Writing the report / assignment

Harvard Referencing Style

Examples of bibliography entries
click on the type of entry you would like to see

Article: Periodical, vol & number Databse - Abstract
Article: Periodical, seasonal Dictionary
Article: Magazine
Article: Newspaper - Author Encyclopedia - Author indicated
Article: Newspaper - No author Encyclopedia - Author not indicated

Book: Corporate author Government publications:
Book: Single author
Book: Multiple authors
Book: Multiple author - using full name in bibliography Departments
Book: No author Laws
Book: Chapter from a book
Book: Edition other than first Internet
Book: Editor(s) Interview
Book: Review - Anonymous
Book: Review - Author Legal cases
Book: Two items by the same author in the same year
Publisher: A society

Conference proceedings Secondary source (one source cited in another)
Course notes Telephone conversation
Television Broadcast
Thesis and dissertations



Psychology today. 1986. volume or number of issue: page reference. March 11. Date.T. Title of journal. Sexism in advertising. volume or number of issue: page reference. 45(2):10-36. R. volume of journal (number of issue):page reference. issue number (=3). Title of article. Harvard Posner. 1993. 1993. Harvard LEE. The ADA and the hiring process in organisations. * b) KLIMOSKI. volume (=7). Washington. date of issue. 4th ed. 1993:13) Examples marked * from: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (1994). NOT the title of the article.: American Psychological Association. Title of journal. Title of journal. D. J. Communicare. Writing the report / assignment Harvard Referencing Style Article: Periodical . & PALMER.C. The title of the journal is italicised. Consulting psychology journal: practice and research. S. Article: Periodical . 7(3):12-15.journal has a seasonal date Author..  Example b: In-text referencing: (Klimoski & Palmer. Science. The semantics of advertising. Title of article. Notes In-text referencing: Posner (1993:A12) 2 . 262:673-674. Harvard a) KRUGER. Oct 29. Title of article.journal has a volume number and an issue number Author. S. Seeing the mind.P. 19:34-37. Fall. Date. Season. page numbers (=12-15) and date (=March 11). M.  NB. Date. Article: Magazine (magazine = popular literature) Author. Notes  A journal article indicating journal title. I. 1988. Notes The season "Fall" follows the page reference.

1998.T. Month and day. b) Employee Benefit Research Institute. July 30. Bellville: Sanlam. Title of article. 1993: A12)  Title of the newspaper in italics. Date.  Example b:  The personal author (if there is one) is subordinate to the organisation. 123).  The day of the month follows the page reference. Source of health insurance and characteristics of the uninsured (Issue Brief No. (1992. Annual report: 1998.  The day of the month follows the page reference.  Sanlam is also the publisher. Date.  Give the correct title of newspaper. 3 . unless the volume or issue number is known. unless the volume or issue number is known. Title of newspaper: page reference.anonymous (no name of reporter/author) Title of article. Article: Newspaper .Author (name of reporter/author is known) Author. Treat like a magazine or journal. The Argus (not only Argus). Title of newspaper: page reference. Treat like a magazine or journal.  The title of newspaper is followed by a colon. Notes  Title of the newspaper in italics. Month and day. Book: Corporate author Author. 1993. M. 1988. Place: Publisher. May 17. Title: subtitle. The Argus: 3.Article: Newspaper .g. Harvard a) SANLAM. Harvard New drug appears to sharply cut the risk of death from heart failure. e. DC: Notes  When an organisation "writes" a book it is known as the corporate author.  The date of the annual report is also part of the title. Notes  In text referencing: ("New drug". The Washington post: A12. Should privatisation prosper? SAA in the year 1990. Harvard STEWART.  The title of newspaper is followed by a colon. Date. February).  Example a:  Sanlam is the name of an organisation. Washington.

G. 1987.Book: Single author Author. However do not use "et al" in your bibliography. SMITH. 1987:64). P. R. Lotter. space and then the subtitle.S. P. Your textual reference would read: (Henderson et al. R. Date. New York:Van Nostrand. Cape Town:ABC Publishers.) Book: Multiple authors Authors. R. SMITH. Date. P. b)HENDERSON. Harvard a) Van Schalkwyk. 1986. Title: subtitle. Advertising: the hits and myths.G. New York: Doubleday. The tenets of moral philosophy. B..S. Title: subtitle..  The subtitle starts with a lower case letter (. Date. The tenets of moral philosophy. 1987.Q. I. Harvard a) HENDERSON. Place: Publisher. Place: Publisher... New York: Van Nostrand. Place: Publisher..: the hits. Title: subtitle. 1979.C. I. & Van Wyk.S. Harvard CHASE.. P. Note  The ampersand (&) before the last name  NB.. ROSSITER. ROSSITER. & KING. C. Notes 4 ..Q. Book: Multiple authors Authors. Jennifer A.. Notes  The subtitle: a colon after the title. & KING. Language communication.

 Bibliographic detail of the book starts with a round bracket before the "In". p.L. Book: Chapter from a book with different contributors Authors.) Harvard a) BJORK. Harvard Advertising in the Western Cape.M.Book: No author Title. 5 . Roediger is the third generation. Cape Town: ABC Publishers. Title of book. (eds).. F. The chapter is by one person (or more) and the book by another (or more).: Prentice-Hall.) Notes  You have consulted a chapter of the book. Date. Date. & Smithson. 124-139.  Name(s) of author(s) of book is given in inverted format (Last name. Place: Publisher. Notes When no author is known.L. Place: Publisher. The place of values in a world of facts. 1981. NOT the title of the chapter. Englewood Cliffs.I. R. Title: subtitle of the chapter. Variety of memory & consciousness.  The title of the book is in italics. 309-330. R.A.O. Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. W.). First Name)  The III that follows the name of Roediger indicates that this H. p. (In Editors of book (eds. NJ: Erlbaum. A. Page references. Hillsdale. The nature of the physical universe.) b) PUTTNAM. (In Roediger H.). III & Craik. (eds.J. A.  NJ = State of New Jersey in the USA. start with the title. (In Duff. 1990. N. 1989.

 An anonymous person wrote a review of the book in the journal with the title Publishers Weekly. Reviewed in: Title of journal review is published in. 1972.Book: Edition other than the first Authors. Author of book. People in organizations: an introduction to organizational behavior. Harvard a) BRUNNER. Title: subtitle. 6 . & LARSON. Book: Review . Child psychology: an introductory guide for parents and teachers. 1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Date. following the names. Place: Publisher. G.  The first word of the subtitle starts with a lower case letter (an.  (eds). H. (eds). Place: Publisher. Notes  Ampersand (&) before the last name. Reviewed in: Publishers weekly. 1987. Title of the book being reviewed.  Both the title of the book and the title of the journal are in italics.P. Date. 1984. Date. 243:39.).Anonymous (no author) Anon. Notes  Alex Garland has written the book with the title The beach.  The title ends with a full stop before the edition statement. Harmondsworth: Penguin.. New York: McGraw-Hill. Issue:Page reference. T. Title: subtitle. Edition.. Harvard GARDNER. B. Date of issue. December 2. The beach. b) MITCHELL. R. ed. Notes  Subtitle: separated from the title with a colon.  Lower case e in 'eds'. Harvard ANON. by Alex Garland. J. 3rd ed. & SMITH. 3rd rev. Hieroglyphic writing: the Egyptian legacy. Book: Editors (or compilers) Authors.  The first word of the subtitle starts with a lower case letter. R.

The beach. 1982a. Notes  The author.M.M. Author of book. M. K. by Alex Garland.  The format is given in square brackets at the end of the entry. edition.. Place: Publisher. Gillian S. 35(6):34-41..  The items are alphabetical by title: The allegorical . Reviewed in: Village voice. Reviewed in: Title of journal review is published in. Notes  Alex Garland has written the book with the title The beach. Coetzee. September.S. Title. Title of the book being reviewed. [Brochure]. Date. 1982b.  Both the title of the book and the title of the journal are in italics. 1993. Brochures Name of organisation that produced the brochure. Harvard REAGAN. Author. Harvard PRINGLE. Lawrence.  M Reagan wrote a review of the book in the journal with the title Village voice. Book: Two items by same author in the same year Authors. Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities. The allegorical novels of J. Date. Issue:Page reference. files before Aspects. KS: Author.  In-text referencing: ("Research and Training Center".  "The" is ignored in filing. March 11. Date(a).. Title of brochure.Author of review indicated Author of the review. Notes  The date is followed by and "a" or a "b".. (PhD thesis). Gillian S. Aspects of style in the novels of J. Lawrence is subordinate to the company / organisation that produced the brochure. 4th ed. 1997. College English. Date of issue.Book: Review . 42:56. PRINGLE. [Brochure]. Coetzee. (Qualification). Grahamstown: Rhodes University. 1993:1) 7 . Harvard Research and Training Center on Independent Living..

pp. Correspondence Author of the letter. Title of journal. 135(3):34-45. The lancet. 98453765. Description of the type of correspondence. 1994. 1997. Title: sub-title. 8 . E.] Notes Course notes Author. Cite only the paper read by Truter. Date. Notes  Published conference proceedings.. Title of published document. English literature: from Beowulf to Virginia Woolf.] Notes Database abstract Author. Date. Johannesburg: The Institute. [Abstract in the MEDLINE database.. 2000. [Original copy in records of the Town Council of Stellenbosch.  Title of the paper: The role of the court. 18-23 June 1994. Mavis. [Note of location of the original document] Harvard THERON. 46-59. page reference(s). M. The role of the court interpreter in the new South Africa.  The name of the database and the reference number of the database is given in square brackets. Harvard TRUTER. volume (number of issue): page reference.  Title of the published volume: Proceedings.Conference proceedings Author. Place and date of conference. Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the South African Institute of Translators. [Course notes. [name of database and reference number of abstract] Harvard UNDERWOOD. C. ref.. Cape Town: Cape Technikon. Date. 5 May. The role of anti-oxidants in cancer of the colon. [Indicate that these are course notes] Harvard VAN ASWEGEN. Title of paper.] Notes  The title of the journal in which the full article has been published (The lancet) is in italics. Date. Date of correspondence. no. Title of article in the journal. Bloemfontein. 1998..S. Letter to the Town Clerk of Stellenbosch. Place: Name of Institution. Place (of publication): Publisher.

Title of encyclopaedia. Notes  An anonymous (no author) article in an encyclopaedia. page reference. 1983.. Edition. Date. Encyclopedia Americana. Title of encyclopaedia. Springfield. McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology.  346-347 = the page numbers in volume 14.  Merriam-Webster is a publisher. Harvard LESSING. B.the accepted abbreviation for Oxford University Press.it follows the title and the edition. Harvard a) Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary. 1985.. Date. NOT the title of the article.P. Date.  MA . The title of the encyclopedia is in italics.  Because the encyclopaedia is so well known. 10th ed.: Merriam-Webster. place of publication and name of publisher are not necessary. b) Shorter Oxford dictionary. Notes  The position of the date . Encyclopaedia . 12:127-129. Nuclear energy. 9th ed. page reference. 9 .  14 = the number of the volume in the set. Place: Publisher. Harvard ANON. Notes NB. Title article. Click here for a list of abbreviations for the states. NOT the title of the article. It is customary to follow place names in the USA with the abbreviation for the state.  The title of the encyclopaedia is in italics.the state of .  The use of OUP ..Author not indicated Anon. Encyclopaedia . 1993. (In the same way CUP is the accepted form for Cambridge University Press. volume of encyclopaedia. MA.Author indicated Author. 14:346-347. Medieval manuscripts. Oxford: OUP.Dictionary Title: subtitle. volume of encyclopaedia. 1993. in the United States of America. Title article.

Project Aristotle(sm): automated caterogization of Web resources. [Laws. Department of Home Affairs.iastate.g. Pretoria: Government Printer. Notes  The official name of the country is the entry element. Date.  Title of the act is in italics Internet Author. Title of website. Guidelines for chairmen of publications committees. [Online]. Date (last updated).edu/~CYBERSTACKS/Aristotle. No 92 of 1982.  South Africa: Government Printer  UK: Her Majesty's Stationery Office - HMSO  USA: US Government Printing Office Government Publications: Laws Name of country (jurisdiction).] Harvard SOUTH AFRICA. Date.] Notes  The official name of the country is the entry element. Title of act.  Give the full name of the department.Government publications: Departments Correct name of country. 1980. Pretoria: Government Printer. [Laws. Atomic Energy Act.public.  Publisher will be the official printer/publisher for the government of that country. 1982. [Online]. [Date you accessed the site].  Give the full name of the department. G. Author. Title. e. Harvard McKIERNAN. Date. Place: Pblsiher. Available: URL (Internet address).htm [4 September 1996] Notes 10 . Available: http://www. Harvard SOUTH AFRICA. 1996. Place: Publisher. Name of department.

Mildred K. Volume Source Page (Court Date)  In text referencing: Avex Air (Pty) Ltd. April 18. Date. [format] Harvard a) SMUTS. month and year. Notes 11 . v Borough of Vryheid 1973(1) SA 617 (A) Notes  Format: Name vs Name. (ed. Author. 1985.Interview Name of person interviewed. 1993.). Legal cases Harvard Avex Air (Pty) Ltd.  Example b: You have had a personal conversation with K. Cape Town. K. Title:sub-title.W. v Borough of Vryheid (1973)  Legal cases are reported in the South African Law Reports  1973(1) = the year and the volume of the SA Law Reports  SA = a South African case  A = Appeal Court Publisher: Society.. London: Library Association. Harvard ROWSE. Interview with the author on 4 August 1987. [Personal communication]. The librarian's guide to the use of AACR2. Place: Publisher. Description of interview with day. Notes  Example a: You have interviewed Dene Smuts and have taped the interview. [Cassette recording in possession of author] b) SCHAIE.W. Schaie. Date. Dene. 1987.

1993.. Notes  Entry is under the title of the programme. (Title of producer). Title: Sub-title. Date. Psychological review. New York and Washington.  The title of the programme is in italics. Title programme.. M. Curtin. Television broadcast Name of producer. 12 . Oct 11.. Notes  A study was done by Seidenberg and McClelland. 100: 589-608.. P.). Journal Title. Place: Broadcast service.  The secondary source (the second source) should be given in the reference list. M. DC: Public Broadcasting Service.. Month and day. 1993) confirmed that .W. 1993." (The study is cited in Coltheart et al. Harvard The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. CURTIS. Date.  When the cited work (the first work) was not read then the in-text reference will look like this: Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart. April 18. Volume: Page references. Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed- processing approaches. (personal communication. Notes  You had a conversation with K. W.. Atkins & Haller. ATKINS. K.. B. & HALLER.Secondary source (one source cited in another source) Author. Harvard COLTHEART. Telephone conversation Harvard SCHAHIE. Schahie. 1993).  Coltheart et al later refers to this study in their article titled "Models of reading aloud.

D. [Video recording] b) Silent hunter. Place: Publisher. Canada. Pretoria: UNISA.S. Father's participation of family work: consequences for father's stress and father-child relations.) Notes  In example a you used the microfiche copy of the thesis - the format is given in square brackets at the end of the entry.  Example b shows an entry with full bibliographic detail 13 . [Video recording] Notes  The format [video recording] is placed at the end of the entry in square brackets. Video Title: subtitle. if it is in English. give the bibliographic detail in English. [format] Harvard a) The interview game. Duncan McLachlan. John Varty. University of Victoria. Die advertensiewese in Suid-Afrika: 'n kritiese ondersoek. Title of article. [Mikrofiche] b) ALMEIDA.  Example a shows the minimum information required. (M Com-verhandeling). 1985. M. s.Theses and dissertations Author. Title: subtitle. give the bibliographic detail in Afrikaans.if the thesis is in Afrikaans.  Use the language of the publication . Producer. 1 videocassette (VHS) (49 mins). director. 1983. British Columbia. Place: Academic institution. [format if other than print] Harvard a) POTGIETER. 1990. Degree. Date.l: Londolozi Productions. London: BBC. (MA-thesis. Date. R. 1986.