage agriculture.: Muslim women going out to worship at graves of saints & Diwan-i-Wizarat or finance department erased paintings from the palace. • He distributed Sondhar i. Firoz repaired a number of canals & the Sultans of the Delhi Sultanate imposed Haque-i-Sharb or water tax • He created a department Diwan-e-Amir-e-Kohi for the • He was a great builder as well. He was encouraged • He founded the Lodhi dynasty. • Introduction of Token Currency: Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq decided to introduce bronze coins. • Mubarak Shah (1421-34) • Transfer of Capital: The most controversial step which • Muhammad Shah (1434-43) Mohammad-bin Tughlaq under took soon after his accession • Alam Shah (1443-51)--He was the last Sayyid king was the so called transfer of capital from Delhi to Devagiri. with the object of bringing them under Delhi Sultanate. the Lodhi dynasty. He • He died in Thatta while campaigning in Sindh against Taghi. & mobalised a huge army for the purpose. • The new system of taxation was according to quran. • Qarachil Expedition: This expedition was launched in • Agra city was founded by him.co.in | www. Hisar. The • He reimposed Jaziya tax on non muslims first attack was a success but when the rainy season set in. Jaunpur & Firozabad. Jizya was levied on non. which the orthodox theologians 2. Bahlol Lodhi : 1451-88 • Proposed Khurasan Expedition: The Sultan had a vision of • Bahlol Lodhi was one of the Afghan sardars who established universal conquest. • He took a keen interest in the development of agriculture. agriculture loans advanced for • The two pillars of Ashoka. Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat in 1526. Jalaluddin Ahsan Shah • A new department of Diwan-i-Khairat was set up to make 1336: Foundation of Vijayanagar by Harihar & Bukka. throne in 1325. Thus began Devagiri was thus named Daulatabad. which was equal to 1/10 of the produce of the land.bankersadda. Jizya & Khams. the • He use to write poems with the pen name “Gulrukhi” invaders suffered terribly. he was most educated of all attention to irrigation. descended in favour of Bahlol Lodhi & he retired. Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88) Ibrahim Lodhi : 1517-26 • He was a cousin of Mohammad-bin Tughlaq.) Mohammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-51) • It was during the time of Firoz that Jizya became a separate • Prince Jauna. Zakat was 2% tax on property. to do so by Khurasani nobles who had taken shelter in his • Jaunpur was annexed into Delhi Sultanat during his reign court. a introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandari (Sikandar’s yard) of 32 digits Turkish slave. which were to have same The Lodi Dynasty value as the silver coins.sscadda. Four • At last Daulat Khan Lodhi.Jahan Maqbul. • However his rule is marked by peace & tranquility & credit for it goes to his PM Khan-i. for measuring cultivated fields. Zakat. Thus he prohibited the practice of • There were four pillars of the state i. Diwan-i-Risalat or department of religious matters & appeals www.

he defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at Chanderi. he conquested Malwa (1542).com | www.com | www. Agra to Jodhpur & Chittor • In 1527. • The foundation of the Mughal rule in India was laid by • He issued the coin called Rupiah & fixed standard weights & Babur in 1526. Ghiyasuddin Balban in Mehrauli (Delhi). Akbar • He compiled two anthologies of poems. which • Babur was invited by Daulat Kahna Lodi & Alam Khan Lodi runs from Calcutta to Peshawar. Lodhi) at Ghaghra. • His coronation took place at Kalanaur. • Aibak also built the Adhai-din ka Jhonpra at Ajmer has a beautiful prayer hall. Ranthambhor • Some notable Tughlaq monuments are the fort of (1542). ascended the throne Mubaiyan (in Persian). • In the initial years of his rule Akbar was first under the • He fought two battles against Sher Shah at Chausa (1539) & influence of his reagent Bairam & then under her mother at Kannauj/Bilgram (1540) & was completely defeated by Maha Manga. Gulbadan Begum wrote his biography • Aibak built a Jami Masjid & Quwwatul Islam mosque. Hemu was defeated. • According to Abul Fazal the empire of Sher Shah was divided • In 1530./Bio. but this could’nt be completed because of his death • As an emperor. while conquesting Kalinjar. His Hemu (the Hindu General of Muhammad Adil Shah) & Biram succession was challenged by his brothers Kamran. Ghazi at the young age of 14. Chittor (1544) & Kalinjar (1545). He also wrote Risal-i-Usaz or letters under the title of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar Badshah of Babur. • The period of influence of Maham Anga on Akbar i.) Diwan-i-Arz or department of military affairs • He escaped to Iran where he passed 12 years of his life in Diwan-i-Insha or department of royal correspondence exile.careeradda.bankersadda. only two Mughal emperors are outside India i.in | www.3 Art & architecture under Delhi Sultanate defeated his brothers the Afghans. The vault. • In 1532 he established Tabl-e-adl at Agra. He died in 1545 marked a new phase in Indo-Islamic architecture.sscadda. highways. collected. His tomb is at Lahore. he died at Agra. army • Two gun masters Mustafa & Ustad Ali were in his army • Zamindars were removed & the taxes were directly • He wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki . an exquisitely carved Mehrab of white Sur Empire (Second Afghan Empire) 1540-55 marble & a decorative arch screen. • His sister. Babur & • The unit of land measurement was “bigha” Bahadur Shah Zafar • He like Allauddin Khalji introduced Dagh & Chera in the • He was the first to use gunpowder & artillery in India. Lahore to Multan • In 1528. he defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanwa. he defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa & • Allauddin Khalji began the work of Alai minar to rival Qutab assumed the title Sher Shah as emperor.co. 1556) was fought between • He was the son of Babur & ascended the throne in 1530. The other roads built during against Ibrahim Lodi his reign were: • Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat Agra to Mandu on April 21. Hindal Khan (the regent of Akbar). Humayun (1530-40 & 1555-56) • Second Battle of Panipat (5 Nov. • After Sher Shah’s death Humayun invaded India in 1555 & 2. The true arch unsupported by beam • Abul Fazal calls him Insan-e-Kamil..e. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. The tomb of into 63 sarkars or districts. • Tuzuk-i-Baburi was translated in Persian (named • He was buried in Sasaram. • He was a descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) • He also improved communications by building several & Chengiz Khan (from the side of his mother). land revenue policy & several other Babur measures to improve economic conditions of his subjects. www. measures all over the empire. captured & & Askari along with the Afghans. Minar. he Humayunama.e. Baburnama) by Abdur Rahim Khan-e-khana & in English by Madan Bebridge. Rajputana annexation of Marwar Tughlaquabad. him. • He set up cantonment in various parts of his empire & strong • In 1529. • Purana Quila was built during his reign Mughal period • During his brief reign of 5 years he introduced a brilliant administration. the Jagirdar of Sasaram. • In 1539. form 1560-62 is known as the period of Petticoat government. He once again became • The new features brought by the Turkish conquerors were : the ruler of India. also began the construction of Qutub Minar • He built Din Panah at Delhi as his second capital. slain by Bairam Khan.in 88 ./Chem. 1526 & established Mughal dynasty. Diwan (in Turki) & • Akbar.T. Raisin (1543). Sher Shah: 1540-45 • The first example of true or arch is aid to be the tomb of • He was the son of Hasan Khan. The dome • He died while climbing down the stairs of his library (at Din The lofty towers Panah) in 1556 & was buried in Delhi. the eldest son of Humayun.careerpower. the tomb of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq which (1542). Road). he defeated Muhammad Lodhi (uncle of Ibrahim garrison was posted in each cantonments. He built the Grand Trunk Road (G.

Captain William Hawkins. perpetuate her memory he built the Taj Mahal at Agra in • The Mansabdari system under Akbar. • His four sons Dara Shikoa. reckon with. Religious policy of Aurangzeb: • He wrote his memories Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri in Persian. Marathas under Shivaji rose to power & were a force to • Jahangir issued coins jointly in Jurjahan’s name & his own.He granted permission to the English to establish a Islam. Guru Gobind Singh. • The 10th & last Sikh Guru. the 9th Guru of Roe. • He established Zanjir-i-Adal (i. came to the throne after Akbar’s death tussle for throne Janah Ara supported Dara. • Muhatasibs were appointed for regulation of moral conduct of the subjects Shah Jahan • He forbade singing in the court. Aurangzeb • Birbal was killed in the battle with Yusufzai Tribe (1586). revolted called Khalsa to avenge the murder of his father. • When Akbar died. Jahangir (1605-27) • His daughters also supported one son or the other in the • Salim. • Jahangir also married Jodha Bai of Marwar. • Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri. son of Guru • His reign was marked by several revolts. Arjun Dev was later sentenced to • Guru Gobind Singh was. organized his followers into militant force who received patronage of 5th Sikh Guru Arjun Dev. In 1615 Sir Thomas • Aurangzeb captured Guru Teg Bahadur. Teg Bahadur. supported Aurangzeb. he was buried at Sikandara near Agra.co. the militant successor of • During his last period. his beloved wife Mumtaj • In his 24th year Akbar introduced Dashala system for the Mahal (original name. Guru Gobind Singh continued the war against Mughals. During this period the affairs. Chain of Justice) at Agra • Aurangzeb was coroneted twice. To collection of land revenue by the state. Din-i-Ilahi. described the famine that occurred during Shahjahan’s time. son of Jahangir. son of Akbar.Arzumand Bano) died in 1631. king to be coroneted twice • In 1611. She was made the official Padshah Begum. who was named Salim/Sheikho Baba (Jahangir). Aurangzeb. He was • Tulsidas (author of Ramcharitmanas) also lived during buried at Taj (Agra). a Sufi saint blessed Akbar with a son among his four sons in 1657.e. • Shahjahan’s failing health set off the war of succession Sheikh Salim Chisti.com | www. Nizam Shahi’s dynasty of Salary Ahmadnagar was brought under Mughal control (1633) by Number of sawars (horsemen) Shahjahan. • Sati was prohibited • Three years after his accession.in 89 ./Bio. India Company came to Jahangir’s court. a Persian nobleman who was sent on expedition to of Dara after he was finally deafeated in war at Deorai. against Jahangir (1605). Akbar Shifted his court from Agra to Fatehpur 1658.com | www.careerpower. • Akbar gave Mughal India one official language (Persian). Khurram (Shanjahan). Fatehpur Sikri. & Mahavat Khan. magnificent structures built during his reign. Afghan in Deccan.bankersadda. widow of Sher • Barnier was the foreign visitor who saw the public disgrace Afghan.in | www. • He was called Zindapir or living saint • He was buried in Lahore. Lahore Fort & • The Red Fort. military general of Jahangir also revolted (Khurram: 1622-25 & Mahavat Kha : 1626-27). Shah Shuja & Murad were in the state of war for the throne./Chem.) • Age of marriage for boys & girls was increased to 16 years & • Shahjahan ascended the throne in 1628 after his father’s 14 years respectively death. Later on she was given the title Nurjahan. • Highest numbers of Hindu Mansabdars were there in the • In 1608. In honour of • Aurangzeb emerged the victor who crowned himself in July Salim Chisti. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. however murdered in 1708 by an death for his blessing to the rebel prince (1606). Akbar proclaimed a new religion. • During the first 23 years of the rule (1658-81) Aurangazeb • Nurjahan excercised tremendous influence over the state concentrated on North India. Banda Bahadur. Bengal. divided the 1632-53. Jama Masjid & Taj Mahal are some of the Allahabad Fort & Humayun’s Tomb at Delhi. • The war of succession took place in the later stage of the • Abul Fazl was murdered by Bir Singh Bundela (1601). He himself played Veena (daughter of Raja Jagat Singh). Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb in Sikri. but allowed musical • His real name was Khurram. Peter Mundi Birbal was the only Hindu who followed this new religion. he was born to Jodha Bai instruments. in 1581. an ambassador of King James I of England also came to Sikhs in 1675 & executed him when he refused to embrace his court. Mansabdars into 66 categories. This system fixed the • He continued applying tika (tilak) on the fore-head following service conditions: • He introduced the Char-Taslim in the court Rank & status • In addition to Jahangir’s empire. Roshan Ara in 1605. Agra Fort. a representative of East service of Mughals during the reign of Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan reign. Akbar’s period.sscadda. Jahangir married Mihar-un-nisa. • He ended Jhoraka darshan started by Akbar www. he was the only Mughal Fort for the seekers of royal justice. Tavernier & the Italian traveler Nicoli Manucci. the Agra Fort where he died in captivity in 1666. His son Khusrau. • As a revolt against the orthodoxy & bigotry of religious • Shahjahan’s reign is described by French traveler Bernier & priests.careeradda. place near Agra-it said that Akbar had no son for a long time. trading port at Surat. Guhara supported Murad.

 Raqqat-e-Alamgiri – Aurangzeb • Humayun’s tomb was built by his widow Haji Banu Begum. The 1571 Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri number of provinces became 15 towards the end of his 1579 Proclamation of ‘Mazhar’ (written by Faizi) reign. his widow Tarabai carried on the movements.bankersadda. Shivaji was imprisoned by Aurangzeb but • Some of the important buildings built by Shahajahan at Agra he managed to escape & in 1674 proclaimed himself an are Moti Masjid (only Mosque of marble). he conspired with technique.Muhammad Salih painting while that of Shah Jahan was the apex culmination  Sirr-i-Akbar-. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. one at Kabulibagh in Panipat & the  Majma-ul-Bahrain -.com | www.Abdul Hamid Lahori • Jahangir’s reign was the apex culmination for the Mughal  Shahjahan Namah-. to eliminate Shivaji in 1665. Ustad Mansur & Bishandas were three famous Central administration: painters of Jahangir’s court. • Abdul Hassan. Diwan-i-Aam. the specific noble was to maintain double the number of • Daswant & Basawan were two famous painters of Akbar’s horsemen. Khaas Mahal. Aurangzeb’s court. year in captivity) etc. Akbar divided the empire into 12 provinces. Palace of Birbal & palace of • The Viswanath temple at Kashi & the Keshav Rai temple of Tansen are also inside the Fatehpur Sikri. • Only building by Aurangzeb in the Red Fort is Moti Masjid. Jai Singh of Amber.e. • The architecture of Fatehpur Sikri is known as Epic in red sand stone./Chem.sscadda. court. 1.- • Buland Darwaja (built after Gujarat victory). • Only monument associated with Aurangzeb is Bibi ka Mughal administration Makbara which is the tomb of his wife Rabbiaud-daura in Mansabdari system: Aurangabad. however later became revenue advisor only The landmark events that took place during the reign of Mir Bakshi: He was the head of military department Akbar 1562 Ban on forcible conversion of war-prisoners into slaves Provincial administration: 1563 Abolition of Pilgrimage Tax • The empire was divided into provinces or Subas. www. Yard Mughal Literature Local administration:  Akbar Nama--Abul Fazl • The provinces were divided into Sarkars. a Rajput.Dara Shikoh for architecture. there • Aurangzeb also built the Badshahi Masjid in Lahore. Sambhaji was • He laid the foundations of Shahjahanabad in 1637 where he succeeded by his brother Rajaram & after his death in 1700. Old • Salim Chisti’s tomb (redone in Marble by Jahangir) is the first temples were allowed to be repaired Mughal building in pure marble). independent monarch. Calender • The Nazim or Subedar was the head of provinces 1587 Ilahi Gaz i. Which Mughal ruler in Indian history as "Shah-e./Bio. 1564 Abolition of Jaziya • In 1580. Dura (floral designs made up of semiprecious stones) • When Aurangzeb could not eliminate him.careeradda.  Safinat-ul-Auliya -. • Jahangir built Moti Masjid in Lahore & his mausoleum at • On the assurance given by Jai Singh.in | www.co. were 66 categories of Mansabdars • Humayun had taken into his service two master painter Mir • Jahangir introduced Du-Aspah-Sih-Aspah system whereby Syed Ali & Abdus Samad. • Each Mughal officer was assigned a mansab (rank). which is noticable for the first use of Pietra enemy of Aurangzeb. Shivaji visited Shahdara (Lahore). formed the Bekhabar?" Ans. Wakil: He was initially the PM. • The Mariam’s palace. 1580 Dahsala Bandobast introduced • In Jahangir’s reign the number of provinces rose to 17 & 1582 Din-i-Ilahi / Tauhid-i-Ilahi further in Aurangzeb’s reign to 21 1584 Ilahi Samvat i.in 90 . Diwan-i-Khas at Sikri are Mughals After Aurangzeb Indian in their plan.com | www. who was executed by Aurangzeb in 1689. main entrance to Fatehpur Sikri. Bahadur Shah. Bir Singh Bundela at Mathura were destroyed • Akbar also began to build his own tomb at Sikandara which • In 1679 he re-imposed Jaziya tax was later completed by Jahangir. which were sub  Tobaqat-i-Akbari--Khwajah Nazamuddin Ahmad Baksh divide into Parganas & further into villages  Iqbalnama-i-Jahangiri—Muhammad Khan  Ain-i-Akbari --Abul Fazl Mughal Culture  Padshah Namah-. Mussmman Burz (Jasmine Palace where he spent his last • Shivaji died in 1680 & was succeeded by his son Sambhaji.Dara Shikoh • Babur built two mosques.e.Dara Shikoh other at Sambhal in Rohilakhand.) • He ordered that no new Hindu temples were to be built.careerpower. CLASH WITH MARATHAS • Nurjahan built Itimad-ud-daula or Mirza Ghiyas Beg’s marble • Shivaji was the most powerful Maratha king & an arch tomb at Agra. built the Red Fort & Takht-i-Taus (Peacock throne).

 Repeatedly invaded & plundered India right down to Delhi  Chauth & Sardeshmukh granted to Marathas. Where Bahadur Shah Zafar died ? Ans. He was the Defense Minister of Nadir Shah. Abolished jizyah. Nobles headed by Nizam-ul-Mulk & Muhammad Amin Khan Rangoon. Who abolished the Jazia tax reimposed by Aurangzeb ? Ans. 11Who is the architect of Tajmahal ? Answer: Uztad Iza 12. in favour of Mir Qasim of Bengal & Nawab' of 1. the Bundela chief & Churaman. Pilgrim tax was abolished from a number of places 7. 1. In Rangoon. Which Mughal ruler participated in the battle of Buxar in Saiyid Brothers 1764 AD. Which Mughal ruler had to grant the Diwani of Bengal. ascended the throne in  MS ceded thim all the provinces of the Empire west of the river Indus 1712 with help from Zulfikar Khan  Significance: Nadir Shah’s invasion exposed the hidden  Zulfikar Khan.  Ijarah: (revenue farming) the government began tcontract  1761: Third battle of Panipat. Jahandar Shah (1712-13)  Plunder of about 70 crore rupees.  Attracted to India by its fabulous wealth.careeradda. & Mathura between 1748 & 1761. Ans. During the reign of which Mughal ruler there was a Sikh  Jahandhar Shah defeated in January 1713 by his nephew rising in Punjab under the leadership of Banda Bahadur? Farrukh Siyar at Agra Ans.com | www. MS taken prisoner  Made peace with Chhatarsal.  Granted sardeshmukhi to Marathas but not Chauth  Heriditary nawabs arose in Bengal.in 91 . relinquished his Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12) office & founded the state of Hyderabad in 1724  Muzam succeeded Aurungzeb after latter’s death in 1707  “His departure was symbolic of the flight of loyalty & virtue from the Empire”  He acquired the title of Bahadur Shah.  Owed his victory to Saiyid Brothers: Hussain Ali Khan 2.  The twarmies met at Karnal on 13th Feb 1739. 6. AD? 5. was virtually the head of the weakness of the empire to the Maratha sardars & the administration foreign trading companies  ZK abolished jizyah  Peace with Rajputs: Jai Singh of Amber was made the Ahmed Shah Abdali Governor of Malwa. Between whom the third battle of Panipat was fought &  FS was an incapable ruler.in | www. Who was Ahmad Shah Abdali ? Barahow & Abdullah Khan 3. Shah Alam II. He invaded India five Mughals were to collect it & then hand it over to the Marathas. Farrukh Siyar (1713-19) Jahandar Shah. quarrels & Shah Zafar. 5. conspiracies at the court. Hyderabad. the Saiyid Brothers killed & overthrew Siyar. What is the Gate way of Redfort called as ? Answer: Lahore Muhammad Shah ‘Rangeela’ (1719-1748) Gate  Weak-minded. with revenue farmers & middlemen to pay the government a  As a result of invasions of Nadir Shah & Ahmed Shah.careerpower. Ahmad Shah Abdali & the Marathas in 1761 rulers. began to conspire against them 10. Adopted the policy of religious tolerance. They failed in their effort to contain rebellion because they 8. Marathas: Granted Shahuji swarajya & the right to collect Bihar & Orissa to the British after the battle of Buxar? Ans. Saiyid brothers were the real when ? Ans.  Massacre in Delhi in response to the killing of some of his soldiers.bankersadda. By 1761 it whatever they could from the peasants was reduced merely to the Kingdom of Delhi www. Ajit  One of the generals of Nadir Shah  Singh of Marwar was made the Governor of Gujarat. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.  Abdullah Khan: Wazir. Gujarat & Bundelkhand  Tried to make peace with Guru Gobind Sahib by giving him a Nadir Shah’s Invasion (1738) high Mansab. times. son of Bahadur Shah. 3. 11. Bahadur were faced with constant political rivalry.) 2. Awadh & Punjab  Released Shahuji (son of Sambhaji) from prison (who later fought with Tarabai)  Marathas conquered Malwa. Bahadur Shah. the Jat chief. the wazir. However. 7. 6. Ans.co. chauth & sardeshmukhi of the six provinces of the Deccan Shah Alam II. This led to a prolonged war with the Sikhs.com | www. frivolous & over-fond of a life of ease 13./Bio. Which is the biggest masjid in India ? Answer: Jama Masjid in delhi  Neglected the affairs of the state  Naizam ul Mulk Qin Qulik Khan. Defeat of Marathas. Who was the last ruler of Mughal dynasty ? Ans. Where Bahadur Shah Zafar was deposed in capital? Ans./Chem. Hussain Ali: Mir Bakshi 4. Carried away the Peacock throne & Koh-inoor  Death of Bahadur Shah plunged the empire into a civil war  Jahandar Shah. his wazir. Known the Indian History as King Makers Avadh Shuja-ud-Daula against the British rule? 2. the fixed amount of money while they were left free to collect Mughal empire ceased to be an all-India empire. Mughal army was summarily defeated. Sikhs again revolted under the leadership of Banda Bahadur. 4.sscadda. 9. In 1719.  After Guru’s death.

Kalyan & • He succeeded the throne with the help of the ministers at Chakan also suffered several defeats till he made a bold Rajgarh. Shivaji visited Agra but there he was insulted the fear of his wazir. Consequently the treaty of Purandhar (1665) was signed according to which Shivaji ceded some forts to  Shah Jahan III succeeded by Shah Alam II in 1759 the Mughals & paid a visit to the Mughal court at Agra. the elder son of Shivaji. Shivaji lost Poona. Panhala (1659).) attack on Shaista Khan(1663) & plundered Surat (1664) & Shah Alam II (1759) later Ahmadnagar. 1. honorary post with no real military powers. Ahamadnagar & plundered Junnar. the Mughal emperors merely served as rights. each minister was directly  Shivaji was the son of Shahji & Jijabai & was born in the fort responsible to Shivaji.in | www. tarafs.1 Shivaji (1627-80) collective responsibility.com | www. for there was no 2. Hinduism). Shambhaji: 1680-1689 • In 1657 Shivaji first confronted the Mughals. Afzal Khan was deputed by Adil Shah of Bijapur son of Aurangzeb. Rohind & Chakan (1644-45) Raja Ram a successor of Shivaji 3. Siddis (Janjira).  The most important consequence of the fall of the Mughal • Shivaji divided his territory under his rule (Swarajya) into empire was that it paved way for the British to conquer three provinces. Decline of the Mughal Empire Shivaji’s Administration  After 1759.com | www. country • Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10% on those lands  In 1803. of Purandhar. Provinces were India as there was no other Indian power strong enough to divided into Prants which were subdivided into parganas or unite & hold India. importance. Purandhar (1648) Malik Ambar’s (Ahmadnagar) reforms. but which formed part of the Mughal Empire. each under a viceroy. but the later Afzal Khan was murdered by • He was captured at Sangameswar by a Mughal noble & Shivaji in 1659./Bio. • In 1670. He conquested Karnataka during 1677-80. the rebellious • In 1659-60. talking • Sambhaji. Mughal empire ceased to be a military power. in the war of succession. he joined forces with Mir Qasim of Bengal & Shuja. 5. was deputed by Rajaram: 1689-1700 Aurangzeb to check Marathas.  Ahmed Bahadur (1748-54) succeeded Muhammad Shah • Raja Jai Singh of Amber & Diler Khan were then appointed  Ahmed Bahadur was succeeded by Alamgir II (1754-59) by Aurangzeb to curb the rising power of Shivaji in 1665. This is an  He conquered many Forts viz. Supa (1656) 2. 2. Singh Garh/ Kondana (1643) • Later on the ninth minister named Pratinidhi was added by 2. Shivaji’s Ashtapradhan  Shivaji inherited the Jagir of Poona from his father in 1637. This resulted in the Battle of Buxar the title of Haindava Dharmodharak (Protector of  Pensioned at Allahabad./Chem.careeradda. • He provided protection & support to Akbar II. Peshwa (Mukhya Pradhan): Finance & general  His guru was Ramdas Samrath administration.  It continued from 1759 till 1857 only due to the powerful • Chauth & Sardeshmukhi were taxes collected by Marathas. hold that the Mughal dynasty had on the minds of the • Chauth was paid to the Marathas so as not be subjected to people of India as a symbol of the political unity of the Maratha raids. Shaista Khan.2 Successors of Shivaji 7.sscadda. • Marathi became the official language. The famous “baghnakh” episode is related executed(killed). of Shivner. the British occupied Delhi of Maharashtra over which the Maratha claimed hereditary  From 1803 to 1857.  Shah Alam spent initial years wandering for he lived under • In 1666. later he became PM & assumed great  After the death of his guardian.  1756: Abdali plundered Mathura • Jai Singh succeeded in beseiging Shivaji in the fort of  Alamgir II was succeeded by Shah Jahan III Purandhar. www. 1. • In 1660. he raided younger son of Shivaji. ud-Daula of Awadh in declaring a war upon the British East • In 1674 Shivaji was coronated at capital Raigarh & assumed India company. he assumed full charge of his Jagir. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.bankersadda. to punish Shivaji. • His last expedition was against Ginjee & Vellore. in 1647. Toran (1646) • Most of the administrative reforms of Shivaji were based on 4.co. • Shivaji was helped by the Ashtapradhan (Eight-minister) The Marathas which was unlike a council of ministers. Rajgarh/ Raigarh (1656) 6.careerpower.  Returned to Delhi in 1772 under the protection of • After that Shivaji continued the struggle with Mughals & Marathas. Dadaji Kondadev. a political front of the British.in 92 . with the death of Afzal Khan. • Swarajya was directly under the control of Maratha. defeated Rajaram. Shivaji captured most of the forts lost by the treaty  In 1764. Sar-i-Naubat (Senapati): Military commander. the advantage of the Mughal invasion of Bijapur. governor of Deccan.

They entered into an agreement Peshwa was to protect the Mughal empire from internal & with Shivaji & he assured them not to attack & plunder external enemies (like Ahmad Shah Abdali) in return for them by paying a tax called Chauth. ? Ans. Which of his son did Shivaji send in the service of • He conquered Bassein and Aurangzeb ? Ans.sscadda. His mother Jija Bai. military achievement was the capturing of the Torna Fort of • Tarabai’s army was defeated by Shahu at the battle of Khed Bijapur in 1446 AD. neighboring states & small principalities. 19. Which was the second most important post in Shivaji's council ? Ans. In 1670 AD. What was the tax system of Shivaji ? Ans. the title of Sena Karte (marker of the army) by Shahu in 9. Ashtha Pradhan. Viswas Rao & Sadashiv Rao Bhau. Raja Jai Singh captured many Marathas forts • He concluded an agreement with the Syed Brothers-King & compelled him to make peace. 12. 16. Aurangzeb sent whom against Shivaji ? Ans. In of confederacy. Shivaji used to plunder the state affairs was left in his hands. They were always • In an agreement with the Mughal emperor Ahmad Shah. & Bundelkhand from the latter (1738).com | www. & Shivaji got a huge looty. Maker (1719) by which the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar 11. the management of all 22.com | www. In 1666 AD. Peshwa (PM). When was Shivaji imprisoned in the court of Aurangzeb ? as Peshwa at the young age of 20. What was Shivaji's first Military achievement ? Ans. the Maratha kingdom into an empire based on the principle 7. Surat.careerpower. Ans. To establish a vast the guardianship of his mother Tarabai. Who was the first person to unite the Marathas ? Ans. 1656 AD. The council of eight ministers of Shivaji was known by concluded the treaty of Doraha Sarai by which he got Malwa which name ? Ans. www. This event shocked the • Rajaram died at Satara. Shivaji plundered which city of Gujarat & when ? Ans. 21. 15. Marathas empire & drag foreigners out of the country. withering tree & the branches will fall of themselves’. recognised Shahu as the king of the Swarajya. When did Shivaji again loot Surat ? Ans. Eight Salsette from the Portuguese (1739). the standard revenue. • He became Peshwa in 1713 & made the post the most 10. The land revenue Balaji Baji Rao: 1740-61 was fixed at 2/5th of the total produce. In 1674 • Under him several Maratha families became prominent & AD. 1708. Tarabai: 1700-1707 2.bankersadda./Chem. state.in 93 . after Shivaji & Maratha power reached its zenith under him. (1700) & Shahu occupied Satara. in 1664 AD. By how many ministers Shivaji was assisted Ans. Amatya (Finance Minister). • Rajaram created the new post of Pratinidhi. thus taking the total number of minister to nine QUESTIONS (Pratinidhi+Ashtapradhan).co. Which was the most important post in Shivaji's council ? • He said about Mughals: ‘Let us strike at the trunk of the Ans. he succeeded his father at Sardeshmukhi were also the main source of income of the the age of 20. • Shahu’s reign saw the rise of Peshwas & transformation of Raigarh. To crush whom did Aurangzeb send Raja Jaisingh of Amber important & powerful as well as hereditary.in | www. By whom was shivaji greatly impressed ? Ans. What was the Chauth ? Ans./Bio. Shivaji. the in fear of Shivaji's raid. 17. When & where Shivaji made his capital ? Ans. which had become the capital after Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao & after six month he also died. What was the dream of Shivaji ? Ans. 1761) resulted in the defeat invasion in which Rajgarh was captured along with of the Marathas by Ahmad Shah Abdali & the death of Sambhaji’s wife & son (Shahu) by the Mughals. 6. 20. This the fall of Jinji to Mughal in 1698. • Rajaram was succeeded by his minor son Shivaji II under 3. • He began his carrier as a small revenue official & was given but he had to flee from the battle field. Shambhaji. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy. The Chauth & the • Popularly known as Nana Saheb. succeeded him 13. got themselves entrenched in different parts of India. 1. the eldest son of Balaji Viswanath. • Baji Rao. • Tarabai continued the struggle with Mughals 4. The Chauth was l/4th of Chauth (1752). His first • Shahu was released by the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah. Who was the founder of Marathas empire ? Ans. • He was considered the greatest exponent of guerrilla tactics 14. battle ended the Maratha power. • He also defeated the Nizam-ul-Mulk near Bhopal & 18.) • He fled from Rajgarh to Jinji in 1689 due to a Mughal • Third battle of Panipat (Jan 14. In Baji Rao I: 1720-40 1666 AD. Balaji Viswanath (1714-20): The First Peshwa 8. Between whom the treaty of Purandara was singned? Ans. Shivaji. 1659 AD. Shahu : 1707-1749 5.careeradda. When did Shivaji fight a war with Bijapur state ? Ans. Shivaji & Aurangzeb. Shaista Khan. When did Shivaji celebrate his coronation ? Ans. Afzal Khan of Bijapur was killed in this war . • After the death of Shahu (1749). ministers. Shivaji. When did Shivaji attend the court of Aurangzeb ? Ans.

SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE
POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy./Chem./Bio.)
23. What was Sardeshmukhi ? Ans. Sardeshmukhi was also a Battle of Chhandwar (1194 A.D)-Mohammed Ghori defeated
tax paid by the territories & principalities so that Marathas Jayachandra of Kannauj.
might also fight for them & save them from other invaders. First Battle of Panipat (1526 A.D)—Babur (Mughal Dynasty)
Sardeshmukhi was charged 1/4th the standard revenue. defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
24. Aurangzeb called whom by the name of "Pahari Chuha" ? Battle of Talikota (1564- 65 AD)— Alliance between Bijapur,
Ans. Shivaji. Bidar, Ahmednagar & Golkonda under Hussain Nizam Shah
25. In which war strategy Marathas were very popular ? Ans. defeated Ram Raja of Vijayanagar Empire.
Guerilla war. First Anglo-Mysore War (1767–1769) —Between the
26. Which title did Shivaji assume & swear for the protection of Sultanate of Mysore & the East India Company. British were
Brahmans ? Ans. Hindu Padshahi & saviour of the religion. defeated.
27. When did Shivaji die ? Ans. In 1680 AD. First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782 A.D)- Fought between
the British East India Company & Maratha Empire in
Important battles fought in India India.Maratha defeated English forces ended with Treaty of
Battle of Tarain (First)(1191)-This battle was fought at Tarain Salbai.All the territories occupied by the British after the treaty
near Thaneswar. Prithviraj of Chauhan of Purandar were given back to the Marathas.
Dynasty defeated the Mohammad of Ghori Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780 A.D)— Alliance between
Second Battle of Tarain(1192)-It was fought at same Tarain Haider Ali, the Nizam & the Marathas was formed. They
battlefield as in the first Tarain battle. This was fought defeated the English.Hyder Ali became the master of Carnatic.
by Mohammad Ghori against Prithvi Raj Chauhan. This time Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790- 92 A.D)—Fought between
Prithvi Raj was defeated. the English & Tipu Sultan (Son of Hyder Ali). Tipu Sultan was
Battle of Khanwa(17-March-1527)--Rajputs under Rana of compelled to sign the Treaty of Seringapatam.
Mewar Rana Sanga, were defeated by Babur of Ferghana. Rana Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799 A.D)— The British forces
Sanga was brutally wounded in the battlefield. (Under Arthur Wellesley) defeated & killed Tipu Sultan.
Battle of chausa (7-June-1539) Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805 A.D)—Fought
Sher shah defeated the mughals, but Humayun, the king escaped between English & the Marathas.British defeated Marathas &
by crossing over the river. annexed Tanjore, Surat & Carnatic.
Battle of Kanauj or Billgram (17-May-1540) Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818 A.D)- Fought between
Sher shah won against Humayun. Occupied only Agra city. English (Governor General Hastings) & the Marathas.British
Battle of Panipat(5-November-1556) defeated Marathas.Formal end of the
Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu) was defeated by Mughals Maratha empire
under Akbar. First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826) Fought between
Battle of Haldighati(1576) English East India Company & Burma.Ended in a British East
This was started between Akbar & Rana of Mewar Pratap. India Company victory.
Mughals won. But Rana did not accept Mughal sovereignty. First Anglo-Afghan war (1839-42 A.D)- British defeated
First Carnatic War(1745–48) Afghan ruler Dost Mohammad.
This war was fought by British & French armies. French Battle of Cheelianwala (1849 A.D)— English East India
occupied Madras, later returned it to British. Company under Lord Hugh Gough defeated the Sikhs (under
Second Carnatic War(1749–54) Sher Singh).
French army under the of Duplex fought with British & British
won. In 1755 they made a provisional treaty.
Third Carnatic War(1756–63)
In 1758 French occupied Fort Saint David. But defeated at
Wandiwasi (1760). Britishers won.
Battle of Plassey (June-1757)
British Army under the command of Rober Clive fought with
Bengal Nawab Siraz-ud-daula & British won & Mir Jafar was
made Nawab. Siraz-ud-daula was hanged.
Battle of Buxar(1764)
British army under the command of Major Manri defeated the
combined army of Mir Kasim nawab of Bengal, Shuja-ud-daulah
nawab of Awadh, Sha Alam, Mughal emperor.
History of Important battles & wars in India
Battle of Hydaspes (326 B.C)— The Paurava king Porus was
defeated by Alexander the Great.But the valour of Porus
impressed Alexander & he returned his kingdom to him.
Battle of Kalinga (261 B.C)— Ashoka defeated Kalinga king.
After this war Ashoka embraced Buddhism & preached it during
the rest of his life.

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94

SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE
POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy./Chem./Bio.)
ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY
 The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION IN INDIA show that it was written from right to left in the first line & left to
Ancient Civilizations in India right in the second line. This style is called ‘Boustrophedon’
 The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization thriving
along the Indus River & the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now BUDDHISM IN INDIA
Pakistan & north-western India.  Born in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini (near
 According to radio-carbon dating, it spread from the year 2500 – Kapilavastu) in Nepal.
1750 BC.  His father Suddhodana was the Saka ruler.
 R.B. Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa (on Ravi) in 1921. R.D.  His mother (Mahamaya, of Kosala dynasty) died after 7 days of his
Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro or ‘Mound of the Dead’ (on birth. Brought up by stepmother Gautami.
Indus) in 1922. Sir John Marshal played a crucial role in both these.  Married at 16 to Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13 years
 Harappan Civilization forms part of the proto history of India & & had a son named Rahula.
belongs to the Bronze Age.  Left his palace at 29 (with Channa, the charioteer & his favourite
 Copper, bronze, silver, gold were known but not iron. horse, Kanthaka) in search of truth (also called
 The Indus-Valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of ‘Mahabhinishkramana’ or The Great Renunciation) & wandered for
cotton & wool. 6 years.
 Attained ‘Nirvana’ or ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Gaya in Magadha
Domestication of animals: (Bihar) under the Pipal tree.
 Stock breeding was important in Indus culture. Besides sheep & Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had
goats, dogs, humped cattle buffalo & elephant was certainly settled. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapravartan’ or
domesticated. The camel was rare & horse was not known. ‘Turning of the Wheel of Law’.
 Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village
Indus Valley Civilization Town Planning : Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80 in the
 Elaborate town-planning. It followed the Grid System. Roads were Malla republic.
well cut, dividing the town into large rectangular or square blocks
 Used burnt bricks of good quality as the building material. Buddhist Councils:
Elsewhere in the contemporary world, mud-bricks were used.  The monks gathered 4 times after the death of Buddha & the effect
 In Mohanjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by of these events had their effect on Buddhism.
7 m & 2.4 m deep, has been found. Steps led from either end to the  First Council: At Rajgriha, in 483 BC under the chairman ship of
surface, with changing rooms alongside. It was probably used for Mehakassaapa (King was Ajatshatru). Divided the teachings of
ritual bathing. Buddha into two Pitakas – Vihaya Pitaka & Sutta Pitaka. Upali
recited the Vinaya Pitaka & Ananda recited the Sutta Pitaka.
Major Cities & Their Features:  Second Council: At Vaishali, in 383 BC under Sabakami (King was
 Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus. Kalasoka). Followers divided into Sthavirmadins & Mahasanghikas.
 Chanhudaro lies on the left bank of the Indus about 130 km south of  Third Council: At Pataliputra, in 250 BC under Mogaliputta Tissa
Mohenjodaro. (King was Ashoka). In this, the third part of the Tripitaka was coded
 Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar in the Pali language.
which dried up centuries ago.  Fourth Council: At Kashmir (Kundalvan), in 72 AD under
 Lothal is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay. Vasumitra (King was Kanishka). Vice-Chairman was Ashwaghosha).
 Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now extinct Divided Buddhism into Mahayana & Hinayana sects.
Sarasvati River.
 Surkotada (Gujarat) is at the head of the Rann of Kutch. Buddist Literature:
 Dholavira (Gujarat) excavated is in the Kutch district  Buddhist scriptures in Pali are commonly referred to as Tripitakas,
i.e. ‘Threefold Basket’.
Trade & Commerce in Ancient India :  Vinaya Pitaka: Rules of discipline in Buddhist monasteries.
 There was no metallic money in circulation & trade was carried Sutta Pitaka: Largest, contains collection of Buddha’s sermons.
through Barter System  Abhidhamma Pitaka: Explanation of the philosophical principles
 Weights & measures of accuracy existed in Harappan culture (found of the Buddhist religion.
at Lothal). The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc & were
generally cubical in shape.
 16 was the unit of measurement (16, 64,160, 320). JAINISM IN INDIA
 A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal. Rangpur, Somnath &  Founded by Rishabhanath.
Balakot functioned as seaports. Sutkagendor & Sutkakoh functioned There were 24 tirthankaras (Prophetsor Gurus), all Kshatriyas.
as outlets.  First was Rishabhanath (Emblem: Bull).
 The 23rd Tirthankar Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake) was the son of
Indus Valley Civilization Script : King Ashvasena of Banaras. His main teachings were: Non-injury,
 The script is not alphabetical but pictographic (about 600 Non-lying, Non-stealing, Non-possession.
undeciphered pictographs).  The 24th & the last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavira (Emblem:
Lion).

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SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE
POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy./Chem./Bio.)
Vardhman Mahavira History:  Except Porus who fought the famous battle of Hydaspes (on banks
 He was born in Kundagram (Distt Muzafffarpur, Bihar) in 599 BC. of Jhelum) with Alexander, all other kings submitted meekly.
 His father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan. His mother was When Alexander reached Beas, his soldiers refused to go further, so
Trishla, sister of Lichchavi Prince Chetak of Vaishali. he was forced to retreat.
 Mahavira was related to Bimbisara.  To mark the farthest point of his advance, he erected 12 huge
 Married to Yashoda, had a daughter named Priyadarsena, whose stones altars on the northern bank of Beas.
husband Jamali became his first disciple.  Remained in India for 19 months & died in 323 BC at Babylon.
 At 30, after the death of his parents, he became an ascetic.
 In the 13th year of his asceticism (on the 10th of Vaishakha), THE MAURYAN DYNASTY
outside the town of Jrimbhikgrama, he attained supreme Chandragupta Maurya History (322 – 297 BC):
knowledge (Kaivalya).  With the help of Chanakya, known as Kautilya or Vishnugupta, he
 From now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya & Mahavira, & his overthrew the Nandas & established the rule of the Maurya
followers were named Jains. He also got the title of Arihant, i.e., dynasty.
worthy.  Built a vast empire, which included not only good portions of Bihar
 At the age of 72, he attained death at Pava, near Patna, in 527 BC. & Bengal, but also western & north western India & the Deccan.
Note: In Jainism, three Ratnas (Triratnas) are given & they are called  This account is given by Megasthenes (A Greek ambassador sent by
the way to Nirvana. They are Right Faith, Right Knowledge & Right Seleucus to the court of Chandragupta Maurya) in his book Indica.
Conduct. We also get the details from the Arthashastra of Kautilya
 Chandragupta adopted Jainism & went to Sravanabelagola (near
History of Jain Councils: Mysore) with Bhadrabahu, where he died by slow starvation.
 First Council: Held at Pataliputra by Sthulabhadra in the beginning
of third century BC. It resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to History of Bindusara (297 – 273 BC):
replace 14 Purvas.  Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded by his son Bindusara in 297
 Second Council: It was held at Vallabhi (Gujarat) in the fifth BC.
century AD under the leadership of Devridhigani.  He is said to have conquered ‘the land between the 2 seas’, i.e., the
Arabian Sea & Bay of Bengal.
THE MAGADHA EMPIRE History of Ashoka (269 – 232 BC):
 Period of Magadha Empire: 6th Century – 4th Century BC.  Ashoka was appointed the Viceroy of Taxila & Ujjain by his father,
 Extent of Magadha Empire: Magadha embraced the former Bindusara
districts of Patna, Gaya & parts of Shahabad & grew to be the  Ashoka became the Buddhist under Upagupta.
leading state of the time.
 Haryanka Dynasty: Originally founded in 566 BC by the The Kalinga War History:
grandfather of Bimbisara, but actual foundation by Bimbisara. (261 BC, mentioned in XIII rock edict): It changed his attitude
King Bimbisara of Magadha (544 BC – 492 BC): towards life. Ashoka became a Buddhist after that.
 Contemporary of Buddha. Causes of the fall of Mauryan Empire:
 His capital was Rajgir (Girivraja)  Ashoka’s patronage of Buddhism & his anti-sacrificial attitude is
 His capital was surrounded by 5 hills, the openings in which were said to have affected the income of the Brahmins. So they
closed by stone walls on all sides. This made Rajgir developed antipathy against Ashoka.
Ajatshatru History (492 BC – 460 BC):.  Revenue from agrarian areas was not sufficient to maintain such
 Son of Bimbisara killed his father & seized the throne. a vast empire as booty from war was negligible.
 Buddha died during his reign; arranged the first Buddhist Council.  Successors of Ashoka were too weak to keep together such a
 History of Udayin (460 – 444 BC): He founded the new capital at large centralized empire.
Pataliputra, situated at the confluence of the Ganga & Son. Note: The last Mauryan king Brihadratha was killed by Pushyamitra
Shishunaga Dynasty: Shunga (Commander in Chief) in 185 BC, who started the Shunga
 Founded by a minister Shishunaga. He was succeeded by Kalasoka dynasty in Magadha.
(II Buddhist council).
 Dynasty lasted for two generations only. SANGAM AGE IN INDIA
 Greatest achievement was the destruction of power of Avanti. History of Cholas:
Nanda Dynasty:  The kingdom was called Cholamandalam or Coromondal. The
 Founder was Mahapadma Nanda. chief centre was Uraiyur, a place famous for cotton trade.
 Alexander attacked India in their reign. Dhana Nanda was there at Capital was Kaveripattanam/Puhar.
that time.  A Chola king named Elara conquered SriLanka & ruled it over
Alexander’s Invasion of India for 50 years.
 Alexander (356 BC – 323 BC) was the son of Philip of Macedonia  Karikala was their famous king.
(Greece) who invaded India in 326 BC.  Main source of wealth was trade in cotton cloth. They also
 At that time NW India was split up into a number of small maintained an efficient navy.
independent states like Taxila, Punjab (kingdom of Porus),
Gandhara etc.
 Except Porus who fought the famous battle of Hydaspes (on banks THE GUPTA DYNASTY
of Jhelum) with Alexander, all other kings submitted meekly. Gupta Empire Golden Age of India

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visited in 670 AD. but shifted to Kannauj History of Kumaragupta – I (AD 413 – 455): (after Harsha’s death Kannauj was won from Harsha’s  He adopted the title of Mahendraditya. the empire once again broke up into petty States.)  On the ruins of the Kushan empire arose a new empire.in | www. thereby acknowledging his marriage alliance.in 97 .  He was the worshipper of Lord Kartikeya (son of Lord Shiva).sscadda. successors by the Pratiharas).  He acquired the title of Maharajadhiraj. Amarsimha. Meghadutam. his queen & the Gupta Literature in India: Lachchavi nation. century AD. Hieun Tsang (Prince of Travelers) visited India). belonged to this period. feudatory kings with hereditary rights.  First important king of Gupta Dynasty.co.  Vishakhadatta wrote Mudrarakshasa & Devichandraguptam History of Chandragupta – II (AD 380 – 413):  Vishnu Sharma wrote Panchtantra & Hitopdesh  Samudragupta was succeeded by Ramgupta but Chandragupta II  The Gupta period also saw the development of Sanskrit killed him & married his queen Dhruvadevi. His books are: Abhigyanashakuntalam.bankersadda. During the war with the Hunas. Hunas.  After the death of Harsha in 647. www. work being the Bhagavadgita). Also issued copper  Ramayana & Mahabharata were almost completed by the 4th coins.A. was disturbed due to the invasion of Turko.  Struck coins in the joint names of himself. Out of these. the great Sanskrit dramatist.  Harsha himself wrote 3 plays – Priyadarshika.  His court was adorned by celebrated nine gems (navratnas) Other Dynasties & Rulers (7th Century–12th Century AD) including Kalidasa. SSC CGL 2016 GENERAL AWARENESS/GS CAPSULE POLITY/ECONOMIC/ HISTORY/ GEOGRAPHY/SCIENCE (Phy.careeradda.  Originally belonged to Thaneshwar. the other Chandragupta’s son & successor Samudragupta.com | www./Bio. Malavikagnimitram.  History of Harshavardhana (AD 606 – 647)  Chinese pilgrim Fahien visited India at this time. continued but central control weakened. because of his bravery & generalship he is called the ‘Napoleon’ Vikramurvashi etc. during his reign. I – tsing.  After his death. Ratnavali &  In the last years of his reign. & Dhanvantri.  Kalidas. Meghadutam. which  Mongol tribe.  Samudragupta believed in the policy of war & conquest & Kumarasambhavam. the great days of the Guptas were over. Smith).  Founded Nalanda University (a renowned university of ancient  Chinese pilgrim. & local governors became princes of the Lichchavi clan of Nepal. the peace & prosperity of the empire Nagananda.  Belonged to Pushyabhuti family & son of Prabhakar Vardhan. another Chinese pilgrim. The empire  He enhanced his power & prestige by marrying Kumara Devi./Chem.com | www. both Kushans & Satavahanas. grammar based on Panini & Patanjali  He was the first ruler to issue silver coins. The first two kings of the dynasty were Srigupta & Ghatotkacha.  Restored Sudarshana Lake. (considered as one of History of Samudragupta (AD 335 – 375): the best literary works in the world & one of the earliest  The Gupta kingdom was enlarged enormously by Indian work to be translated into European language. Ritusamhara. of India (by the historian V.  Started the Gupta era in 319-320 AD. Varahmihir. Kumaragupta established its way over a good part of the former dominions of died.careerpower. Raghuvansha. History of Skandagupta (AD 455 – 467): Chandragupta I (AD 319 – 335):  Kumaragupta-I was followed by Skandagupta. Raghuvansha were epics & the rest were plays. Ritusamhara.